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Static Strength of Welded Joints

Lecture 17

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Lecture S;cope

• Static stren gth of welded joints

- need for strength design -types of loads carried by welds - effective weld area - stresses acti 19 on weld area - allowable stresses on welds - design of weld groups

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**Need 'for Strength Design
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• Stren"th and rigidity are not critical in some welded parts

- e.g. machine guards, fumiture -In such cases only casual attention is paid to weld strength

**• Many other welded structures must meet requirements for strength and/or rigidity
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- BridgE!S,ships, pressure vessels - Methe ds are required for ensuring that welded joints between members possess adequate strength

Lecture 17

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..~ .-'.•• ..•.. ".·':-'_.. ~ _.' •.•.•..·L .material properties . ~ ..~ ~ ••. .. ~ ( Weld -Jolnt Strength • Strength d3sign implies knowledge of -loads .••.~ .•.~ ••...• ·..•• .load carryin ~ area ( - ._ .failure criteria ( e17 p4 .•.••. ~ • •....o.• -....• .· ..•....'.•• •.... " ......'~"~ ..~•. '. ~_.• _._ . ' >_".• o •• .

-----. Types of Loads Carried by Welds Full penetration groove welds in tension ~ WLIC£ IIIUI to axis of weld Compression normal Tension or compression parallel to weld axis Lecture 17 p~ .

Types of Loads Carried by Welds Full penetration groove welds in shear ( Partial penetration welds in shear Shear parallel to weld axis in shear ~ ~ ~ ~ Fillet welds loaded J ( "817 p6 .(.

Some codes reduce the allowable stress in welds not subject to NDE by applying a "Joint Efficiency Factor" • Partial Penetration Groove. and Fillet Welds . treated as a continuous part of the structure .Welds assumed to match parent strength .Weld [)esign ------------------------------------ • Full Penetration Groove Welds .and not spl~cifically analyzed . methods are needed to ensure the welds have adequate strength to carry the imposed loads Lecture 17 p7 .Since 'he effective area differs from the area of the base metal.Usuall:.

The effective area is normally taken as the theoretical throat multiplied by the weld length -for equal leg fillets T O. ~ Actual throat ( a~ §lJ ----"oIif----..707*fillet size = re 17 p8 ..T • Fillet Welds .( Effective Weld Area • Full Penetration Groove Welds -the effective area is the thickness of the thinner part joined _ .. - f.the effective area is normally the depth of the chamfer multiplied by the weld length (may be reduced for narrow weld preparations) +1-9 a Theoretical Throat. _ ...l • Partial Penetration Groove Welds .

Stres!.L perpe :ndicular to weld axis 't I = she ar stress parallel to weld axis YIeld throat area Lecture 17 p9 . = Stress normal to weld throat 't = she ar stress acting .es on Weld Area The force t ~nsmitted by a unit area of weld may be decomposed into shear and normal stress components (fillet weld shown) P = Force vector 01.

The Intema1.) .7 tor structural steels up to 500 MPa UTS and 0.L Pyro 2 + 3(1:.ionallnstitute of Welding has published the following crterlon (see IIW doc XV-358-74 & Welding in the World article Vol 2 No 21964.adopted by ISO as recommendation R617 ( aa :? R -.( Design Stresses on welds • IIW/I so criterion for fillet weld stresses .85 for high-strength steels with UTS <= 600 MPa :e 17 p 10 I i .L 2 + ?i I/ aa = allowable stress in the base material = 0.

Design Stresses on Welds • PrerE~quisites for IIW approach: . .Struc:tural steels UTS <= 600 MPa and minimum elonqation 12% .Proper design .Adequate weld quality • Lecture 17 p 11.

eSA W59 uses a similar approach but differs in detail .1 standard approach for fillet/partial penetration welds in steel structures .Always consult the applicable standard ( L_ ~ ~ "e 17 p 12 .Defines allowable values for each stress component based (primarily) on weld metal tensile strength .( Design Stresses on Welds • AWS 01.

Design Stresses on Welds AWS 01.3 of nominal UTS of weld metal. but not more than 0.1 • Full Penetration Welds Stress in Weld Allowable Stress compression Same as base metal nsion or and parallel to rmal ective area Same as base metal nsion or compression rallel to axis of weld ear on the effective area 0.4yield strength of base metal Lecture 17 P 13 .

5 times nominal tensile strength area OOintsnot d 3signed to bear) of weld metal but not more than 0.1 • Partial Penetration Groove Welds Stress in Weld Allowable Stress - ( Compression nc rmal to effective 0.3 nominal tensile strength of weld metal but not more than 0.3 nominal tensile strength of weld metal but not more than 0.4 yield strength of base metal ( P 14 . weld axis Need not be considered in design of welds joining components of built-up members Shear parallel to axis of weld Tension normal II I effective area 0.(l Design Stresses on Welds AWS D1.4 yield strength of base metal 0.6 times yield strength of base metal Tension or comp ·ession parallel to Same as base metal.

weld axis Shear parallel to axis of weld Tensiou normal to effective area Lecture 17 p15 .1 • Fillet \iVelds Stress in Weld ComprE ssion normal to effective area (jo ints not designed to bear) Allowable Stress 0.6 times yield strength of base metal Tensior or compression parallel to Same as base metal.5 times nominal tensile strength of \WId metal but not more than 0.AWS 01.

(1 Example I ( Determine the required length L of the fillet welds ~P=50kN Base meta ASTM A36 carbon steel YS = 250 ~1Pa(30 ksi) UTS = 410 MPa (60 ksi) 6018 SMAlfIJ electrodes -e 17 p16 .

3*v.8 mm Specify 60mm long fillets.5L MPa Stress is shear parallel to weld axis = = = = AWS 01.eldmetal UTS = 0.3 * 410 = 123 MPa 0. Lecture 17 p17 . the applied stress PIA 50000/8.5L From statics.5L <= 100 MPa L >= 58.e. 50000/8.AWS Approach: Weld effective area 2*6*0. I allowable stress is minimum of: O.4* base metal yield strength 0.4* 250 100 MPa = = Therefore PIA <= 100 MPa i.707*L 8..

.. _ _' . _-.( Example _______________ o ..t .5L = 50000/8....707*L = 8.>__ w'''"'"*_.. _.._.Jrees with AWS) p18 .98 mm ( a ... 123 >= O...33 * ultimate strength 0.7*V'3*(50)OO/8.5L)"2 is the a = 0....~***_ ...•...3*410 = 123 MPa MPa L >= 57.67*250 = 167 = 0.12 + T/J Weld effective area Applied = 2*6*0.5L MPa = 't'l (J Assume the allowa ole stress in the base material lesser of 0. t __ -~.__ ( IIW Approach: (J a ~ PR' stress PIA + 3(T..·...67* yield sbength Then.

_--------- Lecture 17 p19- .. the force carried by the welds were determined by applying the principles of static equilibrium • The forces carried by welds in more compl icated connections cannot be so easily deterrni ned • Various methods have been proposed to deterrnine the capacity of the weld group . empirical rules . __ . -_.Either elastic or plastic analyses .MoSU._-_._--_._----_. - .• In the previous example.

... 1 _ Distance along weld - -......... _ Yield stress ~- / at ends relieved by yielding ....( Fillet We~f~ Stress Distribution • Design methods usually assume uniform stress in welds and ignore stress cc ncentrations at ends and residual stress • OK if welds have sufficient deformation capacity Stress in 'YIeld Stress concentrations ( J~ ... p __j ( ------------------~----------------------------------------- :e 17 p 20 .

.. the load carried by each weld is not readily calculated _ . I:::::: 1~ -- P ~~~~- -~---~--~-- _ .depends on loading and stiffness of parts joined ~~ ~~ L2 ~..... . __ __ ~ ~-~ ... ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ L1 1 W2 1 1- I:::::: I:::::: I~W3 I:::::: -. .• WhE!n welds W1 or W3 exist.. ---- --_--.--- _~-~ Lecture 17 P21 ...-~-....

W3 not present.5*L 1 with W3 present is considered useless ( p L ~ ( ------_- e17 p22 . the load is carried mostly by W1 When W3 is present it takes most of the load The case of L2< 1.( V~/e'dStr.:!ss Distribution • Qualitative behaviour L2 » L 1. VJ3 not present: the load is carried by W2 L2<L 1.

• A sirnple method for design of planar connections subject to shear forces andbending moments is to consider the welds as a pattern of lines • Knov/n as the "polar moment method" .Welding in Wond article. Welding Handbook Lecture 17 P 23 . p 180.

F kr.e. i.(. ( e17 p24 . Weld Groups I ( Derivation Assuming: • The Yields are of equal size S • The force per unit length F at any point in the weld group is proportional to the distance from the centroid C. • F acts normal to the line joining the centroid • residual stresses are negligible = .

) Since r-. Where Jw is the linear polar moment of inertia of the 'Held group about the axis through C and normal to the plane. M = ~rdL .». M= j 2 tiL = kJ.If dL is any elemental length of weld. Hence: F ~ AIr Jw The 'Held throat T required to satisfy allowable stress limits can be found using: F = Lecture 17 p25 .

• Shear forces are assumed uniformly distributed ( e17 P 26 .( Weld Groups • Similar results apply for bending moments parallel to the plane of the weld group.

shear forces are assumed unifonnly distributed 2.--._.:. ...... Determine the required throat size by dividing the total unit force by the allowable weld stress Lecture 17 p27 .t ···c· ...-..·r" . more than one load combination or position may need to be considered ..~·..-.".... Add the forces vectorially 4.-. usually the position furthest from the centroid of the connection .. . • Procedure for polar moment method using tabu lated formulas 1. ~ .~-... Find the position on the welded connection where the combined forces are maximum ."...~'.~ -...."._--.~~ .. Final the force per unit length resulting from each load ing at this position using the tabulated formulas 3.

I -- F ___ (10") --t_ 250 ~17 P 28 .--+~~---'-i. + (18000Ib) ic . -.( ( I p= 80 kN 250 (10") - T t I .

..The point of maximum combined unit force is at th~ top right hand comer • Step 2: Determine unit forces at this point .3 x 106 mm 3 Lecture 17 p29 . - b' (b +2d) d2 12 3 2 b +d (6 b +d) = 6.The distance from the centroid to the point of combined stress.Example 2 • Step 1::Identify the most highly stressed location . and the polar moment of inertia are given by the table (handout) as: c yr _ b (b +d) - 2 b «d + _ 95 mm +- J w = .

The vertical shear force is fs = PILw = 158 Nlmm e17 P 30 .2 • Step 2 (cont'd) .( Example .The horizontal and vertical components of the twisting moment are given by: fh = Tdl2 Jw = ( 410 Nlmm Iv = TCyr = 306 N Imm Jw .

2 +( Iv + fJ2 z: 620 Nlm • Step 4: Determine the required weld size Allowable weld stress for 6018 electrodes = 0.3*410 = 124lv1Pa Required throat T = 6201124 rmn = 5 mm Assuming equal leg fillets.707 = 7mm An 8 mm fillet weld should be specified on the weld symbol Lecture 17 p 31 . z: V'1r. weld size = T/O.• Step 3: Determine the resultant force t.

ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel ( Code ( Categories of weld joint in Class 3 nuclear vessels SEE NC-33S1.2 _ _j e17 P 32 .

.. r-<lId lO jaioIt c....IooI . " . 01'11 • ....... s-------~----~ _ '. "......".~.Categories of Butt Joints ~ .._.c: __ Lecture 17 P 33 .. . c:.-.

( ASME B&PV Code Examples of permissible nozzle connections for Class 3 nuclear vessels ( (a) (b) (C-l) e 17 P 34 .

.e-..." I _ Support Rods to Cej~ng Washer .. __ 'J...'W~4"._""" ..~'" .~!~'.d Nut on Bottom Upper Skywalk f ~ Support Rods for Lower Sky-NeIk t RI)~ Forea Put Weld Root in Tension -_----- Lecture 17 p35 .qegenc){ Skywalk u" _.. •... ".. ... F~~'!. "\.•• ·c' . __ • _....

bridges. to the environment.or loss of life . buildings.Ramsgate ferry ramp collapse ( • Codes and standards define rules for welded [oint design for various types of critical structure. analysis and experience • Use of the applicable codes is advisable and may be legally required.Hyatt Regency hotel walkway collapse .( \Neld Structural Failures • Failures of welded structures result in financial loss. and injury . e. pressure vessels based on tests. ~17 P 36 .g. damage.

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