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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS, VOL. 30, NO. 3, MAYIJUNE 1994
Harmonics: The Effects on Power Quality and Transformers
Robert D. Henderson, Member, IEEE, and Patrick J. Rose
Abstract-The use of non-linear devices such as rectifiers or converters, power supplies and other devices utilizing solid-state switching has increased in industry during recent years. Unfortunately, the effect of harmonic distortion has also increased on the industrial power system as a direct result. This paper is based upon actual harmonic studies on 480 V, three-phase, variable speed drives and the effects of harmonics on transformers in those systems. It also includes the recommendations for correction of the problems resulting from harmonic distortion.
A. Dejining the Harmonics Problems HARMONIC is a sinusoidal component of a periodic waveform having a frequency that is an integral multiple of the fundamental power frequency of 60 Hz. For example, 120 Hz is the second harmonic (2 x 60 Hz), 180 Hz is the third harmonic (3 x 60 Hz), etc. Harmonic distortion of the power waveform occurs when the fundamental, second, third and other harmonics are combined. The result is voltage and current contaminations on the sinusoidal waveform. Fig. 1 shows simplified fundamental and third harmonic waveforms. When combined, the distorted waveform in Fig. 2 results. A similar but more complex distorted waveform can be seen when all generated harmonics are combined with the fundamental. Harmonics are generated when nonlinear equipment draws current in short pulses. The harmonics in the load current can sometimes result in overheated transformers, overheated neutrals, blown fuses and tripped circuit breakers (or breakers failing to trip in some cases). Complex power system impedances can also be an indirect source of voltage harmonics. Voltage harmonics are produced when non-linear loads draw harmonic currents that act in an Ohm’s law relationship with transformer, cable, and other system impedances.
Fundamental and third harmonic.
Fundamental and third harmonic combined.
B. Harmonic Distortion
Any repetitive distorted (nonsinusoidal) waveform can be broken down into pure sine waves whose frequencies are integral multiples of the fundamental frequency. These pure
Paper PID 93-32, approved by the Textile, Fiber, and Film Industry Committee of the IEEE Industry Applications Society for presentation at te 1993 Textile, Fiber, and Film Industry Committee Technical Conference. Manuscript released for publication October 21, 1993. The authors are with RDH Consultants, Inc., Charlotte, NC 28241 USA. IEEE Log Number 9400162.
sine waves that make up the nonsinusoidal waveform are the harmonic components. Fourier analysis is used to determine the waveform’s component sine wave amplitudes and frequencies. Fig. 3 shows a typical example of the distorted waveform. There are an infinite number of harmonics that make up a distorted wave. As the frequencies of these harmonics increase, their amplitudes tend to decrease in an inverse manner. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)is a short version of the Fourier analysis which limits the calculated number of harmonic components to 50 (with insignificant error). After the transform of a nonsinusoidal voltage or current waveform is completed, the harmonic distortion resulting from each frequency can be calculated. Harmonic distortion describes the condition that occurs when a waveform is
0093-9994/94$04.00 0 1994 IEEE
Distortion Limits Three classes have been established on low-voltage (480 V) systems by IEEE in Table I1 of Standard 519-1981 to set the distortion limits on a voltage waveform that may be allowed from static power converters. For example.5 5 II 12 13 6 1 0 9 2 8 0. The stray loss component is due to “stray” electromagnetic flux in the windings and other conducting transformer elements.0 0.70 1. An analysis may show that excessive harmonics are being generated by some equipment that simply need maintenance overhauls. 1 THol151 = 33. C. Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) describes the change that occurs when all harmonic frequencies are considered. Transformers Losses in transformers are generally subdivided into core and winding losses. the results of a harmonic study and a cost analysis. . 2 3 4 16 k 16 5 0 3 0 5 k 9 10 0.58 0.83 0.69 THDF 0. The distortion factor (DF) is the same as Harmonic factor or Total Harmonic Distortion.90 NEW RTG. Recently. Winding loss.8 Kf(151 = 4.66 1. The winding loss is important because of relatively high load current distortion levels. 98 68 % LOAD 105 101 Harn KOis1 Harm 0 X Dlit 1 5 Hlrn 14 I Disl 0. is generated by currents passing through a transformer. These limits are as follows: Class Special Application General System Dedicated System DF (%) 3 5 10 A “Special Application” is one where the rate of change of voltage of a notch might mistrigger an event on sensitive equipment. Eddy currents are an example of 12R loss which in turn cause losses that are dissipated as heat. E. “K-rated” transformers have emerged with a greater ability to withstand stress damage and overheating. Isolation transformers can be used with harmonic generating equipment to limit the effects on the distribution system. which is made up of 12R and stray losses.1 0.9 17 18 ?9 22 23 21 25 0 9 2.8 2 5 Harm 20 21 P Olst D. The practice of derating a transformer has been prevalent in previous years.90 1.8 2 0 Processed T h r o q h the 5 0 t h Harmnic Total Harmonic D i s t o r t i o n = I 4 . Most industrial facilities fall under the “General System” class. WV-4 440 300 75 CF 1. custom designed harmonic filters or K-rated transformers can be used with non-linear loads in certain cases. a K 4 rated transformer has four times the eddy current tolerance as a K 1 transformer (lowest rating). A K13 rated transformer has approximately twice the tolerance of a K 4 and a K30 has twice the tolerance of a K13.HENDERSON AND ROSE HARMONICS: EFFECTS ON POWER QUALITY 529 TABLE I TRANSFORMER (CONNECTED LOAD LOAD) PHASE C Peak AMPS 304 Drive Tx. Core loss is of minor concern since it is due to flux generated in the core when a transformer is excited by the bus voltage. A “Dedicated System” describes buses that supply static power converters only.1 0.9 2.0 Even = 9.7 1. Possible Solutions to Harmonics Problems Several possible solutions exist for an area of a plant that exceeds the 5% distortion limit established by IEEE. The amount of harmonic distortion present at the input of sensitive equipment can be decreased by the use of dedicated circuits to isolate harmonic producing equipment.84 R-M-S Average 203 116 Avg-RMS C f ’ 1.2 70181 K factor = 1. Line reactors.85 0. DF is the ratio of the total amount of energy contained in the harmonics to the amount of energy in the fundamental.9 Md i 12 6 PHASE C rwpS Tola1 T r l p l e n = 1.6 1. The K factor was developed by Underwriters Laboratory in UL1561.1 4. (KVA) 118 75 CF THDF D a t e : 10-06-92 10-6 17 1. 3.‘ A detailed harmonic analysis must be performed to determine levels of distortion and resonant frequencies before the correct solution is determined. 12R loss is due to current that passes through the winding resistance.74 0. The K factor numbers do not linearly indicate transformer harmonic tolerance.7 0. changed from its original shape by the addition of a harmonic frequency. Whatever the solution.0 F l l e : D2CS-C Oale: 10-06-92 Fig. Typical distorted current waveform. it will depend on the particular application.9 8 1 t 15 16 0.49 196 6% 4% 14 17-1 18-2 NEW RTG. 9 5 File TRANSFORMER (RUNNINGLOAD) LOAD Drive DZCS-C Tx. 326 255 63 % LOAD 105 100 102 F f : 1 16 TABLE I1 CBEMA O f : 0 .
VOL. 3.6%. This waveform was typical for five different drives and was indicative of faulty SCR's. 2 5 File Date 01075-A 10-01-92 DllCS-A 10-08-92 Ham 2 3 4 5 6 1 K Dirt 112' 325' 1 3 * 389' ? 9 1 9 ' Harm 8 9 10 XClit 1 8 Harm 14 15 16 11 I8 19 P Dl51 G9 4 9 Harm 21 1 21 22 23 P Dlsl 1 1 ~ 2 3 4 ~ rI: Cni s 1 Harm 8 9 x Dirt 102' Harm I Dirt 6 4 t Harm I Dirt 4 6 1 7 3 3 4 7 520' 2 0 2JO* 2 6 1 : 90' 2 6 6 8 1 09 2 6 11 12 11 2 5 0 5 I 5 1 1 24 25 3 0 i 0 1 4 J 9 5 6 7 1 1 89' 1 1 ' 10 11 12 11 1 J E l * 9 9 1 14 15 16 11 18 1Y 20 21 1 J 4 6 6 4 * 2 4 3 2 22 23 24 25 3 4 4 3 21 2 4 Processed Through the 50th Harnonic Proreared Through the 50th Harmonic I o l s l narnnnrc D i i l o i l i o n = 5 4 . An internal electronic power converter changes electrical energy from one form to another. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS These faulty components raised voltage and current distortion levels. recall from storage. NO. Triplen harmonics. diodes and thyristors to switch six times a cycle in the conducting circuits of the converter. Higher levels of harmonic distortion in the power system caused increased transformer losses. 5 shows an extreme example. to 34.2%. This study was originated because of repeated failure of drive isolation transformers. Fig. A total of eleven drives had triplen harmonics in excess of 9%. Both voltage and current waveforms were recorded for each phase for problem identification purposes. The presence of strong triplen harmonics usually indicates a problem with the drives such as nonfunctioning parts. The SCR's were later replaced and the drives operated normally. A total of 146 voltage and 146 current waveforms were captured and analyzed. An ac clamp-n 1200 A current probe was used with the oscilloscope to obtain the current waveforms. . 8 K l a c l o r = 9. This software allowed the acquisition of waveforms. Nonsymmetrical waveform.0 i K11151 = 6 5 Even = 62 2 PHASE A UPS I2 8 : 14 Elen 6 i 14 6 l o l a 1 Md Dale 10-01 92 32 I l o t t i lilplen F i l e . most of the harmonic problems found in this study were the result of aging and failed drive components. Excessive heat caused rapid deterioration of the insulation. as well as the calculation of harmonic content for each waveform obtained. etc. 11. 4 l o t i 1 Odd i 11(15) = 6 2 IHD(l5) PHASE A Mlps : 60. The harmonic analysis software utilized in the study was made available by Ed Lethert Associates. The silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) drives included in this study are known as six-pulse converters. A majority of the drives surveyed lacked some symmetry in their current waveforms.IEEE TRANSACTIONS O N INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. Avg-RMS Cf 49 41% 55. This change is accomplished by using solid-state devices such as SCR's.8 50 1 49 6 19 44 R-M-S' Average' Avg-RMS. storage. The software performs a Fourier analysis on the waveform data using the (FFT).13 Ff 22% 0 10 Ff 1 01 CBEUA D f FI le Oate CBEMA Df : 1 . which resulted in overheating. All three phases of the line and load side of each drive isolation transformer were monitored.6%. Inc. 5. 111. Fig. 30. 4. Drive Problems Generally. 4 shows the current waveform and analysis for the drive which had the triplen harmonics of 34. loose connections. however. Fig. typically by "chopping up" the waveform and reassembling it in a unique manner. leading to premature failure. and to recommend corrective actions for any harmonic problems found. MAY/JUNE 1994 PHASE A AMPS 120 PHASE A Peak AMPS Peak R-U-S Average 56. A. The range was from 9. SCOPE The objective of this power quality analysis was to study the harmonics generated by the variable speed drives for industrial process lines.DlOlS A I o t i l Tripten = 11 6 F l l e DllCS-A Dile 10-08-92 Fig.0 lH01I51 = 5 4 . Waveform data was transferred to a notebook computer via an RS-232 communications cable where it was saved for future analysis.2 -20% -9% 2 02 1 36 C f ' 1. and waveform display. The voltage waveforms were captured using a set of 1000 V probes and a Tektronix 222PS oscilloscope.
B 0.~ HENDERSON AND ROSE HARMONICS: EFFECTS ON POWER QUALITY 531 CIRCUIT Peak: VOLTS I I CIRCUIT Peak: VOLTS 0.3 i Kf(15) i 1.1 Kf115) = 1 . The THD for these drives varied from a low of 3. Additional Findings Fig.047 0. B.039 R-Y-S: Average: Avg-RHS: R-Y-S: Average: 0.042 Avg-RMS: CF: 1.2 0 2 0.3 1 9 nrm 14 1s 16 17 18 19 x Disi 1. other drives. 9 l o l a l Trlplen : Dale 10-08-92 Tolal T r l p l e n = 1 4 Dale: 10-08-92 Fig.. Many devices. C. Table I1 shows the transformers that were overloaded when the running (actual) loads are considered.5 22 23 24 25 0. DlOUS-AE T ~ t a Md l 1. and probably less expensive when the cost for downtime and the replacement of transformers is considered. Many sources are indicating that a K factor of 13 is sufficient for these types of drives.1 0 2 20 21 0. 5 TtU[lS] i I: factor = 1. Transformer Loading The true R M S voltage and current readings were used to calculate the running load ( K V A ) on all of the isolation transformers.4.” lowering the peak voltage.8 0.1 ClACUlT MCTS Flle: L1ySS-I CIRCUIT VOLTS F i l e . Do Isolation Transformers Affect K Factor and THD? The required K factor for these drives varied between a low of 4.2 3.1 1.0 Processed Through t h e 50th Hammnic Processed Through the 50th Hsrmnic Total Harmonic Dlstorllon = 1 .11 Ff:i. In addition to these drive transformers.3 0. it appears that the harmonics are attenuated by factors varying from a low of 1. suspect that this probably will not be the case.7 0.9 on the secondary of these isolation transformers.i2 CBEUA D f : 0 .5 0. 6. K .3 0 2 Harm x ~1st 0 2 1 3 4 4 0. 7.6 0 1 nirn 2 3 1 li D i s i 0.1 ’I 2 0.9 to a high of 5. Based upon these findings.6 0.065 0. In this case.043 10% -0% 0. etc.2 1 2 1 0 0. 2 Even = 5 7 1 6 4.4 0.3 2.56 Ff:1. Again equipment critically dependent upon the magnitude of the peak voltage should not be fed from an isolation transformer serving drives of this type.0 1 3 Hain 20 21 22 23 21 25 U Disi 1 6 0. (i. properly sized overcurrent protection has not prevented these transformers from burning up in the past and probably will not in the future.8 6 1 12 13 0.6 0. 7 shows a voltage waveform in which the peak voltage has been “flat-topped.6 Harm 8 9 10 11 12 I3 % 0161 tkrm 14 1s 16 11 18 ’I9 x Dlst 0.5 0.2 Even = 1 .37 0.2 1. Fig. however. 0 Total M d = 6 3 K lictor = 5. loss of memory. The average attenuation is approximately 3.1 T o t a l Harmonic D i s t o r t i o n = 5 . control systems.e.5 to a high of 12.1. A K-20 transformer would certainly be safer. The crest factor (CF) as obtained from the harmonic analysis was used to arrive at the transformer harmonic derating factor (THDF) as follows: THDF = - d2 CF The THDF was then multiplied by the transformer KVA to obtain the new transformer rating.041 -3% 0% Cf:1.03 D18YS-AB F i l e : LlMSS-AB Date: 10-08-52 Harm 2 3 4 5 I Oisi 1 5 Harm 8 9 10 11 x mil 1. Flat-topped voltage waveform.1 ’I.9 0. 5 TW[lS) = 6 .4 0 1 5 6 1 0.1 0.4 0.5 0. or loss of critical timing. Fig.) utilize the 60 Hz frequency to provide the timing for the operation of those devices and are sensitive to these types of deviations causing inaccuracies in control. This wave form is a clear example of why these devices should never be put on the same isolation transformer with a drive of this type. 6 shows a voltage waveform in which the line notch in the waveform crosses the zero axis. Line notch crossing zero axis.2 0.3 and a high of 20. it would be safe to .067 0 043 0. The transformers for the two drives listed in Table I1 have failed since this study was performed. 9 1 File: CBEW Df: 1.1 0. eight additional drive transformers were found to be undersized per the manufacturer’s recommendations. assuming the drives are well maintained throughout their life. Others have indicated that K-20 is better. Table I shows the transformers that would have been overloaded had their drives been running at full load. When compared to THD on the primary side of the isolation transformer.13 may be sufficient. D.
S. i n North Carolina and South Carolmi. NO 3 . Derating of drive tranformers is necessary when K factor rated transformers are not used. Robert D. He is a registered P. Mr. Moravek and E. Inc. 1981. Mr. in North Carolina. (21 “IEEE Recommended Practice for Establishing Transformer Capabilily When Supplying Nonsinusoidal Load Currents. Lethert.E.” John Fluke Mfg..I. REFERENCES [ I 1 “IEEE Guide for Harmonic Control and Reactive Compensation of Static Power Converters.S. when long term drive maintenance is not performed.T. degree from Clemwn University. degree from the University of North Carolina in 1989.” A N W I E E E C.” ANSI/ IEEE Srcrizdurcl519-1981. in 1974.E. Since the purchase of a transformer quite often goes through a bid process. From 1984 to 1986 he was employed a‘\ it Lead Electrical Engineer with Steams Catalytic. In 1986 he formed RDH Conwltants.E. however. 199 I . Henderson IS a member of NSPE and NFPA Patrick J. Rose is an E. Inc. This can possibly save the cost of replacing transformers and indicate potential problems with drives before they happen. Inc. Since 1990 he was been employed as an Electrical Design Engineer with emphasis on harmonic. they do not eliminate harmonics. 30. MAY/JCNE 1994 IV. Use of isolation transformers with a K-20 rating should be considered. Clemwn. Everett. Mar. Peak voltage or frequency sensitive devices should not be put on the load side of drive isolation transformers. Isolation transformers attenuate THD by an average of three times. selective coordination and short circuit studies.” EDI.1101986. Henderson (M’88) received the B.532 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS. it may be more desirable to include the drive type and horsepower in the transformer specification and require the transformer vendor to size the transformer. Inc. From 1974 to 1978 he was employed as an Electrical Design Engineer with Springs Inductries. Co. Ignoring this requirement can be costly. “In Tune With Power Harmonics.E. . it should be sized according to the manufacturer’s requirements based upon motor horsepower. especially. SC. when the drive transformer is specified.E. Rose received the B. At a minimum. CONCLUSIONS Predictive maintenance of drives could be facilitated by periodically observing their current waveforms for non-symmetry. 131 J. VOL. WA. These devices should be fed from their own clean source of power.57. 1986. 141 Fluke and Phillips. From 1978 to 1984 he was a Project Engineer and an Engineering Group Leader with Fiber Industries. “Field study of harmonic loading in modem electrical systems..
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