Introduction to Microbiology History Contagion: Spread of disease Pioneers responsible for the science of bacteriology: Antony van Leeuwenhoek: discovered the microscope in 1675 Louis Pasteur: The founder of modern Microbiology( 1860-1890): culture methods, principles of immunization Joseph Lister: professor of surgery in Glascow. Applied Pasteur·s observations to prevention of wound sepsis. In 1867 invented antiseptic technique to kill bacteria in wounds Robert Koch: German GP who discovered the bacterial causes of many diseases including tuberculosis in 1882 ( Koch·s postulates) Definitions Microorganisms are minute living things that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Microbial pathogens are microorganisms that have structures or products that allow them to cause disease. Microbiology is the study of all organisms in the microscopic range. This include bacteria, fungi, algae, viruses and protozoa. Classification of Microorganisms Classification of Microorganisms Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Viruses Bacteria Fungi Cyanobacteria Protozoa Classification of Microorganisms Nomanclature (Naming) Genus e.g. Staphylococcus Species e.g Staphylococcus aureus Bacteria Are unicellular organisms without a defined nucleus They vary in shape, size, metabolic activity, motility, and requirement for physical and chemical agents They reproduce by asexually by binary fission They occur as cocci (spherical), bacilli ( rods) spirilli (spirals), vibros (coma shaped) , wavy (spirochetes). Divided into two broad types by the Gram stain: Gram positive, Gram negative In culture, they are arranged as pairs, tetrads, clusters and chains. Bacterial shapes The Gram Stain Fungi and moulds Are microscopic and macroscopic, can exist as unicellular or multicellular bodies Are widely distributed in nature, like dark, moist and humid environments Cause diseases ranging from superficial to systemic infections. Viruses Are smaller than bacteria and are visible only with electron microscopes Are strict parasites growing only in living cells e.g. fertile eggs and tissue culture They possess a central core which is either DNA or RNA May cause disease in humans, animals, insects and plants Viruses also infect bacteria ( bacteriophages) Transmission and control of microbial pathogens Definitions: Host: is an organism that harbors another organism Pathogenicity: is the capacity of microorganism to cause disease 

      

 

          

  

        



A Pathogen: is an organism that is capable of causing disease Virulence: the degree of intensity of the disease produced Virulence factors: microbial factors that allow an organism to cause disease Infection: is the invasion and damage to tissues by microorganisms Disease: the observable disturbance of the state of health whereby the body is unable to carry out normal functions Colonization: the continuing presence of microorganisms usually for weeks, months or even years without injury or invasion of host tissues Normal flora: are microorganisms that normally inhabit different body surfaces, including the skin, hair, nails, mucous membranes of the digestive tract, respiratory tract, urethra and vagina. Types of Pathogens Primary Pathogens: Microorganisms which can cause diseases in normal hosts i.e., those with normal defense mechanism Enzymes- hyaluronidase, catalases, coagulase Avoidance of phagocytosis capsules Conventional pathogen Conditional pathogen Opportunistic pathogen: Microorganisms which do not cause disease in normal hosts but do so in hosts with impaired defenses. Benefits of non pathogenic microorganisms 1. Contribution to health e.g. normal flora 2. Food production e.g. yogurt, bread, spreads e.g vegemite 3. Chemical production- enzymes, antibiotics, vitamins 4. Genetic engineering- production of hormones, insulin etc 5. Elimination of pollution- bioremediation, degradation of toxic compounds e.g. polychlorinated biophenyls (PCB), cleaning up of oil spills Microbial pathogenesis (How microorganisms cause disease) Adherenceleads to colonization and invasion. Adhesisn, fimbriae, pilli, capsules. Toxin productionendotoxins, exotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins Substances that damage host tissue or impede host defenses Haemolysins, leucocidins, Bacterial toxins Sources and reservoirs of infection Source: The source of infection is the site from which spread occurs to the host. These include Inanimate objects: water, food (fruits and vegetables), equipment Animals: snails, fish, milk, uncooked or undercooked meat, fish etc. Humans: infected individuals, those incubating an illness, those with subclincal infection and those recovering from infection. Reservoir: a reservoir is the organism·s usual residence, where it reside and replicates Route of transmission: 1. Contact transmission: Direct: person to person- skin infection Indirect contact: via an object. 2. Common vehicle : an object touches a source or reservoir before the host 3. Airborne transmission e.g. droplet nuclei 

        

         

        

    

       

4. Vector borne e.g. malaria, dengue (mosquitoes), Salmonella food poisoning (flies) Mode of transmission: Faecal - oral route- (food, water), Droplet, Blood and direct contact. Portal of entry: Mouth and gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, skin, genital tract. Source of transmission of microbial pathogens Exogenous infections: Arising from outside the host. Can occur by ingestion, inhalation, inoculation (insect bites), implantation ( surgical wounds or transfusion), sexual intercourse. Endogenous infections: ( arising from within). Occurs when normal flora becomes an conditional or opportunistic pathogen. Etiology of infectious disease Koch·s postulate: 1. The same pathogen must be present in every case of the disease 2. The pathogen must be isolated from the diseased host and grown in pure culture. 3.The pathogen from the pure culture must cause the disease when inoculated into a healthy susceptible laboratory animal 4. The pathogen must be re-isolated from the inoculated animal. Exception to Koch·s postulate: 1. Koch postulates are modified to establish etiologies for diseases caused by viruses and bacteria that can not by grown on artificial media 2. Some diseases such as pneumonia and nephritis may be caused by a variety of microorganisms 3. Some pathogens e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes cause different diseases 4. Some diseases may not have well defined signs and symptoms e.g tetanus. Control and prevention of infections Health education Personal hygiene, hand washing, food hygiene Immunization Passive immunization: antibody is given to protect against infection. It produces instant effect. No need for immunity to develop. Active Immunity- Vaccination: A part of a pathogen is given ( live, killed, attenuated). Needs time for immunity to develop Antimicrobial prophylaxis. Vector control- spraying with insecticides etc. Laboratory diagnosis of microbial pathogens Collection of specimens Any tissue or body fluid can be obtained from patients and subjected to investigation. Specimens include blood, urine, faeces, sputum, tissues, pus. Microscopylight microscopy: wet mount, Gram stain, Zn stain, silver stain etc. Fluorescence, dark field, electron microscopy Growth of microorganism, Tissue culture, Culture media, animal inoculation. Identification: Biochemical tests, serology (antigen ² antibody reactions) DNA technology, Probes. Amplification

    Antimicrobial susceptibility testing To test for their likely response to antibiotic therapy Bacterial typing To determine strains relatedness .

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