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Line Traps

Line Traps

Introduction
With over 40 years of successful field experience Trench is the recognized world leader in the design and manufacture of aircore dry-type inductors for electric utility applications. The unique custom design approach, along with fully integrated engineering and manufacturing facilities in both North America and Europe have enabled Trench to become the technical leader for high voltage inductors world wide.

Line Traps for Power Line Carrier (PLC) communication systems represent a significant application segment for high voltage inductors.

versatile in its application. Fig. 2 shows a basic PLC system consisting of three distinct components: signal carrying medium (HV transmission line) communication apparatus (transmitters, receivers and associated components) coupling/blocking equipment such as coupling capacitors, line tuners (coupling devices) and Line Traps. Line Traps are connected in series with HV transmission lines. The main function of the Line Trap is to present a high impedance at the carrier frequency band while introducing negligible impedance at the power frequency. The high impedance limits the attenuation of the carrier signal within the power system by preventing the carrier signal from being: dissipated in the substation grounded in the event of a fault outside the carrier transmission path dissipated in a tap line or a branch of the main transmission path.

Basic Function of Line Traps


Power Line Carrier (PLC) is a common method of Power System Communication, such as teleprotection, voice and data communication, etc. It has developed the reputation of being one of the most economical and reliable forms of communication and of beeing

Fig. 1 Post mounted Line Trap

Design and Construction


Line Traps are designed to meet ANSI standard C93.3, IEC standard 60353 or other international standards. The major components of a Line Trap are the main coil, tuning device and protective device (see Fig. 3).

Since Line Traps are series connected with the HV transmission line, they must be designed to withstand the high mechanical forces generated by the short circuit (s/c) current associated with the HV transmission system.

Bird Barrier (Optional)

Terminal

Lightning Arrester

Main Coil

Tuning Device Fig. 4 Suspension mounted Line Traps Pedestal (Optional)

Fig. 3 Line Trap components Line Trap Line Trap

Station A

Station B

Fig. 2 Principle scheme of a PLC system

1 Coupling Capacitor

2 Line Tuner

3 Transmitter/Receiver

Main Coil
The main coil of a Line Trap is an air-core dry-type power inductor. Trench offers Line Traps with encapsulated design. This technology fully complies with power system and PLC requirements and is therefore applied over the full range of commonly specified main coil ratings (see Fig. 5). The winding utilizes aluminum wire or cable. All power current carrying components utilize welded connections. High mechanical strength of the winding is achieved by resin impregnated, fiberglass reinforced encapsulation.

The winding is terminated at both ends on a system of aluminum bars, denoted as the spiders which are tensioned together by fiberglass ties. These spiders are additionally used for the electrical connection to the Line Trap by terminal pads or studs providing the hardware for lifting (lugs), mounting (pedestals) and corona protection (bells, rings) connecting the tuning and protective device across the main coil. Trench can provide the complete range of standard ratings (inductance, continuous and s/c current ratings, system voltage) in accordance with IEC 60353 or ANSI C93.3 standards (see Fig. 5). Customized units are also available to meet specific customer requirements, such as specific inductance, current (s/c or continuous), low loss requirements, etc.

Rated Currents IEC 60353


Continuous A 100 200 400 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3150 4000 Short-time Series 1 kA/1sec 2,5 5 10 16 20 25 31,5 40 40 40 40 63 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,25 0,25 0,25 0,25 0,25 0,25 0,25 0,25 0,25 0,25 0,25 0,25

Rated Inductance IEC 60353


mH at 100 kHz 0,315 0,315 0,315 0,315 0,315 0,315 0,315 0,315 0,315 0,315 0,315 0,315 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0

Fig. 5 Values of continuous current, short time current and inductance

Continuous Short-time A Series 2 kA/1sec 100 200 400 630 800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 3150 4000 5 10 16 20 25 31,5 40 50 50 50 50 80 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,2 0,25 0,25 0,25 0,25 0,25 0,25 0,25 0,25 0,25 0,25 0,25 0,25

mH at 100 kHz 0,315 0,315 0,315 0,315 0,315 0,315 0,315 0,315 0,315 0,315 0,315 0,315 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,4 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,5 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0 2,0

Rated Currents ANSI C93.3


Continuous Short-time A kA / 2sec 400 800 1200 1600 2000 3000 4000 15 20 36 44 63 63 80 0,265 0,265 0,265 0,265 0,265 0,265 0,265

Rated Inductance ANSI C93.3


mH at 100 kHz 0,53 0,53 0,53 0,53 0,53 0,53 0,53 1,06 1,06 1,06 1,06 1,06 1,06 1,06 1,59 1,59 1,59 1,59 1,59 1,59 1,59 2,12 2,12 2,12 2,12 2,12 2,12 2,12 2,65 2,65 2,65 2,65 2,65 2,65 2,65

Fig.6 Single frequency tuning

Tuning Device
The tuning device, connected across the main coil, forms a blocking circuit which provides high impedance over a specified PLC-frequency range. Depending on the type of tuning (see below) the tuning device consists of capacitors, inductors and resistors, all having relatively low power ratings, compared to the main coil. For environmental protection these components are mounted in one or more fiberglass housings. The tuning device is installed inside the main coil. To meet changing PLC frequency requirements the tuning device is easily accessible for replacement or field adjustment (if applicable). The bandwidth of a Line Trap is that frequency range over which the Line Trap provides a certain specified minimum blocking impedance or resistance. Minimum blocking resistance should be specified if the potential exists for the reactive component of the Line Trap impedance to resonate with the substation impedance. The achievable bandwidth can be expanded by increasing the main coil inductance. Different types of tuning may be expanded by increasing the main coil inductance.

Different types of tuning may be supplied. Single Frequency Tuning If narrow blocking bands are required single frequency tuning is the simplest and most economical type of tuning available. Fig.6 shows a typical schematic and blocking characteristic. Within this narrow band, however, high blocking impedance can be provided, resulting in excellent PLC signal isolation. Double Frequency Tuning The double frequency tuning arrangement blocks two relatively narrow bands of frequencies. Otherwise, the blocking characteristic is similar to single frequency tuning. For proper operation and isolation of the tuned bands a minimum frequency separation must be maintained between the peak tuning frequencies. This is 25 kHz or 25 % of the upper tuning frequency peak, whichever is greater. Fig.7 shows a typical double frequency schematic and blocking characteristic.

Fig.7 Double frequency tuning

Fig.8 Wideband tuning

Z R f fm f1 f2 f1 f 2

Blocking impedance Resistive component Carrier frequency Resonant frequency (Geometric Mean Frequency GMF) Frequency limits of blocking impedance Frequency limits of resistive blocking impedance

Wideband Tuning Wideband tuning is the most common type of tuning as it efficiently utilizes the main coil inductance. Wideband tuned Line Traps are suitable for multi-channel applications, since relatively constant impedance is obtained over a broad frequency range. This type of tuning provides high bandwidth flexibility for future changes or expansion of PLC frequencies. PLC channels can be placed anywhere within the blocked bandwidth. Fig.8 shows a typical wideband frequency Line Trap schematic and blocking characteristic.

Selftuned Line Traps Selftuned Line Traps do not require the use of tuning devices. The blocking characteristic as shown in Fig.10 is achieved by simply utilizing the self-capacitance of the main coil winding. The inductance of a selftuned Line Trap is higher than that of a tuned Line Trap.

Fig. 9 Suspension mounted 380 kV, 1.0 mH, 2100 A Line Trap

Fig.10 Selftuned Line Trap blocking characteristics

Protective Device
The protective device is a surge arrester connected in parallel with the main coil and the tuning device. It protects the main coil and the tuning device by reducing the transient overvoltages to levels corresponding to distribution voltage class insulation. The insulation level of the main coil and tuning device is coordinated with the surge arrester protective characteristics. Trench Line Traps are equipped with advanced metal-oxide type surge arresters having a discharge current rating of 10kA. Surge arresters with higher discharge current or high energy dissipation arrangements are also available on specific request.

Mounting and Connection


Trench Line Traps can be mounted in several configurations. Suspension mounted Line Traps are available with either single point or multi-point suspension brackets. Line Traps can also be pedestal mounted directly onto coupling capacitors (CCs), capacitive voltage transformers (CVTs) or station post insulators. Trench offers several types of mounting pedestals: single insulator support pedestal multi-insulator support pedestal insulated pedestal

Other than the insulated pedestal, all pedestals are electrically connected to the lower terminal of the Line Trap, and as such can be used as both the electrical and mechanical connection to the CC or CVT (see Fig.11a). Should it be necessary to utilize the upper Line Trap terminal as the connection to the CC or CVT, a pedestal insulated from the bottom end (bottom spider) of the Line Trap must be used in conjunction with a special insulated connection rod supplied by Trench (see Fig.11b). All pedestals can be custom made to suit customer requirements. Terminals supplied on the Line Traps can be either pad or stud type. Each type is manufactured to meet the applicable IEC or NEMA standards. In addition, terminals can be located on virtually any spider arm, ensuring total flexibility to meet individual requirements. Terminal details and terminal orientation are shown in Fig.12 and Fig.13.

Fig. 11a

Line Trap connection

Fig. 11b

Station Line

Line

Station

Coupling Capacitor

Coupling Capacitor

Fig.12

Side view

Top view

Fig. 12 Terminal orientation (by special request may be situated at any spider arm location. Number of spider arms is obtained from actual quotation drawing, typically 4, 6 or 8) Et: is used to define the top terminal location, at centre or at any of the spiders. Eb: is used to define the bottom terminal location; at centre or at any of the spider arms.

Fig. 13 Standard terminal types plated or bare aluminum

Note: Unless otherwise specified, flat terminal pads will be vertically oriented to reduce eddy current heating. (ie. terminals oriented so that the coils axis is in the plane of the terminal.)

Fig.13

Definition of Blocking Terms


The blocking requirement of a Line Trap is dependent on the characteristic impedance of the transmission line where Power Line Carrier is to be applied. The Line Trap blocking characteristics can be specified in terms of: Blocking Impedance (Zb): Zb is the complex impedance of the complete Line Trap within a specified PLC frequency range. Blocking Resistance (Rb): Rb is the value of the resistive component of the blocking impedance, within a specified PLC frequency range. Tapping Loss (At) At, also known as Insertion Loss, is a measure of the loss of power sustained by a carrier frequency signal due to the finite blocking ability of the Line Trap. The tapping loss of an ideal Line Trap should be very low and approach zero. Blocking Attenuation (Ab) Ab is a measure of the relative transmitted carrier frequency signal which enters the trapped circuit section of network. The blocking attenuation of an ideal Line Trap should be infinitely high. 10

Calculation of tapping loss (At) and blocking attenuation (Ab) Z1 = Characteristic impedance of the line The impedance of substation Zs is assumed to be 0 Ohm. Z1 Equ. I At (dB) = 20 log10 1+ ___ 2Zb

) )

Zb Equ. II Ab (dB) = 20 log10 1+ ___ Z1

Center Frequency (fc) fc is the mean frequency of the blocked bandwidth limit frequencies (f1, f2).

fc =

f1 x f2

0,2 mH Line Trap

0,315 mH Line Trap

0,5 mH Line Trap

1,0 mH Line Trap

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Subject to change whithout notice 01.10 E 231