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A new improved definition of the term ecosystem. S.A.

Ostroumov
[Series: Fundamental Legendary Discoveries, Innovations. Item 9]; (on the author: http://famousscientists.ru/3732/) key words: definition, ecosystem, ecosystem services, ecology, new, methodology, sustainability; aquatic, ecosystems, natural, resources, environmental, safety, law, biodiversity, protection, nature conservation, anthropogenic impact, control, change, global, prevention, environment, protection, innovation, science, education; D:\2011\Main.Discoveries\9.Legendary.Discoveries.Improved.Definition.Ecosystem.docx

Why a new definition is necessary. The term ecosystem is a very fundamental element of all ecological and environmental sciences. Moreover, it is important in implementation of environmental law. Therefore it must be clear and correct scientifically. Sadly, until now, no satisfactory definitions of this term existed in literature. In the1930s this term was introduced to science without giving a clear definition. Later, it was extensively used by many brilliant ecologists including Prof. E. Odum and others who did not give any clear, consistent and modern definition to this important term. A variety of current and old - definitions which you could found in textbooks and encyclopedia are the verbal expressions that are to a degree contradictory or outdated or scientifically incorrect, or are based on using some other terms that in turn need definition. Ironically, very often the definitions of those other additional terms are based on the term ecosystem, which forms a logically vicious circle. Now this situation is absolutely non-acceptable as the word ecosystem became a term that is being used not only in science, but also in environmental law, and sustainable use and management of natural resources, as well as many other areas of applications. If you google ecosystem, it gives you over 32 million results over 32 million situations of using the word that until now had no scientifically and logically correct definition! (For comparison, it is interesting to note that when I googled electronic devices, I got 32 million results so that the term ecosystem is at the same level as or even a slice above so important a term as electronic devices!). What is new A new, modernized definition of the fundamental term ecosystem. A variety of old definitions were definitions that were contradictory or outdated or scientifically incorrect, or were based on using other terms that in turn needed definitions. Very often the definitions of those other terms were based on the term ecosystem, which formed a logically vicious circle. , ;
, , References and comments Ostroumov S.A. New definitions of the concepts and terms ecosystem and biogeocenosis. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2002 (March), Volume 383, Numbers 1- 6, p. 141-143. [ISSN 0012-4966 (Print) 1608-3105 (Online)].

http://b23.ru/n1do [=https://www.researchgate.net/file.FileLoader.html?key=997c8c86899d5a6
e24531054ad1bcd1e]; http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065580; Translated from the Russian edition: Doklady Akademii Nauk, Vol. 383, No. 4, 2002, pp. 571573 "" "" // . 2002. .383. 4. C.571-573. scribd.com/doc/56006965/;

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In another format: Innovation / Discovery Why it is useful Which questions were answered
What is a modern, logically consistent, correct definition of ecosystem? Which definition of ecosystem is usable in education, in teaching? Which definition of ecosystem is clear enough to be used in implementation of environmental law?

Where this innovation / discovery was published


Ostroumov S.A. New definitions of the concepts and terms ecosystem and biogeocenosis. - Doklady Biological Sciences, 2002 (March), Volume 383, Numbers 1- 6, p. 141-143. [ISSN 00124966 (Print) 1608-3105 (Online)]. http://b23.ru/n1do [=https://www.researchgate.net/ file.FileLoader.html?key=997c8 c86899d5a6e24531054ad1bcd1 e]; http://www.scribd.com/doc/490 65580; Translated from the Russian edition: Doklady Akademii Nauk, Vol. 383, No. 4, 2002, pp. 571573; In Russian, -: "" "" // . 2002. .383. 4. C.571-573. scribd.com/doc/56006965/;

It is the first time, a new simple, logically and scientifically correct definition of the term ecosystem is formulated; A new, modernized definition of the fundamental term ecosystem. A variety of old definitions were definitions that were contradictory or outdated or scientifically incorrect, or were based on using other terms that in turn needed definitions. Very often the definitions of those other terms were based on the term ecosystem, which formed a logically vicious circle.
In Russian, -:

Advantages of using this formulation of the term: (1) it is simple; (2) it provides a definition that is in accord with modern knowledge, the known sum of facts, and fundamental concepts; It is easy to apply this definition in education (teaching ecology, environmental science, environmental law, management of natural resources); Application: To improve education; To improve implementation of environmental law; To improve management of water resources

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OTHER EXAMPLES OF KEY DISCOVERIES in ecology, environmental sciences, biology: [Series: Fundamental Legendary Discoveries. Item 1]; Innovative conceptualization of how ecosystems improve water quality (water self-purification) http://www.scribd.com/doc/60659939/; additional key words: ecotoxicology, environmental chemistry, water, sustainability; aquatic, ecosystems, freshwater, marine, resources, ecosafety, biodiversity, protection, conservation, services, hydrosphere, pollution, control, prevention, habitats, decontamination, [Series: Fundamental Legendary Discoveries. Item 2]; New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents http://www.scribd.com/doc/60757545/ ; additional key words: book, detergents, surfactants, [Series: Fundamental Legendary Discoveries. Item 3]; Inhibitory analysis: New method to explore top-down control in ecosystems: eutrophication, algal bloom, self-purification; http://www.scribd.com/doc/61179989/3-Legendary-discoveries-top-Down-Control-Inhibitory-analysis; [Series: Fundamental Legendary Discoveries. Item 4]; New: a solution to the problem of criteria for ecohazards of chemicals, and negative anthropogenic effects on organisms and biota. http://www.scribd.com/doc/60891549/; [Series: Fundamental Legendary Discoveries. Item 5]: A new solution to the problem of eutrophication: http://www.scribd.com/doc/61241602/ [Series: Fundamental Legendary Discoveries. Item 6]: New Measurements. Role of Pellets of Mollusks in Fluxes of Chemical Elements. http://www.scribd.com/doc/61247059/; [Series: Fundamental Legendary Discoveries. Item 7]; New Discovery: Pollutants Inhibit Fluxes of Chemical Elements. http://www.scribd.com/doc/61251644/; [Series: Fundamental Legendary Discoveries. Item 8]; 3

New Discovery: BIOMACHINERY. Example: biomachinery of improving water quality (selfpurification) in aquatic (freshwater and marine) ecosystems. http://www.scribd.com/doc/61779321/; A list of other fundamental discoveries: http://www.scribd.com/doc/59437439/; FAQ: Biotic Self-purification of Aquatic Ecosystems Water Quality Resources: http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sergei_Ostroumov/blog/9142; CITATION: Scientists of which countries cited those discoveries: http://www.scribd.com/doc/54504932/-Table-worldWideCiting3-05; Scientists of which institutions cited those discoveries: http://www.scribd.com/doc/60225505/ A list of who cited those discoveries: http://www.scribd.com/doc/58228788/; Citation of publications authored by S.A.Ostroumov / ... .. Updt/ http://www.scribd.com/doc/58353188/Cited-ostroumov-big-Listupd-June21-2011-Nov8; OTHER EVALUATIONS of works of this author: Evidence of merit. Comments in published editions, reviews; other forms of evaluation of publications and works by Dr. S. A. Ostroumov: http://www.scribd.com/doc/59068679/; On the book: Ostroumov S.A. Introduction to Biochemical Ecology. Moscow University Press, 1986: http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sergei_Ostroumov/blog/4575; Reviews, evaluations of books by Dr. S. Ostroumov: http://www.scribd.com/doc/45111401/; About the publications by S.A. Ostroumov (opinion of a member of Russian Academy of Sciences): http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sergei_Ostroumov/blog/5724; Opinion on and rating of Dr. S.A. Ostroumovs works: comments of international experts of 10+ countries, citation in scientific literature worldwide. Updated April 26, 2011 : http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sergei_Ostroumov/blog/7034; About the author: http://www.famous-scientists.ru/3732/; On Twitter: http://twitter.com/Sergeiost;

Additional references and sites: a series of relevant papers by the same author, in Doklady Biological Sciences and other journals: www.scribd.com/ar55/documents?page=7; 4

List of relevant papers with sites, abstracts, and key words online free (39 pages): http://www.scribd.com/doc/46454069/List-scribd-7January2011; List of relevant papers with sites, some of them with abstracts, and key words online free (6 pages): http://www.scribd.com/doc/50651350/-PAPERS-online-S-Ostro; EDUCATION : The discoveries and made by this author, and the new factual data generated have a proved innovative potential to be used as a refreshing addition to the following lecture courses and educational seminars on a number of subjects including: Environmental monitoring; Environmental sciences ; Environmental studies ; Environmental chemistry ; Environmental toxicology ; Environmental ethics ; Environmental protection ; Environmental conservation ; Environmental policy ; Environmental management ; Environmental engineering ; Ecology ; Ecotoxicology; Aquatic science; Sustainability ; Biotechnology ; Limnology ; Zoology ; Pollution ; Water quality ; Biosphere ; Aquatic bioresources ; Biodiversity conservation ; Conservation biology ; Biochemical ecology ; Chemical ecology ; Ecological chemistry ; Bioassay ; Assessment of environmental hazards ; Man-made effects ; Anthropogenic impact ; Natural resources ; Eco-ethics ; Nanomaterials ; Nanoscience ; Biogeochemistry ; Geochemistry ; 5

Phytotechnology ; Phytoremediation ; Aquatic ecosystems ; Biological oceanography ; Water resources ; Water pollution ; Organic pollutants ; Soil, water and air pollution ; Inorganic pollutants ; Applied ecology ; Xenobiology ; Xenobiotics ; Invertebrates ; Freshwater biology ; Marine biology ; Plant-animal interactions ; Conservation of nature ; Hydrobiology ; Aquatic ecology ; Biotesting ; Phytotest ; Plant biology ; Biotransformation ; Global change ; Interations among organisms ; Toxicology of environment ; Protected areas ; Some of Dr. S. Ostroumovs scientific results were used in lectures delivered to university students in the U.S.A., Germany, Netherlands, and other countries. More detail on how Dr. S. Ostroumovs publications are being used to modernize education: http://www.scribd.com/doc/53784108/Modernizing-education-Ostroumov; http://b23.ru/nlov; ** KEY WORDS IN several LANGUAGES: biomachinery, self-purification, biogeochemistry, pellets, new, chemical elements, fluxes, methodology, bivalves, mollusks, molluscs, detergents, surfactants, inhibit, ecotoxicology, environmental chemistry, water, quality, sustainability; aquatic, ecosystems, freshwater, marine, resources, ecosafety, environmental safety, biodiversity, protection, conservation, services, hydrosphere, pollution, control, carbon, climate, change, global, warming, prevention, environment, protection, , , , , , , , , , , ; , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ; Biogeochemie, neue, chemische Elemente, Flussmittel, Methodik, Muscheln, Weichtieren, Waschmittel, hemmen, kotoxikologie, Umwelt-Chemie, 6

Wasser, Nachhaltigkeit, aquatische, kosysteme, Swasser-, Meeres-, Ressourcen, ecosafety, Biodiversitt, Schutz, Erhaltung, Dienstleistungen, Hydrosphre, Umweltverschmutzung, Steuer-, Kohlenstoff, Stickstoff, globale, Erwrmung, Prvention, Umwelt-, Schutz-, ecosafety ; ; biogeoqumica, pellets, nuevos, elementos qumicos, los flujos, la metodologa, los bivalvos, moluscos, detergentes, surfactantes, inhibir, ecotoxicologa, qumica, ambiental, el agua, la sostenibilidad, acuticos, los ecosistemas, de, agua dulce, marinos, recursos, seguridad ambiental, la biodiversidad, la proteccin, conservacin , los servicios, la hidrosfera, la contaminacin, control, carbono, nitrgeno, fsforo, el cambio, el calentamiento global, la prevencin, medio ambiente, proteccin, biogochimie, des pastilles, de nouvelles, les lments chimiques, des flux, la mthodologie, les bivalves, les mollusques, les dtergents, tensioactifs, inhiber, l'cotoxicologie, la chimie, de, l'environnement, l'eau, la durabilit; aquatiques, les cosystmes, d'eau douce, marins, les ressources, la scurit environnementale, biodiversit, la protection, la conservation, les services, l'hydrosphre, la pollution, le contrle, carbone, azote, phosphore, le changement, rchauffement global, la prvention, l'environnement, la protection, C N P ; , ; ; , ; , definitie, ecosysteem, ecosysteemdiensten, ecologie, nieuwe, methodologie, water, kwaliteit, duurzaamheid, water, ecosystemen, natuurlijke, middelen, milieu, veiligheid, recht, biodiversiteit, bescherming, natuurbehoud, antropogene impact, controle, wijzigen, wereldwijde, preventie , milieu, bescherming, innovatie, wetenschap, onderwijs, definition, kosystem, kosystemtjenester, kologi, nye, metode, vand, kvalitet, bredygtighed, der lever i vand, kosystemer, naturlige, ressourcer, milj, sikkerhed, jura, biodiversitet, beskyttelse, naturbeskyttelse, menneskeskabt effekt, kontrol, forandring, global, forebyggelse , milj, beskyttelse, innovation, videnskab, uddannelse, definicin, los ecosistemas, servicios de los ecosistemas, la ecologa, la nueva metodologa, el agua, la 7

calidad, la sostenibilidad, acuticos, los ecosistemas naturales, recursos, medio ambiente, la seguridad, el derecho, la biodiversidad, la proteccin, conservacin de la naturaleza, el impacto antropognico, el control, el cambio global, la prevencin , el medio ambiente, la proteccin, la innovacin, la ciencia, la educacin, definizione, ecosistema, servizi di ecosistema, ecologia, nuove, metodologia, acqua, qualit, sostenibilit, acquatici, gli ecosistemi, naturali, risorse, ambiente, sicurezza, normativa, biodiversit, protezione, conservazione della natura, impatto antropico, controllo, modifica, globale, la prevenzione , ambiente, protezione, innovazione, scienza, educazione, Definition, kosystem, kosysteme, kologie, neue, Methodik, Wasser, Qualitt, Nachhaltigkeit, aquatische kosysteme, natrliche, Ressourcen, Umwelt-, Sicherheits-, Rechts-, Biodiversitt, Schutz, Naturschutz, anthropogenen Einfluss, Kontrolle, Vernderung, global, Prvention , Umwelt, Klimaschutz, Innovation, Wissenschaft, Bildung, definio de ecossistema, ecossistemas, ecologia, novos, metodologia, gua, qualidade, sustentabilidade; aquticos, ecossistemas naturais, recursos, meio ambiente, segurana, direito, biodiversidade, proteco, conservao da natureza, impacto antropognico, controle, mudana, mundial, a preveno , ambiente, proteco da inovao, cincia, educao, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , tanm, ekosistem, ekosistem hizmetleri, ekoloji, yeni, metodoloji, su kalitesi, srdrlebilirlik, sucul ekosistemler, doal, kaynak, evre, gvenlik, hukuk, biyolojik eitlilik, koruma, doa koruma, antropojenik etkisi, kontrol, deiim, kresel, nleme, evre, koruma, yenilik, bilim, eitim, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , definicji, ekosystem, ekosystemu, ekologia, nowe, metodologii, woda, jako, trwao, wodnych, ekosystemw i naturalnych, zasobw, ochrony rodowiska, bezpieczestwa, prawa, rnorodnoci biologicznej, ochrony, ochrony przyrody, czowieka wpyw, kontroli, zmiany globalnych, zapobieganie , ochrona rodowiska, ochrona, innowacje, nauka, edukacja, dfinition, les cosystmes, les services cosystmiques, l'cologie, de nouvelles, de la mthodologie, l'eau, la qualit, la durabilit; aquatiques, les cosystmes naturels, ressources, environnement, scurit, lgislation, de la biodiversit, la protection, conservation de la nature, l'impact anthropique, le contrle, le changement, global, de la prvention , l'environnement, la protection, l'innovation, la science, l'ducation, mritelm, ekosysteemi, ekosysteemipalvelut, ekologia, uusi, menetelmt, vesi, laatu, kestvyys, vesi, ekosysteemit, luonnollinen, resurssit, ymprist, turvallisuus, lain, luonnon monimuotoisuus, suojelu, luonnonsuojelu, ihmisen vaikutus, ohjaus, muutos, globaali, ennaltaehkisy -, ymprist, innovaatiot, tiede, koulutus, definiie, ecosistem, servicii ecosistemice, ecologie, noi, metodologie, ap, calitate, durabilitate, acvatice, ecosisteme, naturale, resurse, de mediu, de siguran, drept, biodiversitatea, protecia, conservarea naturii, a impactului antropic, de control, schimbarea, la nivel mondial, de prevenire a , mediu, protecia, inovaie, tiin, educaie, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , anthropogenic , , , , , , , , , , , , ,, , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,, , , , , , , , , ,