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http://www.scribd.

com/doc/62146380/10-Legendary-discoveries-phytotechnology-water-treatmentheavy-metals-ceratophyllum

Toward new phytotechnology of water treatment: plant Ceratophyllum demersum removes


heavy metals - lead, cadmium, copper, zinc - from water

S.A. Ostroumov
[Series: Fundamental Legendary Discoveries, Innovations. Item 10]; (on the author: http://famousscientists.ru/3732/) Ostroumov S.A., Shestakova T.V. Decreasing the measurable concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the water of the experimental systems containing Ceratophyllum demersum: The phytoremediation potential // Doklady Biological Sciences. 2009, Vol. 428, No. 1, p. 444-447. [ Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009; Nauka/Interperiodica distributed exclusively by Springer Science+Business Media LLC] ISSN 0012-4966 (Print) 1608-3105 (Online); DOI10.1134/S0012496609050159; http://www.springerlink.com/content/ml1062k7271l318n/ http://www.maikonline.com/maik/showArticle.do?auid=VAFZC61RXH&lang=en Full text free: http://b23.ru/35cr ; http://b23.ru/35cf; Using the method of inversion voltamperometry, the concentrations of the heavy metals Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb were measured in the water of the experimental microcosms. Aquatic macrophytes Ceratophyllum demersum were incubated in some of the microcosms. The measured concentrations of all four metals decreased in the microcosms with macrophytes much faster than in the control microcosms without any macrophytes. Translated from the Russian original text: Decreasing in the measurable concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the water of the experimental systems with Ceratophyllum demersum: phytoremediation potential // Doklady Akademii Nauk. 2009, vol. 428, No. 2, p. 282285. Bibliogr. 15 refs. --KEY WORDS: improving, water, quality, heavy, metals, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, chemical contamination, aquatic environment, innovative, methods, waste, water, treatment, phytoremediation, macrophytes, higher aquatic plants, pollution, control, phytotechnology, new, environmental, technology, biotechnology, microcosms, anodic inversion voltamperometry, coontail, hornwort, Ceratophyllum demersum, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, pollutants, xenobiotics, contaminants, biological, effects, phytotoxicity, aquatic, ecotoxicology, biogeochemistry, geochemical, ecology, allowable load of pollutants, allowable discharges, anthropogenic, impacts, role, biota, self-purification, water, water systems, maximum permissible concentration, MPC, water bodies, drinking-water, sustainable, use, using, cultural, domestic, municipal, laundry, purposes, standards, water quality, sanitary-hygienic safety, safety, ponds, streams, detecting,

What is new Using the method of inversion voltamperometry, the concentrations of the heavy metals Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb were measured in the water of the experimental microcosms. Aquatic macrophytes Ceratophyllum demersum

References and comments

Ostroumov S.A., Shestakova T.V. Decreasing the measurable concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the water of the experimental systems containing Ceratophyllum demersum: The phytoremediation potential // Doklady Biological Sciences. 2009, Vol. 428, No. 1, p. 444-447. [ Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009; Nauka/Interperiodica distributed exclusively by Springer

were incubated in some of the microcosms. The measured concentrations of all four metals decreased in the microcosms with macrophytes much faster than in the control microcosms without any macrophytes. KEY WORDS: improving water quality, heavy metals, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, chemical contamination of the aquatic environment, innovative methods of waste water treatment, phytoremediation, macrophytes, higher aquatic plants, pollution control, phytotechnology, new environmental technology, environmental biotechnology, microcosms, anodic inversion voltamperometry, coontail, hornwort, Ceratophyllum demersum, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, pollutants, xenobiotics, contaminants, biological effects, phytotoxicity, aquatic ecotoxicology, environmental biogeochemistry, geochemical ecology, allowable load of pollutants, allowable discharges, anthropogenic impacts, the role of biota in self-purification of water, water systems, maximum permissible concentration, MPC, water bodies, drinking-water, sustainable use of water, using water for cultural, domestic, municipal, laundry purposes, standards of water quality, sanitaryhygienic safety, environmental safety, ponds, streams, detecting metals; In another format: Innovation / Discovery

Science+Business Media LLC] ISSN 0012-4966 (Print) 16083105 (Online); DOI10.1134/S0012496609050159; http://www.springerlink.com/content/ml1062k7271l318n/ http://www.maikonline.com/maik/showArticle.do?auid=VAFZ C61RXH&lang=en; Full text free: http://b23.ru/35cr ; http://b23.ru/35cf; Translated from the Russian original text: Decreasing in the measurable concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the water of the experimental systems with Ceratophyllum demersum: phytoremediation potential // Doklady Akademii Nauk. 2009, vol. 428, No. 2, p. 282285. Bibliogr. 15 refs.

Why it is useful

Which questions were answered Do aquatic plants have a potential to remove simultaneously several toxic metals from water? 2

Where this innovation / discovery was published


Ostroumov S.A., Shestakova T.V. Decreasing the measurable concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in the water of the experimental systems containing Ceratophyllum demersum: The

Removal from water of four heavy metals simultaneously, under effect of aquatic plant

Contribution to a new efficient technology of water treatment, improving water quality

Is it possible to find a species of aquatic plants that have a potential to remove simultaneously four toxic metals from water lead, copper, cadmium and zinc? Can aquatic plants remove these four toxic metals so that their concentrations in water decrease reaching a safe level? If yes, how much time does it take? The answers, to a degree, in: http://www.scribd.c om/doc/62146380/

phytoremediation potential // Doklady Biological Sciences. 2009, Vol. 428, No. 1, p. 444447. [ Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2009; Nauka/Interperiodica distributed exclusively by Springer Science+Business Media LLC] ISSN 0012-4966 (Print) 16083105 (Online); DOI10.1134/S00124966090501 59; http://www.springerlink.com/co ntent/ml1062k7271l318n/ http://www.maikonline.com/mai k/showArticle.do?auid=VAFZC 61RXH&lang=en; Translated from the Russian original text: Decreasing in the measurable concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the water of the experimental systems with Ceratophyllum demersum: phytoremediation potential // Doklady Akademii Nauk. 2009, vol. 428, No. 2, p. 282285. Bibliog. 15 refs.

U.S. EPA (U.S.A.) indexed and cited this paper: in the EPAs HERO database [Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)]: cited: HERO ID: 362778; http://hero.epa.gov/index.cfm?action=search.view&reference_id=362778; OTHER EXAMPLES OF KEY DISCOVERIES in ecology, environmental sciences, biology: [Series: Fundamental Legendary Discoveries. Item 1]; Innovative conceptualization of how ecosystems improve water quality (water self-purification) http://www.scribd.com/doc/60659939/; additional key words: ecotoxicology, environmental chemistry, water, sustainability; aquatic, ecosystems, freshwater, marine, resources, ecosafety, biodiversity, protection, conservation, services, hydrosphere, pollution, control, prevention, habitats, decontamination, [Series: Fundamental Legendary Discoveries. Item 2]; New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents http://www.scribd.com/doc/60757545/ ; additional key words: book, detergents, surfactants, [Series: Fundamental Legendary Discoveries. Item 3]; Inhibitory analysis: New method to explore top-down control in ecosystems: eutrophication, algal bloom, self-purification; http://www.scribd.com/doc/61179989/3-Legendary-discoveries-top-Down-Control-Inhibitory-analysis; [Series: Fundamental Legendary Discoveries. Item 4]; 3

New: a solution to the problem of criteria for ecohazards of chemicals, and negative anthropogenic effects on organisms and biota. http://www.scribd.com/doc/60891549/; [Series: Fundamental Legendary Discoveries. Item 5]: A new solution to the problem of eutrophication: http://www.scribd.com/doc/61241602/ [Series: Fundamental Legendary Discoveries. Item 6]: New Measurements. Role of Pellets of Mollusks in Fluxes of Chemical Elements. http://www.scribd.com/doc/61247059/; [Series: Fundamental Legendary Discoveries. Item 7]; New Discovery: Pollutants Inhibit Fluxes of Chemical Elements. http://www.scribd.com/doc/61251644/; [Series: Fundamental Legendary Discoveries. Item 8]; New Discovery: BIOMACHINERY. Example: biomachinery of improving water quality (selfpurification) in aquatic (freshwater and marine) ecosystems. http://www.scribd.com/doc/61779321/; [Series: Fundamental Legendary Discoveries, Innovations. Item 9]; A new improved definition of the term ecosystem: http://www.scribd.com/doc/62076114/; **[Series: Fundamental Legendary Discoveries, Innovations. Item 10]: Toward new phytotechnology of water treatment: the plant Ceratophyllum demersum removes lead, cadmium and 2 other heavy metals from water: http://www.scribd.com/doc/62146380/; Key paper: http://www.getcited.org/pub/103493773; **[Series: Fundamental Legendary Discoveries, Innovations. Item 11]: A solution to the enigma of stability of the biosphere, the balance in ecology, the sustainability of the natural environment: http://www.scribd.com/doc/62333244/; **Item 12: Chemical and molecular regulation and self-organization in the biosphere. Ecological chemomediators, ecological chemoregulators: See: On the Concepts of Biochemical Ecology and Hydrobiology: Ecological Chemomediators. Contemporary Problems of Ecology, 2008, Vol. 1, No. 2, p. 238244. http://scipeople.com/publication/67236/; http://www.scribd.com/doc/41634664; http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sergei_Ostroumov/blog/5465_ConceptsEcologicalChemomedia tors; **Item 13: New hazards from low-level (sublethal) chemical pollution. Inhibition of activity of filter-feeders, and as a result, a decrease in efficiency of self-purification of water. See relevant information in publications that are mentioned here: Item 8: New Discovery: BIOMACHINERY. Example: biomachinery of improving water quality (self-purification) in aquatic (freshwater and marine) ecosystems: http://www.scribd.com/doc/61779321/; Item 1: Innovative conceptualization of how ecosystems improve water quality (water self-purification) http://www.scribd.com/doc/60659939/; Item 2: New facts on hazardous biological and toxic effects of surfactants and detergents: http://www.scribd.com/doc/60757545/ ; 4

**Item 14. Discovery of a group of situations where environmental pollution by a man-made chemical make a hazard of breaking an important link between components of ecosystems See the paper: A New Type of Effect of Potentially Hazardous Substances: Uncouplers of Pelagial Benthal Coupling .- Doklady Biological Sciences 2002, v.383, No.1-6; pp.127-130. http://www.scribd.com/doc/45913695/A-new-Type-of-Effect-2DBS-fulltext;
http://sites.google.com/site/ostroumovsergei/publications-1/new-type-of-action-of-potentially-hazardous-chemicals-uncouplers-of-pelagial-benthalcoupling-novyi-tip-deistviya-potentzialno-opasnykh-veshchestv-razobshchiteli-pelagialno-bentalnogo-sopryazheniya--dan-2002-v-383-no-1-p138-141; http://sites.google.com/site/ostroumovsergei/publications-1/a-new-type-of-effect-of-potentially-hazardous-substances-uncouplers-of-pelagialbenthalcoupling---doklady-biological-sciences-2002-vol-383-1-6; http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sergei_Ostroumov/blog/179_A_new_type_of_effect_of_potentially_hazardous_substances_uncouplers_of_pelagi albenthal_coupling; http://www.researchgate.net/publication/11319341_A_new_type_of_effect_of_potentially_hazardous_substances_uncouplers_of_pelagialbenthal_coupling; scipeople.ru/group/341/topic/1395/; www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12053562; www.springerlink.com/index/28v23jbfadl1y100.pdf;

**Item 15. Discovery of a new mechanism of how life (living organisms) adjust or condition some vital chemical parameters of the environment, and decrease toxicity of the environment. Ostroumov S.A. Some issues of chemico-biotic interactions and the new in the teaching on the biosphere / series: Ecological Studies, Hazards, Solutions. Volume 17. Moscow, MAX Press, 2011. 20 p. ISBN 978-5-317-03710-9. http://scipeople.ru/publication/102875/; http://www.scribd.com/doc/57818520/; [ .. - / : Ecological Studies, Hazards, Solutions. Volume 17. .: , 2011. - 20 . ISBN 978-5-317-03710-9. , ] **Item 16. New concepts ant terms: two-level synergism of man-made effects; synecological summation of man-made effects: synecological summation or synergistic summation of anthropogenic effects on organisms of two adjacent trophic levels: Ostroumov S.A. The hazard of a two-level synergism of synecological summation of anthropogenic effects. - Doklady Biological Sciences. 2001; 380: 499-501. http://sites.google.com/site/2001dbs380p499synerg/; Danbio52.2001v380p847.E.2 level.synergism Paper: Doklady Biological Sciences, 2001, vol. 380, (Russian edition: Doklady Akademii Nauk, 2001, vol. 380, p.847); two-level synergism; S.A.Ostroumov; http://b23.ru/n1dk = http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065634/Danbio52-2001v380p847-E-2levelsynergism; **Item 17: Finding of a new factor that may initiate algal blooms (also red tides, brown tides, blooms of cyanobacteria): Inhibitory analysis of top-down control: new keys to studying eutrophication, algal blooms, and water self-purification. Hydrobiologia. 2002, vol. 469, p. 117-129; http://www.scribd.com/doc/52598579/; http://b23.ru/nwmb; The Synecological Approach to the Problem of Eutrophication. - Doklady Biological Sciences, Vol. 381, 2001, pp. 559562; http://www.scribd.com/doc/49065550/;

A list of other fundamental discoveries: http://www.scribd.com/doc/59437439/; FAQ: Biotic Self-purification of Aquatic Ecosystems Water Quality Resources: http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sergei_Ostroumov/blog/9142; 5

CITATION: Scientists of which countries cited those discoveries: http://www.scribd.com/doc/54504932/-Table-worldWideCiting3-05; Scientists of which institutions cited those discoveries: http://www.scribd.com/doc/60225505/ A list of who cited those discoveries: http://www.scribd.com/doc/58228788/; Citation of publications authored by S.A.Ostroumov / ... .. Updt/ http://www.scribd.com/doc/58353188/Cited-ostroumov-big-Listupd-June21-2011-Nov8; OTHER EVALUATIONS of works of this author: Evidence of merit. Comments in published editions, reviews; other forms of evaluation of publications and works by Dr. S. A. Ostroumov: http://www.scribd.com/doc/59068679/; On the book: Ostroumov S.A. Introduction to Biochemical Ecology. Moscow University Press, 1986: http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sergei_Ostroumov/blog/4575; Reviews, evaluations of books by Dr. S. Ostroumov: http://www.scribd.com/doc/45111401/; About the publications by S.A. Ostroumov (opinion of a member of Russian Academy of Sciences): http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sergei_Ostroumov/blog/5724; Opinion on and rating of Dr. S.A. Ostroumovs works: comments of international experts of 10+ countries, citation in scientific literature worldwide. Updated April 26, 2011 : http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sergei_Ostroumov/blog/7034; About the author: http://www.famous-scientists.ru/3732/; On Twitter: http://twitter.com/Sergeiost;

Additional references and sites: a series of relevant papers by the same author, in Doklady Biological Sciences and other journals: www.scribd.com/ar55/documents?page=7; List of relevant papers with sites, abstracts, and key words online free (39 pages): http://www.scribd.com/doc/46454069/List-scribd-7January2011; List of relevant papers with sites, some of them with abstracts, and key words online free (6 pages): http://www.scribd.com/doc/50651350/-PAPERS-online-S-Ostro; EDUCATION : 6

The discoveries and made by this author, and the new factual data generated have a proved innovative potential to be used as a refreshing addition to the following lecture courses and educational seminars on a number of subjects including: Environmental monitoring; Environmental sciences ; Environmental studies ; Environmental chemistry ; Environmental toxicology ; Environmental ethics ; Environmental protection ; Environmental conservation ; Environmental policy ; Environmental management ; Environmental engineering ; Ecology ; Ecotoxicology; Aquatic science; Sustainability ; Biotechnology ; Limnology ; Zoology ; Pollution ; Water quality ; Biosphere ; Aquatic bioresources ; Biodiversity conservation ; Conservation biology ; Biochemical ecology ; Chemical ecology ; Ecological chemistry ; Bioassay ; Assessment of environmental hazards ; Man-made effects ; Anthropogenic impact ; Natural resources ; Eco-ethics ; Nanomaterials ; Nanoscience ; Biogeochemistry ; Geochemistry ; Phytotechnology ; Phytoremediation ; Aquatic ecosystems ; Biological oceanography ; Water resources ; Water pollution ; Organic pollutants ; Soil, water and air pollution ; 7

Inorganic pollutants ; Applied ecology ; Xenobiology ; Xenobiotics ; Invertebrates ; Freshwater biology ; Marine biology ; Plant-animal interactions ; Conservation of nature ; Hydrobiology ; Aquatic ecology ; Biotesting ; Phytotest ; Plant biology ; Biotransformation ; Global change ; Interations among organisms ; Toxicology of environment ; Protected areas ; Some of Dr. S. Ostroumovs scientific results were used in lectures delivered to university students in the U.S.A., Germany, Netherlands, and other countries. More detail on how Dr. S. Ostroumovs publications are being used to modernize education: http://www.scribd.com/doc/53784108/Modernizing-education-Ostroumov; http://b23.ru/nlov; ** KEY WORDS IN several LANGUAGES: Heavy, toxic, metals, lead, copper, cadmium, zink, phytotechnology, phytoremediation, ecotechnology, water treatment, green technology, improving, innovation, biomachinery, self-purification, biogeochemistry, pellets, new, chemical elements, fluxes, methodology, inhibit, ecotoxicology, environmental chemistry, water, quality, sustainability; aquatic, ecosystems, freshwater, marine, resources, ecosafety, environmental safety, biodiversity, protection, conservation, services, hydrosphere, pollution, control, carbon, climate, change, global, prevention, environment, protection, , , , , , , , , , ; , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ; Biogeochemie, neue, chemische Elemente, Flussmittel, Methodik, Muscheln, Weichtieren, Waschmittel, hemmen, kotoxikologie, Umwelt-Chemie, Wasser, Nachhaltigkeit, aquatische, kosysteme, Swasser-, Meeres, Ressourcen, ecosafety, Biodiversitt, Schutz, Erhaltung, Dienstleistungen, Hydrosphre, Umweltverschmutzung, Steuer-, Kohlenstoff, Stickstoff, globale, Erwrmung, Prvention, Umwelt-, Schutz-, ecosafety 8

; ; biogeoqumica, pellets, nuevos, elementos qumicos, los flujos, la metodologa, los bivalvos, moluscos, detergentes, surfactantes, inhibir, ecotoxicologa, qumica, ambiental, el agua, la sostenibilidad, acuticos, los ecosistemas, de, agua dulce, marinos, recursos, seguridad ambiental, la biodiversidad, la proteccin, conservacin , los servicios, la hidrosfera, la contaminacin, control, carbono, nitrgeno, fsforo, el cambio, el calentamiento global, la prevencin, medio ambiente, proteccin, biogochimie, des pastilles, de nouvelles, les lments chimiques, des flux, la mthodologie, les bivalves, les mollusques, les dtergents, tensioactifs, inhiber, l'cotoxicologie, la chimie, de, l'environnement, l'eau, la durabilit; aquatiques, les cosystmes, d'eau douce, marins, les ressources, la scurit environnementale, biodiversit, la protection, la conservation, les services, l'hydrosphre, la pollution, le contrle, carbone, azote, phosphore, le changement, rchauffement global, la prvention, l'environnement, la protection, C N P ; , ; ; , ; , definitie, ecosysteem, ecosysteemdiensten, ecologie, nieuwe, methodologie, water, kwaliteit, duurzaamheid, water, ecosystemen, natuurlijke, middelen, milieu, veiligheid, recht, biodiversiteit, bescherming, natuurbehoud, antropogene impact, controle, wijzigen, wereldwijde, preventie , milieu, bescherming, innovatie, wetenschap, onderwijs, definition, kosystem, kosystemtjenester, kologi, nye, metode, vand, kvalitet, bredygtighed, der lever i vand, kosystemer, naturlige, ressourcer, milj, sikkerhed, jura, biodiversitet, beskyttelse, naturbeskyttelse, menneskeskabt effekt, kontrol, forandring, global, forebyggelse , milj, beskyttelse, innovation, videnskab, uddannelse, definicin, los ecosistemas, servicios de los ecosistemas, la ecologa, la nueva metodologa, el agua, la calidad, la sostenibilidad, acuticos, los ecosistemas naturales, recursos, medio ambiente, la seguridad, el derecho, la biodiversidad, la proteccin, conservacin de la naturaleza, el impacto antropognico, el control, el cambio global, la prevencin , el medio ambiente, la proteccin, la innovacin, la ciencia, la educacin, definizione, ecosistema, servizi di ecosistema, ecologia, nuove, metodologia, acqua, qualit, sostenibilit, acquatici, gli ecosistemi, naturali, risorse, ambiente, sicurezza, normativa, biodiversit, protezione, conservazione della natura, impatto antropico, controllo, modifica, globale, la prevenzione , ambiente, protezione, innovazione, scienza, educazione, Definition, kosystem, kosysteme, kologie, 9

neue, Methodik, Wasser, Qualitt, Nachhaltigkeit, aquatische kosysteme, natrliche, Ressourcen, Umwelt-, Sicherheits-, Rechts-, Biodiversitt, Schutz, Naturschutz, anthropogenen Einfluss, Kontrolle, Vernderung, global, Prvention , Umwelt, Klimaschutz, Innovation, Wissenschaft, Bildung, definio de ecossistema, ecossistemas, ecologia, novos, metodologia, gua, qualidade, sustentabilidade; aquticos, ecossistemas naturais, recursos, meio ambiente, segurana, direito, biodiversidade, proteco, conservao da natureza, impacto antropognico, controle, mudana, mundial, a preveno , ambiente, proteco da inovao, cincia, educao, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , tanm, ekosistem, ekosistem hizmetleri, ekoloji, yeni, metodoloji, su kalitesi, srdrlebilirlik, sucul ekosistemler, doal, kaynak, evre, gvenlik, hukuk, biyolojik eitlilik, koruma, doa koruma, antropojenik etkisi, kontrol, deiim, kresel, nleme, evre, koruma, yenilik, bilim, eitim, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , definicji, ekosystem, ekosystemu, ekologia, nowe, metodologii, woda, jako, trwao, wodnych, ekosystemw i naturalnych, zasobw, ochrony rodowiska, bezpieczestwa, prawa, rnorodnoci biologicznej, ochrony, ochrony przyrody, czowieka wpyw, kontroli, zmiany globalnych, zapobieganie , ochrona rodowiska, ochrona, innowacje, nauka, edukacja, dfinition, les cosystmes, les services cosystmiques, l'cologie, de nouvelles, de la mthodologie, l'eau, la qualit, la durabilit; aquatiques, les cosystmes naturels, ressources, environnement, scurit, lgislation, de la biodiversit, la protection, conservation de la nature, l'impact anthropique, le contrle, le changement, global, de la prvention , l'environnement, la protection, l'innovation, la science, l'ducation, mritelm, ekosysteemi, ekosysteemipalvelut, ekologia, uusi, menetelmt, vesi, laatu, kestvyys, vesi, ekosysteemit, luonnollinen, resurssit, ymprist, turvallisuus, lain, luonnon monimuotoisuus, suojelu, luonnonsuojelu, ihmisen vaikutus, ohjaus, muutos, globaali, ennaltaehkisy -, ymprist, innovaatiot, tiede, koulutus, definiie, ecosistem, servicii ecosistemice, ecologie, noi, metodologie, ap, calitate, durabilitate, acvatice, ecosisteme, naturale, resurse, de mediu, de siguran, drept, biodiversitatea, protecia, conservarea naturii, a impactului antropic, de control, schimbarea, la nivel mondial, de prevenire a , mediu, protecia, inovaie, tiin, educaie, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , anthropogenic , , , , , , , , , , , , ,, , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,, , , , , , , , , ,

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