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Advertising is an important tool of promotion. . Advertisement is a non-personal presentation of an idea or a product (where as personal selling or salesmanship help in personal promotional.) Advertisement supplements personal selling to a great extent. Advertising has, acquired great importance in the modern India characterized by tough competition in the market and fast changes in technology, and fashion and taste customers. In this chapter, we shall study the nature, functions and media of advertisement used by modern business firms. Advertising is used for communicating business information to the present and prospective customers. It usually provides information about the advertising firm, its product qualities, place of availability of its products, etc. Advertisement is indispensable for both the sellers and the buyers. However, it is more important for the sellers. In the modern age of large scale production, producers cannot think of pushing sale of their products without advertising them. What is advertising Advertising is the dissemination of information concerning an idea, product. or service to induce action in accordance with the intent of the advertiser. According to William J. Stanton, “Advertising consists of all the activities involved in presenting to an audience a non-personal, sponsor-identified, paid-for message about a product or organization.” Advertising is any paid form of non-persona: presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services of an identified spocsor. The message which is presented or disseminated is known as ‘advertisement’. Features of Advertising American Marketing Association has defined advertising as “any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas goods and services of an identified sponsor”. This definition reveals the following features of advertising: 1. It is a paid foam of communication. Advertisements appear in newspapers, magazines, television or cinema screens because the advertiser has purchased some space or time to communicate information to the prospective customers. 2. It is non-personal presentation of message. There is no face-to-face direct contact with the customers. That is why, it is described as non-personal salesmanship. It; is a non-personal form of presenting products and promoting ideas and is complementary to personal selling. It simplifies the task of salesforce by creating awareness in the minds of potential customers
3. The purpose of advertising is to promote idea about the products and service, of a business. It is directed towards increasing the sale of the products and services of a business unit. 4. Advertisement a issued by an identified sponsor. Non disclosure of the name of the sponsor in propaganda may lead to distortion, deception and manipulation. Advertisement should disclose or identify the sources of opinions and ideas it presents. Publicity and Public Relations Publicity is a part of marketing and customer relations.. Publicity comes from news reporters, columnists and journalists. It comes to the receiver as the truth rather than as a commercial. Public relations and publicity taken together are one of the four major ingredients of promotion-mix. These activities are, however, not controllable by the firm. Every from tries to create a good public relations so as to get good publicity through press and electronic media. Publicity has a peculiar feature that it is not a paid form of communication. Publicity refers to the mention of company/product in any published or non-published media. For example, a new product is launched, and due to its unique feature, the product may become a point of discussion among various groups. This mention adds to the promotion and hence, the product gets publicized.This publicity is mainly due to good response of customers, or due to quality or can be even due to some controversies. Any way, such public exposure of a product forms a crucial part of promotion mix. If a product is able to draw a lot of attention by the media, the firm will have to spend less on advertisement and sales promotion activities. Achieving goal. Public relations is an important marketing functions in the present-day business environment. The total process of building goodwill and securing a bright public image of the company a called public relations. It creates a favorable atmosphere for conducting business. There are four groups of public : (I) customer, (2) shareholders (3) employees (4) the community. The marketers should have the best possible relations with these groups.Public relation, complement advertising by creating product and service credibility. Effective marketing communication is not without establishing and maintaining mutual understanding between the company and its customers. The lubricant making the wheel of marketing run smoothly is public relations. Bright image is created and maintained only by public relations. That is why, modern business houses attach great significance to the public relations activities. Difference between Advertising and Publicity Advertising differs from publicity in regard to the following points : 1. Paid/non-paid from: Advertisement is a paid form of communication. Its cost is borne by the advertiser But publicity is any non-paid mention of an organization or its ideas or products in the news Media. Publicity cannot be purchased in the
usual sense of the term. Any institution can come to the attention of the public by being newsworthy. It has not to pay anything for the publicity, but has to supply the necessary information to the news media. 2. Identification of sponsorer: Advertisement is issued by an identified sponsor. Publicity does not need an identified sponsor 3. Control over message: In advertising, the advertiser exercises control over the type, size, duration, and frequency of the message But in case of publicity, the control lies with the publicity media. Difference between Advertisement and Personal Selling The points of distinction between advertisement and salesmanship are listed below; 1. Personal/Non-personal form: Advertising is a non-personal form of communication. There is no contact between the advertiser and the buyer. But salesmanship means personal selling. The salesman has face-to-face contact with the buyer. 2. Mass vs. Individual communication: Advertising is mass communication. It is addressed to a large number of people. But salesmanship is individual communication. The impact of salesmanship is visible on the buyer who come into contact with the salesman. 3. Purpose: Advertisement may aim at enhancing the goodwill of the advertiser. It may have no immediate purpose to sell the goods or services. But salesmanship always aims at effecting sales. Objectives of Advertising The fundamental purpose of advertising is to sell something – a product, a service or an idea. In addition to this general objective, advertising is also used by the modern business enterprises for certain specific objectives which are listed below : 1. To introduce a new product by creating interest for it among the prospective customers. 2. To support personal selling programme. Advertising maybe used to open customers’ doors for salesman .. 3. To reach people inaccessible to salesman. 4. To enter a new market or attract a new group of customers. 5. To light competition in the market and to increase the sales as seen in the fierce competition between Coke and Pepsi. 6. To enhance the goodwill of the enterprise by promising better quality products and services. 7. To improve dealer relations. Advertising supports the dealers in selling he product. Dealers are attracted towards a product which is advertised effectively. 8. To warn the public against imitation of an enterprise’s products.
A business enterprise can introduce itself and its product to the public through advertising.Functions of Advertising Advertising has become an essential marketing activity in the modern era of large scale production and serve competition in the market. Advertising has become a competitive marketing activity. Advertising is also a source of revenue for TV network. Support to Press. in between and after various programmes and earn millions of rupees through ads. Advertising enables a business firm to communicate its achievements in an effort to satisfy the customers’ needs. This compels every business firm to do more and more research to find new products and their new uses. It performs the following functions: • • • • • • • Promotion of Sales. It is advertising which has helped people in adopting new ways of life and giving-up old habits. Such income could be used for increasing the quality of programmes and extending coverage. It helps the introduction of new products in the market. This increases the goodwill and reputation of the firm which is necessary to fight against competition in the market. It promotes the sale of goods and services by informing and persuading the people to buy them. Doordarshan and ZeeTV insert ads before. Mass production reduces the cost of production per unit by the economical use of various factors of production. Advertising encourages production of goods in large-scale because the business firm knows that it will be able to sell on large-scale with the help of advertising. Advertising provides an important source of revenue to the publishers and magazines. Advertising facilitates large-scale production. . Advertising educate the people about new products and their uses. Introduction of New Product. Creation of Good Public Image. For instance. Mass Production. Education of People. It enables to increase the circulation of their publication by selling them at lower rates. A good advertising campaign helps in winning new customers both in the national as wet] as in the international markets. People are also benefited because they get publications at cheaper rates. A new enterprise can’t make an impact on the prospective customers without the help of advertising. It has contributed a lot towards the betterment of the standard of living of the society. Research. Advertising enables quick publicity in the market. Advertising message about the utility of a product enables the people to widen their knowledge. Advertising stimulates research and development activities. It builds up the reputation of the advertiser. If a firm does not engage in research and development activities. Every firm tries to differentiate its product from the substitutes available in the market through advertising. it will be out of the market in the near future.
To ‘advertise’ meant merely to ‘inform’ until the end of the eighteenth century. These ‘agents’ were forerunners of the ‘advertising agencies’. Later. etc. offered their own facilities to ‘agents’. and the early newspapers and periodicals announced births. Concrete advertising history begins with classified advertising. it saved the bother of preparing a suitable layout for the advertisements. for the advertiser. and the second. which made it possible to produce a cheap newspaper with a large national circulation. Leading newspapers like ‘The Statement’ and ‘The Times of India’. which had their own advertising departments. was the installation of first rotary linotype machine by the Statesman of Calcutta in 1907. Advertising in the early 20th century Two main events responsible for growth of Indian advertising agencies were: the Swadeshi Movement (1907-1911). the number of advertisements from British business houses rose sharply. India’s first newspaper (weekly) . With the increasing impact of the industrial revolution on our country. obtaining advertisements for newspapers and periodicals on a commission basis. arrivals of ships from England.History of Advertising in India Indian Advertising starts with the hawkers calling out their wares right from the days when cities and markets first began. it assured a certain uniformity of standard in the advertisements appearing in its column. new products and services established themselves on the market through the advertisement columns of the newspapers and periodicals. The power of advertising increased rapidly with the growth in trade and commerce. The major British agencies during this time were: Alliance . This was of great advantage to both the advertiser and the publisher. the Indian Advertising Agency. deaths. for the publisher. Discounts and special services also began to be offered by the beginning of the nineteenth century. sale of household furniture. ‘Agents’ flourished at the time as space contractors. The front page of most such journals carried only advertisements. Ads appear for the first time in print in Hickey’s Bengal Gazette. was launched around this time. This practice was responsible for turning advertising into a distinct profession. some journals like the Bengal Journal (first published in 1785) even offered to print government advertisements free. This is evident from the appearance of punch lines such as ‘superior to anything of the kind hitherto imported’ and ‘warranted to the first quality’. The first Indian Ad Agency. other papers too installed the new machine. and is still going strong. which gave rise to indigenous industries. The main functions of these agencies were to secure advertisements and to get them published in the press. But before long persuasive copy began to replace mere information. In few years.
however. They catered to the need of the affluent British and Indian elites living in the metropolitan cities. and the Oriental Advertising Agency in Tiruchirapalli. The Inter-War Years During the inter-war years a few Indian agencies too sprang up.A. Publicity Society of India. Stronach and Co. and others. in Madras. The society looked after the interests of newspaper publishing houses. Mr. L. improved printing machines (like offset and web offset). the British-owned agencies were sold to Indian business. L. They rarely advertised Mass consumer items like tea and cigarettes. The Vasudevea Publicity Service was started in Delhi to carry out outdoor publicity campaigns in Uttar Pradesh. The IENS also sought to foster better publisher agency relationship. Post-Independence Advertising Following World War II and the Indian Independence. The introduction of multi-color printing. the Indian and Eastern Newspapers Society (IENS). Agencies began to offer. The establishment of the Advertising Agencies Association of India (AAAI) in 1945. The AAAI came to be recognized as a representative body of the profession. the Calcutta Publicity. Among the other Indian Agencies to be launched during this period were: New India Publicity Co. At independence the advertising business was well on its way to growth and expansion. to sell its manufactured goods. started by the British India Cooperation of Kanpur. the first full-fledged Indian Ad Agency. During the war. an indirect effect of the formation of the IENS was the standardization of Ad agency practices. Ad Agencies established during this period-included Alliance Advertising Association Ltd. They continue to enjoy this status even today. the manager of Alliance. though American multinational agencies have replaced affiliation with British agencies. bought up the Bombay branch of the agency and started in 1922 his own agency.A. Partition did not touch the business at all. with the authority to represent its interests and problems. and the development of commercial art gave the Ad business a further leap. and others. the National Advertising Service. was established. In 1931. The IENS was set up as a central organization of the newspaper owners of India. The ABC gave some credibility to the claims of newspapers regarding their circulation. retained an ‘affiliate’ status with the main branches of the agencies in London.Advertising Associates. press advertising was exploited to raise funds for the war effort. at Bombay. Paradise Advertising Agency of Calcutta (1928). 1930. with a branch in London. Punjab and Delhi. Burma and Ceylon. Several agencies. and the Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC) in 1948 helped to bring some order to the competitive field.Stronach. besides . the most notable being the modern Publicity Co. It provided production and media services to advertisers (unlike the spaceselling agencies) and so even manufacturers of competing products or brands had to use these services.
2. 4. a full service agency is one that handles all phases of advertising process for its clients: it plan.as the name implies. National Readership Surveys (NRS) and Indian Readership Surveys (IRS) as well as regular Television Rating Points (TRP) measurements provide advertisers with statistical data on which to base their media plans. market research. account management. Types of Advertising Agencies Advertising Agencies can be classified by the range of services that they offer. such as artwork. especially television and cable has given a boost to Indian advertising. Accordingly. collect the bills and pay the media and other suppliers. creative development and production. creates. different types of advertising agencies are: • • • • • Full service agencies Creative boutiques In-house agencies Specialized agencies Media buying services Full-service agencies. In short a full service agency will provide four major functions: 1. verifying the advertisements appearance (publication. Individual publishing houses like ‘The Hindu and The Times of India’ first conducted readership surveys. trade shows. organization of fairs and exhibitions. placing the ads in approved media. etc). A company that uses a . boutiques create imaginative and interesting advertising themes and produce innovative and original advertisements. Now. media planning and buying and research services. exhibits. public relations consultancies. One major point that differentiates a full service agency from other is that the personal work full time and the services provide are extensive. many more services. advertising agencies range in size from one man shows to large firms that employ thousands of people. preparing and producing the ads. invoice the client. broadcasting. Also. proposing strategy. newsletters and annual reports. produces and places advertisements for its clients. Market research and readership surveys have led to the further professionalization of the business. Creative boutiques. 3. The phenomenal growth in the media.it is an organization that specializes in the actual creation of advertisements. In addition.space selling. In general. it might provide other marketing services such as sales promotion. The services usually provided by a full service agency include collecting and analyzing market data.
In-house agencies. The organizational structure and functioning of in-house agencies are similar to full service agencies in most cases. possible distribution plans and likely advertising media. finance. Others depend both on their in-house agency and outside agencies. The advertising director of the company usually heads an in-house agency. Some other companies allow their agencies to take outside jobs.such agencies are owned and supervised by advertisers or the client organizations. So there are agencies. The clients also hire creative boutiques. Some companies solely depend on their in-house agencies for their advertising needs. outdoor advertising. require specialized knowledge. Role and Functions of Advertising Agencies The major role as advertising agency is to work alongside the clients to develop and sustain the brands that they mutually serve. Also large companies use their specialized negotiating talents for buying media space and time. through consumer understanding and insight and through creative and media delivery skills to provide best advice and the best execution thereof to those clients for the advertising of those brands. buying and administrative functions connected with advertising. the agency makes a formal presentation to the client deadlines. Full service ad agency studies the product or service and determines its marketable characteristic and how it relates to the competition. Media buying agencies complement the creative boutiques. Specialized agencies. Media buying agencies-it is an organization that specializes in buying radio and television time and reselling it to advertisers and advertising agencies. Freelancers are individuals who work on their own with out any formal attachment with any agency. At the same time the agency studies the potential market. social advertising.there are many agencies. it’s finding about the product and its recommendation for an advertising strategy. Such agencies have a lot of contacts in the media and offer very low commission on media rates. This trend for special media buying agencies started in the 1970s. Following this.creative boutique would have to employ another agency to perform the planning. These agencies are usually small in size. Certain fields like medicine. The services sells time to the advertisers. orders the spots on the various stations involved and monitors the stations to see if the ads actually run. . which take up only specialized advertising jobs. Clients or agencies hire these from time to time. etc. which concentrate only on areas and employ people with the required talents. In house agencies are organized according to the needs and requirements 9of the company and are staffed accordingly. Creative boutiques are different from freelancers.
Objectivity and professionalism. photographers. While they take up advertising for others. visualizes. by a customer. Most advertisers assign this job of informing the target audience and creating images to advertising agencies. the advertising agencies plan. creative personal can be hires. directors. A competitor can copy a product. Thus. Machines wear out. Objectivity is a major virtue of ad agency. it has the copywriters. are clearly differentiated entities with which consumers can and do form a mutually beneficial relationship over time. researchers.” Brands are much more than mere products and services. An agency moulds all these people into a team and gives them a highly conducive work atmosphere.“Buildings age and become dilapidated. Also most experts in the fields of . a brand is unique. As one wise head in advertising once said. And the advertiser for placing the ads can buy media space or time. But even an advertiser can do all these things. planners and people who get business and deal with clients working in ad agencies. The agency makes the best use of their talents and experience to deliver rapidly. They thus will offer independent and detached viewpoints and suggestions based on objective analysis. People die. The management can do planning of ad campaigns. “nothing kills a bad product faster than good advertising”.” The role of advertising and the advertising agency is to help effect this transformation from product or service to brand by clearly positioning the offering to the consumer – its role and its benefits – and by communicating the brand’s own personality. They operate in a strange way. Ad agencies being outside intermediaries can be objective. a successful brand is timeless. if successful. For preparing ads. The importance can be summed up as follows: ” A product is something that is made.If an organization wants to hire people to do its advertising. physical and aesthetic – that consumers derive from them. efficiently and in greater depth than a company or organization could do on its own. because of the values – rational and emotional. In short its role is to provide meaningful differentiation via the consumer connection. prepare and place ads in the media. Brands. in highly competitive market places. why hire an advertising agency? The reason can be enlisted as follows: • • • Expertise and experience. it can not provide them work all through the year.An advertising agency brings together people with the required expertise and experience of the various sub-disciplines of advertising. along with other parts of what we call the marketing mix.Advertising agencies are highly professional. So. But what live on are the brands. A product can be quickly out-dated. Thus. in a factory: a brand is something that is bought. agencies hardly advertise themselves. Typically advertising is playing this role. Cost effective.
charge huge amounts and are often not affordable. a decision on whether to revise the message. its competitors. And the fact that 98% of advertisers the worlds over hire as agencies is proof enough about the cost effectiveness of the agencies. information about the audiences (their likes and dislikes and media habits) also need to be collected. one requires information about the product. Research: The second function of an Ad agency is research. the medium. Ad agencies are developing to reach the target audience.advertising like directors. Functions of Advertising Agencies Today advertising agencies are found in virtually every major city on the world and their role in stimulating economic growth is solidly established. This plan includes which media to be used. musicians. etc. Some of the most effective advertising includes advertisement written in their . The research must even take one close to the heart of the firm’s inner operations. listener ship and readership of all kinds of media. organizing and managing all talents required to produce advertising campaigns is not an easy thing. the detailed analysis of the research director and the political understanding of the campaign director. This also includes planning creative strategies. media planners keep track of the viewer ship. copy or script writing. shooting of films. In order to distribute the message to the public successfully. the market situation and trends. These are: • • • • Talent & Creative productions: The basic function of an Ad Agency is providing talent. which part of the media to be used. The creative efforts of the art director. This function involves processing the information collected from the client and through research and designing communication material in the form of advertisements and other publicity material. the target audience or all of them can be made. one possibly can about both. Distribution & Media planning: The third important function of an ad agency is distribution. to prepare ads. photographers. when to place the ads and for how long to place the ads. designing. Also the kind of consistent. Here you decide what type of message you will create for the company and what media will be most helpful in sending this message to the public. the agency must first know all that it can about the product. hiring. etc. experience. giving music. are just a few examples of the many abilities of Ad Agency personal have to offer. editing. To understand advertising. objectivity and professionalism of ad agencies cannot be measured economically. layout. visualization. On the basis of the media habits (access and exposure) of the target audience. powerful and compelling advertising that can be created by using the expertise. One of the first jobs is to research the product and the company. agency people prepare a media plan. Monitoring Feedback: By monitoring consumer feedback. As information is the backbone of all advertising. we need to examine the functions of an Ad Agency. one must learn. A business organization or person will contract the services of an ad agency to help market a product. Moreover. Ad agencies use research as a tool to test consumer reactions to products and services.
exhibits. The services usually provided by a full service agency include collecting and analyzing market data. verifying the advertisements appearance (publication. In addition. account management. boutiques create imaginative and interesting advertising themes and produce innovative and original advertisements. placing the ads in approved media.as the name implies. 4. These include: • • • • • • Merchandising Public relations Organizing exhibitions and fairs Preparing all kinds of publicity material Planning and organizing special events (event management) Direct marketing Types of Advertising Agencies Advertising Agencies can be classified by the range of services that they offer. advertising agencies range in size from one man shows to large firms that employ thousands of people. preparing and producing the ads. many agencies also offer a variety of allied services. A company that uses a . trade shows. etc). 2. All of these specialized campaigns are creating new demands on agencies and are requiring new talents for people who work in advertising.native language. a full service agency is one that handles all phases of advertising process for its clients: it plan. newsletters and annual reports. Creative boutiques. Also. proposing strategy. In addition. creates. media planning and buying and research services. 3. invoice the client. broadcasting. In short a full service agency will provide four major functions: 1. different types of advertising agencies are: • • • • • Full service agencies Creative boutiques In-house agencies Specialized agencies Media buying services Full-service agencies.it is an organization that specializes in the actual creation of advertisements. collect the bills and pay the media and other suppliers. Accordingly. In general. produces and places advertisements for its clients. it might provide other marketing services such as sales promotion. One major point that differentiates a full service agency from other is that the personal work full time and the services provide are extensive. creative development and production.
Freelancers are individuals who work on their own with out any formal attachment with any agency. The name of the formula is . Full service ad agency studies the product or service and determines its marketable characteristic and how it relates to the competition. require specialized knowledge. In-house agencies. It is widely assumed that advertising works if the AIDCA formulas are followed. about one’s appearance and lack of status. which take up only specialized advertising jobs.there are many agencies. the agency makes a formal presentation to the client deadlines. Steps Involved in Advertisement Planning Advertisers and advertising agencies believe that customers have needs and desires. Clients or agencies hire these from time to time. Creative boutiques are different from freelancers. Certain fields like medicine. anxiety. The advertising director of the company usually heads an in-house agency. At the same time the agency studies the potential market. In house agencies are organized according to the needs and requirements 9of the company and are staffed accordingly. which can be fulfilled through the purchase and use of products and services. The organizational structure and functioning of in-house agencies are similar to full service agencies in most cases. social advertising. Some other companies allow their agencies to take outside jobs. Some companies solely depend on their in-house agencies for their advertising needs. Media buying agencies-it is an organization that specializes in buying radio and television time and reselling it to advertisers and advertising agencies. Others depend both on their in-house agency and outside agencies. possible distribution plans and likely advertising media. etc. Advertising works largely through appeal of emotions of envy. The formula sums up the principles of advertising. outdoor advertising. Media buying agencies complement the creative boutiques. Following this. Such agencies have a lot of contacts in the media and offer very low commission on media rates. So there are agencies. finance. it’s finding about the product and its recommendation for an advertising strategy. The services sells time to the advertisers. fear. Also large companies use their specialized negotiating talents for buying media space and time. which concentrate only on areas and employ people with the required talents.such agencies are owned and supervised by advertisers or the client organizations. Specialized agencies. This trend for special media buying agencies started in the 1970s. buying and administrative functions connected with advertising. orders the spots on the various stations involved and monitors the stations to see if the ads actually run.creative boutique would have to employ another agency to perform the planning. The clients also hire creative boutiques. These agencies are usually small in size.
they all reduce it. Avoid cluttering the advert with fancy images.” Think about the vocabulary and language you use. colors and backgrounds. which relates benefits to the reader so that they will want them. Use simple language. which may be to call a telephone number or to complete and send of a reply coupon. take no longer to read than is normal for the media and be clearly the most striking part of the advert. the best adverts are those. Do not distract the reader from the text by overlaying images or using fancy fonts. Use ten. Interest. so they couldn’t deal with a lot of polished copy. eleven or twelve point-size for the main text. relevant benefit to the reader. simple and to the point. The formula suggests that the att3ention and interests of the customers must be gained first before the process of stimulating desire. know your target audience: a simple test is to avoid any words or grammar that would not be found in the newspaper that the target group would read. Interest builds information in an interesting way. Your message must be quick and easy to absorb. light colors reversed out of dark. Desire. Steps Involved in Advertisement Planning The Attention part is the banner or headline that makes an impressive benefit promise. shadows. Use a clear layout. Finally you must prompt an Action. If you seek a response you must move then to create Desire. Conviction and Action. quickly and simply Research proves that where responses are required. This point cannot be stressed enough. Younger generations are extremely visually literate. Advertising that does not prompt action is a wasted opportunity. . Use simple black (or dark colored) text on a white (or light colored) background for maximum readability. clear fonts and clear language. For the same reason avoids italics. which offer an impressive. This ‘promise’ should ideally contain the business brand name. None of these improve readability. Offer a single impressive benefit. Use simple traditional typestyles: serif fonts are quicker to read than sans serif. and keep enough space around the text to attract attention to it. even if they wanted to. Make it easy to read. avoid complicated words. smaller or larger are actually more difficult to read and therefore less likely to be read. you must keep it quick. usually meaning that this must relate closely to the way that the reader thinks about the issues concerned. imparting conviction and urging action in advertisements can bring about a change in the buying behaviors.derived from the initial letters of the words: Attention. weird and wonderful colors. They have been brought up on computer games.
If they’ve heard or seen it all before it will be no surprise that they take no notice at all. we require information about the target market or consumer. this can be reinforced with an outline of your policy on seeking customer feedback and carrying out satisfaction surveys. This is usually best accomplished by explaining ‘why’ and ‘how’ you are able to do the things you are offering. Proposition or offer must be credible and believable The Advertising Standards Authority or equivalent would prevent you from making overly extravagant claims anyway. The Planning process of Advertisements Campaigns include the following activities: 1. don’t. Unless your code of practice prevents you from claiming superiority over your competitors. For example. if you claim particularly good customer service. and to whom the advertiser wants to say it. Things sometimes work. The three important research areas are: . which you imagine. and either imply or state directly that you are the only company to offer these things. and is rarely a precise science. An advertisement campaign determines what the advertiser wants to say. you should put as much emphasis as you can behind your USP (unique selling point). but you should still attempt to make your offer seem perfectly credible. Incorporate something new People respond better and are more easily attracted initially to a concept that is new or original. Advertising is often referred to as a ‘Black Art’ because it is mysterious. For planning an Ad campaign. and plenty of things you think should work. in support of your claims.before planning any activity.Involve the reader in your writing style Refer to the reader as ‘you’ and use the second person (‘you’. Describe the service as it affects them in a way that they will easily relate to it. the company or product and the competition. Develop a proposition that is special or unique Why should people be interested if your proposition is no different to your competition? You must try to emphasize what makes your service special. People must believe there’s something in it for them right from the start. you can also increase credibility by showing references or testimonial quotes from satisfied customers. wouldn’t. when. ‘your’ and ‘yours’ etc) in the description of what your business does for the customer to get them visualizing their own personal involvement. one requires relevant information regarding the situation. It also determines how. where. Situation Appraisal.
Structural or Strategic Planning. Strategic planning is the process of making intelligent decisions.(analyzing strengths. Weaknesses make the product vulnerable to threats from others. how to distinguish the product. The strength often leads to new opportunities to be explored. 3. and how long to run the campaign. A powerful theme brings about ‘synergy’ to the campaign. Another step of creative planning is finding the creative strategy. the major decisions in media planning. then branding try and create images. It also decides whom to address (the target audience). It starts with finding out what to do. which needs to be taken. These strengths could be in any area. A theme must always relate to and reflect the campaign objectives. The creative strategy outlines the impressions the campaign wants to create. campaigns planners find out the strengths of the product. Situation Analysis. Media Planning. Unique selling proposition (USP) strategy. the science comes from scientific methods of research and strategic planning.this is used by market leaders who ignore the presence of competitors Pre-emptive claim strategy. weakness.• • • Consumer research and market research Product and company research Competitive research 2.some times products or brands are positioned different from competing brands. Product Positioning. designing and producing exciting advertisements. are: • • • • Which media to be used? Where to advertise (geographic region)? When to advertise (timing and scheduling)? How intense the exposure should be (frequency)? Media planning is a ‘behind the scene’ part of advertising. opportunities and threats) From all the information collected.here the campaign talks about some features.here the brand is the first to pick up a particular feature. 4. 5. it becomes associated with that brand. It plays an integral role in merging the science of marketing with the art of advertising.the ultimate goal of advertising is to reach the target audience with the advertising message. Brand image strategy: when there are no strong differentiating features among the competitors. which is unique to that advertised brand and is not available in others. Creative Planning.Advertising is an art and a science. Thus. In the minds of the people. how much to spend (budgeting). deciding how to accomplish the objectives.it includes developing a theme. the creative strategy and finally deciding the creative tactics. Some common creative strategies are: • • • • • Generic Strategy. A media planner has to find . While the art comes from writing. The theme needs to be a strong concept to be able to hold all there different and diverse ads together.
If the message is to be conveyed to illiterate or less literate people. The objectives may be introduction of new product. Newspapers are the most suitable for advertising products which can be sold throughout the country. Nature and extent of market can be determined by various factors like geographical region. radio and television . Circulation of Media. If advertising is not to be carried on a mass scale to have big impact in the short and long run. namely. Nature of Market. a combination of various advertising media may be chosen. The cost-benefit analysis will enable the advertiser to take right decision in regard to selection of the advertising media. Choice of Advertising Media For the purpose of choosing the appropriate medium or media or advertisement. magazines. radio. In the first instance.out about the availability of various media. consumer and industrial goods. size of population and purchasing power of the population. Since different languages are popular in different regions. • • • • • • • Nature of Product. Newspapers. Life of Advertisements Outdoor display and magazines and direct mail have sufficiently longer life but the life of newspaper. and secondly the advertiser should try to develop some relationship between the cost of the medium and its circulation. but other media have limited circulation. Sometimes advertisements are inserted in the newspapers and magazines to complement the readers in order to enhance the goodwill of the advertiser. the media rates. Film advertising and outdoor advertising are more suitable for local products. Consumer goods can be advertised in newspapers. The cost of advertising media is an important consideration and it should be considered in relation to (a) the amount of funds available. following factors should be taken into consideration. Objectives of Advertising. It may be mentioned that newspapers have the widest circulation. But industrial goods can be advertised profitably in the specialized trade. or to avoid competition by the rivals. the message of the advertiser will reach a larger number of people. the amount of funds available may dictate the choice of a medium or a combination of media of advertisement. and (b) the circulation of the media. to increase demand of an existing product. Type of Audience. If the media have greater circulation. Financial Consideration. television and cinema advertisement will serve the purpose in a better way. radio and television and through outdoor displays. Products should be classified into two broad categories. advertisements in different languages may be given to popularize the product. their reaches and also analyze their effectiveness. technical and professional journals. Nature of the product to be advertised has an important bearing on the medium of advertisement. magazines. displays and direct mail may be used to convey the message to the educated people. The objectives of the advertising programme are very important to determine the choice of advertising media. The market may be either local or national.
as Pope Paul VI remarked. The choice of advertising media also depends upon the media used by the competitors. . a culture — other people — affected for good or ill by advertising messages and techniques of every sort. Media used by Competitors. the producers of its substitutes will find it better to advertise them in the same newspaper. If a product is being advertised in a newspaper. Here are some of the ways that happens. and stimulating economic progress through the expansion of business and trade. Therefore. contributing to efficiency and the lowering of prices. They condemn advertising as a waste of time. Advertising does this. and sometimes it is realized.” Even people who are not themselves exposed to particular forms of advertising confront a society. not only does advertising have no value of its own. higher incomes and a more decent and humane way of life for all. advertising can be a useful tool for sustaining honest and ethically responsible competition that contributes to economic growth in the service of authentic human development. but also its influence is entirely harmful and corrupting for individuals and society. In such a system. talent and money — an essentially parasitic activity. It is a necessary part of the functioning of modern market economies. so that. The Benefits of Advertising Enormous human and material resources are devoted to advertising. a) Economic Benefits of Advertising Advertising can play an important role in the process by which an economic system guided by moral norms and responsive to the common good contributes to human development. helping them to make informed. Some critics view this state of affairs in unrelieved negative terms. Advertising is everywhere in today’s world. by informing people about the availability of rationally desirable new products and services and improvements in existing ones. prudent consumer decisions. All of these can contribute to the creation of new jobs. In this view. “No one now can escape the influence of advertising. But advertising also has significant potential for good. This practice has become more common these days in order to fight competition in the market.• advertisements is very short unless they are repeated regularly. which today either exist or are emerging in many parts of the world and which — provided they conform to moral standards based upon integral human development. the advertiser should also take into consideration the duration for which he wants to create the impression in the minds of the prospective customers.
the information function of media can be subverted by advertisers’ pressure upon publications or programs not to treat of questions that might prove embarrassing or inconvenient. Political advertising can make its contribution by informing people about the ideas and policy proposals of parties and candidates. If it can have. This is where particular abuses can occur. though. too. of charity toward the needy. Moreover. an instrument: it can be used well. too. messages concerning health and education. and particularly by encouraging and making possible media presentations which are oriented to minorities whose needs might otherwise go unserved. and the like. It is a tool. tasteful and entertaining. patronize certain institutions. Advertising can brighten lives simply by being witty. to its contribution to economic well being in a market system guided by moral norms. benevolent social institutions. a) Economic Harms of Advertising Advertising can betray its role as a source of information by misrepresentation and by withholding relevant facts. The harm done by Advertising There is nothing intrinsically good or intrinsically evil about advertising. advertisers have an opportunity to exert a positive influence on decisions about media content. .b) Benefits of Political Advertising Political advertising can make a contribution to democracy. More often. compassion and neighborly service. of tolerance. use advertising to communicate their messages — messages of faith. including new candidates not previously known to the public. have a negative. and sometimes does have. harmful impact on individuals and society. advertising can itself contribute to the betterment of society by uplifting and inspiring people and motivating them to act in ways that benefit themselves and others. and it can be used badly. of patriotism. beneficial results such as those just described. c) Cultural Benefits of Advertising Because of the impact advertising has on media that depend on it for revenue. and often does. Sometimes. constructive and helpful messages that educate and motivate people in a variety of beneficial ways. This they do by supporting material of excellent intellectual. including those of a religious nature. advertising is used not simply to inform but to persuade and motivate — to convince people to act in certain ways: buy certain products or services. aesthetic and moral quality presented with the public interest in view. d) Moral and Religious Benefits of Advertising In many cases. it also can.
The indirect but powerful influence exerted by advertising upon the media of social communications that depend on revenues from this source points to another sort of cultural concern. . both in and by advertising. bias and hostility toward others. but it also can be vulgar and morally degrading. and occasionally even morally uplifting. communicators can find themselves tempted — in fact pressured.” etc. This often is true of the way advertising treats women. and the exploitation of women. c) Cultural Harms of Advertising Advertising also can have a corrupting influence upon culture and cultural values. Such obstruction of the democratic process also happens when. advertising contributes to the invidious stereotyping of particular groups that places them at a disadvantage in relation to others. political advertising seeks to distort the views and records of opponents and unjustly attacks their reputations. to racial and ethnic prejudice and the like — rather than to a reasoned sense of justice and the good of all. perverse. too. d) Moral and Religious Harms of Advertising Advertising can be tasteful and in conformity with high moral standards. deplorable abuse. In the competition to attract ever-larger audiences and deliver them to advertisers. but it also can obstruct it.) instead of presenting differences in product quality and price as bases for rational choice. instead of being a vehicle for honest expositions of candidates’ views and records. for example. All too often. Frequently it deliberately appeals to such motives as envy. some advertisers consciously seek to shock and titillate by exploiting content of a morbid. or require that office-seekers compromise their integrity and independence by over-dependence on special interests for funds. This happens when. Often there are only negligible differences among similar products of different brands. b) Harms of Political Advertising Political advertising can support and assist the working of the democratic process. fashion.” status. pornographic nature. status seeking and lust. subtly or not so subtly — to set aside high artistic and moral standards and lapse into superficiality. It happens when advertising appeals more to people’s emotions and base instincts — to selfishness. Today.The practice of “brand”-related advertising can raise serious problems. is a frequent. “sex appeal. We have spoken of the economic harm that can be done to developing nations by advertising that fosters consumerism and destructive patterns of consumption. and advertising may attempt to move people to act on the basis of irrational motives (“brand loyalty. the costs of advertising limit political competition to wealthy candidates or groups.
some advertising is simply and deliberately untrue. within the limits of recognized and accepted practice. we can identify several moral principles that are particularly relevant to advertising. the elderly. like other forms of expression. 2. it intrudes upon the parent-child relationship and seeks to manipulate it to its own base ends. This problem is especially acute where particularly vulnerable groups or classes of persons are concerned: children and young people. In cases of the second sort. Truthfulness in Advertising Even today. Much advertising directed at children apparently tries to exploit their credulity and suggestibility. Also. Advertising like this offends against the dignity and rights of both children and parents. some of the comparatively little advertising directed specifically to the elderly or culturally disadvantaged seems designed to play . In cases of the first sort. advertising sometimes is used to promote products and inculcate attitudes and forms of behavior contrary to moral norms.” Advertising can violate the dignity of the human person both through its content — what is advertised. acceptable ways. It is possible to do this in tasteful. certain special problems relating to advertising that treats of religion or pertains to specific issues with a moral dimension. Within this very general framework. We shall speak briefly of three: truthfulness.We note. though. The Dignity of the Human Person There is an “imperative requirement” that advertising “respect the human person. his right duty to make a responsible choice. his interior freedom. but that it can distort the truth by implying things that are not so or withholding relevant facts. or his capacity to reflect and decide compromised. and these must be taken into account when discussing truthfulness. all these goods would be violated if man’s lower inclinations were to be exploited. too. the problem of truth in advertising is somewhat more subtle: it is not that advertising says what is overtly false. and the culturally disadvantaged. and social responsibility. in the hope that they will put pressure on their parents to buy products of no real benefit to them. People take for granted some rhetorical and symbolic exaggeration in advertising. this can be allowable. commercial advertisers sometimes include religious themes or use religious images or personages to sell products. the manner in which it is advertised — and through the impact it seeks to make upon its audience. the dignity of the human person. has its own conventions and forms of stylization. but the practice is obnoxious and offensive when it involves exploiting religion or treating it flippantly. 1. To be sure. Generally speaking. advertising. the poor.
or only the name may be mentioned in “reminder” type advertising. Pioneering Advertising: This type of advertising is used in the introductory stages in the life cycle of a product. Such advertisements appeal to the consumer’s emotions and rational motives. Retentive Advertising: This may be useful when the product has achieved a favourable status in the market – that is.” then even material abundance and the conveniences that technology makes available “will prove unsatisfying and in the end contemptible. For example. It stimulates “selective” demand. It is concerned with developing a “primary” demand. … Man thinks that he can make arbitrary use of the earth” Advertising that reduces human progress to acquiring material goods and cultivating a lavish life style expresses a false. Advertising and Social Responsibility Advertising that fosters a lavish life style which wastes resources and despoils the environment offends against important ecological concerns. viz. and selling a product category rather than a specific brand. 1. Product advertising is of three types. A much softer selling approach is used. Competitive Advertising: It is useful when the product has reached the marketgrowth and especially the market-maturity stage. “In his desire to have and to enjoy rather than to be and grow. cultural and spiritual requirements. When people fail to practice “a rigorous respect for the moral. maturity or declining stage. the initial advertisement for black – and – white television and color television. It conveys information about. It seeks to sell a specific brand rather than a general product category.upon their fears so as to persuade them to allocate some of their limited resources to goods or services of dubious value. destructive vision of the human person harmful to individuals and society alike. the advertiser wants to keep his product’s name before the public. 3. Product – Related Advertising It is concerned with conveying information about and selling a product or service.” Major Classifications Of Advertising 1. 2. based on the dignity of the person and on the proper identity of each community. 3. . Generally in such times.. beginning with the family and religious societies. man consumes the resources of the earth and his own life in an excessive and disordered way.
Advertisements on not mixing drinking and driving are a good example of public service advertising. It is intended to affect the demand for a type of product. the advertising strategy may be to stimulate the selective demand. 1. Competitive advertising stimulates selective demand. the marketer must inform consumers of the existence of the new item and convince them of the benefits flowing from its use. and not the brand of that product. ii. Surf detergent powder. employees. At this time. This type of advertising is used frequently by large companies whose products are well known. legislators. To establish a differential advantage and to acquire an acceptable sort of market. (i) Advertising may be used to stimulate either the primary demand or the selective demand. Selective Demand Stimulation: This demand is for a particular brand such as Charminar cigarettes. This sells only the name and prestige of the company. Some advertise to stimulate primary demand. Public Service Advertising This is directed at the social welfare of a community or a nation. When primary demand has been stimulated and competitors have entered the market.2. The effectiveness of product service advertisements may be measured in terms of the goodwill they generate in favour of the sponsoring organization. primary demand stimulation is appropriate. Advertising Based on Demand Influence Level. (iii) It may try to cause indirect action or direct action. When a product is new. Functional Classification Advertising may be classified according to the functions which it is intended to fulfil. selective demand advertising is attempted. The advertiser attempts to differentiate his brand and to increase the total amount of consumption of that product. the objective is to put across a message intended to change attitudes or behaviour and benefit the public at large. (ii) It may promote either the brand or the firm selling that brand. Institutional advertising is used extensively during periods of product shortages in order to keep the name of the company before the public. suppliers. It may be of either the direct or the indirect type. It aims at building for a firm a Positive public image in the eyes of shareholders. In this type of advertising. persuasive or reminder oriented in character. HMT . or Vimal fabrics. Primary Demand Stimulation: Primary demand is demand for the product or service rather than for a particular brand. Institutional Advertising Institutional Advertising may be formative. It is not to stimulate the demand for the product or service. or the general public. 3. 2. i.
such as public service work. 3. Advertising based on Product Life Cycle 1. suppliers. It is used in the maturity period as well as throughout the declining phase of the product life cycle. to some extent. 4.motive action employer. Indane’s Cooking Gas is a case in point. financial institutions. scooters. the target groups will respond with goodwill towards. When Indian Oil advertisements describe the company’s general activities. Persuasive Product Advertising: Persuasive product advertising is to develop demand for a particular product or brand. Institutional advertisements are at consumers or focus them upon other groups. cosmetics. does considerable institutional advertising of its name. emphasizing the quality and research behind its products. Product Advertising Most advertising is product advertising. comprehension. 2. it benefits the organization as a whole. in the maturity period of the product life cycle. It is of three types as follows:1. such as voters. It is also a useful method or introducing sales persons and new product to consumers. that its management takes ecologically responsible action. all these products are all package goods that the consumer will often buy . It deals with the non-personal selling of a particular good or service. designed to promote the sale or reputation of a particular product or service that the organization sells. and confidence in the sponsor. attitude change or action for an offering. Consumer Advertising: Most of the consumer goods producers engage in consumer product advertising. Marketers of pharmaceuticals. detergents and soaps. this may be referred to as institutional advertising because it is intended to build an overall favorable attitude towards the company and its family of products. Informative Product Advertising: This form of advertising tends to characterize the promotion of any new type of product to develop an initial demand. It was the original approach to advertising. etc. is an affair. It is usually done in the introductory stages of the product life cycle. iii. The marketer may use such promotion to generate exposure attention. It notifies the consumers that the company is a responsible business entity and is patriotic. Baring a few. supports the socialistic pattern of society or provides employment opportunities in the community.or DCM. Reminder-Oriented Product Advertising: The goal of this type of advertising is to reinforce previous promotional activity by keeping the brand name in front of the public. cigarettes and alcoholic beverages are examples. HMT once told the story of the small-scale industries supplying it with component parts. If it is effective. government officials. for example. It is a type of promotion used in the growth period and. It does not attempt to sell a particular product. thus indicating how it aided the development of ancillary industries.
National advertising: It is practiced by many firms in our country. 2. prices. generally. 3. the derived demand. These advertisements save the customer time and money by passing along specific information about products. either for themselves or for their suppliers. The result is that advertising is often relegated to a secondary position in a retail store. also advertising by establishments that sell services to the public. . One aspect of retail advertising is co-operative advertising. 6. Advertising based on Area of Operation It is classified as follow: 1. The task of the industrial advertiser is complicated by the multiple buying influence characteristics like. Local advertising: It is generally done by retailers rather than manufacturers. Wholesale Advertising: Wholesalers are. The basic appeals tend to increase the rupee profits of the buyer or help in achieving his non-monetary objectives. 5. Most national advertisements concentrate on the overall image and desirability of the product. There is a heavy competition among the advertisers to establish an advantage for their particular brand. and general management publications. They rely on this form of promotion merely out of fear that their competitors may benefit if they stop their advertising efforts. Trade journals are the media most generally used followed by catalogues. It includes. and so on.” Advertising agencies are rarely used. 2. Regional advertising: It is geographical alternative for organizations. co-operative advertising permits a store to secure additional advertising that would not otherwise have been available. They also need to make a greater use of supplier promotion materials and programs in a way advantageous to them. Retail Advertising: This may be defined as “covering all advertising by the stores that sell goods directly to the consuming public. Advertising agencies are much less useful in industrial advertising. 2. Trade Advertising 1. not advertising minded. etc. They would benefit from adopting some of the image-making techniques used by retailers – the need for developing an overall promotional strategy. exhibits. direct mail communication. Retailer advertisements usually provide specific goods sales during weekends in various sectors. From the retailer’s point of view. The objectives vary according to the firm and the situation. It refers to advertising costs between retailers and manufacturers. Industrial Advertising: Industrial executives have little confidence in advertising.during the year. It encourages the consumer to buy their product wherever they are sold. The store personnel are usually given this responsibility as an added task to be performed. petrol pumps and banks. together with their normal functions. such as beauty shops. location.
‘buy one. 2. The major types of headlines are: • • • • Direct promise of benefit News about the product Curiosity or provocative. magazine. This classification is so common in use that it is mentioned here only for the sake of completeness. In command headlines. and Command headlines Direct headlines make a direct promise about how the product will benefit the readers. The Headline The Headline is the most read part of an advertisement. This is directed at the headline scanners. newspaper and direct mail advertising. ‘improved’. are often used in headlines. For example.7. The subheading usually spells out . the readers are urged to buy the product by promising a reward. It also forces the readers or the audience to see the copy and the promise is made in the copy of the Ad. Usually they command or ask the consumers to buy. outdoor. Such a headline selects it own audience and can reach selected groups by either addressing them directly or by discussing their specific problems. Instead an indirect approach is adopted by either posing a question or making a provocative statement. then the subheading is used. the headline tries to create a lot of curiosity about the product. The headline and subheading together can contain a longer message. Advertising According to Medium The most common classification of advertising is by the medium used. business periodical. The Components of an Advertisement We can factor an advertisement into seven important components. However. etc. It basically tries to attract the attention of the readers and create curiosity so the audience or reader sees further. Sometimes the promise or benefit is not offered in the headline. Such headlines provide some new ‘information’ and are called news headline. The Sub-Headline This is not always used in ads. Readers are often interested in what is new in the product so the words ‘new’. Another type of headline is the select headline. when the advertiser wants to say a lot at the beginning but the headline cannot do the job. So advertisers try to tell maximum part of the product story through the headline. 1. radio. A headline will introduce the product or makes the promise statement or puts a question. For example: TV. get one free’ or ‘buy for the price of two’.
then they can be requested to come back to the company for information booklets or can be invited to come to the retailer or dealer for more information or demonstration. proofs by experts. the body copy elaborates upon it and provides supporting proof. These days it is the battle cry in the field of sales and marketing. And one need not be an artist or painter to be able to visualize as all it require is thinking. are provided through arguments. testimonials by users or through demonstrations in the body copy. 4. It may have some hidden quality that differentiates a product from the competitors.the slogan might urge directly that you use the product or service.every product has some reward to offer consumers. Slogan is thus a short and catchy phrase that gets the attention of the audience. This visual impact becomes strong if the idea has been properly visualized. meaning battle cry. 5. Slogan It is a phrase or a sentence that describes the benefit derived from the product or one of the product’s most important attributes. performance. Sometimes the consumer wants a proof or evidence of the claims made in the advertisement. Body Copy When the headline usually makes a claim. So proofs about quality. the subheading answers it. etc. And if the consumers require more details or information. Slogans that emphasizes action to be taken. The term slogan comes from the Gaelic words sluagh gairm. Slogan can of different types: • • Slogan that emphasizes product or reward. 3. is easy to remember and comes off the tongue easily. It consists of a single phrase by which an advertiser conveys an important idea.or elaborates the promise made in the headline or it stresses on the product’s unique features. Another device is the visual impact of the ad. which will presumably lead readers or audience to remember and think favorably of this company. The amount of detail in an advertisement should be sufficient to answer the questions arising in the minds of a prospective buyer. . durability. Visualization means to think in terms of visuals or pictures. Visualization The headline is a major attraction –getting device. This is the combination of the visuals used in the advertisements and the visual treatment given to other elements of the ad. When the headline poses a question.
Rough sketches. visuals. Visuals also identify the product. Straight lines or dotted lines represent body copy.Advertising people usually work in pairs. Proper borders and other marks are put on the layout. For example. and without spending much time and efforts. Photographs and other visual are cut from other places or Photostatted and pasted. One means the total appearance of the advertisement. Only the shape is proper-being proportionately smaller. place. This helps in many ways-it records all the ideas options on paper. A rough sketch of the visual is pasted. Visuals and pictures help people dream and project themselves in to another time. which comes to your mind when you think the word ‘flower’. which is called thinking on paper. Then the rough layout is further polished. Some coloring-particularly using crayons.For example think about the picture. It could be a bouquet of flower or a garden full of beautiful flowers. Comprehensive stage. In the thumbnail sketch the various elements of the advertisement are just schematically or diagrammatically represented. And finally the visuals provide continuity for all advertisements in the campaign through the use of similar visuals. Hand lettering is done for the headlines and other copy parts that are to be composed in bigger type sizes. And as they get the ideas they put them on paper. which puts the idea on paper or could also be the final piece after finishing touches. Now it is enlarged to its actual size. 6. . A copywriter and a visualizer sit together and create ideas. These rough layouts are presented to the agency creative director for approval. with no proper borders and no proper lettering and visuals. etc) together. the composition of the various elements. The various stages of a layout are: • • • Thumbnail sketches. create a favorable impression of the product or the advertiser.the rough layout is still small in size. or situation. Also thumbnail sketches are very small in size. Visuals not only attract attention. water colors. All the copy is lettered or composed. These kind of perceptions need to be portrayed in the advertisements. etc. A layout could be the first pencil sketch. Also pictures communicate ideas quickly and easily and also there is no chance of misinterpretation. a thick serrated line represents the headline. The other meaning is the act or process of placing the elements (copy. they hold the interest and often tell maximum part of the story. wasting much paper. clarify claims made in the copy. A visualizer need not draw or paint these things but can just describe these and leave the drawing to the artists. Layout Layout has two meanings. make demonstrations. Pictures appeal to our hidden and suppressed emotions. Boxes crossed inside represent visuals. it gives some kind of a shape to the idea without using any expensive color. Good layouts are unimaginative. emphasize the unique features of the product.in the rough stage. arouse interest. with no color. The first thing they do is to come up with as many ideas as possible. Thinner serrated lines represent the subheading and the slogan. its design. bigger layouts are made so that more details can be accommodated.
rhythm. Art work-this is the final stage of layout. a need is generally arisen to measure the effectiveness of the campaign. As the name suggests this layout is easy to understand.e.• etc is done. efforts and time spend are wasted. In the background of all these efforts. First these stages save time. Finishing artists give the final touches. What is required is a good. or graphics are used. headlines. This placing of elements is not just mere decoration. Measuring Advertising Effectiveness All advertising efforts are directed mainly towards the achievement of business. paintings. must have individually to stand out fr9om the clutter of advertisements. money and efforts. As soon as the advertising campaign is over. Coloring is done. Registration of trademarks prohibits duplication. Whether. borders and other elements-to work together to do the job of telling the product story. subheadings. visuals and other elements on it. and direction. sketches. Once the client approves the layout. must create an appropriated mood or feeling. This layout is presented to the client for approval. to increase the sales turnover and thus to market the maximum profit. body copy. This stage is called the comprehensive stage. is an attempt to attract the customer towards the product through advertising. Proper photographs. contrast. clear vision and interpretation of the selling concept of the story. 7. it is then ready for the final finishing touches. Also working on only one idea curtails the various other possible options. symbol or device or any combination there of adopted and used by a manufacturer or merchant to identify his goods and distinguish them from those manufactured or sold by others in the market.e. Here care is taken to look into each minute detail. This stage is now ready to be printed. unity. then all the material used. desired sales profitability or results in terms the change in . Trademarks are important because of two reasons: • • It increases the credibility of the firm because the buyer buys the product only after looking at the brand name.. And finally a good layout must be attractive. What the layout artist does is to place the copy. proportion. A good layout allows all its elements-visuals. All these various stages of preparing the layout are beneficial in a many ways. charts. The copy is properly composed or lettered. logo. Trademark The term trademark includes any word. Other elements like borders etc are properly places. The advertiser spends lakhs of rupees in to this advertising activity. A layout starts with a blank piece of paper. harmony. A good layout takes into consideration the principles of balance. If you prepare a final layout without taking the approval and it gets rejected. it has achieved the desired results i. marketing and advertising objectives i. maps.
To justify the Investment in Advertising: The expenditure on advertisement is considered to be an investment. Importance of measuring the Effectiveness of Advertising • • • • • It acts as a Safety measure: Testing effectiveness of advertising helps in finding out ineffective advertisement and advertising campaigns. The investment in advertising is a marketing investment and its objectives should be spelt out clearly indicating the results expected from the campaign. and existing and prospective consumers. The technique is known as keying the advertising. May be provided with the advertisement or Enquiry from consumers should mention the name of the source of information. If the expected rate of return is achieved in terms of additional profits. The rate and size of return should be determined in advance. advertising copy and the effectiveness of individual media. affect the future sale of the product. In order to measure the effectiveness of advertising copy. various information about the product and the company.can be undertaken. Evaluating advertising effectives helps in estimating the results in order to avoid complete loss. To know the communication Effect: The effectiveness of the advertisement can be measured in terms of their communication effects on the target consumers or audience. Thus waste of money in faulty advertising can be avoided. The effectiveness of advertising in a particular media may also be measured in any of the following ways. Avoids possible failure: Advertisers are not sure of results of advertising from a particular advertising campaign. Provides feedback for remedial measures: Testing effectiveness of advertising provides useful information to the advertisers to take remedial steps against ineffective advertisements. Coupon blank etc. Pre tests are generally conducted in the beginning of the creation process or at the end of creation process or production stage. The main purpose of advertising is communicated the general public.customer’ behaviour in favour of the company’s product which will naturally. It is therefore desirable to seek post measurements of advertising in order to determine whether advertisement have been seen or heard . the advertisement can be considered as effective one. • • • • By giving different addresses to different media. Different newspapers may be selected for advertisements of different departments. Thus in measuring the effectiveness of advertising we include measuring of the effectiveness of advertising campaign. two types of tests pre tests and post tests. It facilitates timely adjustments in advertising to make advertising consumer oriented and result oriented. This chapter deals these three problems. There are several pre and post tests techniques to measure the effectiveness of the advertising copy.
This technique estimates the contribution that advertising has made to explaining in a co relational manner rather than a casual sales. a relationship between advertising and sales is established. Moreover this can be done as a pre-test to aid . Historical Sales Method Some insights into the effectiveness of past advertising may be obtained by measuring the relationship between the advertising expenditure and the total sales of the product. the variation in sales over the time periods covered in the study ii. The measurements made to determine results may be measurements of change in sales. i. It would show how the changes in advertising expenditure have corresponding changes in sales volume. Experimental Control The other measure of advertising effectiveness is the method of experimental control where a casual relationship between advertising and sales is established. Most of the managers believe that the advertisement directly affects the sales volume and hence they evaluate the effectiveness of the advertising campaign by the increase in the sales volume. 1. Methods of Measuring Advertising Effectiveness Advertising is aimed at improving the sales volume of a concern so its effectiveness can be evaluated by its impact on sales. Direct Measures of Advertising Effectiveness Under direct measures. change in consumer attitudes. message or appeal of the advertising. This method is quite expensive when related to other advertising effectiveness measures yet it is possible to isolate advertising contribution to sales. Indirect measures. advertising is published in test markets and results are contrasted with other. The following are some of the methods that are generally used in measuring that advertising effects. Read More: Measuring Advertising Effectiveness There may be two types measures • • Direct measures and. Compare two markets: Under this procedure. changes in dealer display and so on depending upon the objectives sought by the advertiser. A comparison of sales of two periods or two periods or two markets may be done and the corresponding changes may be noted. A multiple regression analysis of advertising expenditure and sales over several time periods may be calculated. Markets – so called control markets – which have had the regular advertising program.• or in other words whether they have communicated the theme.
can then. Media schedules expenditure levels or some combination of these advertising decision areas.advertising in choosing between alternative creative designs. One experimental approach to measuring the sales effectiveness of advertising is test marketing. Marketers or advertisers may obtain an idea of exposure generated by the medium by examining its circulation or audience data which reveal the number of copies of the magazine. Cities in which advertising campaigns are affected may be named as test cities and other cities may be called central cities. the normal sales level is calculated for both type of cities prior to advertising campaign. in this experimental model it is possible to evaluate how each individual medium behaves alone and in all possible to evaluate how each individual medium behaves alone and in all possible combinations with other media.Brown. it is not successful in explaining the success or failure of the campaign itself. Multivariable designs Produce these explanations and are. The most commonly used measures are. The effect of advertising campaign. • Exposure to Advertisement: In order to be effective. advertisement is bound to failure. • • Before-after with Control Group Design: This classic design uses several test and control cities in this design two types of cities are selected. and radio sets at various . These measures do not evaluate the effects of advertisements directing on sales or profits but all other factors such as customer awareness or attitude or customer recall of advertising message affect the sales or profits or goals of the business indirectly.H. For any single medium. Despite the uncertainties about the relationship between the intermediate effects of advertising and the ultimate results.V. be measured by subtracting the amount of post campaign figure of sale from the pre campaign sale figures in test cities Multivariable Experimental Designs: While the experimental design discussed above yields a reasonably accurate estimate of the effects of the advertising on sales. and then the advertising campaign is presented to the test cities and not the central cities. First of all. and the number of persons switching on their T. 2. former Fords Director of Marketing Research. there is no other alternative but to use indirect measures. the advertisement must gain exposure. Without exposure. or the number of persons living in the televiewing or radio listening area. therefore used by some very large firm because of their diagnostic value. The management is concerned about the number of target audiences who see or hear the organization message set in the advertisement. newspaper or journal sold the number of persons passing the billboards or riding in transit facilities. Thus. most firms rely heavily on indirect measures. eight possible geographic areas have been exposed and eight have not been exposed. Indirect Measures of Advertising Effectiveness As it is very difficult to measure the direct effect of advertising on company’s profits or sales.The power of this multivariable factorial design is explained by G.
they have already seen. . One may ask typical target consumers from time to time such questions like ‘what did you think of our new commercial?’ and ‘Did it get the message across’? The answers of these questions will provide sufficient insight into advertising decision making. One is pre-test and the other is post-test. In post-test method. a recall of the message content among a specified group or groups or prospective customers is measured within 24 hours of the exposure of the advertisement. the consumers are asked to indicate the extent to which they recognise or recall the advertisement. This test is conducted in the laboratory setting. Attention or Recall of Advertising Message Content: This is one of the widely used measures of advertising results. Attitude Change: Since advertising is considered to be one way of influencing the state of the mind of the audience towards a product. Under this measure. for new products. service or organisation. They cannot be informed unless they comprehend the message (grasp the message mentally and understand it fully). brand or the manufacturer. Another measure of the variable is to ask questions about subjects how much they have comprehended a message they have recently heard or seen. This type of measure is also subject to the same criticisms as is applicable to direct measures of effectiveness (sales measures because awareness is also not the direct result of the advertisements. One may employ somewhat imprecise test of the comprehension of a newspaper and radio advertisement. the consumers are asked questions about the indication of recognition or recall after the advertisement has been run. It is also affected by many other factors. One is recall tests – an indicator of comprehension because it is evident that consumers recall what they comprehend. The assumption of this type of measure is that there is a direct relationship between the advertisements and the awareness. Various mechanical devices are being used in the western countries which provide indices of attention such as eye-camera etc. Brand Awareness: The marketers who rely heavily on advertising often appraise its effectiveness by measuring the customer’s awareness about the particular product or brand. changes in awareness can often be attributed to the influence of advertising. Comprehension: Consumers generally use advertisements as a means of obtaining information about the product. Here consumers read. This number can be estimated by interviewing the numbers of the audience for different media. the results are very often measured in terms of attitudes among groups exposed to advertising communication.• • • • points of time. hear or listen to the advertisement and then researchers ask question regarding the advertisement just to test the recall and then evaluate it. Several measures are used ranging from asking the questions about willingness to buy the likelihood of buying to the measurement of the extent to which specific attributes (such as modern or new) are associated with a product. But. These measures assume that customers can recall or recognize what they have viewed or listened to. Attention value is the chief quality of the advertising copy the advertisements cannot be said to be effective unless they attract the attention of the target consumers. Various tests for valuating comprehension are available. In a pre-test evaluation. There are two methods for evaluating the attention getting value of the advertisements.
in certain cases. the competitors may snatch its market through increased advertisementments. The assumption is that if an increase in sales follows a decrease in advertising expenditure. Advertising assists to increase the sale of existing products by entering into new markets and attracting new customers. Advertising is needed not only by the manufacturers and traders but also for the customers and the society. If a product is not advertised continuously. . Therefore. Under this type of measure. a drink may be advertised ‘during summer as a product necessary to fight tiredness caused by heat and during winter as an essential thing to resist cold. and so on. Significance of Advertising Advertising helps in spreading information about the advertising firm.• Action: One objective of advertisement may be assumed to be to stimulate action or behavior. One type of action that advertisers attempt to induce is buying behavior. Advertising is used to increase the goodwill of firm by promising good quality to the customers. The benefits of advertising to different parties are discussed in the following paragraphs. A business enterprise can introduce itself and its products to the public through advertising. The action or intention to take an action may be measured on the intention to buy measuring instrument. qualities and place of availability of its products. these above measures (direct or indirect) are used to evaluate the effectiveness of advertisements. The significance of advertising has increased in the modern era of large scale production and tough competition in the market. advertising is a necessity to remain in the market and remind the customer as done by soft drink companies. consumers are asked to respond why they are interested in purchasing the product or brand. Advertising help in meeting the forces of competition in the market-place. It seems from the analysis of the above methods of measuring effectiveness that directly or indirectly changes in sales or profits are taken as the measuring rod of the effectiveness of the advertising. It helps to create a nonpersonal link between the advertiser and the receiver of the message. the change in sales levels are good indicators of the effectiveness of advertising. its products. For in-stance. Advertising helps create steady demand of the products. Advertising has become indispensable for the manufacturers and distributors because of the following advantages: • • • • • • Advertising helps in introducing new products. Logic suggests that measurement of sales is preferable to other measurements. Benefits to Manufacturers and Traders It pays to advertise. Thus. It can create new taste among the public and stimulate them to I purchase the new product through effective advertisement.
Advertising increased the utility of products for many people adds to the amount of satisfaction which they are already enjoying. The publishers of newspapers and magazine. or product that employs an intentional and carefully coordinated series of marketing tools in order to reach the target audience.• • Advertisements increase the morale of the employees of the firm. The salesmen feel happier because their task becomes easier if the product is advertised and known to the public Advertising facilitates direct distribution of the product through the retailers. Advertising promotes the standard of living of the people by increasing the variety and quality in consumption as a result of sustained research and development activities by the manufacturers. Advertising educates the people about new products and their diverse uses. and other media. Advertising educates the people about the various uses of different products and this increases their knowledge. all important source of income to the press. The end purpose of any ad . Thus they cannot be exploited by the sellers. Advertising induces the manufacturers to improve the quality of their products through research and development This ensures supply of the products of better quality to the consumers Benefits to Society The society at large is also benefited because of advertisement: • • • • Advertising provides employment to persons engaged in writing. What is an Advertising Campaign? An advertising campaign is a specific course of action designed to advertise a company. Lastly advertising also encourages commercial art. cause. Retailers are encouraged to purchase and sell the advertised products. They can choose from the various brands to satisfy their wants. Benefits to Customers Advertising offers the following advantages to customers • • • • Advertising helps the customers to know the the existence of various products and their prices. Increase in employment brings additional income with the people which stimulates more demand.. Employment is further generated to meet the increased demand. The customers are also benefited because they get newspapers and magazines at cheaper rate. are benefited because of increased circulation of their publication. Advertising also helps in finding customers in the international market which is essential for earning foreign exchange. Advertising sustains the press. radio and television network. It provides. designing and issuing advertisements.
In order to ensure that the desired consumers are reached. Short television commercials designed to amuse as well as inform tend to make an impression on the viewer and are highly likely to entice a significant number of consumers to purchase the products displayed in the ad. television and radio commercials remain a viable means of attracting the attention of buyers and creating demand for various products and services. software that is designed to keep track of sales leads and existing clients may appear in a magazine that caters to sales and marketing professionals. While in time past. or the information gained during the current campaign can be used to create a more effective follow-up advertising campaign strategy. When coordinated with other tools as part of an overall advertising campaign.campaign is to boost awareness of the subject matter and generate demand. it may be possible to upsell current clients to generate more revenue as well as gain a significant number of new customers. For example. electronic media referred more to television and radio broadcasts. the print advertisements will often appear in print media that is geared toward those consumers. . Both print and electronic media are often used to generate attention and enthusiasm for the subject of the campaign. ads placed in newspapers and magazines are a time-honored method of reaching the target audience. and email advertisements. some of the same tools are used in just about any campaign. an advertising campaign may also include short radio commercials that catch the ear of the listener and help to conjure up visual images that create demand for the product. often with the logical and timely launch of different tools at specific points in the overall campaign. a telephone service provider may notify existing customers of upcoming specials on bundled services by sending a text message to the client’s cell phone. the service provider may notify the customer of upcoming sales or new products and services via an email. The ads usually are designed to pique the interest of readers and entice them to learn more about the topic of the ad. As an alternative. While specifics vary from one advertising campaign to another. an advertising campaign will set specific goals that must be realized in a given period of time. Along with traditional methods of creating an advertising campaign. that component now includes tools such as online banner ads. In terms of print media used in an advertising campaign. text messaging. Learning from the experience of past campaigns makes it possible to strengthen upcoming campaigns and move closer to achieving the goals set by the advertiser. In like manner. the overall approach can be reworked slightly for the remainder of the campaign. newer tools are making it possible to reach consumers in new ways. For example. In the event that the campaign does not quite meet the goals. For the most part. With electronic media. The exact structure of the advertising campaign will often depend on the nature of the product or cause and the target audience that the campaign is designed to reach. Many companies design advertising campaigns to current clients that rely on such tools as text messaging or email advertising.
It is all too common for business owners to choose the best place to advertise based on price and potential rate of returns and then stop.A coordinated series of linked advertisements with a single idea or theme. Establish an image. Diversify. Advertise in the right places. . and listen to. Too many ads are clever but fail to sell the benefits of the product or service. It may focus on a common theme and one or few brands or products. but that is because it works. Highlight your competitive advantage. but typically advertising is not the place to cut corners. Successful advertising may cost some money. watch. or be directed at a particular segment of the population. and may last from a few weeks and months to years. Check out Three Brand Identity Myths That Will Bring Your Business Down for additional issues to avoid. Go after your target audience. there are plenty of products that you recognize by their packaging or logo. If you budget $5. Your favorite magazine. you do not want to put all of your eggs in one basket. 7. Here are 10 advertising tips to pay attention to: 1. radio station. It will affect sales. You have to spend money to make money. Know what they read. those factors that give you your competitive edge. An advertising campaign should be geared to your niche market. It is a common mistake to create generic ads that do not speak the language or grab the attention of your potential customers. 3. There are ways to save money. 6. you've made it very easy from a bookkeeping perspective. you are spending too much money advertising during down times and not enough when you want to attract customers. Likewise. or even television program might not be a favorite of your audience. Successful advertising campaigns achieve far more than the sporadic advertising. You can recognize the McDonald's arches while whizzing by on the highway. 4. If done correctly. One of the keys to all advertising is to accentuate the pros of your company. As is the case with investing. 2. and advertise in media that reaches your target market. Spread your advertising dollars around. Check out More Bang for Your Advertising Buck for costcutting tips that won't cut your goals. 5. and that affects the bottom line.000 per month for advertising. if like most businesses you have seasonal highs and lows. However. Too many advertisers do not work to build a consistent image. For more information. Too many entrepreneurs do not budget according to their seasonal advertising needs. Don't allow your budget to run your advertising campaign. Top 10 Tips for an Effective Advertising Campaign The goal of advertising is to cost-effectively reach a large audience and attract customers. read How to Identify and Reach Niche Markets for Your Business. Image counts when it comes to advertising and promoting your business. An advertising campaign is typically broadcast through several media channels. advertising can enhance the success of your business.
Not because it is poorly created. who cannot afford to spread themselves too thin. It gets your name out there. Identifying each client's highest priority markets and the most efficient means to reaching those markets is precisely how the companies achieve superior results. And it gets you the results you're looking for. read Focus Groups: How They Can Work for Your Small Business. find your market and be everything you can be to that audience. It gets the attention of your target audience. As simple as this is. It is very easy to ask new customers or clients where they heard about you. Many business owners. Monitor your ads. yet much of it is wasted. try to come up with ways to reach every market. writing. many entrepreneurs do not bother to do so. What really counts is that your target market connects with your advertising message. There are other lessexpensive ways to test your ads as well: questionnaires.8. this does not work. Therefore. you should test your ads on other people. Don't try to be everything to everyone. Different Types Of Advertising Campaigns Smart advertising. including corporate executives. It can spell disaster for small businesses. Test your ads in advance. From strategic planning through the complete concept. but because it is not well targeted. • • • • Print Direct Response Television Online Advertising is everywhere. It is advantageous to know which ads generate business. 10. The article Creating Questionnaires for Gathering Market Research can be helpful. professional companies can help you craft an innovative and effective advertising campaign in any medium – or all of them. Do they understand and accept the message that you are trying to convey? For further information. No product or service will appeal to everyone. design and development of high-impact creative. Typically. If you have the time or money to invest in focus groups. Advertising that works with one audience might score a zero with another. for example. Ads by Google . 9.
It needs to get people to change their behavior and make a company's offerings a bigger part of their personal or professional lives. verbal and tonal elements that meet four key criteria: • Relevance – Your messaging should answer the first two important questions that prospects will ask about your advertising and the products you are selling: "Why should I care and what is in it for me?" • Intriguing – Many ads and their messages are lost in the clutter because they are too dull to be noticed. they talk about features and functionality of their product or service without demonstrating an understanding of what the customer needs. Every message coming from your company should reinforce everything that came before it. Effective creative needs to do more then just look good or deliver information. Our creative combines visual.In their marketing messages and materials. Instead of focusing on the benefits from the buyer's point-of-view. The result is a missed opportunity to influence the purchasing behavior of the buyer. Communications that are crafted to capture and hold the attention of your audience are essential. companies too often make the classic conversational mistake: they talk too much about themselves. . is to apply consistent force over time in the same direction. such as brand perceptions. • Branding – The only way to move something heavy. Most of the companies avoid this mistake by first identifying what messages would lead a prospective customer to buy a product or service. And finally the ad should include brand messaging that provides an emotional connection and builds a lasting relationship with the brand. Through research and testing the ad creator should determine the offers and calls to action that will encourage buyers to act now.