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Required Specification: The transformer will be designed to supply a full wave, bridge type rectifier with an output of 10 volts and a minimum output current of 2 Ampere. Primary Voltage : 220 volts rms Secondary voltage : 10 volts, 2 amperes Operating Frequency: 60 Hz

Step 1:

From the specified output dc voltage, compute the voltage across the secondary, Esn; Esn = 2.35Es The factor 2.35 was obtained from twice the ratio of the root mean square to the average value plus an allowance for 5 percent regulation. It is applicable for full-wave rectification. See Table 1. Esn = (2.35)(10) Esn = 23.5 volts Table1. Factors K and K’ for Single-Phase Rectifier Supplies Capacitor Input K K’ Full-wave 0.707 1.06 Half-wave 1.4 2.2

Step 2:

The dc current is also multiplied by a factor (1.06) before being used to compute the input power (VA). Is = K’ Idc. The factor 1.06 is listed in Table 1. Is = k’Is1 Is = (1.06)(2) Is = 2.12 amperes

Step 3:

The ouput power, Pout is obtained from the equation: Pout = EsIs Pout = (23.5)(2.12) Pout = 49.82 watts =50watts

n 40 – 80 80 – 85 From the equation: n = 81.Step 4: Consult Table 2.38 VA where the factor 0. VA= Pout__ 0.25% VA = 50 (0. For the corresponding efficiency. Efficiencies for Various Power Supplies Output in Watts Approximate Efficiency in Percent 20 70 30 75 40 80 80 85 100 86 200 90 Interpolation of data given in Table 2. 40 50 80 80 n 85 40 .9)(0.9n Table 2.9 is the power factor . then compute the power input in Volt-amperes (VA).50 = 80 .8125) VA = 68.

000 EI 75 0.58 A = 1.00 1.5 0.000 EI 21 0.000 EI 12 1. Tongue Width Lamination.75 0.75 0.812 0 24.22in .361 13.38 5.8 14.22in See Table 3.61inches tl = (3/2)tw tl = (3/2)(1.48 g = 1.00 2.9 14.22) tl = 1. W = (1/2)tw W = (1/2)(1. g would be: g = tw = A g = tw = 1.500 EI 11 0. 14.875 0.609 0 17. Compure the window width (w) and torque length (tl).The tongue area (see Figure 6) in square inches is computed from the equation. EI Core data on B.000 EI 625 0.48 in2 Step 5: Assuming an area has a square cross section then the tongue width.83 inches Table 3. tw = 1.14 0 . A= VA 5. and d core weight At 60 hz EI Type Torque Width Core Lamination of Lamination Weight EI B inches Lb (Gauss) 3. Choose EI-125 C.22) W = 0.43 0 54. and stacking height.625 0.58 A = 68. 13. 13.199 5.000 EI 75 0. For standard tongue width lamination. 13.966 0 37.000 EI 12 1. 14.

respectively.500 12.75 2. Ip.5 1.56 9.05 Np (Esn) Ep where Np .49 x 220 x 106 60 x 12. is computed by.25 1. Np and Nsn.500 x 1.tongue area in square inches B . Ip = VA 220 Ip = 68.38 220 Ip = 0.5 1.) Primary: Np = 3.flux density in Gauss (from Table 3. 0 110 145 195 525 12.000 10.25 1.5 220 Ns = 73.frequency in Hz(60hz) A .000 11.000 12.number of turns in secondary Ep .primary rms voltage (220 in our case) f .252 Np = 655. the primary current.82.31 amperes . Prior to this.83 3.92 6.2 turns = 656 turns Secondary: Ns = 1.58 turns = 74 turns Step 7: The next step is to determine the sizes of magnetic wires to be used in the coils.97 4.49 Ep x 106 fBA Ns = 1.500 EI 125 EI 125 EI 13 EI 13 EI 19 1.05 x 656 x 23.number of turns in primary Nsn .75 Step 6: The primary and secondary turns. are computed from the equations: Np = 3.

125 30 0.0625 39 0.917 0.1875 18 0.0089 0.452 0.200 0.0062 329.25 14 0.3836 0.0126 0.0097 130.0133 0.0508 0.0142 0.92 0.0056 0.0045 0.68 0.0079 206.1517 0.092 0.9 0.0571 0.1019 0.385 4.7692 0.0159 0.77 0.0469 5.0 0.223 0.80 2.43 0.0476 0.Table 4.36 1. dp.0403 0.1875 19 0.945 0.858 0.125 31 0.47 0.14 1.125 28 0.542 0. and core weight AWG Diameter in inches Ohms per Pounds per Margin B and S Bare 1000 ft m in Enamelled 1000 ft Gauge inches 10 0.0334 10.0045 659.0403 0.125 29 0.125 26 0.0625 40 0.90 0.0035 0.1 0.818 0.1562 22 0.9989 31.0374 8.003 15.15 3.1875 17 0.0299 12.0937 33 0.125 0 23 0.1562 21 0.525 12.3042 0.0122 81.0588 3.0266 16. Magnet wire data on diameter.0100 0.0050 0.1203 0.0827 1.25 15 0.0937 37 0.0050 523.9 0.0719 0.1 0.0641 0.0937 35 0.0169 40.8 0.0040 0.25 16 0.0190 32.125 25 0.25 11 0.1562 20 0.0071 0.0239 20.37 0.83 0.1 0.0757 0.0080 0.0937 38 0.0937 34 0.0040 831.0088 164.808 0.25 13 0.0253 0.0213 25.0954 0.0625 Then to acquire the primary and secondary wire diameters.0152 51.125 27 0.260 24.125 24 0.0179 0.0524 4.6100 0.2413 0.0056 414.0070 260.2 0.43 0.0738 2.0299 0.0600 0.0359 0.0927 0.81 0.588 19.8 0.25 12 0.0285 0.0359 0.0453 0.0320 0. ds in inches.016 7.4837 0.0927 1.0031 0.0659 2.0377 0.9699 0.051 3.0036 1049 0.67 1.064 6.899 0. resistance.1913 0.6 0. .10390 0.0109 103.184 9.0937 36 0.0063 0.0135 64.125 32 0.0418 6.

0179 inches Secondary wire size: #17.13 I( in amperes) 2470 – 585 logPin 1/2 Primary: dp = 1.d = 1. This information will be used in estimating the coil build up to check if the winding will fit the window of the core.38 1/2 0. Use commercially available sizes. dp = 0. Initially.12A 2470 – 585log68. compute first for winding length. The turns per layer for both primary and secondary sides are required. After this.044 inch diameter Determine from Table 4. the gauge or wire number of magnetic wire.032 .13 dp = 0.017 inch diameter Secondary: ds = 1. it is also necessary to know how many turns are supposed to be made before starting another layer of windings.31A 2470 – 585log 68.0453 inches • Now for the actual construction. Primary wire size: #25. wl. the number of layers to be formed should also be known. ds = 0.13 2. wl = tl – 2( margin) – 2(bobbin allowance) where: bobbin allowance = 0.38 1/2 ds = 0.

83 – 2(0.516 0. (with insulation)(dp’) Turns/layer = 1.13 = 8 layers Because some figures were rounded off.125).125 inches wl = 1. but the next column of that particular size which gives the actual diameter of the wire considering the enamel insulation: For primary winding: Turns/layer = winding length (wl) Primary wire dia.margin = 0.019 Turns/layer = 79. check if the values still satisfythe number of turns in the primary winding.032) wl = 1.79 = 80 turns/layer Number of layers = number of turns (Np) Turns/layer Number of layers = 656 92 Number of layers = 7. Turns/layer = Np Number of layers Turns/layer = 656 8 = 82 turns/layer . Note that the information for the specific bare wire in Table 4 was not used.516 inches Step 8: The number of turns per layer and the number of layers is determined by the equation below.2(0.

5 To check these values: Turns/layer = Ns Number of layers = .000 4.65 60 0.0 60 0.004 Grain-oriented silicon 10.0 400 0.000 4.000 0.014 Grain-oriented silicon 15.004 Grain-oriented silicon 6.5 800 0.5% silicon 14. Frequenc Lamination Core Core Flux Approximate Core y Thickness Material Density Loss in Watts/Lb in Hz (inches) Bm in Gauss 25 0.014 4% silicon 12.0469 Turns/layer = 32.Number of turns = (turns/layer)(number of layers) = (82) (8) = 656 turns This value still satisfies the number of turns and allowance to fit 656 turns.000 1. Turns/layer = wl Secondary wire dia( with insulation)(ds’1) Turns/layer = 1.516 0. Continue by computing the number of turns per layer in the secondary windings.32 = 32 turns/layer Number of layers (n) = Nsn Turns/layer Number of layers (n) = 74 32 Table 5.000 1. Core characteristics data at different operating frequencies.025 2.

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