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COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN MANAGEMENT PAPER CODE: MBA-106 COURSE OBJECTIVE: Through this course it is intended to familiarize the students with the computer hardware and software Applications for data/file management and exchange through net Unit-I Computer Organization: Introduction, components, classification, capabilities characteristics & Limitations. Operating System; Storage devices: Application of Computer in Business, Computer Languages. Unit-II Use of MS-Office: Basics of MS-Word. MS-Excel and MS-Power Point; Applications in documentation preparation and making reports; preparation of questionnaires, presentations, tables and graphs. Unit-III Internet : Internetworking, Concepts, Internet Protocol Addresses, WWW Pages & Browsing, Security, Internet Applications, Analog & Digital Signals, Bandwidth, Network Topology, Packet Transmission, Long Distance communication, Network Applications. E-mail. Unit-IV Introduction to database: Concept, Characteristics, Objectives, Advantage & limitations, entity, attribute, schema, subschema. Lab : Operating Systems Commands, Internet Surfing, MS Office, MS Word, MS Excel, MS Power point, Tally (latest version) Suggested Readings: 1. Leon & Leon, Introduction to Computers, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi. 2. June Jamrich Parsons, Computer Concepts 7th Edition, Thomson Learning, Bombay. 3. Comer 4e, Computer networks and Internet, Pearson Education 4. White, Data Communications & Computer Network , Thomson Learning, Bombay. Note: Instruction for External Examiner: The examiner will set 8 questions (2 questions from each unit). The students will be required to attempt any five questions (selecting at least one question from each unit). All questions will carry equal marks.
Technically, a computer is a programmable machine. That takes Input through Input devices operates, and manipulate the data and give the desired output through output devices. This means it can execute a programmed list of instructions and respond to new instructions that it is given. Today, however, the term is most often used to refer to the desktop and laptop computers that most people use. When referring to a desktop model, the term "computer”.
A programmable machine. The two principal characteristics of a computer are: It responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner.
It can execute a prerecorded list of instructions (a program).
Modern computers are electronic and digital. The actual machinery -- wires, transistors, and circuits -- is called hardware; the instructions and data are called software. All general-purpose computers require the following hardware components: memory : Enables a computer to store, at least temporarily, data and programs. mass storage device : Allows a computer to permanently retain large amounts of data. Common mass storage devices include disk drives and tape drives. input device : Usually a keyboard and mouse, the input device is the conduit through which data and instructions enter a computer. output device : A display screen, printer, or other device that lets you see what the computer has accomplished. central processing unit (CPU): The heart of the computer, this is the component that actually executes instructions.
The computational unit is the computer's heart. in which computational steps occur periodically according to ticks of a clock. What I/O devices might be present on a given computer vary greatly. The generic computer contains input devices (keyboard. . a memory. and an input/output (I/O) interface. a computational unit. The modern definition of a computer is an electronic device that performs calculations on data. A simple computer operates fundamentally in discrete time. Computers are clocked devices. and output devices (monitors. etc. minicomputer : A multi-user computer capable of supporting from 10 to hundreds of users simultaneously. A workstation is like a personal computer. unfortunately. workstation : A powerful.). necessarily mean a computation like an addition. Computers can be generally classified by size and power as follows. mainframe : A powerful multi-user computer capable of supporting many hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously. we must understand a little about how computers compute. A/D (analog-to-digital) converter. a monitor for displaying information. This description belies clock speed: When you say "I have a 1 GHz computer. printers. mouse. presenting the results to humans or other computers in a variety of (hopefully useful) ways. D/A converters). supercomputer : An extremely fast computer that can perform hundreds of millions of instructions per second. and a storage device for saving data. a personal computer has a keyboard for entering data. single-user computer based on a microprocessor. single-user computer. many others make it possible for the basic components to work together efficiently. though there is considerable overlap: personal computer : A small. For example." you mean that your computer takes 1 nanosecond to perform each step. In addition to the microprocessor. Introduction to Computer Organization: Computer Architecture To understand digital signal processing systems. That is incredibly fast! A "step" does not. but it has a more powerful microprocessor and a higher-quality monitor. Organization of a Simple Computer Figure 1: Generic computer hardware organization.In addition to these components. every computer requires a bus that transmits data from one part of the computer to another. and usually consists of a central processing unit (CPU).
monitors and speakers. or playing music or video. A program is a set of instructions that tells the computer how to accomplish a specific task. and it has a set of instructions that tells the CPU how to use it. For example. such as a keyboard. o Input Units Input units are all the devices you use to feed information to the computer. o The CPU is further broken up into three smaller components: the arithmetic unit handles all the simple mathematical computations. o Output Units Output units are the devices your computer uses to relay information to the user. bring data from the "outside world" into your computer. uses an instruction to manipulate the data. such as sending a file to the printer. Memory Once the CPU converts a specific set of computer program instructions into machine code. and the instruction decoding unit converts computer programming instructions into machine code. The CPU fetches data and instructions from memory.Related Topics • • Computer Components System Components What Are the Four Components of Computer Processing? CPU Computer scientists typically call the CPU the "brain" of the computer because this is where programs are executed. in essence. The machine code will be treated as either data or instructions. Machine code is the basic language understood by all the components in a computer. These devices. it stores that machine code in primary storage or memory. opening a browser window. Each input device has its own hardware controller that connects to the CPU and primary memory. the control units interpret the instructions in a computer program. a hard drive or a networking card. everything you see on your computer monitor starts as machine code in memory. and then sends the result and the next set of instructions back to memory. such as a printer. in much the same way that your eyes and ears bring information to your brain. The CPU takes that o .
It provides space for storing data and instructions. the input unit takes data from us to the computer in an organized manner for processing. 4) it gives results in the form of output. We discuss below each of these operations.3 BASIC COMPUTER OPERATIONS A computer as shown in Fig. Input: This is the process of entering data and programs in to the computer system. It is because the processing speed of Central Processing Unit (CPU) is so fast that the data has to be provided to CPU with the same speed. The storage unit performs the following major functions: . Fig. Therefore. and 5) it controls all operations inside a computer. • 2.1 performs basically five major operations or functions irrespective of their size and make.machine code and converts it into a format required by your monitor's hardware. 3) it can process data as required by the user. Data has to be fed into the system before the actual processing starts. Therefore the data is first stored in the storage unit for faster access and processing. Storage: The process of saving data and instructions permanently is known as storage. These are 1) it accepts data or instructions by way of input.1 Basic computer Operations 2. 1. This storage unit or the primary storage of the computer system is designed to do the above functionality. 2. 2. Your monitor's hardware then converts that information into different light intensities so that you see words or pictures. 2) it stores data. You should know that computer is an electronic machine like any other machine which takes as inputs raw data and performs some processing giving out processed data.
4.1 Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU) After you enter data through the input device it is stored in the primary storage unit. Control: The manner how instructions are executed and the above operations are performed. logic and comparison. It also acts as a switch board operator when several users access the computer simultaneously. interpretation of the instructions and issuing of signals for other units of the computer to execute them. The actual processing of the data and instruction are performed by Arithmetic Logical Unit.4.4. division. They are 1) arithmetic logical unit.2 Control Unit (CU) The next component of computer is the Control Unit. 2. Data is transferred to ALU from storage unit when required. which acts like the supervisor seeing that things are done in proper fashion. Processing: The task of performing operations like arithmetic and logical operations is called processing. 2.• • All data and instructions are stored here before and after processing. Output: This is the process of producing results from the data for getting useful information. and 3) central processing unit. The control unit determines the sequence in which computer programs and instructions are executed. 2. It takes care of step by step processing of all operations in side the computer. processing and output are performed by control unit. It is then sent back to the storage unit. 3. 5. 2) control unit. multiplication. Therefore it is the manager of all operations mentioned in the previous section. The computer system is divided into three separate units for its operation. 4. Intermediate results of processing are also stored here. Controlling of all operations like input. subtraction. Similarly the output produced by the computer after processing must also be kept somewhere inside the computer before being given to you in human readable form. Things like processing of programs stored in the main memory. After processing the output is returned back to storage unit for further processing or getting stored.3 Central Processing Unit (CPU) . 2. Again the output is also stored inside the computer for further processing. The major operations performed by the ALU are addition.4 FUNCTIONAL UNITS In order to carry out the operations mentioned in the previous section the computer allocates the task between its various functional units. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) takes data and instructions from the storage unit and makes all sorts of calculations based on the instructions given and the type of data provided. Thereby it coordinates the activities of computer’s peripheral equipment as they perform the input and output.
Hard disk 7. You may call CPU as the brain of any computer system. . makes all sorts of calculations and directs different parts of the computer functions by activating and controlling the operations. Data bus 4. It is just like brain that takes all major decisions. HARDWARE SOFTWARE Fig. These are 1. Output Devices 8. Central Processing Unit (CPU) 2.2: Computer Architecture Personal Computer Configuration Now let us identify the physical components that make the computer work. 2. Computer Memory (RAM and ROM) 3. Ports 5.The ALU and the CU of a computer system are jointly known as the central processing unit. Input Devices All these components are inter-connected for the personal computer to work. Motherboard 6.
As you know from the previous lesson the internal architecture of computer may differ from system to system.LESSON 2 COMPUTER ORGANISATION 2. Without an operating system. The operating system is the most important type of system software in a computer system. consisting of programs and data. You will know how different parts of a computer are organized and how various operations are performed between different parts to do a specific task. Operating systems are responsible for everything from the control and allocation of memory to . manages computer hardware resources. A computer’s operating system is its most important program. byte and a word define computer memory differentiate between primary memory and secondary memory differentiate between primary storage and secondary storage units Differentiate between input devices and output devices Operating System: An operating system is software. 2. managing both software and hardware resources. and provides common services for execution of various application software. that runs on computers.2 OBJECTIVES At the end of the lesson you will be able to: • • • • • • understand basic organization of computer system understand the meaning of Arithmetic Logical Unit. unless the application program is self booting. An operating system is a program designed to run other programs on a computer. Control Unit and Central Processing Unit differentiate between bit . a user cannot run an application program on their computer. In this lesson we will provide you with an overview of the basic design of a computer. It is considered the backbone of a computer. but the basic organization remains the same for all computer systems.1 INTRODUCTION In the previous lesson we discussed about the evolution of computer.
In fact. There are multiuser. A multiuser operating system enables multiple users to run programs simultaneously. An operating system also has a vital role to play in security. Different types of devices are used to store data. while the secondary storage device have better storage space and also is non volatile in nature. The classification of computer storage devices is made based on the task performed by the device. namely primary data storage. This type of operating system may be used for just a few people or hundreds of them. there are some operating systems that are used to allow thousands of people to run programs at the same time Computer Storage Devices storage device is necessary for recording data. The primary storage device is commonly called random access memory. multiprocessing. making sure everything runs smoothly. The data stored is stores in digital forms. They also manage files on computer hard drives and control peripherals.recognizing input from external devices and transmitting output to computer displays. One of the most important tasks performed by computers is storing data. like printers and scanners. Let’s see the data storage types. The operating system of a large computer system has even more work to do. While the amount of data stored on the primary is less and is volatile in nature. secondary storage devices and tertiary storage devices. without interference. Its job includes preventing unauthorized users from accessing the computer system. . There are three types of data storage. The tertiary storage devices are removable mass storage devices. Such operating systems monitor different programs and users. despite the fact that numerous devices and programs are used simultaneously. while the secondary storage device is the hard disk. multitasking. multithreading. and real-time operating systems.
Primary Computer Storage Devices The primary storage devices for computers are actually a part of the computer's memory. Unlike the RAM’s. Read Only Memory It is used to permanently store data. either when the computer is been manufactured or by the computer user. The access rate necessary to get to the memory is much lesser as compared to the access rate of the RAM. Data can be stored on ROM. The information stored on the these devices is retained. the information on the RAM is wiped off. People make use of these devices. even if the computer has been switched off. Hard Drives The hard drives are one of the most important of the secondary types . They are more expensive than the other types of primary storage devices. Like the ROM. Random Access Memory The Random Access Memory is used for storing information temporarily. but may not have know what they are exactly. They are not a part of the processor. the secondary computer storage are also non volatile. However. ROM’s are not expensive. Secondary Computer Storage Devices Most of the storage devices we are acquainted with come under this category. When the computer is switched off. We have previously used the terms like RAM and ROM. The access rate of RAM is much higher. so that the storage capacity of the computer can be increased. They are the Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read Only Memory (ROM). the disadvantage of this type of memory is that the data stored on ROM cannot be changed.
of computer data storage devices. In the initial days of the computers. The data is stored on the CDs in optical format. etc. These discs can store data for long time. However. like 8 inches. we covered the different types of hardware used with computers. which is not the case with the ROM’s. with the advancements they got over shadowed by the other computer storage devices. Subsequently along with audio. which is set in square plastic shell. 5 ¼ inches and 3 ½ inches. basic hardware and the extra hardware you can buy separately. I thought it would be nice to cover the different kinds of computer storage devices that are available as well. there is a big difference between the flash memory and the ROM. the hard drive types. Backup can be stored on the CDs. Compact Discs Previously compact discs (abbreviated as CD) were used only for recording and storing audio files. Like the CD’s. video and other data is also stored on them. However. (You can read here for that article). They are available in different sizes. At the same time. Data is stored on the hard drives in the digital format on the hard drives. DVD’s are also used as backup device. And that’s exactly what I’m going to do today! . with time they started coming as a part of the central processing unit of the computer. however. Floppy Discs This is a magnetic storage device. Digital Versatile Disc The format of storing data in the digital versatile discs (DVD) is similar to that of a compact disc. Data from the flash memory can be erased in a matter of few seconds from the flash drives. There is six times more storage space in the DVD’s as compared to the CD’s. now there are external hard drives available as well. You know. So. The difference lies in the storage capacity. hard disks were like removable mass storage devices. Flash Memory With a lot of research came the flash memory. In the initial days floppy discs were very popular. This storage devices for a computer is similar to the read only memory. the data can be changed as per the requirement Awhile back. However.
. (Bytes are characters. CD + R Disc (Compact Disc Recordable) – This one is a CD that you can record on. Zip Disk – They look like a floppy disk. They can also help keep your computer’s hard drive from crashing. It’s mostly used to record audio and once it’s been written on. symbols and letters). but they are a little thicker. along with keeping it running at top speed. The most common storage devices are: • • • • • • Floppy Disks Zip Disks CD + RW CD + R DVD + RW DVD + R Floppy Disk – They are plastic square disks. A CD + RW disc holds about 650 MB. This compact disc comes in different sizes. It works just like a floppy disk or a zip disk.Knowing what kinds of storage devices are available can keep you from using up too much space on your computer’s hard drive. This disk also comes in a variety of colors and holds about 200 MB of data. A DVD – R Disc (Digital Video Recordable) – These discs hold the space of about 4. The only difference is that you can write on this disc and erase it as many times as you want. They are also a lot less fragile). but they are usually silver in color. (Some CDs are black in color and they actually don’t get as many scratches on them as the silver ones do. usually with a silver or black sliding piece going across the top.7 GB and are used to record movies on. you cannot rewrite or erase anything off of it. CD + RW Disc (Compact Disc Rewriteable) – This disc looks like a regular CD. These disks come in a variety of colors and they hold about 144 million bytes.
. It can be inserted and removed just like a floppy disk. but they can hold anywhere between 256 MB and 3 GB of material on them. depending on the service type. This service offers about 25 MB of space.The more uncommon storage devices are: • • • • • • • • Removable Hard Drive Internet Hard Drive Flash PC Cards Smart Cards Storage Tapes Memory Sticks Smart Media Removable Hard Drive – This is a disk drive in which a plastic or metal case surrounds the hard drive. Internet Hard Drive – This one is a service on the Internet that provides storage space to computer users. They are very small in size. It holds about 2 GB of data. Flash Drive – This a storage device that comes in many colors and has a stick shape to it. but it could be more.
When inserted into a smart card reader. capable of storing large amounts of data at a very low cost. Smart Media Disc – This is a square disk that has 2 MB to about 128 MB of space on it. think twice about it and consider using one of these storage devices instead. Memory Stick – This is a rectangular shaped disk that is used mostly with digital cameras and notebook computers. Usually. Miniature Mobile Storage Media – This is used mostly with handheld computers and digital cameras. So. some people still back their systems up with storage tape. They hold approximately 128 MB as well. One of these devices could save you a lot of space on your hard drive and keep your system running at its best Application of computer in business Computers have become a requirement in the business industry. the next time you want to save something that takes up a large amount of space on your hard drive. Smart Cards – These are the size of an ATM card. An external tape drive can be purchased separately as well. usually on a notebook computer. Computers easily complete duties that are tedious and timely for humans.PC Card – This is a thin credit card size device that fits into a PC card slot. Storage Tape – This one is a magnetically coated ribbon of plastic. It’s used with digital cameras. storage tapes are a little bigger than audio tapes. This card simply adds storage to most notebooks. they can read and update data for you. handheld computers and photo printers. There you go! These are just some of the storage devices that are available today. but even today. Older computers used tape and tape drives. but those are even harder to find. Computer Business Applications . These tapes hold between 20 GB to about 110 GB of data. Micro Drive – This is a square disk that has 1 GB of space and is used with digital cameras and handheld computers.
educational. PowerPoint. To this end. and Word. Microsoft Access. business procedures and filing and records management skills are also emphasized.The Office Administration’s Computer Business Applications department successfully provides students with an introduction to computers and computer literacy. In addition. and prepares students for gainful employment in any type of business. Excel. Business applications include Microsoft Windows operating system. The primary focus of the Computer Business Applications department is to provide students the knowledge and skills to not only achieve certification at the college level. professional. but at the national and international certification level as well. and financial applications such as QuickBooks Pro. Computer keyboarding. the department offers students the option of majoring in Computer Business Applications with its certification of achievement so that students can apply the units towards their Associate of Arts degree. and industrial business setting. proofreading. Outlook. the department utilizes Microsoft Certified Application Specialist Approved Courseware so that students can take and achieve national certification at the Core . All of the courses are transferable to a California State University. Emphasis is placed on learning state-ofthe-art computer business applications and fundamental business skills so that students have a working knowledge of the most frequently used computer business application programs common in today’s business offices.
advertising and marketing provide a swift means to vast business globalization. Accounting Business success is dependent upon accuracy. Computers provide businesses with a wide array of communication methods that include. Although many of the computer duties are not irreplaceable. Golden West College is a member of the Microsoft IT Academy and the department uses the curriculum to further reinforce those skills for students to acquire the Microsoft Certified Application Specialist (MCAS) certification. o . business has become dependent on their accuracy and timeliness. o Scheduling Scheduling is of great importance to many businesses. The automated voice systems are available with unrestricted hours and are always friendly. web conferencing and VOIP. especially businesses involved in manufacturing and deliveries.and Expert levels upon completion of the required CBA courses. taking payments and providing general assistance. o Communication Communication is most important in business. o Websites and Advertising The combination of websites. chat. The business uses of computers are extensive. o Customer Interaction Computers now assist human call centers with answering customer questions. Websites make the company quickly available to everyone. email. Scheduling systems allow businesses to ensure they are meeting their goals while being effecient. but are not limited to. Many businesses use accounting software and ledgering systems to ensure the accuracy of their financial status. The Computer Business Applications program offers certification for the Certified Business Professional bringing recognition to Golden West College as one of a few international testing sites in the State of California that offer the International Association of Administrative Professional Certified Professional Secretary and the Certified Administrative Professional Exams.
If the instructions are not accurate the working of computer will not accurate. Actually this is not the computer which has done this but the user.Limitation: Computer has done this and that. No Self Intelligence Today. Programmed by human: Though computer is programmed to work efficiently. A program is a set of instructions. No learning power Computer has no learning power. Computers are used to do risky and dangerous work and where sharp actually is needed. b. c. fast and accurately but it is programmed by human beings to do so. when you are taught how to solve a problem and it same type of problem is given to you to solve. But it does not have any intelligence of its own. It does only those tasks which are already instructed to it. Without a program. a computer does have the following limitations: a. For example. No Decision-Making power Computer cannot take any decision of its own. a computer is able to do a work which is impossible for man. computer is nothing. the very task is cannot perform if you do not give it any instructions for the next time. Once you give instructions to a computer how to perform a task. It works according to the instruction only. then you can do it because you have learned how to solve the problem. But still this concept is dependent on set of instructions provided by the human beings. The concept of artificial intelligence shows that the computer can think. . Despite its various features. Thinking: The computer can not think itself. Computer only follows these instructions.
Feelings: One of the main limits in the computer is of feeling. think and caring but a computer machine itself can not.Self Care: A Computer can not care itself like a human. rules for composition of programs. A computer is dependent still to human beings for this purpose. and strictly controlled vocabularies in which unknown words must be defined before they can be used. are ambiguous. exactly defined. Retrieval of memory: A computer can retrieve data very fast but this technique is linear. so computer languages must be very precise . fuzzily structured and have large (and changing) vocabularies.they have relatively few. A computer can not feel about some like a human. A computer can not meet human in respect of relations. A human mind can think randomly which a computer machine can not. Human can feel. such as English. Computers have no common sense. the harder it seems to be! Why don't we just use Assembly Language? . Computer Languages Computer Languages I intend to try to give you some answers to the following questions: • • • • • why don't we just use English (or Chinese or whatever)? why don't we just use assembly language? how many computer languages are there? why do we use more than one computer language? what are the important differences between computer languages? Why don't we just use English? Natural languages. A human being's mind does not follow this rule. A computer can not take place of human because computer is always dependent of human. and the more we learn. It is a major goal of research in Artificial Intelligence to find out how to make computers understand natural languages.
it is usually easier. most programming is done in High-Level Languages (HLLs). or more costeffective. so what benefits does this bring? The most important answer is productivity . about 15 in widespread use 1977 about 80 HLLs in active (non-trivial) use Today more than 2000 HLLs Why do we use more than one Computer Language? Different kinds of languages emphasise different things about the problem. Computer Science is ever-changing. we are starting to see languages that are both safe and powerful. or even different kinds of problems and solutions. users. and so are better at describing different aspects of the solution. but there were complaints about their lack of power. but turned out to be very dangerous to use. maintenance. computers .for reuse. and make the reader work out what is being achieved. to use a HLL. After a while. others . people developed languages that were much safer to use. Operational languages express how something is achieved.Sometimes we have to use assembly language (Low-Level Language. However. Some of the reasons for this are: • • • • easy to write: useful concepts & facilities. Nowadays. relevant to application easy to read: computer.standards error detection & reporting How many Computer Languages are there? late 1940s first electronic computers & LLLs 1950s first HLLs for computers 1969 about 120 HLLs. enhancement etc. your future self.Syntactic differences infix . so there is continual evolution of the concepts we need to use and the notations for describing these concepts. Declarative languages express what must be achieved. so they were very powerful. LLL) because there just isn't any other sensible way of telling the computer what it must do. and make the system work out how to achieve it. For example. but the process has a long way to go yet. portability: other compiler/toolset suppliers. What are the important differences between Computer Languages? Saying the same thing in different ways . The earliest languages had few restrictions.
g. although this is intuitive for simple problems. the current state.type checking whereabouts in the program particular actions can be used or parts of the state accessed scope Increasing awareness of scope and type checking carried language design in two directions. To determine whether a program will work correctly.a = b + c prefix postfix (set a. teapot= teapot + kettle.i. teapot= tea_leaves. we can control: which actions are permitted on different parts of the state . of a particular set of things). water. children. making tea: declare kettle. tea_leaves. In a computation. The basic ideas are about describing state (e. the actions that modify the state.g. it becomes disproportionately hard to use as problem size increases. (add b. all possible combinations of actions on all of the state. it became clear that this did not scale well . To reduce the number of possible combinations. teapot. and the sequence of the actions. boil (kettle).g. we must examine e.Semantic differences Imperative Paradigm The very earliest languages had to be based on something.) and memory (variables etc. and that was probably simple instructions give to humans without much vocabulary or common sense i. state is represented by the values of registers (PC etc. e. c)) b c + a = "english" ADD b TO c GIVING a distributed PAR to_a ! b + c to_a ? a visual Saying different things .). kettle= water. The main stream of language design included these ideas in most programming languages. and gave rise to new programming paradigms which maximised . However. or a desired next state.e.e.
Item). [water]))]) Logic paradigm Define a problem by describing its facts and properties.contains(Con.tea):-water_proof(Con). tea). contains(Con.tea_leaves). will output: move tea_leaves from tea_caddy to teapot .Con.Con2):. source(Con. contains(Con. source(tap. as the problem became better understood. canboil(kettle):. so they can be substituted freely: put_in (teapot. source(tea_caddy. and then solve it by giving the system a goal to prove using those facts and properties. Object Oriented Paradigm This is similar to Imperative but with maximum use of types & scopes . write(Con).boiling_water):canboil(Con).Item).write('move ').Item):-source(Con2.contains(Con. Functional paradigm Functional languages emphasise the transformations of values (so the notation usually makes it easy to describe & examine values): let boiling_water = boil (put_in (kettle.Con2).water). [tea_leaves. the system answers yes. canboil(kettle). each type of object (class) having its own set of actions (methods).Item):-source(Con. If we ask ``can we make tea in a teapot'' by typing make(teapot. write(Con2). or if we ask ``what can we make tea in'' by typing make (X. we get X = teapot We can even get the system to tell us how to make tea: move(Item.keep state in objects.the control over state (objects).write('boil kettle'). write(Item). However. it became clear that in some situations it could be an advantage to avoid scopes and types altogether (scripting). write(' from ').boiling_water). water_proof(teapot). or minimised the use of state (functional. heat_resistant(teapot). contains(Con. the state in an object can often only be accessed or modified via its associated methods. Furthermore. make(Con.move(Item. and make(teapot. [tea_leaves.Con. nl. values don't have state. logic).Con2). write(' to '). tea). nl.water).tea_leaves). move(Item.heat_resistant(Con).Con. tea). boil (put_in (kettle. boiling_water]) end In particular. [water])) in put_in (teapot.
as long as they are all done before we progress to the next step. work on them in any order (non-determinism). to_kettle.there are many circumstances where the exact order of some actions does not matter. However. A major design pressure is to minimise the amount that users have to write. CHAN OF ANY to_pot.teapot PAR to_pot ? tea_leaves kettle_to_pot ? boiling_water to_cup ! tea Scripting Paradigm So far. or maintainability) The resulting languages are greatly simplified from the programmers point of view. if actions don't interact. and therefore that they can get wrong. so that ``scripting languages make programmers of us all''. and means that more work must be done at run-time. This reduces the usefulness of compilation. In parallel languages. kettle_to_pot.move water from tap to kettle boil kettle move boiling_water from kettle to teapot Parallel paradigm Another difficulty with Imperative programming was the concept of sequence . to_cup: declare boiling_water: PAR declare water: SEQ -. we have been thinking about languages suitable for solving very large problems. and different requirements have given rise to different kinds of languages. not all problems require industrialstrength solutions. In particular. written and maintained by more than one person. the string (so numbers are held as a series of digit characters).kettle to_kettle ? water boil ( ) kettle_to_pot ! boiling_water declare tea_leaves: SEQ -. and thus the use of types or scopes they often only have one type. they minimise the use of declarations. so these languages are often interpreted (and thus run much more . where the resulting programs are tens of thousands or more lines long. The situations where they are applicable are: • • • building applications by ``gluing together'' existing components controlling applications that have a programmable interface writing programs where ease of development is more important than anything else (such as run-time efficiency. or even simultaneously (multi-processing).
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