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(Redirected from Gingko biloba) Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba; in Chinese and Japanese 銀杏, pinyin romanization: yín xìng, Hepburn romanization: ichō or ginnan), also spelled gingko, also known as the Maidenhair Tree after Adiantum, is a unique species of tree with no close living relatives. The ginkgo is classified in its own division, the Ginkgophyta, comprising the single class Ginkgoopsida, order Ginkgoales, family Ginkgoaceae, genus Ginkgo and is the only extant species within this group. It is one of the best-known examples of a living fossil, because Ginkgoales other than G. biloba are not known from the fossil record after the Pliocene. For centuries it was thought to be extinct in the wild, but is now known to grow in at least two small areas in Zhejiang province in Eastern China, in the Tian Mu Shan Reserve. However, recent studies indicate high genetic uniformity among ginkgo trees from these areas, arguing against a natural origin of these populations and suggesting that the ginkgo trees in these areas may have been planted and preserved by Chinese monks over a period of about 1,000 years. Whether native ginkgo populations still exist has not been demonstrated unequivocally. The relationship of Ginkgo to other plant groups remains uncertain. It has been placed loosely in the divisions Spermatophyta and Pinophyta, but no consensus has been reached. Since Ginkgo seeds are not protected by an ovary wall, it can morphologically be considered a gymnosperm. The apricot-like structures produced by female ginkgo trees are technically not fruits, but are seeds that have a shell that consists of a soft and fleshy section (the sarcotesta), and a hard section (the sclerotesta). Ginkgo biloba
Fossil range: 49.5–0 Ma PreЄ Є O S D C P T J K 
Eocene - recent
1 Description 1.1 Stem 1.2 Leaves 1.3 Reproduction 2 Distribution and habitat 3 Taxonomy and naming 3.1 Etymology 4 Palaeontology 5 Cultivation and uses 5.1 Culinary use 5.2 Medicinal uses
Endangered (IUCN 2.3) Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Ginkgophyta Class: Ginkgoopsida Order: Ginkgoales Family: Ginkgoaceae Genus: Ginkgo Species: G. biloba Binomial name Ginkgo biloba
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Ginkgo biloba .4 Side effects 5.2.. many specimens are found along stream banks.2. and cliff edges. and is usually deep rooted and resistant to wind and snow damage.2 In dementia 5. It is capable of sprouting from embedded buds near the base of the trunk Ginkgo tree in autumn (lignotubers. These strategies are evidently important in the persistence of Ginkgo. The tree has an angular crown and long. in the "semi-wild" stands at Tian Mu Shan. the crown becomes broader as the tree ages. insect-resistant wood and the ability to form aerial roots and sprouts makes ginkgos long-lived. in a survey of the "semi-wild" stands remaining in Tian Mu Shan. such as soil erosion. rocky slopes. Accordingly.2. Old individuals are also capable of producing aerial roots (chi chi) on the undersides of large branches in response to disturbances such as crown damage.5 Allergic precautions and contraindications to use 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 External links Description Ginkgos are very large trees.Wikipedia.2. or basal chi chi) in response to disturbances. these roots can lead to successful clonal reproduction upon contacting the soil. 40% of the Ginkgo specimens surveyed were multi-stemmed. 5. normally reaching a height of 20–35 m (66–115 feet). and few saplings were present. somewhat erratic branches. then fall. 2 of 12 12/13/2010 1:01 PM . A combination of resistance to disease.3 In other symptoms 5. with some specimens in China being over 50 m (164 feet).1 In memory enhancement 5. Young trees are often tall and slender. Ginkgo is a relatively shade-intolerant species that (at least in cultivation) grows best in environments that are well-watered and well-drained. with some specimens claimed to be more than 2. During autumn. Ginkgo retains a prodigious capacity for vegetative growth.. sometimes within a short space of time (1–15 days). the free encyclopedia file:///D:/Medical/Downloaded%20Medical%20Pages/Omega%203%.2. The species shows a preference for disturbed sites. the leaves turn a bright yellow. and sparsely branched.500 years old.
The flagella/cilia apparatus pulls the body of the 3 of 12 12/13/2010 1:01 PM . They are borne both on the more rapidly-growing branch tips. sometimes bifurcating (splitting) but never anastomosing to form a network. but only from the outer surface.. Two ovules are formed at the end of a stalk. The leaves are usually 5–10 cm (2-4 inches). In Ginkgos. the free encyclopedia file:///D:/Medical/Downloaded%20Medical%20Pages/Omega%203%. From the axils of these leaves. between the veins. and after pollination.5–2 cm long.. a short shoot may change into a long (ordinary) shoot. After a number of years. The sperm are large (about 250-300 micrometres) and are similar to the sperm of cycads. which are slightly larger. which is a continuous belt of basal bodies that form the base of several thousand flagella which actually have a cilia-like motion. The sperm have a complex multi-layered structure. They are short and knobby. some trees being female and others being male. as seen on most trees. Male plants produce small pollen cones with sporophylls each bearing two microsporangia spirally arranged around a central axis. mosses and algae. but sometimes up to 15 cm (6 inches) long. short shoots allow the formation of new leaves in the older parts of the crown. Short shoots have very short internodes (so they may grow only one or two centimeters in several years) and their leaves are usually unlobed. It is attractive in appearance. Leaves Trunk bark The leaves are unique among seed plants. Ginkgo leaves in autumn Reproduction Ginkgos are dioecious. as in cycads. and reproductive structures are formed only on them (see pictures below . with separate sexes. Beneath the sarcotesta is the hard sclerotesta (what is normally known as the "shell" of the seed) and a papery endotesta. as in other plants that possess them. and fruit-like. stubby spur shoots. or vice versa. and also on the short. one or both develop into seeds. The seed is 1. with the nucellus surrounding the female gametophyte at the center. The old popular name "Maidenhair tree" is because the leaves resemble some of the pinnae of the Maidenhair fern Adiantum capillus-veneris. soft. where they are clustered at the tips. Because of the short internodes. leaves appear to be clustered at the tips of short shoots. Its fleshy outer layer (the sarcotesta) is light yellowbrown. Leaves of long shoots are usually notched or lobed.Ginkgo biloba . ferns.seeds and leaves are visible on short shoots). Two veins enter the leaf blade at the base and fork repeatedly in two. Stem Ginkgo branches grow in length by growth of shoots with regularly spaced leaves. this is known as dichotomous venation.Wikipedia. where they are alternate and spaced out. but contains butanoic acid  (also known as butyric acid) and smells like rancid butter (which contains the same chemical) or feces when fallen. and are arranged regularly on the branches except on first-year growth. being fan-shaped with veins radiating out into the leaf blade. Female plants do not produce cones. The fertilization of ginkgo seeds occurs via motile sperm. Ginkgo sperm were first discovered by the Japanese botanist Sakugoro Hirase in 1896. "spur shoots" (also known as short shoots) develop on second-year growth.
 embryos ordinarily occur in seeds just before and after they drop from the tree. silty soil) with good drainage. fine. one of which successfully fertilizes the ovule. It has also been commonly cultivated in North America for over 200 years. referring to the shape of the leaves. dissected from a seed Immature ginkgo ovules freshly shed from the and leaves tree. the tree currently occurs in the wild only in the northwest of Zhejiang province in the Tianmu Shan mountain reserve in eastern China. containing a well-developed embryo Autumn leaves and fallen seeds A forest of saplings sprout among last year's seeds Distribution and habitat Although Ginkgo biloba and other species of the genus were once widespread throughout the world.5. The soil it inhabits is typically in the pH range of 5 to 5. Two sperm are produced. In other areas of China it has been long cultivated and it is common in the southern third of the country.. Etymology 4 of 12 12/13/2010 1:01 PM . The sperm have only a tiny distance to travel to the archegonia.Ginkgo biloba . the free encyclopedia file:///D:/Medical/Downloaded%20Medical%20Pages/Omega%203%.. of which there are usually two or three. but during that time it has never become significantly naturalised. sperm forwards. Ginkgo pollen-bearing Ovules ready for cones fertilization Female gametophyte. Although it is widely held that fertilization of ginkgo seeds occurs just before or after they fall in early autumn. but even its status as a naturally occurring species there is questionable.Wikipedia. the specific epithet biloba derived from the Latin bis 'two' and loba 'lobed'.e. Taxonomy and naming The species was initially described by the father of taxonomy Linnaeus in 1771. Where it occurs in the wild it is found infrequently in deciduous forests and valleys on acidic loess (i.
had remarkable genetic flexibility and. there may have been only one or two species existing in the Northern Hemisphere through the entirety of the Cenozoic: present-day G. and by the Paleocene." specifically the order Peltaspermales. At the end of the Pliocene. biloba (including G. when the tree itself was introduced from China.. biloba the characteristic of motile sperm. The remainder may have been ecotypes or subspecies. Chinese characters typically have multiple pronunciations in Japanese. Canada. Given the slow pace of evolution and morphological similarity between members of the genus. G. The scientific name Ginkgo appears to be due to a process akin to folk etymology. The older Chinese name for this plant is 銀果 yínguǒ ('silver fruit'). as far as can be demonstrated from the fossil record. Ginkgo fossils disappeared from the fossil record everywhere except in a small area of central China where the modern species survived. These are: extreme longevity. also known as the "seed ferns.C. It declined in diversity as the Cretaceous progressed. Ginkgo biloba Eocene leaf from Fossil Ginkgo leaves from the the MacAbee.. biloba had occurred over an extremely wide range. This appears to be a simple error of Kaempfer. The implications would be that G. a more precise romanization would have been "Ginkio" or "Ginkjo".Ginkgo biloba . Engelbert Kaempfer.Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia file:///D:/Medical/Downloaded%20Medical%20Pages/Omega%203%. gardneri and the Southern Hemisphere species are the only known post-Jurassic taxa that can be unequivocally recognised. but steadily contracting distribution coupled with. many of the Ginkgo's life-history parameters fit. though evolving genetically. taking his spelling of other Japanese words into account. At least morphologically. While it may seem improbable that a species may exist as a contiguous entity for many millions of years. dating back 270 million years. Palaeontology The Ginkgo is a living fossil. and the genus diversified and spread throughout Laurasia during the middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. adiantoides) and G. The most usual names today are 白果 bái guǒ ('white fruit') and 銀杏 yínxìng ('silver apricot'). It is doubtful whether the Northern Hemisphere fossil species of Ginkgo can be reliably distinguished. and the characters 銀杏 used for ginnan can also be pronounced ginkyō. wrote down this pronunciation in his Amoenitates Exoticae (1712) with the "awkward" spelling "Ginkgo". (in Cenozoic and later times) a wide. Ginkgo adiantoides was the only Ginkgo species left in the Northern Hemisphere while a markedly different (and poorly documented) form persisted in the Southern Hemisphere. biloba grows best in environments that are well-watered and drained. extreme ecological conservatism (restriction to disturbed streamside environments). which share with the extant G. gardneri from the Paleocene of Scotland. The most plausible ancestral group for the order Ginkgoales is the Pteridospermatophyta. slow reproduction rate. The former name was borrowed directly in Vietnamese (as bạch quả). and the extremely 5 of 12 12/13/2010 1:01 PM . The closest living relatives of the clade are the cycads. with fossils recognisably related to modern Ginkgo from the Permian. apparently contiguous. Jurassic of England Modern-day G.. never showed much speciation. the first Westerner to see the species in 1690. Fossils attributable to the genus Ginkgo first appeared in the Early Jurassic. B. The latter name was borrowed in Japanese (as ぎんなん "ginnan") and Korean (as 은행 "eunhaeng").
Ginkgo's large seeds and habit of "bolting" . The ginkgo leaf is the symbol of the Urasenke school of Japanese tea ceremony.nl/%7Ekwanten/hiroshima. Ginkgo therefore presents an "ecological paradox" because while it possesses some favorable traits for living in disturbed environments (clonal reproduction) many of its other life-history traits (slow growth. when ferns. even in urban conditions. the Ginkgo is also widely planted in Korea and parts of Japan. shrubby canopy. large seed size. Extreme examples of the Ginkgo's tenacity may be seen in Hiroshima. The first record of Europeans encountering it is in 1690 in Japanese temple gardens. Ginkgo has been used for classifying plants with leaves that have more than four veins per segment. the ginkgos. They rarely suffer disease problems. some naturalization has occurred. Sphenobaiera has been used to classify plants with a broadly wedge-shaped leaf that lacks a distinct leaf stem. it is possible that Ginkgo represents a pre-angiosperm strategy for survival in disturbed streamside environments.. where the tree was seen by the German botanist Engelbert Kaempfer. they can be kept artificially small and tended over centuries. Ginkgos adapt well to the urban environment. Given the slow rate of evolution of the genus. Cultivation and uses Ginkgo has long been cultivated in China. and cycadeoids) at the same time that flowering plants were on the rise. open. the free encyclopedia file:///D:/Medical/Downloaded%20Medical%20Pages/Omega%203%. most intentionally planted Ginkgos are male cultivars grafted onto plants propagated from seed.xs4all. similar fossil Ginkgo favored similar environments: the sediment record at the majority of fossil Ginkgo localities indicates it grew primarily in disturbed environments along streams and levees.may be adaptions to such an environment. Culinary use 6 of 12 12/13/2010 1:01 PM . Ginkgo evolved in an era before flowering plants.. Ginkgos are also popular subjects for growing as penjing and bonsai. survived and were soon healthy again. In some areas. Because of its status in Buddhism and Confucianism. The tree is the national tree of China. cycads. supports the notion that flowering plants with better adaptations to disturbance displaced Ginkgo and its associates over time. While almost all other plants (and animals) in the area were destroyed. it is one of the earliest fossils ascribed to the Ginkgophyta. The trees are alive to this day. the trees are easy to propagate from seed. Japan. and are widely planted along many streets. tolerating pollution and confined soil spaces. because the male trees will not produce the malodorous seeds.htm) ). though charred. with Ginkgos seeding into natural forests. and cycadeoids dominated disturbed streamside environments. where six trees growing between 1–2 km from the 1945 atom bomb explosion were among the few living things in the area to survive the blast (photos and details (http://www. forming a low.500 years old. cycads. Trichopitys is distinguished by having multipleforked leaves with cylindrical (not flattened) thread-like ultimate divisions.Wikipedia.Ginkgo biloba . Furthermore. The fact that diversity in the genus Ginkgo drops through the Cretaceous (along with that of ferns. and are attacked by few insects. in both areas. while Baiera for those with fewer than four veins per segment. ginkgos are excellent urban and shade trees. some planted trees at temples are believed to be over 1.growing to a height of 10 m before elongating its side branches . late reproductive maturity) are the opposite of those exhibited by modern plants that thrive in disturbed settings. For this reason. The popular cultivar 'Autumn Gold' is a clone of a male plant. and for their general beauty.
" . Japanese cooks add Ginkgo seeds (called ginnan) to dishes such as chawanmushi.. However. In 2002 a long-anticipated paper appeared in JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association (http://jama.ama-assn.pdf) .  In memory enhancement Ginkgo is believed to have nootropic properties. was rejected by JAMA. sponsored by the National Institute on Aging rather than Schwabe. and came to a very different—if not exactly sweeping—conclusion: There was ample evidence to support "the potential efficacy of Ginkgo biloba EGb 761 in enhancing certain neuropsychological/memory processes of cognitively intact older adults. and anti-vertigo agent. the raw gametophyte (meat) of the seed can cause poisoning by MPN (4-methoxypyridoxine). The impact of this seemingly damning assessment. and are often served at special occasions such as weddings and the Chinese New Year (as part of the vegetarian dish called Buddha's delight). Medicinal uses Extracts of Ginkgo leaves contain flavonoid glycosides and terpenoids (ginkgolides. seeds with the fleshy coating removed are perfectly safe to handle. Ginkgo nuts are used in congee. they are believed to have health benefits. the free encyclopedia file:///D:/Medical/Downloaded%20Medical%20Pages/Omega%203%. (Belgium). wearing disposable gloves. Recently. In Chinese culture. Some controversy has arisen over the conclusions drawn by some studies that were funded by a firm which marketed Ginkgo. Ginkgo biloba in Tournai. Ginkgo seeds with sarcotesta When eaten by children in large quantities (over 5 seeds a day) or over a removed long period.Wikipedia. the outer fleshy coating. now cited in the National Institutes of Health's ginkgo fact sheet (http://nccam. Studies have demonstrated that convulsions caused by MPN can be prevented or terminated with pyridoxine. careful clinical trials have shown Ginkgo to be ineffective in treating dementia or preventing the onset of Alzheimer's Disease in normal people. and is mainly used as memory and concentration enhancer..org/) ) titled "Ginkgo for memory enhancement: a randomized controlled trial. ginkgo provides no measurable benefit in memory or related cognitive function to adults with healthy cognitive function." This Williams College study. These people should handle the seeds with care when preparing the seeds for consumption. said: "When taken following the manufacturer's instructions. some also consider them to have aphrodisiac qualities.nih. examined the effects of ginkgo consumption on healthy volunteers older than 60. studies differ about its efficacy." 7 of 12 12/13/2010 1:01 PM . Ginkgo supplements are usually taken in the range of 40–200 mg per day. was ameliorated by the almost simultaneous publication of a Schwabe-sponsored study in the less prestigious journal Human Psychopharmacology. However. and are a traditional Chinese food. however. The conclusion. The nut-like gametophytes inside the seeds are particularly esteemed in Asia.. conducted at Jerry Falwell's Liberty University.gov/health/ginkgo/D290_Herbs. bilobalides) and have been used pharmaceutically. The largest and longest independent clinical trial to assess ginkgo biloba’s ability to prevent memory loss has found that the supplement does not prevent or delay dementia or Alzheimer’s disease. 60 years of age and over. The symptoms are dermatitis or blisters similar to that caused by contact with poison ivy.Ginkgo biloba . and cooked seeds are often eaten along with other dishes.. Some people are sensitive to the chemicals in the sarcotesta. This rival study.
India concluded that Ginkgo is an effective treatment for arresting the development of vitiligo. vomiting. 8 of 12 12/13/2010 1:01 PM . Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research in Chandigarh. especially for individuals with blood circulation disorders and those taking anticoagulants such as ibuprofen. respiratory and central nervous system disorders. Ginkgo side effects and cautions include: possible increased risk of bleeding.Ginkgo biloba . A second randomized. In dementia Ginkgo has been proposed as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease on the basis of positive preclinical results in mice. diarrhea. However.Wikipedia. nausea. the effect was almost immediate and reaches its peak in 2. aspirin.5 hours after the intake. the free encyclopedia file:///D:/Medical/Downloaded%20Medical%20Pages/Omega%203%.  Ginkgo should also not be used by people who are taking certain types of antidepressants (monoamine oxidase inhibitors and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) or by pregnant women. Ginkgo can be used for intermittent claudication. Allergic precautions and contraindications to use People taking pharmaceutical blood thinners such as warfarin or coumadin should consult with their doctor before taking Gingko biloba extracts. although recent studies have found that ginkgo has little or no effect on the anticoagulant properties or pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects.. Ginkgo extract may have three effects on the human body: improvement in blood flow (including microcirculation in small capillaries) to most tissues and organs. a randomized controlled clinical trial published in JAMA in 2008 found it ineffective at treating dementia in humans. however. In other symptoms Out of the many conflicting research results. heart palpitations. controlled trial published in JAMA in 2009 similarly found no benefit from ginkgo in preventing cognitive decline or dementia. or warfarin. The presence of amentoflavone in Gingko biloba leaves would indicate a potential for interactions with many medications through the strong inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9. If any side effects are experienced. A study conducted in 2003 by the Department of Dermatology. protection against oxidative cell damage from free radicals. In one such study. and blockage of many of the effects of plateletactivating factor (platelet aggregation. Side effects Ginkgo may have undesirable effects. showing modest improvements in cognition and fatigue without increasing rates of serious adverse events in this population. and restlessness. Preliminary studies suggest that Ginkgo may be of benefit in multiple sclerosis. as it acts as an anti-coagulant. It is possible that the concentration of amentoflavone found even in commercial Gingko biloba extracts is too low to be pharmacologically active. gastrointestinal discomfort. headaches. without first consulting a doctor. there is a lack of any empirical evidence supporting this. dizziness. Some studies suggest a link between ginkgo and the easing of the symptoms of tinnitus. renal. blood clotting) that have been related to the development of a number of cardiovascular. According to some studies. consumption should be stopped immediately. Ginkgo can significantly improve attention in healthy individuals..
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