A modern Cyclotron for radiation therapy


In technology, a cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator. In physics, cyclotron frequency is the frequency of a charged particle moving perpendicularly to the direction of a uniform magnetic field, i.e. a magnetic field of constant magnitude and direction. Since that motion is always circular, the cyclotron frequency is well defined. Cyclotrons accelerate charged particles using a high-frequency, alternating voltage (potential difference). A perpendicular magnetic field causes the particles tospiral almost in a circle so that they reencounter the accelerating voltage many times. The first cyclotron

Lig ti g is   ¦ ¢£     £ ¦£   ¤ ¨ ¥ ¨  ¤ us ¦¨  § t b ¨¤¦¨¡   ¢£¡ ¦£  ¡¨§£ ¦£¡ £ ¤¥¤ £ ¢ ¡   © t ¨ ¤¡ ¤   ¦ ¦ £¢ ¦£¡ ¤¨ ¨ £ ¢ ¨ x it ti fg s t si bulb.46 T while a 23 MHz 94 kV electric field is used to accelerate the 200 A beam. Canada. and is run as a consortium of eleven Canadian universities and the National Research Council Canada. H w he y l w ks Di g f l t ti f L w 's 1934 . . Berkeley who starte operating it in 1932.was anufac ure by Ernes Lawrence f the University of California. The 18m diameter. Vancouver. though others had been working along similar lines at the time The largest Cyclotron in the world is housed at the Tri-University Meson Facility (TRIUMF) at the University of British Columbia. ¦ B f l t s vi g i i l . 4000 tonne main magnet produces a field of 0.

energy is applied to the particles as they cross the gap etween the dees and so they are accelerated (at the typical su -relativistic speeds used) and will increase in mass as they approach the speed of light. experiences a perpendicular force. The radius will increase until the particles hit a target at the perimeter of the vacuum cham er. The particles. so the particles follow a spiral path. In the cyclotron. With no change in energy the charged particles in a magnetic field will follow a circular path. injected near the centre of the magnetic field. and the collisions will create secondary particles which may e guided outside of the cyclotron and into instruments for analysis. ecause a current of electrons or ions. ither of these effects (increased velocity or increased mass) will increase the radius of the circle and so the path will e a spiral. such as the mean spacing etween atoms and the creation of various . The particles move in a spiral. accelerate only when passing through the gap etween the electrodes. com ined with the increasing energy of the particles forces the particles to travel in a spiral path. in a narrow gap etween the two poles of a large magnet. The charged particles move freely in a vacuum. flowing perpendicular to a magnetic field. The perpendicular magnetic field (passing vertically through the "D" electrodes). which is flat. a high-frequency alternating voltage applied across the "D" electrodes (also called "dees") alternately attracts and repels charged particles. Various materials may e used for the target.The electrodes shown at the right would e in the vacuum cham er. In the cyclotron. The results will ena le the calculation of various properties.

Problems solved b t e c clotron and ionizin the rro n din air ca in a l e lo . as in proton therapy. Uses of t e c clotron For several decades. to penetrate the ody and kill tumors y radiation damage. ho in a e am of accelerated ion (likely proton or de t eron ) e capin the accelerator                  . Su sequent chemical and particle analysis of the target material may give insight into nuclear transmutation of the elements used in the target. cyclotrons were the est source of high-energy eams for nuclear physics experiments. Cyclotron eams can e used to om ard other atoms to produce short-lived positron-emitting isotopes suita le for P T imaging. several cyclotrons are still in use for this type of research. Ion eams from cyclotrons can e used.collision products. circa . while minimizing damage to healthy tissue along their path. Cyclotrons can e used to treat cancer.      60-inch cyclotron.

. causing particles traveling along the center of the tu e to accelerate. a compact accelerator can contain much more distance than a linear accelerator. A linear accelerator (also called a linac) accelerates particles in a straight line through an evacuated tu e (or series of such tu es placed end to end). ither way. cyclotrons were cheaper than linacs. Cyclotrons accelerate particles in a spiral path. In the 1920s. Advantages of t e c clotron   Cyclotron ha e a in le electrical dri er. Modern linacs use high power Klystrons and other devices a le to impart much more power at higher frequencies. But efore these devices existed. higher-energy particles required longer accelerators than scientists could afford. o the a era e po er i relati ely hi h. so either the accelerating electrodes had to e far apart to accommodate the low frequency or more stages were required to compensate for the low power at each stage. Therefore. it was not possi le to get high frequency radio waves at high power. These are driven y high-power radio waves that continuously switch etween positive and negative voltage. Cyclotron prod ce a contin o tream of particle at the tar et. hich a e oth money and po er.The cyclotron was an improvement over the linear accelerators that were availa le when it was invented. with more opportunities to accelerate the particles. ince more e pen e may e allocated to increa in efficiency. A set of electrodes shaped like flat donuts are arranged inside the length of the tu e(s).

Cost limitations have een overcome y employing "" are contained in a ac m cham er that a in erted in the central field ap. either of which is limited y the diminishing cost effectiveness of making larger machines. and cannot receive any additional acceleration. operating in a pulsed mode and changing the frequency applied to the dees as in the synchrocyclotrons. and the enclo in ildin . If the particles ecome fast enough that relativistic effects ecome important. the eam gets out of phase with the oscillating electric field. To accommodate increased mass the magnetic field may e modified y appropriately shaping the pole pieces as in the isochronous cyclotrons. The hite cani ter held cond cti e coil to enerate the ma netic field. ro t in the ma netic field in t o loop The spiral path of the cyclotron eam can only "sync up" with klystron-type (constant frequency) voltage sources if the accelerated particles are approximately o eying Newton's aws of Motion. The electrode ! ! #    "   ! $ " " ! ! ! ! #  ! #  # $ !  " . ch a Limitations of t e c clotron The ma net portion of a lar e cyclotron. The cyclotron is therefore only capa le of accelerating particles up to a few percent of the speed of light. The ray o ject i the pper pole piece. % thro h a imilar part elo . it fo ndation . radiation hieldin . The compactne of the de ice red ce other co t .

So. so And since the angular frequency is .) The speed at which the particles enter the cyclotron due to a potential difference. V. . offering more power within an improved cost structure as the machines are made larger. q is its charge. v/r is equal to angular velocity. i. and the force on a particle travelling in a magnetic field (which causes it to be angularly displaced.e spiral) is e ual to Bqv. both of which have the advantage of scalability. B the magnetic field strength. (Where m is the mass of the particle. v is its velocity and r is the radius of its path.the more comple synchrotron or linear accelerator. M hemati s Non-relati isti the y l tron The centripetal force is provided by the transverse magnetic field B. Therefore.

requiring modifications to the frequency. As particles approach the speed of light. The particle exit point may e seen at the top of the upper dee. or the magnetic field during the acceleration. As the eam spirals out. they acquire additional mass.=2 f Therefore. therefore A pair of "dee" electrodes with loops of coolant pipes on their surface at the awrence Hall of Science. its frequency does not decrease. and it must continue to accelerate. Relativistic ' & ' . This is accomplished in the synchrocyclotron. the frequency does not depend upon the radius of the particle's or it. as it is travelling more distance in the same time. where the target would e positioned This shows that for a particle of constant mass. But this is for one complete loop and cyclotron must switch twice every cycle.

and momentum. In that case one should use the su stitution. of a charged particle with velocity v circling in a magnetic field. where fc is the classical frequency. so the frequency correction is 1% for a magnetic vacuum tu e with a 5.11 keV/c2 direct current accelerating voltage. are used rather than velocity. where this is in Natural units The relativistic cyclotron frequency is . The proton mass is nearly . The rest mass of an electron is 511 keV/c2. p.The radius of curvature for a particle moving relativistically in a static magnetic field is where the orentz factor Note that in high-energy experiments energy. . given a ove. and oth measured in units of energy.

rather than in ursts as in most other accelerator types. It was o scurely known theoretically long efore it was put into practice. each of which imparts angular momentum and so allows particles of higher velocity (mass) to e kept within the ounds of the evacuated pipe. which is sufficient to induce nuclear reactions. The magnetic field strength of each of the ending magnets is increased as the particles gain energy in order to keep the ending angle constant. so the 1% correction energy is a out 9 MeV. rather than with time. The larger radius allows the use of numerous magnets. An alternative to the synchrocyclotron is the isochronous cyclotron. The Synchrotron moves the particles through a path of constant radius. Related tec nologies The spiralling of electrons in a cylindrical vacuum cham er within a transverse magnetic field is also employed in the magnetron. allowing it to e made as a pipe and so of much larger radius than is practical with the cyclotron and synchrocyclotron. This principle that alternating field gradients have a net focusing effect is called strong focusing. . This allows particles to e accelerated continuously.two thousand times the electron mass. which has a magnetic field that increases with radius. The de-focusing effect of this radial field gradient is compensated y ridges on the magnet faces which vary the field azimuthally as well. on every period of the radio frequency (RF). a device for producing high frequency radio waves (microwaves).

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