Growth Hormone Prolactin Endorpihins Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Thyroid-Stimulating hormone (TSH) Luteinizing hormone (LH) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Oxytocin ADH (Vasopressin) Thyroid Hormones (T4 and T3) Calcitonin Parathyroid hormone Glucocorticoids (cortisol and cortisone)

Where Secreted
Anterior Anterior Pituitary Anterior Pituitary Anterior Pituitary Anterior Pituitary Anterior Pituitary Anterior Pituitary Posterior Pituitary Posterior Pituitary Thyroid Thyroid Parathyroid

Where Synthesized
Anterior Pituitary Anterior Pituitary Anterior Pituitary Anterior Pituitary Anterior Pituitary Anterior Pituitary Anterior Pituitary Hypothalamus Hypothalamus Thyroid Thyroid Parathyroid Bone, Muscle, cells Mammary Glands Pain centers in brain Adrenal Cortex Thyroid Gland


growth, glucose uptake, breakdown of fatty acids stimulates milk production inhibit the perception of pain Stimulates adrenal cortex to synthesize and secrete glucocorticoids Stimulates thyroid gland to absorb iodine and then synthesize and release thyroid hormone synthesize testosterone/ovulation and formation of corpus luteum maturation and sperm production/maturation of follicles contractions/milk production increased permeability to water, reabsorption of water

Stimulated By
GHRH (Growth Hormone Prolactin Releasing Hormone x Corticotropin Releasing Factor Thyroid Releasing Hormone estrogen, protesterone, gonadotropin releasing hormone estrogen and GnRH childbirth/suckline osmolarity increases or blood volume decreases TSH high blood calcium levels low blood calcium levels ACTH renin-angiotensin system (specifically antiotensin II acting on adrenal cortex to secrete) sympathetic nervous system low blood sugar levels, gastrin, CCK x x x

Inhibited By

interstitial cells of testes/ovaries seminiferous tubules/ovarian follicles uterus/mammary glands nephron many tissues bone, kidney, liver bond, kidney, intestines

x estrogen, progesterone, gonadoropin releasing estrogen and GnRH

Adrenal Cortex Adrenal Cortex

metabolic activity decreases blood calcium level increases blood calcium level increases blood glucose level and decreases protein glucose regulation and protein metabolism pathways synthesis increases water reabsorption in the kidneys, rise in blood volume, and rise in blood pressure increases blood glucose and heart rate stimulates conversion of glycogen to glucose in liver; increases blood glucose

alcohol and caffeine high plasma levels of thyroid hormones Ca2+ negative feedback mechanism negative feedback mechanism

Mineralcorticoids (aldosterone) Adrenal Cortex Adrenal Cortex Adrenal Epinephrine and adrenal medulla Medulla Norepinephrine alpha cells of Pancreas pancreas Glucagon beta cells of Insulin Pancreas pancreas delta cells of Somatostatin Pancreas pancreas interstitial cells of Testis testes Testosterone ovarian follicles and the corpus Estrogen luteum ovary/placenta Progesterone corpus luteum ovary/placenta blastocyst and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin corpus luteum placenta Melatonin Pineal Gland Pineal Gland Atrial natriuretic hormone Heart Heart Thymosin Thymus thymus gland throughout nervous Acetylcholine system mouth and Amylase pancrease intracellular Adenylate cyclase space liquid component of Fibrin blood Gastrin Pepsin hydrocholoric acid maltase, lactase, sucrase, peptidase secretin pancreatic juice CCK Bile pyloric mucosa pyloric glands chief cells gastric glands parietal cells intestinal mucosa duodenum pancrease duodenum gall bladder gastric glands intestinal mucosa duodenum pancrease duodenum liver

nephron muscle, liver, heart, circulatory system, brain, skin, digestive tract lots muscle, liver, adipose lots embryo

high blood sugar levels low blood sugar levels x x

lowers blood glucose and increases storage of glycogen high blood sugar levels high amino acid levels, CCK and suppresses secretion of glucagon and insulin GH maintains male secondary sex characteristics FSH and LH

endometrium, others endometrial walls preserves corpus luteum brain kidney T-lymphocyte production

maintains female secondary sex characteristics promotes growth/maintenance of endometrium maintains a pregnancy unclear/ maybe circadian rhythms involved in osmoregulation stimulates T lymphocyte development

LH and FSH LH and FSH first trimester pregnancy light and dark cycles in x childhood

death of corpus luteum death of corpus luteum second trimester/secretion by placenta x adulthood

motor neurons, para and sympathetic nerves, starches ATP

neurotransmitter starch-->maltose ATP-->cAMP


hormone binding to protein receptor

tissue gastric glands proteins pepsin, food, bacteria

formation of blood clot stimulates secretion of gastric juices hydrolysis pepsin to active form, hold food together, kill bacteria

thrombin cleaves fibrinogen food enters stomach gastrin gastrin

pancreas chyme pancreas and liver fats in the duodenum

secrete pancreatic juice neutralizes acidity, digests, carbs, fats, proteins secrete pancreatic enzymes and bile emulsification of fats

acidity of chyme secretin chyme in duodenum CCK

Intestine lots of fat in chyme trypsinogen to trypsin (trypsin converts chymotripsinogen to chymotrypsin) hydrolysis hydrolysis hydrolysis interconversion of the two high CO2 levels or H+ levels renin kidney antiotensinogen angiotensinogen-->antiotensis I-->antiotensis II (acts on adrenal cortex to secrete aldosterone) low blood volume .enterogastrone enterokinase trypsin. chymotrypsin carboxypeptidase amino and di peptidases lipase carbonic anhydrase duodenum intestinal glands small intestine small intestine small intestine small intestine RBCs duodenum small intestine pancreas pancreas intestinal glands pancreas RBCs juxtaglomerular cells stomach smooth muscle trypsinogen peptide bonds terminal peptide bond at C-end peptide bonds lipids CO2 + H20 and H2CO3 slows peristalsis and release of chyme into sm.

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