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among countries? *to protect national interest *fight over territory, compete over scarce resources, do not share the same ideological beliefs Competing Territory Due to its importance in terms of defence and national pride To extend control by taking over territories which do not belong to the country that attacks Conflict over Border China was unhappy that India had inherited the border areas, Aksai Chin Plateau and the North-EastFrontier Agency when India gained independence from the British Problem: Difficult to have a clear border between India and China because much of their frontier lies in the inaccessible Himalayas 1958: China announced that it had built a road on the Aksai Chin plateau Indian government was angry as it felt that the road built had violated its territorial rights 1959: fighting broke out in the Aksai Chin Plateau and the North-East-Frontier Agency Result: China occupied territories Indian government demanded return of territories 1962: War broke out between India and China Outcome: Territorial conflict not resolved but India and China signed an agreement in 2005 to deal with the matter in a reasonable manner Conflict over scarce resources when resources are necessary for survival and economic growth, those with less resources may use force to gain more 1970: Britain and Iceland: conflict over fishing grounds Iceland depended on fishing industry for its survival Iceland felt that its national interest was threatened Conflict over ideological differences Conflict arises because of: difference in values and beliefs North Korea (Communism) fought South Korea (Democracy) due to different ideological beliefs Other parties involved were: USA, Soviet Union, China and UN How do countries manage conflicts? *Criticise each other openly *Reduce trade with the conflicting country as a form of protest *Resolve conflicts through peaceful negotiations *Seek help from regional (ASEAN) and international (UN) organizations to resolve conflict *Start a war *Display the strength of their military force through military exercises as a warnin g to other countries * Cut diplomatic ties with each other *Protest to the other country through their representatives How does Singapore manage conflict and ensure national security? Deterrence: measures taken by countries to prevent and protect themselves from Threats Measures to deter aggressors: *Carrying out military exercises *Sharing information among countries *Installing CCTV cameras at train stations *Maintaining military installations Why is deterrence necessary?
buys and upgrades weapons c. provide cost-effective and modern technology to SAF and Ministry of Defence b.*to provide security for the people * to give investors the confidence that it is worth to invest in the country *when British withdrew its military force from Singapore in 1966. conducts defence-related R&D *defence industry improves the capability and effectiveness of the SAF RESULT: Singapore has overcome its constraints through its own innovations Total Defence *Total Defence preparedness deters potential aggressors as they will have to face the entire nation and not just the armed forces Civil Defence: civil emergencies. developing in them a sense of loyalty. develops new weapon systems for the SAF¶s use d. protects and effectively responds to any security Military co-operation with other countries *Singapore actively fosters friendly ties with the armed forces of other countries Bilateral military agreements and exercises *allowing Signapore to train in the countries the agreement was signed with *Singapore conducts regular military training with neighbouring countries Multi-lateral military agreements and exercises *Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA): . Inter-Racial Confidence Circel Psychological Defence: having the will and mental strength to overcome challenges Multi-agency coordination on security *National Security Coordination Secretariat (NSCC): meets regularly to plan national security strategies and policies *NSCC: works together with commercial and private parties to effectively combat any form of major terror threats Result: prevents. role of SCDF Economic Defence: role of Singapore Workforce Development Agency Social Defence: Community Development Council. patriotism and a shared destiny for Singapore 3rd Generation Singapore Armed Forces *SAF: keeps up with advances in info-communication technology *3rd Generation Armed Forces: ^maximizes defensive capabilities through modern technology ^equip soldiers to fight decisively in war and respond flexibly in peacetime Aim: to create an intelligent defence force ± to help destroy the enemy quickly Singapore¶s Defence Industry *SAF: self-reliant in essential defence weapons and equipment *Defence Science and Technology Agency: a. the Singapore government decided to build its own army How is deterrence practiced? A Citizen Armed Forces *the government built a citizen armed force in order to ensure that there would be a peaceful environment to develop the economy *1967: NS introduced *NS: bonded men.
ASEAN aims to provide an avenue for countries in the region to discuss security issues and resolve conflicts peacefully Singapore and ASEAN ASEAN provides Singapore with an avenue to discuss their differences with neighbouring countries peacefully Through ASEAN. disagreements peacefully How is diplomacy practiced? *through. help each other in times of need Why is diplomacy necessary? *sense of inter-connectedness among countries *provides countries opportunity to pursue mutual interest *helps countries resolve conflicts. AFTA¶s long-term aim is to integrate Asian economies into a single production base create a regional market of 500 million people remove all import taxes among member countries by 2015 ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) Through ARF. differences. economic. Singapore provides: Education and Professional Exchange Economic Cooperation and Assistance Environmental Collaboration . Germany RESULT: allowed Singapore to acquire advanced technological skills from these developed countries ASEAN Aims: Promote economic. social and cultural development of the region Protect peace and stability of the region Provide opportunities for member countries to discuss and resolve the differences peacefully ASEAN¶s INITIATIVE ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) It aims to remove import taxes among Southeast Asian countries. USA. regional and international relations Bilateral Relations *one country establishes relationship with another country *promote political.^conducts exercises each year ot enhance their cooperation and coordination ^members could consult one another on the appropriate measures to be taken to deter aggressor What is diplomacy? *the way countries manage or conduct relations with one another Aim: a. promote common interests b. cultural ties with Maysia and Indonesia *Singapore provides medical aid *Trading relationship with: Japan. resolve conflicting interests in a peaceful manner c. bilateral.
deployed from many countries . Singapore and the UN Membership allowed Singapore to be recognized as a sovereign state Singapore to gain the help of experts in its industrial planning and development from the period of its independence to the late 1970s UN Peacekeeping Operations UN peacekeepers are soldiers and military officers. civilian police officers and civilian personnel.UNITED NATIONS It is an international organisation to preserve world peace and prevent another major war.
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