This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Society for Research on Adolescence Baltimore, Maryland March 11-14, 2004
Elizabeth A. Carlson, Ph.D. Megan Sampson, M.A. Karen Appleyard, M.A. Tuppett Yates, M.A. Anne Shaffer
1999). .g.. and attentional strategies (Main & Hesse. 1990). • Psychopathological outcomes include internalizing and externalizing behavior and dissociative symptomatology. • Early relationship disorganization places individuals at increased risk for psychopathology in middle childhood and late adolescence (e. Carlson.Introduction • Disorganization/disorientation in infant attachment relationships represents a collapse in relational. behavioral. 1998. Lyons-Ruth & Jacobvitz.
• Examine the links between infant attachment disorganization and dissociative behavior and disturbance in parent-child interactions during the transition to adolescence.Study Aims • Establish validity and reliability of 13-year observational ratings of dissociative behavior and related markers. . • Examine the relations between markers of dissociation in parentchild interactions in early adolescence and individual functioning in late adolescence and early adulthood.
. • Measures of dissociative processes (13 years) will be related to externalizing behavior (16 years) and dissociative experience (19 years) in adolescence and hostility and violence in early adult relationship functioning (21 years).. controlling behavior) in early adolescence (13 years).g.Hypotheses • Attachment disorganization (12-18 months) will be related to behavioral observations of dissociation and related processes (e.
34% of mothers had not completed high school at child’s birth • Children were 68% Caucasian. 1979) • Mothers of children recruited in the third trimester of pregnancy at public health clinics • 60% of mothers were single at child’s birth.Participants • Subsample of 66 participants (33 male. 8% African American. 33 female) from the Minnesota longitudinal study of parents and children (Egeland & Brunquell. 12% Mixed Race .
Achenbach. Straus. 1986 – Relationship hostility observational ratings (21 years) – Relationship violence self-report ratings(21 years) CTS. 1991 – Self report of dissociative experience (19 years) DES.Measures • • Attachment Disorganization Ratings – Strange Situation Assessment (12-18 months) Early Adolescent Behavioral Ratings – Parent Child Observational Task (13 years) – Ratings of dissociative behavior. Achenbach. controlling or role-reversed behavior and affective dimensions • Ratings of Adolescent and Adult Functioning – Teacher report of dissociative behavior (12 years) TRF derived scale. 1991 – Teacher/Mother/Self composited report of externalizing behavior (16 years) TRF. Bernstein & Putnam. 1979 .
rapid changes in affect or behavior) • Stereotypies.g.. prolonged staring.Dissociative Indices 13 years • Simultaneous Contradictory Behavior (e. sudden violations of parent’s personal space. aggression accompanied by dazed expression) • Sequential Contradictory Behavior (e..g. Out-of-context Behavior or Verbalizations (e.g. out of context references to traumatic or catastrophic events) ..g.. dazed expressions) • Sudden. Freezing. Lapses in Monitoring (e. Non-functional Repetitive Behavior (e..g. idiosyncratic repetitive behaviors) • Stilling.
• Infant attachment disorganization was correlated significantly with – ratings of dissociative behavior (13 years) – ratings of negative affect toward self (13 years) – but not role-reversed adolescent behavior.Correlational Results • Dissociative behavioral ratings at 13 years (intraclass reliability r = . • Dissociative indices at 13 years were correlated with – composited reports of externalizing behavior (16 years) – self-reported dissociative symptomatology (19 years) – observed hostility in romantic relationships (21 years) – self-reported violence in romantic relationships (21 years). .91) were related significantly to concurrent teacher observations (TRF) of dissociative behavior.
27* 65 . Concurrent.49* 26 Relationship Violence Self-report (21 years) .44* 31 Conflict Tactics Scale ___________________________________________________________________________ *p < .001 . ____________________________________________________________________________ Variable Dissociative Indices N ____________________________________________________________________________ Attachment Disorganization (12-18 months) Strange Situation Procedure Dissociative Rating (Grade 6) TRF Derived Scale Externalizing Composite (16 years) Mother/Teacher/Child CBCL Dissociative Score (19 years) DES Hostility Rating (21 years) Relationship Observation . and Consequent Variables.01 *** p < .49*** 49 .05 ** p < .Table 1 Correlations Between Dissociative Indices in Parent-child Interactions (13 years) and Antecedent.45*** 66 .25* 65 .
. • Dissociative indices in early adolescence mediated the effects of infant attachment disorganization on externalizing behavior and relationship hostility in late adolescence and early adulthood.Regression Results • Infant attachment disorganization and dissociative indices in parent child interactions (13 years) significantly predicted externalizing behavior (16 years) and hostility in romantic relationships (21 years).
55 . ____________________________________________________________________ Model 1 Model 2 ______________________________________________________ Variable B SE β B SE β ____________________________________________________________________ Attachment Disorganization Dissociative Indices 1.001 .29** .34* R2 change F for change in R2 . N = 47).70 1.01 *** p < .39** .46 .95* Multiple R .23 .42 .39** .21 .69 .Table 2 Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analysis Predicting Externalizing Behavior (16 years) from Infant Attachment Disorganization (12-18 months) and Dissociative Indices in Parent-child Interactions (13 years.09 4.49** ____________________________________________________________________ * p < .16 8.05 ** p < .
50*** β = . .45** Attachment Disorganization 12-18 months Externalizing Behavior 16 years (β = .05 Dissociative Indices 13 years N = 47 β = .23 n.62.Externalizing Mediation Model Z = 2. p < .39**) β = . s.
01 *** p < .37* R .58** .15 .23 .34 9.34 .44* R2 change F for change in R2 .Table 3 Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analysis Predicting Romantic Relationship Hostility (21years) from Infant Attachment Disorganization (12-18 months) and Dissociative Indices in Parent-child Interactions (13 years.14 4.19** .05 ** p < .24 .001 .48 .58** . ____________________________________________________________________ Model 1 Model 2 ______________________________________________________ Variable B SE β B SE β ____________________________________________________________________ Attachment Disorganization Dissociative Indices .14 .69** ____________________________________________________________________ * p < .41 . N = 20).
04.s.Relationship Hostility Mediation Model Z = 2.05 Dissociative Indices 13 years N = 20 β = .34 n. .55* β = .63** Attachment Disorganization 12-18 months Relationship Hostility 21 years (β = . p < .58**) β= .
Conclusions • Dissociative indices may be reliably coded in parent child interactions in the transition to adolescence. • Early adolescent dissociative indices may mediate the effects of early experience on later individual and relationship disturbance. • Dissociative indices in early adolescence are related significantly to concurrent and consequent observations and subjective ratings of dissociation. • Early adolescent dissociative indices are related significantly to ratings of infant attachment disorganization. • Correlational and regression findings require replication with a larger sample. .
& Brunnquell. Parents' unresolved traumatic experiences are related to infant disorganized attachment status: Is frightened and/or frightening parental behavior the linking mechanism? In M. Journal of Marrigae and the Family. Lyons-Ruth. Cicchetti and E. & Hesse. Main. K. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry. 1107-1128. Handbook of Attachment (pp. In J. VT: University of Vermont. M. A. Cassidy & P. F. M. D. Child Development. (1978)... D. . T. (1979). D. B. S. reliability. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. (1990). Patterns of attachment. E. Greenberg. Straus. & Putnam. E. M. Development. & Wall. (1986). Cummings (Eds. 69(4). Bernstein. Measuring intra-family conflict and violence: The conflict tactics scales. Department of Psychiatry. S. D. Attachment in the preschool years (pp. 161-182).References Achenbach.). (1999). Burlington.. and lapses in behavioral and attentional strategies. M. 41. Ainsworth. Attachment disorganization: Unresolved loss. (1998). M. 219-235. New York: Guilford Press. T. (1991).. An at-risk approach to the study of child abuse: Some preliminary findings.. W. relational violence. Hillsdale. 520-554). (1979). M. Shaver. NJ: Erlbaum. Egeland. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease. and validity of a dissociation scale. 75-95. A prospective longitudinal study of attachment disorganization/disorientation.. Waters. 8. Carlson. E. 174(12). Manual for the teacher's report form and teacher version of the child behavior profile. 727-735. & Jacobvitz. E. Blehar.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.