Introduction to Network Performance Measurement with Cisco IOS IP SLA

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Abstract
This presentation introduces you to the principles of network performance measurements with the Cisco IOS IP SLA feature, formerly known as SAA. This session is specially designed for attendees with little or no experience on this topic. We will first explain the concept and background of IP SLA and discover various operations, such as Jitter, DNS, DHCP, and HTTP. Real-life examples of configuration will be provided for a better understanding. This session is a good preparation if you are planning on attending the Advanced Session on Network Performance Measurement. It is designed for network planners and administrators of both Enterprises and Service Providers that deal with network performance management regularly. Attendees should be familiar with IP and SNMP fundamentals.
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Objective of This Presentation
Introduce active measurement Provide a clear understanding of Cisco IP SLA functions Understand how IP SLA is working Be able to configure various operations Limitations and scalability issues
Designing Your Network to Deploy Tight SLA Services or Qos Configuration Cisco Applications, Graphical Interfaces, and Other Third Party Applications That Leverage IP SLA For Advanced IP SLA Concepts See NMS-3043 Acknowledgement Emmanuel Tychon
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Agenda
SLA Concept Network Disturbance Active Measurement Overview Architecture Configuration Options Monitoring and Debugging Use Cases and Scenarios

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Service Level Agreements (SLA) and Service Delivery
SLAs Are Becoming an Integral Part of Service Delivery

Businesses are relying on them for mission critical applications (voice, video, SAP)

SLA is the cornerstone of carriers’ differentiated service offerings

Service Provider Network
Enterprise Network Enterprise Network

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Fellow of Cisco Systems If You Can‘t Measure It—Don‘t Negotiate It.scr 4 . Inc.. All rights reserved. Inc.” Fred Baker. Cisco Systems.. Cisco Public 7 SLA Components Metrics: Particular type of “test. All rights reserved.What’s an SLA? “A Service Level Agreement is the formalization of the ‘Quality of the Service’ in a contract between the Customer and the Service Provider. BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.” between a single source/target pair General: Availability Mean Time To Restore (MTTR) Per class of service: Packet loss Network delay Network delay variation (jitter) Processes Remedies/reparations BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 8 © 2006. Presentation_ID.

Cisco Public 10 © 2006. Inc. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Inc.scr 5 . All rights reserved. Jitter 30 ms 30 ms N/A BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Cisco Systems. Inc. Presentation_ID.SLA Criteria Easy to understand Simple and light to measure Attainable Meaningful Controllable Application/service driven BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 9 Multimedia QoS Requirements (Examples) Traffic Type VoIP Video-Conferencing Streaming Video Maximum Packet Loss 1% 1% 2% Maximum One-Way Latency 200 ms 200 ms 5s Max.

Inc. etc.scr 6 . Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public Agenda SLA Concept Network Disturbance Active Measurement Overview Architecture Configuration Options Monitoring and Debugging Use Cases and Scenarios BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. II) Define Proactive Notifications 11 4 BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Inc. QoS. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Understand and Apply Network Performance Baseline I) Adjust Network to get Confidence to Deploy New Services and Applications II) Deployment 2 Quantify Results 1 Reduced deployment time? Prove service and application differentiation Verify SLA Reduced network downtime? Assure Application and Service Deployment 3 Fine-Tune and Optimize I) Ongoing Measurements to Understand Behavior. All rights reserved.The SLA Lifecycle Baseline Network Performance Verify Network Readiness for (New) Services. Cisco Public 12 © 2006. Presentation_ID.

Cisco Systems. you have obviously overlooked something BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Inc. it will anyway Left to themselves. depends on the bit-rate Queuing delay is the time a packet spends in router queues. Cisco Public 14 © 2006. Cisco Public 13 SLA Parameter: Latency (Delay) Propagation delay: the time it takes to the physical signal to traverse the path Serialization delay is the time it takes to actually transmit the packet. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID. Inc. All rights reserved.Murphy’s Law If anything can go wrong. Inc.scr 7 . All rights reserved. it will If anything just cannot go wrong. things tend to go from bad to worse If everything seems to be going well. depends on queue length and type A maximum end-to-end one-way delay of 120 milliseconds is recommended for comfortable human-to-human audio BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.

Cisco Systems. based on UDP With TCP. generating pops and clicks t BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Presentation_ID. Cisco Public 15 SLA Parameter: Packet Loss Loss of an isolated packet Possible causes: Because of a single CRC error Because of short duration full queue (tail-drop) Little or no impact for VoIP calls. All rights reserved. Inc.scr 8 . Cisco Public 16 © 2006.SLA Parameter: Jitter Jitter is delay variation It is caused by queue depth variation Jitter is bad for interactive voice like VoIP. Inc. All rights reserved. forces retransmit possibly at a lower speed reducing the effective bandwidth BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.

roughly 25% of the hosts monitored exhibit reordering. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 18 © 2006. where on average eight of the 50 packets were identified as being out of order Packet reordering within a TCP session causes unnecessary retransmissions and prevents the congestion window from growing properly Potential impact on the UDP application performance (e. Presentation_ID. Vol. Inc.SLA Parameter: Burst Loss Multiple consecutive packets are lost Possible causes: A noise on the transmission media that kills all the packets A sudden route change in a transit device creates a temporary black hole Full transit interface queue BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Bennett. Craig Partridge. 7. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking . and Nicholas Shectman. Cisco Systems. 6. Xiaoming Zhou and Piet Van Mieghem. All rights reserved. R.g.scr 9 . Cisco Public 17 SLA Parameter: Packet Reordering This is not a rare situation According to a study. p789 and “Reordering of IP Packets in Internet”. PAM2004 Contribution) BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Inc. DNS vs. All rights reserved. Jon C. Voice-Codec) (Results Are Based on “Packet Reordering Is Not Pathological Network Behavior”. No. December 1999.

Inc. Inc. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 20 © 2006.scr 10 . Cisco Public 19 Agenda SLA Concept Network Disturbance Active Measurement Overview Architecture Configuration Options Monitoring and Debugging Use Cases and Scenarios BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.Packet Reordering Causes Load balancing through multiple paths having different latencies Inadequate QoS/queuing policy Typically happening on some parallel architectures BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Presentation_ID. Inc. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.

home-made application The geeky approach Special hardware probes The expensive approach BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. and customer to complain Reactive approach Manually Time consuming approach Custom. Presentation_ID. turn it into an active probing device: Synthetic Probe Core technology in IOS Available on most Cisco platforms from 12. Cisco Public 21 The Concept of Cisco IP SLA If you have a running Cisco IOS® router. All rights reserved.scr 11 .Current Solutions to Measure SLA Wait for problem to happen. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 22 © 2006.0(5)T or later Reuse your current equipment and enhance existing network management applications IP SLA BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. Inc.

but using Engine 2.IP SLA History Used to be called RTR. renamed SAA in 12.3(14)T release: IP SLA. Cisco Public 24 © 2006. New CLI (Phase I) and enhanced accuracy for 12. Inc. Cisco Public 23 Cisco IOS IP SLA Partners Cisco Network Management Solution IP Communications Service Monitor Internetworking Performance Monitor Telephony Monitoring Enterprise performance measurements Third Party Products New Partners 2006 BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Inc.2(11)T. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Engine 2 is faster and consumes less memory.scr 12 . Inc.3 and later trains. and now present in all 12.0(5)T. time Engine: Engine 1 RTR rtr… SAA Engine 2 IP SLA ip sla mon… ip sla … Feature Name: CLI: BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. we call it “Engine 1”. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID. New “Engine 2” is a major code rewrite introduced initially in 12.

Cisco Public 26 © 2006. on a continuous basis By traffic class based on IP Precedence marking Disadvantages Limited to measuring: Existing traffic types. which may not be present on the network at all times Existing traffic patterns. Cisco Systems. Inc. Inc. which may not reflect patterns for new or future applications Disadvantages Only an approximation for performance of live traffic Inject some traffic in the network BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.scr 13 . All rights reserved. Presentation_ID. Inc. Cisco Public 25 IP SLA: Sampling Method Observed Definition Actual end-user network traffic where performance is measured by timing specific application traffic flows Synthetic Definition Network traffic generated strictly for the purpose of measuring a network performance characteristic Advantages Most accurate for live application traffic on a specified link Advantages Measures performance: Between any two points in the network Controllable. All rights reserved.IP SLA and the Measurement Framework Sampling Method Observed/Passive Collection Method Synthetic/Active Embedded Agents External Probes Scope of Measurement Device/Link Perspective of Measurement End-to-End/Path User Network BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.

IP SLA: Collection Method Embedded Definition Mechanisms for collection of network statistics are integrated into the network communication device (e. All rights reserved.g. itself External Definition Mechanisms for collection of network statistics are provided by a stand-alone device specifically designed to collect network performance statistics Advantages Follows network infrastructure Gathers metrics that cannot be observed externally End-to-end monitoring Advantages Validation of performance performed independent of the devices that transmit network traffic Disadvantages More hardware to administer Observed statistics limited to points of deployment Scale and distribution issues Disadvantages Performance monitoring has devicelevel performance implications BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. and typically based on latency Advantages Detailed application performance monitoring of critical network links Advantages Starting point performance troubleshooting Reflects end-user experience Disadvantages When network-wide performance problems exist. router or switch).. Inc. Cisco Systems. Inc. Inc. Presentation_ID. Cisco Public 28 © 2006. Cisco Public 27 IP SLA: Scope of Measurement Device or Link Oriented Definition Performance measurement based on analysis of specific device or device interface. All rights reserved.scr 14 . All rights reserved. how does one select which device or link to evaluate? Disadvantages Prior knowledge of relevant end-to-end paths is needed BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. and typically based on utilization rates End to End Definition Performance measurement based on analysis of response time across two or more network devices.

Cisco Public 30 © 2006. Inc. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.g. and non-intrusive to the desktop Identifies network performance issue Disadvantages Scale and distribution issues Intrusive on the desktop Disadvantages Imperfect understanding of end-user experience BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Cisco Systems.scr 15 . Inc. Presentation_ID. CiscoWorks) BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. CE. Cisco Public 29 Benefits of Using IP SLA Flat learning curve (Cisco IOS technology) No additional equipment. PE) or as a dedicated “shadow-router” Can be managed with existing router management tools (e. nor vendor Can be deployed on customer site (CPE) and measure end-to-end SLAs Activate at the production router (CPE. Inc. All rights reserved.IP SLA: Perspective of Measurement User Definition Measurement based on performance statistics measured at the end-user workstation Network Definition Measurement based on performance statistics measured in network devices Advantages Accurate measurement of end-user experience Advantages Easy to deploy.

scr 16 .IP SLA Technical Overview Wide measurement capabilities (UDP.g. Cisco Systems.g.com 32 © 2008 Cisco Systems. ICMP) Near millisecond precision Accessible using CLI and SNMP Proactive notification Historical data storage Flexible scheduling options Already in Cisco IOS (available on most platforms) Almost all interfaces supported.cisco. TCP.. All rights reserved. physical. All rights reserved. a path echo operation starts) IP SLA WAN SN p tra MP NMS BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 www. All rights reserved. Inc. Inc. and logical BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.. when ping fails. Cisco Public © 2006. when rising and falling thresholds are passed) Can trigger another IP SLA operation for further analysis (e. Presentation_ID. Cisco Public 31 Proactive Notification Can send SNMP traps when certain “triggering” events occur (e. Inc.

Inc.g. Inc. Cisco 7600 Series Cisco 12000 Series Cisco 7200 Series Cisco 7300 Series Cisco 10000 Series Access Cisco IOS Software Releases 12.2S Cisco CRS-1 (Future) Cisco Catalyst 6500. All rights reserved. it can store 12 hours of performance information BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Cisco Systems.. All rights reserved. store 48 buckets.4 Cisco 800 Series (Responder Only) BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 Cisco 1700/ 1800 Series Cisco 2600/ 2800 Series Cisco 3700 Series Cisco 3800 Series Cisco 7200 and 7300 Series Cisco 2900. Inc. and each bucket maintains 15 minutes of the aggregated measurements. 3550. and 3750 Series © 2008 Cisco Systems.Historical Data Storage Stores previous results Not supported on all operations New enhanced history enables configuration of IP SLA to store aggregated measurements in “buckets” E. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID. Cisco Public 34 © 2006.scr 17 . Cisco Public 33 Comprehensive Hardware Support Enterprise and Aggregation/Edge Core Cisco IOS Software Release 12.3T and 12. with this configuration.

1(1)T 12. Presentation_ID.Cisco Device Details Cisco IOS® Routers: Available on all platforms from the small 800 up to the 12000 Catalyst® Switches: 2900.3T and all 12. Cisco Systems. Inc.scr 18 . Cisco Public 35 Features and Supported Cisco IOS Version Feature/Release ICMP Echo ICMP Echo Path UDP Echo TCP Connect UDP Jitter HTTP DNS DHCP DLSw+ SNMP Support UDP Jitter With One Way Latency FTP Get MPLS/VPN Aware Frame-Relay (CLI) ICMP Path Jitter APM Voice with MOS/ICPIF Score Post Dial Delay H323/SIP BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.0(3)T 12. Inc.4. 3500. 3700.2 12.3(12) T X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 36 © 2006.3 and up to 12.2. the IP voice or upper feature set will be required The responder will still remain in IP base BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.0(5)T 12.2 12. All rights reserved.0(8)S 12. Cisco Public 11. 4000 (SUP4).3M (included) Starting release 12. All rights reserved. 6000 (MSFC or MWAM) Included in IP feature set since 11. Inc.2(2) T 12.3(4)T 12. and 12.2(11)T (Eng2) 12.

scr 19 . Cisco Systems. Inc. Inc. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID. Inc. Cisco Public 37 How Does It Work? Hop-by-hop analysis Edge-to-edge measurement Proactive notification Rising and falling thresholds Robust threshold definition for SLAs SNMP traps generated when SLA violated IP Host SNMP Trap Management Application Configure Collect Present Thresholds can trigger SA operation activation for further analysis M ea su re Cisco IOS Device IP SLA Measure IP SLA Measure (IP SLA Responder) BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 38 © 2006.Agenda SLA Concept Network Disturbance Active Measurement Overview Architecture Configuration Options Monitoring and Debugging Use Cases and Scenarios BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.

Inc. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. the duration Communication can be authenticated with MD5. Cisco Public 39 IP SLA Responder Runs on Cisco IOS Configure ‘ip sla monitor responder’. Inc. not encrypted (offers integrity) Responder inserts in/out timestamps in packet payload (measures CPU time spent) © 2008 Cisco Systems. Cisco Systems. Inc. Presentation_ID.scr 20 .0=1 with SNMP Sender uses the IP SLA Control Protocol to communicate with responder before sending the test packets Responder knows the type of operation. some other are working with a simple IP Host (ICMP Ping) BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. or set rttMonApplResponder.IP SLA Sender Cisco IOS device that sends probe packets Operation configuration takes place on the sender only Once the operation is finished. the port used. all the results are to be polled off the sender Target is another host (IP Host. All rights reserved. or IP SLA Responder) Some operations require the target to run the IP SLA responder (Jitter for instance). Cisco Public BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 40 © 2006.

Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 41 Agenda SLA Concept Network Disturbance Active Measurement Overview Architecture Configuration Options Monitoring and Debugging Use Cases and Scenarios BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.IP SLA Operation with Responder Control Message Ask Receiver to Open Port 2020 on UDP IP SLA-Control IP SLA Sender IP SLA Responder UDP. 2020 Probing Phase Done: Stop Listening BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Inc.scr 21 . Cisco Public 42 © 2006. Presentation_ID. Inc. 1967 Responder Says OK Control Phase Start Listening on UDP Port 2020 Sending Test Packets… IP SLA-Test UDP.

3(14)T up to 12. All rights reserved. “type”. “rtr” commands are transparent! All previous releases still use “rtr…” BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. the keywords “monitor”. “dest-ip”. Cisco Systems. Inc. the configuration will automatically be converted (both “rtr” as well as “monitor” etc. After an IOS upgrade to 12. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.). Cisco Public 43 Configuring an Operation R3(config)#ip sla monitor 1 R3(config-ip-sla-monitor)#type ? IP SLAs entry configuration commands: dhcp DHCP Operation dns DNS Query Operation echo Echo Operation frame-relay Frame-Relay Operation ftp FTP Operation http HTTP Operation path-echo Path Discovered Echo Operation path-jitter Path Discovered Jitter Operation slm SLM Operation tcp-connect TCP Connect Operation udp-echo UDP Echo Operation voip Voice Over IP Operation BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. “dest-port” are removed (CLI phase 3). Cisco Public 44 © 2006. Inc.4(6)T.4(4)T Starting in 12.scr 22 . Presentation_ID. the CLI command “rtr …” was changed to “ip sla monitor” ALL CLI examples in this presentation are based on CLI phase 2 that started shipping in 12.4(6)T.CLI Modifications Recently. Optional parameters keep the keywords. Inc.

scr 23 . All rights reserved. Presentation_ID. Inc. Inc. Inc. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.ICMP Echo Operation “Ping” test Target can be any IP host Response time is computed by measuring the time taken between sending an ICMP echo request message to the destination and receiving an ICMP echo reply Processing delays on the source router is subtracted BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 45 ICMP Echo Operation (Measurement) T1 IP SLA T3 T2 (at Interface Level) Target Host Processing Time on the Sender: Tproc = T3-T2 Round Trip Time: T = T3-T1-Tproc T=T3-T1-(T3-T2) T=T3-T1-T3+T2 T=T2-T1 Locally an IP SLA packet will perceive the same scheduling latency as any packet from its class Remember that this type of operation will include the processing time on the target host (see later to avoid this) BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 46 © 2006.

Cisco Public 48 © 2006.2 tos 32 frequency 120 ip sla monitor schedule 2 life forever start-time now BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.130. Presentation_ID. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.scr 24 .32. Cisco Public 47 ICMP Echo Operation (Output) R3#show ip sla stat 2 Round Trip Time (RTT) for Latest RTT: 100 ms Index 2 Latest operation start time: *17:32:53. Inc.ICMP Echo Operation (Example) ip sla monitor 2 type echo protocol ipIcmpEcho 10. Inc.315 CET Tue Feb 21 2006 Latest operation return code: Timeout Number of successes: 0 Number of failures: 1 Operation time to live: Forever BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Inc.

scr 25 . Cisco Public 49 UDP Echo Operation (With IP SLA Responder) T1 T2 T3 Source T5 T4 Responder Processing Delay on the Source: Tps = T5-T4 Processing Delay on the Destination: Tpd = T3-T2 Total Delay: T = T5-T1-Tps-Tpd T = T5-T1-(T5-T4)-(T3-T2) T = T5-T1-T5+T4-T3+T2 T = T2+T4-T1-T3 We have no control on the queuing delay (neither source nor destination) Queuing delay is usually negligible. Cisco Systems. Inc.UDP Echo Operation Uses either well-known UDP port 7 (echo service)— or any other custom port Requires responder for more accurate results: processing delays subtracted on both source and destination ip sla monitor 3 type udp-echo 172. Presentation_ID. All rights reserved.1 7 ip sla monitor schedule 3 start-time now BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.6. Cisco Public 50 © 2006. but might become a problem on highly utilized interfaces BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Inc. Inc.16. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.

Inc. Cisco Systems.scr 26 . All rights reserved. Cisco Public 51 TCP Connect Operation TCP Connect Operation measures the time taken by the source to perform a TCP connect operation to the destination device Target can be normal host or IP SLA responder Useful in simulating Telnet. SSH. All rights reserved.UDP Echo Operation (Output) R3#show ip sla monitor stat 3 details Round Trip Time (RTT) for Index 3 Latest RTT: 1 milliseconds Latest operation start time: *17:42:45. Inc. Cisco Public 52 © 2006. Inc. connection time BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.475 CET Tue Feb 21 2006 Latest operation return code: OK Over thresholds occurred: FALSE Number of successes: 1 Number of failures: 3 Operation time to live: 3397 sec Operational state of entry: Active Last time this entry was reset: Never BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID. SQL.

All rights reserved. Inc.132.132. Inc. Cisco Public 54 © 2006.68 on port 9 If the target host is not running IP SLA.TCP Connect Operation (Measurement) T1 SYN SYN/ACK T2 ACK Source FIN Destination The measured connecting time is the difference between sending the initial SYN and receiving the ACK. Cisco Public 53 TCP Connect Operation (Example) ip sla monitor 123 type tcp-connect 10. disable the Control Protocol (optional).52. Presentation_ID.52. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. in this case = T2-T1 BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Inc.68 9 control disable ip sla schedule 123 start-time now Connects to TCP Connection to 10.scr 27 . Default: enabled BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

delay variance (jitter) and packet loss by generating periodic UDP traffic Measures: per-direction jitter. Inc. All rights reserved.3(4)T. Cisco Public 55 UDP Jitter Operation Measures the delay. All rights reserved.TCP Connect Operation (Output) Router#sh ip sla monitor statistics 123 detail Round trip time (RTT) Index 123 Latest RTT: 1 ms Latest operation start time: 14:20:26. Inc. All rights reserved.scr 28 . the operation can measure MOS and ICPIF scores for VoIP © 2008 Cisco Systems. Cisco Systems.2(2)T or later and clock synchronization between source and destination Always requires IP SLA responder Starting Cisco IOS 12. per-direction packet-loss. Presentation_ID. Inc. Cisco Public BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 56 © 2006. and round trip time Detect and report out-of-sequence and corrupted packets One-way delay requires Cisco IOS 12.272 CET Mon Mar 13 2006 Latest operation return code: OK Over thresholds occurred: FALSE Number of successes: 24 Number of failures: 0 Operation time to live: Forever Operational state of entry: Active Last time this entry was reset: Never BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.

UDP Jitter: Packet Stream Send train of packets cith constant interval Receive train of packets at Interval.scr 29 . Inc. ATx. Inc. RTx. dx and the Source Can Now Calculate: JitterSD = (RT2-RT1)-(ST2-ST1) = i2-i1 JitterDS = (AT2-AT1)-((RT2+d2)-(RT1+d1)) = i4-i3 BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. impacted by the network IP Core IP SLA Responder Per-Direction Inter-Packet Delay (Jitter) Per-Direction Packet Loss Average Round Trip Delay The Responder adds a “Receive Time Stamp” and replies to Packets. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID. Inc. Cisco Public 58 © 2006. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 57 UDP Jitter: Measurement Example Send Packets STx = Sent tstamp for Packet x Receive Packets i2 P2 ST2 i1 P1 ST1 P2 IP Core RT2 Responder P1 RT1 IP SLA RTx = Receive tstamp for Packet x Reflected Packets Reply to Packets dx = Processing Time Spent Between Packet Arrival and Treatment P1 AT1 ATx = Receive tstamp for Packet x i4 P2 AT2 P1 RT1+d1 i3 P2 RT2+d2 Each Packet Contains STx. BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.

Inc. Inc. positive jitter means they have been received with more than 10ms interval Negative jitter means less than 10ms interval Zero jitter means they are received with the same inter-packet delay (the variance is zero) Jitter should remain as low as possible for real-time traffic such as voice over IP No need to have clocks synchronized BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 59 UDP Jitter Operation One-Way Delay Computation One-way delay measurement requires the clocks on source and target routers synchronized Use Network Time Protocol (NTP) server. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. IP SLA ignores the measurement by filling in 0s BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.scr 30 . All rights reserved. eventually with GPS device as reference Use a GPS device on the auxiliary port of a 7200 (ex: Trimble Palisade GPS) If the time is not synchronized.UDP Jitter Operation Jitter Computation If packets are sent with 10ms interval. Presentation_ID. Cisco Public 60 © 2006.

68 dest-port 3456 interval 10 num-packets 20 source-ipaddr 1.3(14)T and Above: www. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.2) Rx Counter: 3 Ack: (3. Presentation_ID.52. Inc.cisco. Inc.UDP Jitter Operation Packet Loss Sender Send Counter: 1 Result: PacketLossSD = 1 PacketLossDS = 1 Responder Rx Counter: 1 Ack: (1.scr Time BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 R received the packet.4) Rx: (5.130.68.130.2 source-port 80[control] ip sla monitor schedule 10 start-time now UDP Jitter Operation to 10. Cisco Public 61 UDP Jitter Operation (Example) Typical IP SLAs configuration (12.shtml © 2008 Cisco Systems.3) Send Counter: 4 × © 2006. Cisco Public 62 31 . Inc. Port 3456 Send 20 packets each time IP SLAs CLI Conversion Document in 12.4(4)T): ip sla monitor 10 type Jitter dest-ipaddr 10.3) Rx: (3.1.1) Rx Counter: 2 Current RxCount Index of the ACKd packet Rx: (1.1.4) R missed a packet (only 4 received while 5 sent: PacketLossSD += 1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.com/en/US/products/ps6602/products_white_paper 0900aecd8022c2cc.52.1) Send Counter: 2 × Send Counter: 3 Ack: (2. but did not receive the ACK: PacketLossDS + 1 Send Counter: 5 Rx Counter: 4 Ack: (5. All rights reserved.

the packet size is 172 bytes (160 bytes of payload. All rights reserved.0. 12 bytes for RTP header) Packets are sent every 20 milliseconds (interval) Marked with DSCP value of 8 (TOS equivalent 0x20) Runs every minute (frequency) ip sla monitor 1 type jitter dest-ipaddr 10.scr 32 . Cisco Public 63 UDP Voice Jitter Operation (Output) [1/3] Router#sh ip sla mon sta 1 detail Round trip time (RTT) Index 1 Latest RTT: 1 ms Latest operation start time: *18:32:08. Inc.0.2 dest-port 5556 num-packets 1000 request-data-size 172 tos 32 ip sla monitor schedule 1 life forever start-time now B A C A = 20 ms B = 20 s (1000 x 20 ms) C = 40 s (60 s – 20 s) BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.711 VoIP call Use RTP/UDP ports 16384 and above.UDP Voice Jitter Operation (Example) Simulating G. All rights reserved. Inc. Presentation_ID. Cisco Public 64 © 2006. Inc.279 PST Tue Mar 14 2006 Latest operation return code: OK Over thresholds occurred: FALSE RTT Values Number Of RTT: 1000 RTT Min/Avg/Max: 1/1/4 ms Latency one-way time milliseconds Number of Latency one-way Samples: 0 Source to Destination Latency one way Min/Avg/Max: 0/0/0 ms Destination to Source Latency one way Min/Avg/Max: 0/0/0 ms Source to Destination Latency one way Sum/Sum2: 0/0 Destination to Source Latency one way Sum/Sum2: 0/0 (cont…) BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems.

Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 66 © 2006. Cisco Public 65 UDP Voice Jitter Operation (Output) [3/3] Average positive jitter. Inc.UDP Voice Jitter Operation (Output) [2/3] (…cont) Jitter time milliseconds Number of Jitter Samples: 999 Source to Destination Jitter Min/Avg/Max: 1/3/8 ms Destination to Source Jitter Min/Avg/Max: 1/2/4 ms Source to destination positive jitter Min/Avg/Max: 1/3/8 ms Source to destination positive jitter Number/Sum/Sum2: 413/1578/6188 Source to destination negative jitter Min/Avg/Max: 3/3/8 ms Source to destination negative jitter Number/Sum/Sum2: 409/1574/6190 Destination to Source positive jitter Min/Avg/Max: 1/2/4 ms Destination to Source positive jitter Number/Sum/Sum2: 398/1086/3252 Destination to Source negative jitter Min/Avg/Max: 1/2/4 ms Destination to Source negative jitter Number/Sum/Sum2: 395/1089/3285 Interarrival jitterout: 0 Interarrival jitterin: 0 Packet Loss Values Loss Source to Destination: 0 Loss Destination to Source: 0 Out Of Sequence: 0 Tail Drop: 0 Packet Late Arrival: 0 Voice Score Values Calculated Planning Impairment Factor (ICPIF): 0 Mean Opinion Score (MOS): 0 Number of successes: 1 Number of failures: 0 Operation time to live: Forever Operational state of entry: Active Last time this entry was reset: Never BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Source to destination positive jitter Min/Avg/Max: 1/3/8 ms Sum of all positive jitter. Source to destination positive jitter Number/Sum/Sum2: 413/1578/6188 Total number of packets with a positive jitter.scr 33 . Smallest positive jitter. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID. All rights reserved. Biggest positive jitter. Sum the squares of all positive jitter. Inc. Inc.

scr 34 .1. Cisco Public 68 © 2006. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 67 DNS Operation Difference between the time taken to send a DNS request and the time a reply is received Check your DNS performance. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Presentation_ID.1. or queries for a hostname if the user specifies an IP address (reverse) Do not revert back to TCP if the DNS UDP query fails BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Inc. a critical element for surfers’ speed feeling The IP SLA DNS operation queries for an IP address if the user specifies hostname (forward). Inc. Inc.1 [opt 82] ip sla monitor schedule 30 start-time now This feature enables the router to include information about itself and the attached client when forwarding DHCP requests to a DHCP server BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.DHCP Operation Useful for Cable/DSL providers that uses DHCP for dynamic address allocation Measures the time taken to discover a DHCP Server and obtain a lease from it IP SLA releases the leased IP address after the operation ip sla monitor 30 type dhcp dest 10. All rights reserved.

Cisco Systems.1.1 BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Inc. HTTP transaction time HTTP Proxy servers supported IP SLA Responder cannot be used Supports GET requests and custom RAW requests: GET request—IP SLA will format the request based on the URL specified RAW—One must specify the entire content of the HTTP request.scr 35 .com name-server 10.DNS Operation (Example) ip sla monitor 40 type dns target-addr www.1.1. Inc.1.com to an IP Address… …Against the DNS Server 10. All rights reserved. time to first byte. this gives ultimate flexibility for user to control fields such as authentication BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.cisco. Cisco Public 70 © 2006. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 69 HTTP Operation Measures HTTP server responsiveness: DNS request. Presentation_ID. All rights reserved.cisco. TCP connection.1 ip sla monitor schedule 40 start-time now Resolve www. Inc.

Presentation_ID. Inc.com ip sla monitor 50 type http operation get url http://www. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 71 HTTP Operation (GET Example) Simple GET Request to Server www. Inc.HTTP Operation (Measurement) DNS REQ DNS RTT DNS ANS DNS Server SYN TCP RTT SYN/ACK ACK Time to First Byte GET /… <HTML>… …</HTML> HTTP RTT FIN FIN/ACK ACK IP SLA HTTP Server BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Cisco Systems.scr 36 .com/go/ipsla ip sla monitor schedule 50 start-time now Options: cache name-server proxy source-ipaddr source-port version Enable or Disable download of cached HTTP page Name Server Proxy information Source Address Source Port Version Number BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.cisco.cisco. Inc. Cisco Public 72 © 2006. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.html HTTP/1. Inc. All rights reserved.279 PST Tue Mar 14 2006 Latest DNS RTT: 4 ms Latest TCP Connection RTT: 8 ms Latest HTTP Transaction RTT: 181 ms Number of successes: 1 Number of failures: 0 Operation time to live: 3593 sec Total = DNS RTT + TCP RTT + HTTP RTT BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.0\r\n Authorization: Basic btNpdGT4biNvoZe=\r\n \r\n exit ip sla monitor schedule 60 start-time now “user:password” Encoded in Base64 BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.scr 37 .com’.HTTP Operation (Output) Router#sh ip sla monitor stat 50 Round Trip Time (RTT) for Index 50 Latest RTT: 193 ms Latest operation return code: OK Latest operation start time: *18:32:08.cisco. the Requested Page Is Password Protected ip sla monitor 60 type http operation raw url http://www. Cisco Public 73 HTTP Operation (RAW Authentication) Use RAW for a HTTP GET Operation on Server ‘www. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 74 © 2006.com http-raw-request GET /lab/index. Presentation_ID. Inc. Inc.cisco.

All rights reserved. Inc. All rights reserved.cisco.cisco.com’ ip sla monitor 70 type http operation get url http://www. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Systems. Presentation_ID. Cisco Public 75 FTP Operation Measures the time to download a file Do not abuse: big files gives more realistic results while consumes more bandwidth Active or passive mode Does not work with IP SLA responder BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Inc.scr 38 .com proxy.com:80 ip sla monitor schedule 70 start-time now proxy http://example- BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 76 © 2006.cisco.HTTP Operation (Example: Proxy) Use Proxy ‘example-proxy’ to Get to a Page on the Server ‘www.

FTP Operation (Example)
Get the file ‘/home/user/test.cap’
ip sla monitor 80 type ftp operation get url ftp://user:pwd@drop.cisco.com/test.cap [mode] ip sla monitor schedule 80 start-time now

Get the file in ‘/test.cap’
ip sla monitor 81 type ftp operation get url ftp://user:pwd@drop.cisco.com//test.cap [mode] ip sla monitor schedule 81 start-time now

Absolute vs. Relative Path

[mode]: active or passive ftp
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FTP Operation (Output)
Router#sh ip sla monitor stat 80 Entry number: 80 Modification time: *19:15:28.968 UTC Tue Mar 14 2006 Number of Octets Used by this Entry: 3264 Number of operations attempted: 1 Number of operations skipped: 0 Current seconds left in Life: 3591 Operational state of entry: Active Download Bandwidth was: Last time this entry was reset: Never 294792 bytes/587 s = 502 KB/s Connection loss occurred: FALSE Timeout occurred: FALSE Over thresholds occurred: FALSE Latest RTT (milliseconds): 587 Latest operation start time: *19:15:28.972 UTC Tue Mar 14 2006 Latest operation return code: OK Bytes read: 294792

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PathJitter Operation
Runs in two phases: route discovery, and hops evaluation (see next slide) Per hop round trip time Per hop packet loss Per hop cumulated Jitter with noise reduction (RFC1889) No IP SLA responder required on the destination, nor on the hops

Note: Requires Cisco IOS Version 12.2(2)T or Later
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PathJitter Operation (Two Phases)
Hop 1

Destination

Source Hop 2

1. 2.

Discover the path with traceroute Evaluate each hop one by one for RTT, packet lost, and round-trip total Jitter

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PathJitter Operation (Example)
Trace the Hops to ‘10.52.128.1’:

ip sla monitor 11 type path-jitter dest-ipaddr 10.52.128.1 [options] ip sla monitor schedule 11 start-time now

options: interval num-packets source-ipaddr targetOnly Inter packet interval Number of packets to be transmitted Source IP Address Perform Path Jitter on destination only

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PathJitter Operation (Output)
sh ip sla mon stat 11 details ---- Path Jitter Statistics ---Source IP Destination IP Number of Echos Interval between Echos Target Only Hop IP 10.52.132.2: RTT:1 MinRTT:1 MinPosJitter:1 MinNegJitter:0 OutOfSequence:0 Hop IP 10.52.128.1: RTT:1 MinRTT:1 MinPosJitter:2 MinNegJitter:1 OutOfSequence:0 10.52.132.5 10.52.128.1 10 20 ms Disabled (default)

PacketLoss:0 MaxRTT:2 MaxPosJitter:1 MaxNegJitter:0 DiscardedSamples:0 PacketLoss:0 MaxRTT:3 MaxPosJitter:2 MaxNegJitter:1 DiscardedSamples:0

Jitter:0 SumRTT:19 SumPos:1 SumNeg:0

Sum2RTT:37 Sum2Pos:1 Sum2Neg:0

Jitter:0 SumRTT:14 SumPos:2 SumNeg:2

Sum2RTT:24 Sum2Pos:4 Sum2Neg:2

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3(12)T or later ip sla monitor 21 type voip delay gatekeeper registration ip sla monitor schedule 21 life forever start-time now ip sla monitor 22 type voip delay post-dial [destination | detect point] ip sla monitor schedule 22 life forever start-time now BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.Post Dial and Gatekeeper Delays SIP and H. Inc. Cisco Public 84 © 2006. All rights reserved.0.4 255. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 83 Enhanced Object Tracking with IP SLA Uses IP SLA operation as a “metric” for HSRP Introduced in Cisco IOS 12.3(4)T and 12.255.51.0.2(25)S ip sla monitor 31 type echo protocol ipIcmpEcho 10.scr 42 . Presentation_ID.21. Inc.0. Inc.21.12.4 timeout 1000 frequency 3 threshold 2 ip sla monitor schedule 1 start-time now life forever ! track 2 rtr 1 state track 3 rtr 1 reachability ! interface e0/1 ip address 10.10 standby 3 priority 120 standby 3 preempt standby 3 track 2 standby 3 track 3 BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.323 This feature adds the capability to monitor call setup delay for VoIP calls Requires Cisco IOS 12. Cisco Systems.0 standby 3 ip 10. All rights reserved.

Cisco IOS IP SLA Uses and Metrics Data Traffic Minimize delay. All rights reserved.scr Requirement IP SLA Measurement Jitter Packet loss Latency per QoS Jitter Packet loss Latency MOS Voice Quality Score Jitter Packet loss Latency One-way Enhanced accuracy NTP Connectivity tests to IP devices Connectivity tests to network services (DHCP. Cisco Systems. Inc. packet loss Verify Quality of Service (QoS) VoIP Minimize delay. Inc. jitter Service Level Agreement Measure delay. Inc. Cisco Public 86 43 . packet loss BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2006. packet loss. DNS. All rights reserved. http) Jitter Packet loss Latency *IP SLA Has No Specific Monitoring Option for “Streaming Video” and Does Not Generate IP SLA Video Streams © 2008 Cisco Systems. jitter One-way Reachability Connectivity testing Application testing Streaming Video* Minimize delay. Cisco Public 85 Agenda SLA Concept Network Disturbance Active Measurement Overview Architecture Configuration Options Monitoring and Debugging Use Cases and Scenarios © 2008 Cisco Systems. packet loss. All rights reserved. Presentation_ID.

All rights reserved. new operations are started every second: ip sla monitor schedule <n> start-time after 00:01:00 ip sla monitor schedule <n+1> start-time after 00:01:01 ip sla monitor schedule <n+2> start-time after 00:01:02 BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Presentation_ID. Inc. all will start at the same time after a router reload Consider using the option ‘after’ instead of ‘now’ Example. All rights reserved. Inc.Schedule and Stop To schedule operation <n> to start: ip sla monitor schedule <n> [life seconds] [start-time {pending | now | hh:mm [month day |day month]}][ageout seconds] To stop a running operation <n>: no ip sla monitor schedule <n> BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.scr 44 . Inc. Cisco Public 87 Scheduling Caveat If you configure multiple operations to start ‘now’. Cisco Public 88 © 2006.

All rights reserved. Inc. All rights reserved.579 PST Mon Apr 18 Latest operation start time: *12:50:36.591 PST Mon Apr 18 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 2005 BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Cisco Systems.579 PST Mon Apr 18 Latest operation start time: *12:50:38. Cisco Public 89 Multi-Operation Scheduler (Status) Show Command: r1#show ip sla monitor group schedule Group Entry Number: 1 Probes to be scheduled: 1-10 Total number of probes: 10 Schedule period: 10 Mode: even Group operation frequency: Equals schedule period Status of entry (SNMP RowStatus): Active Next Scheduled Start Time: Start Time already passed Life (seconds): 3600 Entry Ageout (seconds): never BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. start operations 1 to 10 within 10 seconds: ip sla monitor group schedule 1 1-10 schedule-period 10 start-time now sh ip sla monitor operation | include start Latest operation start time: *12:50:51. All rights reserved.579 PST Mon Apr 18 Latest operation start time: *12:50:37.579 PST Mon Apr 18 Latest operation start time: *12:50:39.599 PST Mon Apr 18 Latest operation start time: *12:50:53.599 PST Mon Apr 18 Latest operation start time: *12:50:52.599 PST Mon Apr 18 Latest operation start time: *12:50:34. Inc.579 PST Mon Apr 18 Latest operation start time: *12:50:40.scr 45 . Inc.579 PST Mon Apr 18 Latest operation start time: *12:50:35. Presentation_ID. with automatic smooth “start-time” Example. Cisco Public 90 © 2006.Multi-Operation Scheduler (Configuration) Start many operations at once.

Red.1 10. Inc. Presentation_ID. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.g. Inc.10.10.Reaction Actions and Operation Trigger Router(config)#ip sla monitor reaction-configuration <n> ? action-type ip sla Reaction Action Type connection-loss-enable ip sla Enable Connection Loss Reaction threshold-falling ip sla Falling Threshold Value threshold-type ip sla Reaction Threshold Type timeout-enable ip sla Enable Timeout Reaction Router(config)#ip sla monitor reaction-trigger <entry-number> <target-number> BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. and the wrong route is selected CEs with VRFs Red. local processes are not executed in a VRF context IP SLA (PE) 10.12.10. Blue and Yellow We Need a Way to Execute an Operation in a VRF Context—e. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 92 © 2006.1 10.. Inc.10.1 Route lookup is done in the global routing table. Blue or Yellow BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 91 VRF-Awareness Issue (for MPLS/VPN) How to send probe packets from IP SLA to a specific VPN? By default.scr 46 .11.

scr 47 .1 dest-port 80 vrf blue ip sla monitor schedule 41 start-time now BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 94 © 2006. Cisco Public 93 IP SLA for MPLS/VPN (Example) Sends Probes to a Remote IP SLA in the Context of the Blue VPN: ip sla monitor 41 type jitter dest-ipaddr 1. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Systems.Solution: IP SLA for MPLS/VPN IP SLA operations are VRF-aware since 12. ICMP Path Echo.1.2(2)T. and UDP Jitter operations Allows measurement from PE to anything Use vrf vrf-name option BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Inc. 12. Presentation_ID.2(6)S.1. Inc.0(26)S Supported on ICMP Echo. All rights reserved. 12. UDP Echo. All rights reserved.

Presentation_ID. Cisco Public 95 Converting Between TOS and DiffServ 128 4 64 2 32 1 16 8 4 2 1 TOS (RFC795) P2 P1 P0 T3 T2 ToS T1 T0 CU In Cisco IOS the 8 TOS bits are set from right to left precedence Always zero 32 16 8 4 2 1 DiffServ (RFC2474) D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 CU CU DSCP (6 bits) Multiply by 4 Divide by 8 Binary 101 000 101 100 001 110 BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Cisco Systems.68 dest-port 16384 \ interval 20 num-packets 1000 tos 0x20 frequency 60 request-data-size 172 ip sla monitor schedule 11 start-time now BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.52. Inc.130.scr 48 . Inc. no diffserv (see next slide to perform translation) ip sla monitor 11 type jitter dest-ipaddr 10. All rights reserved.TOS Marking Probes can be TOS marked to match the target class Only TOS setting is supported. All rights reserved. ToS 160 (0xA0) 176 (0xB0) 56 (0x38) Cisco Public DSCP 40 44 14 Precedence 5 5 1 96 © 2006. Inc.

Inc. Inc. Presentation_ID. All rights reserved.0. Cisco Systems. Infrastructure Engine-II Time of last change in whole IP SLAs: *17:46:22. Cisco Public 98 © 2006.215 CET Tue Feb 21 2006 Estimated system max number of entries: 10852 Estimated Number of Number of Number of Number of number of configurable operations: 10847 Entries configured : 5 active Entries : 2 pending Entries : 0 inactive Entries : 3 Maximum Number of Configurable Operations Supported Operation Types Type of Operation to Perform: Type of Operation to Perform: Type of Operation to Perform: Type of Operation to Perform: Type of Operation to Perform: Type of Operation to Perform: Type of Operation to Perform: Type of Operation to Perform: Type of Operation to Perform: Type of Operation to Perform: Type of Operation to Perform: Type of Operation to Perform: dhcp dns echo frameRelay ftp http jitter pathEcho pathJitter tcpConnect udpEcho voip Supported Operations IP SLAs low memory water mark: 14976312 Memory Limit BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.2. All rights reserved.Agenda SLA Concept Network Disturbance Active Measurement Overview Architecture Configuration Options Monitoring and Debugging Use Cases and Scenarios BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 97 IP SLA Application Version R3#show ip sla monitor application IP Service Level Agreements Version: Round Trip Time MIB 2.scr 49 . Inc.

Defaults) R3#show ip sla monitor configuration 1 IP SLAs. Cisco Public 99 Display the Configuration State (Incl. All rights reserved.scr 50 . Inc. Inc.0 Target port/Source port: 1000/0 Request size (ARR data portion): 32 Operation timeout (milliseconds): 5000 Packet Interval (milliseconds)/Number of packets: 20/10 Type Of Service parameters: 0x0 Verify data: No Vrf Name: Control Packets: enabled Schedule: Operation frequency (seconds): 60 (not considered if randomly scheduled) Next Scheduled Start Time: Pending trigger Group Scheduled : FALSE Randomly Scheduled : FALSE Life (seconds): 3600 Entry Ageout (seconds): never Recurring (Starting Everyday): FALSE Status of entry (SNMP RowStatus): notInService Threshold (milliseconds): 5000 Distribution Statistics: Number of statistic hours kept: 2 Number of statistic distribution buckets kept: 1 Statistic distribution interval (milliseconds): 20 Enhanced History: BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. Infrastructure Engine-II.0. All rights reserved. Entry number: 1 Owner: Tag: Type of operation to perform: udp-jitter Target address/Source address: 1.1. Presentation_ID.0.Operational State Show the Actual State of an Operation: Old command show rtr operational-state operation-number New command show ip sla monitor statistics operation-number [details] BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.1. Cisco Systems.1/0. Cisco Public 100 © 2006.

Inc. Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 102 © 2006.scr 51 . Presentation_ID. Inc.Deleting Operations To delete one operation <n>: router(config)# no ip sla monitor <n> To delete all operations: router(config)# ip sla monitor reset BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 101 Debugging an Operation’s Activities To debug operation <n> activity: debug ip sla monitor trace <n> To debug activity of the responder: debug ip sla monitor trace 0 The Responder Is the Equivalent of Operation Zero BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.

406: sending control msg: 16:27:45.442: responseTime (2): 1 <.406: source=10.414: Ver: 1 ID: 144 Len: 8 16:27:45.132.406: cmd: command: RTT_CMD_JITTER_PORT_ENABLE.52.422: responseTime (1): 2 16:27:45.402: ip sla 1: Starting An Echo Operation . Inc.442: sdTime: 2104279296 dsTime: -2017879295 16:27:45.69(49175) dest-ip=10.IP sla Probe 1 16:27:45. All rights reserved.> BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Cisco Systems. port: 9999. Cisco Public 103 Debug Sample Output 16:27:45. Presentation_ID.442: jitterOut: 0 16:27:45.422: sdTime: 2104279296 dsTime: -2017879294 16:27:45. duration: 5200 16:27:45.442: jitterIn: -1 16:27:45. All rights reserved. ip: 10. Inc.414: receiving reply 16:27:45.52. All rights reserved.68(9999) 16:27:45.Debugging an Operation’s Errors To debug errors for operation <n>: router# debug ip sla monitor error <n> To debug errors the responder: router# debug ip sla monitor error 0 The Responder Is the Equivalent of Operation Zero BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.132. Inc.132.68. Cisco Public 104 © 2006.52.406: Ver: 1 ID: 144 Len: 52 16:27:45. . .scr 52 .

3600) Dedicated for IP SLA Possible GPS feed for clock synchronisation (one-way delay) © 2008 Cisco Systems. Presentation_ID. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.scr 53 . Cisco Public 105 Scenario 1: Service Provide Core Network Shadow Router at Each PoP PoP2 PoP1 PoP3 PoP4 PE P PE PE Shadow Router (2600. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 106 © 2006.Agenda SLA Concept Network Disturbance Active Measurement Overview Architecture Configuration Options Monitoring and Debugging Use Cases and Scenarios BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.Scenario 1: Service Provide Core Network Extending Monitoring to the Customer Sites Hierarchical Polling PoP to CPE PoP2 PoP1 PoP3 PoP4 BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Cisco Public 107 Scenario 1: Service Provide Core Network Scalability Versus Accuracy PoP2 PoP1 PoP3 PoP4 # of operations = PoP(PoP-1) + 1 for each CPE versus # of operations =CPE(CPE-1) BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.scr 54 . Inc. Cisco Public 108 © 2006. Inc. Inc. Presentation_ID.

Cisco Public 110 © 2006. All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. more overhead.scr 55 . define CE to CE polling. Presentation_ID.Scenario 1: Service Provide Core Network Best Practice: NOC to POP/CE SLA CE CE PoP2 NOC PoP3 PoP1 CE PoP4 Best practice suggests using 1 site to poll the others to increase manageability when network design changes are required BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Inc. Inc. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 109 Scenario 1: Service Provide Core Network Best Practice: CE to CE SLA CE CE PoP2 NOC PoP3 PoP1 CE CE PoP4 For increased accuracy. Drawback: less flexible.

Cisco Public 111 Scenario 2: Enterprise WAN Hierarchical Monitoring Corp. Cisco Systems. Inc. HQ Data Center Regional Aggregation Remote Campus HomeOffi ce Retail Branch Network Connectivity Server Connectivity Small Office BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.scr 56 . All rights reserved.Scenario 2: Enterprise WAN ISP SLA Monitoring CE PE PE CE ISP CPE CPE Enterprise (CPE to CE) ISP Network (CE to CE) Enterprise (CPE to CE) End-to-End (CPE to CPE) BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Inc. Presentation_ID. Cisco Public 112 © 2006. Inc. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 114 © 2006.cisco. Web Servers DNS DHCP Email Web BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.scr 57 . DHCP. Inc. Cisco Public 113 References Cisco IOS IP SLA Web site on CCO: http://www.Scenario 3: Network Services Monitoring DNS. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. and white papers Suggested reading: Cisco IOS IP Service Level Agreements User Guide Accurate Network Performance Monitoring using Cisco IOS IP SLA BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Presentation_ID. All rights reserved. Email.com/go/ipsla This page contains links to executive and technical documents. documentation. Inc.

com cisco-ios-ipsla-questions@external. Presentation_ID.cisco. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. TCP Connect) BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.cisco. Inc.com cisco-ios-ipsla-announce@external.IP SLA Email Aliases Cisco IOS IP SLAs External Self-Help User Community: cisco-ios-ipsla-questions-approval@cisco. DNS. Cisco Public 116 © 2006. All rights reserved.scr 58 . Inc.com Cisco IOS IP SLAs External Announcements: cisco-ios-ipsla-announce-approval@cisco.com BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Public 115 A Complementary Solution NetFlow From where? To Who? When? How Much? Which Apps? What ToS? IP SLA Latency Loss Jitter Server Delay (HTTP. Cisco Systems.

Cisco Public 117 Conclusion IP SLA is the integrated Cisco IOS feature to actively measure and report applications and network performance It offers a broad set of measurement functions Several network management applications support it Stay tuned…we have an ambitious roadmap for new features What other features would you like to see added? BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Presentation_ID. Cisco Public 118 © 2006. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. All rights reserved.Summary SLA Concept Network Disturbance Active Measurement Overview Architecture Configuration Options Monitoring and Debugging Use Cases and Scenarios BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Inc. Inc. Inc.scr 59 . All rights reserved.

scr 60 .com/b ookstore/product. All rights reserved.ciscopress. Cisco Systems. Inc. Presentation_ID. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 119 Recommended Reading Continue your Cisco Live learning experience with further reading from Cisco Press Check the Recommended Reading flyer for suggested books Please refer to the work titled “Accounting and Performance Management” at the URL below: http://www.asp?isbn= 1587051982&rl=1 Available Onsite at the Cisco Company Store BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 120 © 2006. Inc.Q and A BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.

Winners announced daily. Receive 20 Passport points for each session evaluation you complete. Go to the Collaboration Zone in World of Solutions or visit www. Inc. BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems.scr 61 . Complete your session evaluation online now (open a browser through our wireless network to access our portal) or visit one of the Internet stations throughout the Convention Center. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Systems.Complete Your Online Session Evaluation Give us your feedback and you could win fabulous prizes. Cisco Public 122 © 2006.com. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Public 121 BRKNMS-1204 14528_04_2008_c1 © 2008 Cisco Systems. Presentation_ID.cisco-live. Don’t forget to activate your Cisco Live virtual account for access to all session material on-demand and return for our live virtual event in October 2008. All rights reserved.

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