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A silent E on the end of a word makes the vowel in front say its name. A-E rate hate fate mate mane pane plane I-E ripe time ride side fine pine pipe O-E note hope Pope code rode U-E cute huge cube tube use
rat hat fat mat man pan plan
rip Tim rid Sid fin pin pip
not hop pop cod rod
cut hug cub tub us
We cannot end a word with U or V. We must put UE or VE. UE true blue glue sue issue clue value VE give curve have leave move serve live reserve sieve deserve twelve forgive deprive attractive
Note the sound uv is spelled OVE e.g. love dove glove shove above
E makes C sound s. CE race face place lace pace ice nice
E makes G sound j. GE cage page age rage wage huge large change
The sound ul at the end of a word is sometimes spelled LE. little simple apple bubble treacle candle sparkle people dazzle battle angle kettle
) s sense nonsens e horse else house mouse purse nurse crease z noise poise pause cause because please these those lose grease choose cheese But 5 words end in ZE breeze freeze sneeze squeeze wheeze 6 .SE Singular one-syllable words ending in the sound s or z in the letters SE. (This is to distinguish them from plural words which end in S.
dance chance mince dunce once ounce bounce confidence entrance fence offence defence But sense breeze nonsense dense 7 .NCE The sound ns at the end of a base word is nearly always spelled NCE.
come done gone none some one imagine genuine promise engine 8 .No job E A few words end in ‘no job E’ for no obvious reason. They are usually words which used to be pronounced with the long vowel sound.
Dropping final E Words ending in a silent E drop the E before adding an ending beginning with a vowel. +ing hoping aching diving joking live daring serving pasting ruling dancing cruising writing taking making coming +ed hoped ached dived joked lived dared served pasted ruled danced cruised +er diver joker server ruler dancer cruiser writer taker maker +en or +y or +ous hope ache dive joke live dare serve paste rule dance cruise write take make come noise fame taken noisy famous 9 .
dye hoe shoe dyeing hoeing shoeing acre mile acreage mileage 10 . To keep the s or j sound on words ending in CE and GE. change changed changing. To clarify meaning.g.Do not drop final E We keep final E when adding endings. (Unless the ending begins with E. notice noticed noticing. I or Y. race raced racy. mange mangy CE service serviceabl e peace peaceable notice noticeable change GE changeable outrage outrageous courage courageous advantage advantageous 2.) e. 1.
) FF staff cliff stiff whiff cuff huff muff puff stuff off LL small tall cell fell hell smell swell spell tell ill bill fill shrill skill drill well gill hill kill mill quill pill sill till still doll pull full dull gull hull brass class grass lass mass pass glass chess cress dress less mess press bliss kiss boss SS cross loss moss toss fuss But if of has pal nil gas this us yes thus bus plus And odd add egg inn ebb fizz buzz jazz 11 . (The vowel sound is usually short. L and S are doubled after a single vowel in a one-syllable word.FF The letter s F.
back pack rack sack tack whack shack track crack black deck peck wreck quick lick flick tick stick cock dock flock mock sock pock rock clock frock buck duck luck muck tuck truck struck 12 .CK The sound k is spelled CK straight after a short vowel sound at the end of a one-syllable word.
Doubling consonant before vowel ending In one-syllable words with a short vowel sound we must double the last consonant before adding an ending beginning with a vowel. PP stopped hopped skipped wrapped whipped shopped TT stopper hopper skipper wrapper whipper shopper hit sit bat fit get hot flat plan run fan pin planning running fanning pinning NN planned fanned pinned planner runner tug dig beg hitting sitting batting fitting getting hotter flatter tugging digging begging batted fitted get hottest flattest GG tugged digger begged hitter sitter batter fitter get hot flat stop hop skip wrap whip shop stopping hopping skipping wrapping whipping shopping 13 .
Doubling middle consonant Middle consonants are often doubled after a short vowel sound which is stressed. dinner supper ribbon rabbit hammer common cabbage ripple middle bubble apple little penny syllable But palace 14 .
) +ed quarreled leveled cancelled travelled rebelled labeled tunneled shoveled signaled +ing quarrelling leveling cancelling travelling rebelling labeling tunneling shoveling signalling +ic quarrel level cancel travel rebel label tunnel shovel signal metal metallic 15 . if the last syllable ends in one vowel plus L.Doubling L before vowel ending In words of more than one syllable. we must double the L before adding an ending beginning with a vowel. (The vowel sound is usually short.
Doubling medial R To keep a short vowel sound before r we must double the R. barrow borrow burrow sorrow marrow arrow tomorrow arrive marry carry berry sorry lorry hurry curry arrogant error terror horror horrid horrible terrible 16 .
little apple middle saddle) sister brother mother winter captain under basket 17 .g.Do not double if… We never double consonants if there are already two. (except before LE e.
Y = i and ee The sound i or ee at the end of a word is spelled with the letter Y. lady baby shaky pony ivy silky rocky bogy soggy frosty dusty fizzy jumpy lumpy leaky healthy wealthy heavy ready spooky thirsty freely creepy beauty majesty scarcely dictionary jolly silly hilly voluntary gladly madly sadly surely lately immediately bossy sissy sorry 18 .
I or Y? 1. Rare ay way pay say tray may hay stay day today play ai rain again pain sail raid tail nail chain train oy boy toy joy enjoy annoy royal voyage destroy oi oil soil voice coin boil noise join point spoil ey they prey obey ei veil reil skein sleigh neigh vein eight their 19 . OY is also used at the end of a syllable. 2. The sounds with I are used in the middle of a word. The sound containing final Y are used at the end of a word.
(We never double I.) lady baby army party diary library tidy easy handy ladies babies armies parties diaries libraries tidily easily handily hurry worry silky pretty heavy carry worry marry carry fly try cry hurries worries silkiness prettiness heaviness carrier worrier marriage carriage flies tries cries 20 . unless the ending begins with I.Change Y to I If a word ends in a consonant plus Y we change the Y to I before adding any ending.
before ly and ness. If a word ends in a vowel plus Y.Keep Y before ending We keep Y before adding an ending: 1. ly dryly shyly slyly ness dryness shyness slyness But say pay lay slay day said paid laid slain daily dry shy sly 21 . vowel + y pray destroy obey prey enjoy boy say joy saying ing praying destroying obeying preying enjoying ed prayed destroyed obeyed preyed enjoyed er prayer destroyer various enjoyable enjoyment boyish boyhood joyous joyful 2. If the Y sounds I.
X.ES After the letters S. (Adding ES always makes an extra syllable so you can hear when ES is needed. SH. Z.) bus pass stress kiss miss boss loss toss buses passes stresses kisses misses bosses losses tosses six box fox buzz lash wash dish fish wish cosh dash sixes boxes foxes buzzes lashes washes dishes fishes wishes coshes dashes catch match watch peach stitch ditch coach roach church catches matches watches peaches stitches ditches coaches roaches churches 22 . CH we add ES.
F to VE When a word ends in F we change the F to VE before adding S. loaf leaf calf half wolf life thief loaves leaves calves halves wolves lives thieves elf self shelf wife knife scarf elves selves shelves wives knives scarves 23 .
OES Some words ending in a consonant plus O add ES to form the plural. tomato potato volcano echo hero Negro tomatoes potatoes volcanoes echoes heroes Negroes But mosquito torpedo veto embargo innuendo mosquitoes torpedoes vetoes embargoes innuendoes Some just add s pianos solos manifestos 24 .
lorry lady baby penny bully lorries ladies babies pennies bullies cherry berry ferry bunny party cherries berries ferries bunnies parties spy fly cry ally try rely reply supply spies flies cries allies tries relies replies supplies 25 .Change Y to I and add ES If a word ends with a consonant plus Y we change the Y to I and add ES for the plural.
1’s 2’s 3’s 4’s 5’s A’s B’s C’s D’s E’s +’s -‘s ×’s ÷’s %’s 26 .Numbers. Signs To make numbers. letters and signs plural we add apostrophe S. Letters.
quick quiz queen queer quench quibble quarrel quaint quake quite queasy quote quote quotation quiet quest question query quell quill quiver quirk qualm quizzical querulous quail equerry request inquest require enquire bequeath Note not kw queue quay 27 .QU To letter Q has no sound by itself. QU must be followed by a vowel. We always put QU and it sounds kw.
quad quash quarry quarrel squadron quantity quality qualify quarantine squabble squat squash squad squalid squander 28 .WA and QUA The sound o after W is spelled with the letter A. was want wash watch wand wander wallop wasp wallet waddle waffle warrant wad wan swan swamp warranty Note w (h)at The sound o after QU (sounds kw) is spelled with the letter A.
WOR The sound wer is spelled WOR. worm word world wormwood worth worship worse work worthy wort worst worker workin g But worked were 29 .
I or Y it sounds s. cell cent recent decent century cease cedar ceiling celebrate celery nice mice once piece CE cellar cement cemetery censor census centipede center certain peace except grocer ice slice circus circle recite cider cigar cinder excited pencil icing Cl cinema cinnamon cipher circumstanc e cistern citadel city civil civilian CY cycle bicycle cygnet cymbal cynic cypress cyclamen cyclist cyclone cylinder fancy 30 .Soft C If single C is followed by the letter E.
I or Y it often sounds j.Soft G If single G is followed by the letter E. GE generation genuine genius genial geometry geography geology germ gesture GI gin ginger giant gist gigantic GY gym gymnastic gymnasium gypsy gyrate Note gig gild gill gilt gimlet gift gingham girder girdle cage page huge large gem general generous gentle tiger geese gear gelding get geyser girl gibbon giddy 31 .
guess guest guelder guerilla guy guide guild guilt guile guise guillemot guillotine guinea guitar guilty beguile disguise But guard guess 32 . I or Y it often put GU.GU To spell the sound g before the letters E.
i or ee = I before a vowel To spell the sound i or ee before a vowel we use the letter i. radio radiator Indian radiant Note IGUE intrigue IQUE antique INE machine submarine gelatine margarine radius obvious experience material 33 .
or ST in one-syllable words. LT. ND bind blind find grind kind mind rind wind behind remind LD child mild wild old hold bold cold fold gold scold told sold mo(u)ld LT bolt jolt ST most ghost post host 34 . LD.ND LD LT ST To letters I and O sometimes sound their names before ND.
O and U. I. O.A E I O U at the end of syllable To spell the sounds A. E. and U at the end of a syllable we usually just put the letters A. E. A baby navy lady gravy bacon apron April radio radiator lazy E even remain repeat report because beside believe decide deliver reward December I silent spider China pirate giant Friday lilac quiet cider O open over hotel moment total October November U music tulip pupil student stupid uniform tunic usual usually lupin January February July 35 . I.
and before final N.U or W? 1. ow cow how now bow powder flower owl clown town brown ou house mouse found ground round sound about out count mountain aw saw raw straw awful draw law lawyer sawn lawn prawn drawn yawn au haul launch autumn August laundry cause sauce Saucer caution low blow show know slow bow fellow arrow ow narrow yellow crow snow blown shown known flown oa boat coat coal throat load soap roast toast coach ew flew chew drew new stew knew grew threw blew yew hew hewn oo room soon zoom fool moon roof hoof food boot school 36 . 2. The sounds containing final U are used in the middle of a syllable. The sound containing final W are used at the end of a word or syllable.
(At the end of a word ER is most common.Ur The sound er is often spelled UR when stressed.) UR turkey Thursday purpose return hurtle turtle turgid ER after bother sister brother supper dinner hammer dimmer further murder curtain turnip burglar turbine purple 37 .
(Note This rule is not needed in areas where this sound is pronounced a.) UR ask basket mask grass grasp task gasp clasp pass father rather mast past Last past fast after craft Note Some words have a silent l instead of AR calm calf palm psalm qualm 38 . except in the words ‘rather’ and ‘father’.A = ar The sound ar is spelled with the letter A if it followed by two consonants.
ceiling deceive receive receipt 2. For the sound ee after the letter C. Sometimes for the sound A. 1.EL We use the letter El. EL = A vein rein veil reign deign weigh feign neigh sheik reindeer surveillance weight fight neighbor freight sleigh But neither seize forfeit leisure their counterfeit foreign sovereign conceit perceive deceit 39 .
cap cup We need K 1.C or K? We put C for the sound k whenever possible. Before E. 1 E. I and Y ask task mask walk talk stalk chalk thank rank bank ink sink think ark bark shark cat catch cot copy collar scratch scrape scream act sect duct cupboard cube cuckoo. After another consonant at the end of a word. But kangaroo skate kale kaleidoscope kali kaolin koala Koran kosher skua skull skulk skunk 40 . 2.g. I and Y to keep the k sound. I and Y kettle make kennel shake kerb take keep lake key mistake kernel kill kestrel kipper ketch kick ketchup kid kelp kidnap keg kidney kemp kiln handkerchief kilt kit kitchen kite kitten kiwi kiwi kimono kin kind kindle king kink kiosk kiss skin kylin kymograph kyanize 1 E. e.
e. After the letters N. soft C and soft G we put EL. after N panel channel tunnel funnel kennel after R quarrel barrel after S vessel tassel diesel after V level travel shovel after W towel vowel trowel jewel after G (j) and C (s) angel cancel others label chapel model pastel duel 2. W. Where it means ‘to do with’ the word in front we put AL. S.LE El Al The sound ul at the end of a base word is often spelled LE. V. R. table little bubble dazzle candle gentle riddle rifle angle sparkle pickle apple title 1. musical accidental personal comical seasonal theatrical physical mental topical tropical mechanical normal coastal universal biblical 41 .g.
or CI. (not SH). TI nation ambition invention information composition examination ambitious preferential fictitious cautious infectious SI invasion occasion explosion session admission procession permission CI social ancient conscience electrician magician delicious suspicious gracious But fashion cushion 42 .TI SI Cl To spell the sound sh at the beginning of all syllables except the first we put Tl. SI.
CE after N once since mince prince wince dunce ounce bounce entrance chance lance prance entrance dance fence pence sentence pretence excellence Note The sound z after X requires no C e. 1.EX + C and NCE We spell the sound s. C after X except excite excitement excellent exceed excess excel excise excerpt 2. exist example exercise But sense nonsense immense 43 .g.
Compound words Compound words retain the full spelling of both words. someone anyone anything something knowledge upset withheld uphill toward backward classroom timetable 44 .
FULL and TILL always drop one L when added to another word.ALL WELL FULL TILL The words ALL. WELL. always already almost also alone although welcome welfare awful wonderful helpful useful cheerful beautiful until 45 .
actor director ambassado r ancestor author bachelor collector competitor conqueror error governor inspector instructor inventor professor successor traitor But soft C and G take ER to keep the s and j sound avenger grocer a simple verb ending in E becomes ER baker maker writer 46 .OR We use the ending OR when the word means ‘one who’ or ‘that which’.
the neutral vowel is usually A. al comical musical global spherical seasonal ant attendant assailant sergeant lieutenant ar angular calendar circular consular muscular scholar liar ary dictionary centenary literary parliamentar y library ance attendance inheritance insurance vengeance acquaintanc e remittance an musician electrician magician 47 .A If an ending means ‘to do with’ or ‘a person who’.
ISE IZE The sound ize at the end of a word can almost always be spelled ISE. ISE realise tantalise appetise dramatise baptise organise authorise apologise recognize economise advertise sunrise despise supervise advise exercise surmise chastise surprise utilise sympathise But IZE prize capsize assize tranquilize hypnotize mesmerize YSE analyse paralyse 48 .
ISE abrasion collusion inclusion delusion fusion confusion profusion decision adhesion circumcision seclusion derision illusion occasion cohesion discussion intrusion persuasion explosion invasion revision vision division provision television incision 49 .SION The sound zhon at the end of a word is spelled SION.
through. a ante anti bi de di re pre pro peri se semi Tri (on.Prefixes with vowel ending Prefixes ending a vowel do not change their spelling before a base word. from. into. without) (before) (against) (two. double. to. before) (around) (apart. up. without) (half) (three) 50 . out. down. in place of. for. back) (before) (forth. away. completely. un-) (twice. away. towards. across) (again. in. twice) (from.
beyond) (across. badly) (after) (under) (over.Other constant prefixes The following prefixes which end with a consonant do not change their spelling before a base word. (Note some are also words so apply to Compound words.) circum inter mis out over post sub super trans un under (around) (between) (wrongly. beyond) (negative. contrary) 51 .
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