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SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh

L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy

GVHD:

MC LC
PHN 1. GII THIU TNG QUAN V CNG TY VISSAN
1. Lch s thnh lp v pht trin ca cng ty..............................................................................
1.1. Lch s thnh lp.........................................................................................................................
1.2. Chc nng...................................................................................................................................
1.3. Phng thc cng c v pht trin.............................................................................................
2. a im xy dng ......................................................................................................................
3. S ..............................................................................................................................................
3.1. S lc v X nghip ch bin kinh doanh thc phm...............................................................
3.2. Chc nng v nhim v ca X nghip.......................................................................................
3.3. S t chc v phn b nhn s ca X nghip.......................................................................
4. An ton lao ng v phng chy cha chy..............................................................................
4.1. An ton lao ng.........................................................................................................................
4.2. Phng chy cha chy................................................................................................................
4.2.1. Nhng nguyn nhn gy chy trong nh my.........................................................................
4.2.2. Phng trnh..............................................................................................................................
5. X l cht thi, v v sinh cng nghip......................................................................................
5.1. X l cht thi rn.......................................................................................................................
5.1.1. Cc loi vt cht ph thi.........................................................................................................
5.1.2. X l cht thi..........................................................................................................................
5.2. X l nc thi...........................................................................................................................
5.3. V sinh cng nghip....................................................................................................................
PHN 2. NGUYN LIU SN XUT CH GI R
1. Nguyn liu sn xut......................................................................................................................
1.1. Tht..............................................................................................................................................
1.1.1. Cc yu t nh hng ti cht lng tht.................................................................................
1.1.2. Cc bin i ca tht sau khi lnh ng...................................................................................
1.1.3. Cc bin i ca tht trong giao on tan gi...........................................................................
1.1.4. Cc yu cu k thut khi dng tht lnh ng sau qu trnh tan gi.........................................
1.2. Tm.............................................................................................................................................
1.3. C sn..........................................................................................................................................
1.4. Khoai mn...................................................................................................................................
1.5. Nm mo.....................................................................................................................................
1.6. C rt...........................................................................................................................................
1.7. Nc............................................................................................................................................
1.8. bnh trng r..............................................................................................................................
1.9. Bt nng......................................................................................................................................
1.10. Bn tu, min............................................................................................................................
1.11. u xanh...................................................................................................................................
1.12. C hnh tm...............................................................................................................................
1.13. Ti.............................................................................................................................................
2. Gia v..............................................................................................................................................
2.1. Mui............................................................................................................................................
Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r
1

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy

GVHD:

2.2. Tiu.............................................................................................................................................
2.3. Bt Ngt......................................................................................................................................
2.4. ng.........................................................................................................................................
3. Ph liu.........................................................................................................................................
3.1. Cm da xay...............................................................................................................................
3.2. H dn.........................................................................................................................................
3.3. Bao b..........................................................................................................................................
4. iu kin vn chuyn v bo qun.............................................................................................
4.1 Phng tin vn chuyn...............................................................................................................
4.2 Ch vn chuyn.......................................................................................................................
4.3 Thi gian vn chuyn...................................................................................................................
4.4 Bao gi.........................................................................................................................................
4.5 Xp d..........................................................................................................................................
4.6 Lu kho bo qun........................................................................................................................
PHN 3. QUI TRNH CNG NGH SN XUT CH GI R
1 Qui trnh sn xut.........................................................................................................................
1. Thuyt trnh qui trnh .............................................................................................................
R ng..............................................................................................................................................
Ra.....................................................................................................................................................
Ngm..................................................................................................................................................
Tip nhn...........................................................................................................................................
Xo.....................................................................................................................................................
Xay.....................................................................................................................................................
Cn gia v...........................................................................................................................................
Trn nhn...........................................................................................................................................
Nc pha bnh trng..........................................................................................................................
2.10 nh hnh...................................................................................................................................
2.11 V bao b PE..............................................................................................................................
2.12 p m..........................................................................................................................................
2.13 Cp ng....................................................................................................................................
2.14 ng thng tr ng..................................................................................................................
4. THIT B S DNG
1. Thau nha, ban y...................................................................................................................
2. my xy
2.1....................................................................................................................C
u to my..................................................................................................................................
2.2 Nguyn tc hot ng ca my..................................................................................................
2.3Qui trnh vn hnh my...............................................................................................................
3 My ly tm....................................................................................................................................
3.1 Cu to my...............................................................................................................................
3.2 Nguyn tt hot ng................................................................................................................
Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r
2

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy

GVHD:

4 My trn........................................................................................................................................
4.1 Cu to.........................................................................................................................................
4.2 Nguyn tc hot ng.................................................................................................................
4.3 Quy trnh vn hnh my
4.4 Cng dng.
5 cc my khc.................................................................................................................................
5.1 My bo si..................................................................................................................................
5.2 My ct hnh................................................................................................................................
5.3 Cho ............................................................................................................................................
5.4 Cc yu t v sinh nh hng n cht lng sn phm.
5.4.1 V sinh cng nhn.
5.4.2 V sinh qun o bo h lao ng.
5.4.3 V sinh my mc.
5.4.5 v sinh dng c bn gh
5.4.5 V sinh sn nh v tng vch trong xng ch bin.
5.4.6 Bng ng gi vic thc hin thao tc v sinh my mc, dng c, sn nh v vch tng
5.4.7 V sing trong lc ch bin
5.4.8 V sinh tn tr..
5.4.9 V sinh vn chuyn..
5.4.10 Bng nh gi vic thc hin v sinh trong lc ch bin, tn tr, vn chuyn.
5.5 mt s s c v hng khc phc
PHN 5. SN PHM......................................................................................................................
1. Mt s sn phm ti cng ty..........................................................................................................
2. nh gi cht lng ch gi..........................................................................................................
3. Bo qun v vn chuyn.....................................................................................
PHN 6. KT LUN V KIN NGH

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


3

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy

GVHD:

PHN 1. GII THIU TNG QUAN V CNG TY VISSAN

1. Lch s thnh lp cng ty:


Tn giao dch ngoi nc: VISSAN LIMITED COMPANY
Tn vit tt: VISSAN
Tng gim c: Bi Duy c
S Ti khon: 102010000150518 ti Ngn Hng Cng Thng, Chi Nhnh 7 - Tp. HCM - Vit
Nam
a ch: 420 N Trang Long, Phng 13, Qun Bnh Thnh, Thnh ph H Ch Minh
in thoi: (84 8) 5533 999 5533 888 Fax: (84 8) 5533 939. Email: vissan@hcm.fpt.vn
Website: www.vissan.com.vn

1.1 Lch s thnh lp:


- Cng ty VISSAN c u t v a vo hot ng ngy 18/5/1974, thnh lp theo quyt nh
143/TCQ ngy 16/3/1976 ca UBND thnh ph H Ch Minh vi tn gi l Cng ty Thc phm
I. L n v chuyn kinh doanh thc phm ti sng, thu mua heo, tru b v t chc git m cung
cp, phn phi v tiu th cc qun, trng hc, ch, bnh vin.
- Cui 1984, 1985, 1986, cng ty tham gia nhiu mt vi s nng nghip pht trin n heo thnh
ph, t chc quy trnh ch bin ti ch v y mnh xut khu.
-

thng nht ngnh tht heo, tru b trn a bn thnh ph theo vn bn 3486/UB ngy

20/8/1987 cng ty tip nhn v thnh lp 12 ca hng thc phm cc qun, hnh thnh mng
li bn l trc tip cho cng ty.

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


4

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


GVHD:
L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
- Thng 11/1989 Cng ty Thc Phm I chnh thc i tn thnh Cng Ty K Ngh Sc Sn gi
tt l VISSAN IMPORT EXPORT CORPORATION trc thuc Tng Cng Ty Thng Mi Si
VISSAN, tn giao dch quc t l Gn.
1.2. Chc nng :
- Cng ty VISSAN l mt n v sn xut ch bin thc phm v cn l mt n v kinh doanh
thng mi v xut nhp khu ca thnh ph.
- Hot ng ca cng ty nhm mang li hiu qu kinh t x hi gp phn p ng v nhu cu thc
phm cho ngi dn, tiu th sn phm chn nui cho ngi sn xut, gp phn gii quyt vn
lao ng v c bit l to thm ngun thu nhp cho ngn sch nh nc.
1.3. Phng thc cng c v pht trin ca cng ty :
- Trc tnh hnh pht trin ca x hi hin nay, ha nhp vo nn kinh t ang pht trin ca
cc nc trong khu vc cng nh cc nc trn th gii cng ty ang mnh dn xut khu vo cc
th trng mu dch t do nh M v cc nc EU, mt th trng y tim nng.
-

Bn cnh cng ty cng t ra phng hng pht trin trong tng lai.

- Cung cp y cho nhu cu ni a, cng c v pht trin mng li bn l trong nc.


- Tch cc tm kim th trng nc ngoi, lp cc vn phng i din, xc tin thng mi, tm
kim i tc kinh doanh.
- Vi ngun vn hin c cng ty khng ngng hon chnh nh xng, nng cp cc thit b hin
c, lin kt v hp tc vi cc n v trong v ngoi nc khng ngng nng cao cht lng sn
phm, tin ti t tiu chun quc t.
- Thng xuyn o to, bi dng cn b, nhn vin c nghip v tay ngh cao, c k nng lao
ng tt. Tng bc tin ti chun ha cn b v nghip v chuyn mn.
2.A IM XY DNG
- Nm trn b sng Si Gn, pha Ty v Nam gip
sng Th Tc. Din tch Cng ty rng khong 20ha, y
l a im thun li cho vic sn xut v ch bin v:
- Khu t rng, nm xa khu dn c, phng trnh c hi.
- m bo v sinh mi trng, ngn c s lan truyn
dch bnh gia gia sc ca nh my vi mi trng v
con ngi xung quanh.
- V tr thun li cho vic chuyn ch ng thy v
ng b cc ngun nguyn liu thu mua cng nh cung
cp, phn phi sn phm ni a v xut khu.
Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r
5

S mt bng tng th

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy

GVHD:

NG

SO

N
O
IG

SA
K HU HO
A THI E
U

TRAM
BM

K HU SA
N
XUA
T HA
NG
TRUY E
N THO
NG

N
C

I E
N
X
N G L O
C K H HI

K HU BA
O QUA
N
K HU SA
N XUA
T
THT NGUO
I

CHUO
N G HEO

BA
I XE
K HU GIE
T MO
HA
M PHA
N
PHO
N G K CS

SA
N TENIS

SO
NG

TH
U

VA

CHUO
N G GIA SU
C

TRAM
TIE
P
IE
N

CO
NG 2

CO
NG 1

3. S :
S t chc v b tr nhn s ca Cng ty:

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


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SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy

GVHD:

3.1. S lc v X nghip ch bin kinh doanh thc phm:


- X nghip ch bin kinh doanh thc phm tin thn l trm kinh doanh thc phm, c thnh
lp vo nm 1985 vi nhim v chnh l kinh doanh tht sc sn ti sng.
- Cng vi s pht trin ca Tng cng ty VISSAN, x nghip khng ngng pht trin v hon
thin. V vy ngy 14/3/1989 U ban nhn dn thnh ph ra quyt nh s 108/QUB thnh lp
x nghip ch bin kinh doanh thc phm trc thuc cng ty VISSAN di s qun l ca s
thng mi thnh ph.
- T khi thnh lp cho n nay mc d gp nhiu kh khn, phi cnh tranh vi cc sn phm trn
th trng ni a cng nh th trng nc ngoi. Nhng vi s n lc c gng ca mnh, x
nghip tng bc chim lnh c th trng, quy m sn xut v kinh doanh khng ngng
tng ln.
- Vi mc ch tha mn nhu cu ngy cng cao ca khch hng v cht lng cng nh v sinh
an ton ca sn phm. Thng 3/2003 Xng ch bin kinh doanh thc phm c thnh lp v i
vo hot ng vo thng 11/2003 vi tiu ch thc hin v ci tin h thng Qun L Cht lng
theo GMP, HACCP v ISO 9001: 2000.
3.2 Chc nng v nhim v ca X nghip
Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r
7

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


GVHD:
L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
Cn c vo quyt nh 108/QUB ca U ban nhn dn thnh ph v vic thnh lp X nghip ch
bin kinh doanh thc phm c nhng chc nng v nhim v sau:
Chc nng:
- Trong c ch th trng m rng th trng tiu th th cht lng sn phm l yu t
quyt nh s tn ti ca x nghip. Chnh v th m x nghip khng ngng ci tin mu
m, nng cao cht lng sn phm.
-

X nghip tng bc hon thin cc nh mc kinh t k thut, ng thi x nghip

cng a vo yu t thi v xy dng k hoch sn xut nhm khng gy nh hng n


cht lng sn phm v nh gi thnh hp l.
- X nghip tng bc m rng th trng trong v ngoi nc nhm cung cp cho th
trng nhng sn phm thit yu v m bo an ton cht lng.
Nhim v:
-

Kinh doanh ng ngnh ngh ng k.

Hon thin c v cht lng sn phm ln cc k hoch cung cp hng ha do nh nc


giao.

Hon thin k hoch hot ng hng nm.

Thc hin ng ch

3.3. S t chc v phn b nhn s ca X nghip ch bin kinh doanh thc phm

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


8

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy

GVHD:

BAN GIM
C

PHNG KINH
DOANH

PHNG T CHC
HNH CHINH

Nghip
v

Nghip
v

Nghip
v

Bo
v

T xe

T bn

T
mua

xng
tht ngui

PHNG K THUT
KCS

PHNG K TON

Tip
th

xng
ch gi

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


9
T nh
T pc bao
hnh
b

Th
qu

T kcs

B
phn kt

ch gi
n lin

T lp
xng

T h
co+honh
thnh

T v
sinh

Sx th

PHNG
SX

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy

GVHD:

BAN GIM
C

PHNG KINH
DOANH

PHNG T CHC
HNH CHINH

Nghip
v

Nghip
v

Nghip
v

Bo
v

T xe

T bn

T
mua

PHNG K THUT
KCS

PHNG K TON

Th
qu

Tip
th

T kcs

B
phn kt

xng
tht ngui

xng
ch gi

ch gi
n lin

T lp
xng

T pc bao
b

T nh
hnh

T h
co+honh
thnh

T v
sinh

4. AN TON LAO NG V PHNG CHY CHA CHY:


4.1. An ton lao ng:
Mi ngi trong cng ty phi tun th theo qui nh an ton do gim c ban hnh:
-

S dng y trang thit b bo h lao ng.

- Trang b khu trang, giy ng cho cng nhn lm nhim v chn nui, v sinh chung tri.
- Trang b o lnh cho cng nhn lm trong kho lnh, tr ng.
- Trang b khu trang, gng tay, tp d, giy ng cho cng nhn trong xng sn xut.

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


10

Sx th

PHNG
SX

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


GVHD:
L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
- Chp hnh v tun th bn giao ca, k nhn kim tra nghim tc: s bn giao, dng c, my
mc, v sinh
- Thc hin ng cc qui trnh cng ngh, vn hnh v thao tc.
- Thc hin ng qui tc an ton lao ng, phng chy cha chy.
- Phi c ro chn, bao che b phn truyn ng vi vn tc cao, cc thit b phi c rle t bo
v.
- Mi cng nhn phi c trch nhim qun l thit b ca mnh, khng c t vn hnh cc
thit b b phn khc m khng c s ng ca cp trn.
- Khi ngng my, kin tra hay sa chaphi ngt cu dao in v treo bng bo hiu cm ng
cu dao in.
-

Phi thc hin nghim: s dng v an ton in.

Khng a nghch trong khi vn hnh my, s dng in.

chp hnh nghim cc bin bo trong tng khu vc: cm la, cm ht thuc.

- Chp hnh tt cc k bo dng, bo qun thit b, v sinh nh xng, khi c s c phi thng
bo ngay kp thi x l.
4.2. Phng chy cha chy:
4.2.1 Nhng nguyn nhn gy chy trong nh my:
-

Do con ngi khng chp hnh vi phm qui nh v phng chy v cha chy, do s hay km

thc.
-

Do thin tai nh bo, st, gi gy t cc ng dy in, lm h cc thit b bo v in

Do ha chy t pht sinh ra chy n.

4.2.2. Phng chy:


Cng ty VISSAN s dng trn 90% nng lng in trong sn xut v ch bin v vy nhim v
c t ra trong vic qun l v s dng ngun in trong sn xut, sinh hot l phi thng
xuyn kim tra, bo dng v thay th hng ngy, hng tun, theo thi k, giai on:
-

Nu thy qu ti phi lp thm ph ti, dng thit b vi cng sut ln v ph hp hn.

Kim tra, bo tr, bo dng ng dy.

Mi thnh vin trong nh my, Cng ty u phi c trch nhim, thc c ngha v ca bn
thn trong vic phng chy, cha chy. Mi ngi phi c hc nhng nguyn tc c bn nht
trong phng v cha chy trng hp n gin.
4.2.3. Cha chy:
Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r
11

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


GVHD:
L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
- Khi pht hin chy phi thng bo cho mi ngi xung quanh, ngt cu dao in v tr gn
nht, an ton, cn trng v nhanh chng.
-

Thng tin cho lnh o, n v cha chy chuyn nghip.

Dng cc b phn t c cha chy ngay trong khu vc, nh xng.

T k thut tin hnh cp in, n, nm c r nguyn tc hot ng ca thit b my vi

nhng phn ng chy c bin php x l.


-

Mi ngi a ti sn ra khi khu vc c chy.

- Vi t cu thng s cp cu cho ngi bnh ng thi gi trung tm cp cu y t, hoc a


bnh nhn n bnh vin gn nht.
- Ban lnh o bo cho lc lng cha chy, gi hin trng v tm hiu nguyn nhn gy chy,
tm bin php khc phc
5.X L CHT THI, V V SINH CNG NGHIP:
5.1. X l ph thi:
5.1.1. Cc loi vt cht thi rn:
Trong qu trnh sn xut ch bin, sinh hot vt cht ph thi s pht sinh Cng ty v c phn
loi:
- Ph phm: gm ton b vt cht ph thi c ngun dinh dng di do gip cho s pht trin
ca vi sinh vt nh thit, m, cht nhy
-

Phn, lng: gm phn, lng ca gia sc c sinh ra t khu tn tr vt nui sng, khu xng

git m.
-

Rc sinh hot pht sinh trong qu trnh sinh hot, tm ra

Bao b: gm thng giy, bao nha cc loi, dy buc

5.1.2. Cch x l
Mi loi vt ph thi u c x l ring m bo vn an ton v sinh:
- i vi ph phm: c qut dn, gom, ht vo cc bao nilon kn v chc, khng r nc, rch,
buc kn ming bao. Khi lng ln ph thi c cha trong cc thng nha ln c lp y. Tt
c c vn chuyn tp trung vo bi rc ca Cng ty v xe rc s mang vo ni qui nh.
-

i vi phn lng: c dn sch s ti khu tn tr, git m sau c vn chuyn bng

phng tin kn. Phn c tp trung khu tn tr vt sng, tin hnh ri vi bt kh trng
ngay trong ngy. Lng heo c tp trung vo nh cha lng, trong khi lng g v vt cho vo
cc bao ln thc hin x l trong ngy.
Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r
12

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


GVHD:
L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
- Bao b: thng xuyn c gom gn trong tng khu vc hay phn xng, cui cng cng c
tp trung v vn chuyn n bi rc.
-

Rc sinh hot c b vo cc bch nilon ln cha rc, tp trung v vn chuyn n ng khu

vc.
5.2. X l nc thi:

B cha tp cht

Trm bm

B cn bng

B phn hy ym kh

B x l sinh hc

H thng ng dn kh v ha cht

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


13

Cng vo

B kh trng

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy

GVHD:

S quy trinh lm vic ca h thng x l nc thi:

Nc Thai
Ch Bin
Lc

Nc Thai
Chung Trai
Tp Trung
Thi Kh B Cn Bng

R
c

X L B Tuyn Ni
Phn Hy Ym Kh
Trung Ha
X L VSV Hiu Kh

Kh Nit
Lng
Kh Trng

Nc Thi Loi
B

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


14

Nn Bn

Phn Hy

B
n

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy

GVHD:

Vi tnh cht l Cng ty kinh doanh, sn xut, ch bin cc sn phm tht heo, tht b, tht g,

vtv vy m ngun nc thi ca nh my b nhim rt nghim trng cn phi c x l tht


sch, gim n mc thp nht, hn ch nhim mi trng xung quanh.
Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r
15

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


GVHD:
L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
- H thng x l nc thi ca nh my ngy cng c u t, ci to v hin nay h thng hot
ng rt n nh, hiu sut x l cao: Theo thit k ton b lng nc thi t khu tn tr ca
nh my c tp trung vo mt h ln A, nc thi khu sn xut cng c tp trung vo h
khc B, sau thi im sn xut hoc d tr nhiu hay t. Nc h A do c ln lng, phn v cc
tp cht khc nn s c bm qua sng lc cc tp cht khng phn hy c. Nc sau khi
sng cng vi nc h B c bm sang h khc lng gn rc cn st li ni ln trn, lng
nc bn di s bm tip vo h vi sinh v h thc vt trc khi c thi ra sng, h vi sinh
v h thc vt c nhim v phn hy vi sinh vt c hi ngn nga lm nhim mi trng xung
quanh.
5.3. V sinh cng nghip:
n, ung l nhu cu cn thit v ti quan trng ca con ngi i cng vi n mt vn ln lun
c t ra chnh l vn v sinh an ton thc phm. Mt sn phm t cht lng v c nh
gi cao ch khi n hon ton an ton cho sc khe ngi s dng. Cng ty rt ch v thc
hin tt cc chng trnh v sinh, p dng chng trnh HACCP vo sn phm ch gi.
- Trc khi vo sn xut cng nhn phi mc bo h lao ng ng quy nh. Sau dng x
bng v ra sch s t bn tay n khuu tay, ri nhng tay qua thau nc chlorine 50ppm kh
trng. Tip lau kh tay bng khn sch dng mt ln v i qua bn li ng.
-

Bn st trng ng phi b tr ti ca ra vo khu vc ch bin, bt buc tt c mi ngi ra vo

u phi li qua. Bn st trng c ngp nc khng di 0,15m, c l thot nc nh k v


c v sinh thng xuyn. Nng chlorine trong bn l 100
-

200ppm.

Cng nhn khi i ra ngoi phi v sinh ra tay sch s, khi quay tr vo cng phi thc hin v

sinh nh ban u.
-

Cng nhn phi ct mng tay, khng c eo n trang trn ngi.


T v sinh phi thng xuyn v sinh v sinh bn li ng, phng thay , nh v sinh mi

ngy v hng dn cng nhn v ng ng quy cch. Cui mi ngy sau ca sn xut t v
sinh thc hin lm v sinh:
Lm v sinh dng c: r, mung, khay cha, gng tay, ym
+ Ra qua nc sch.
+ Dng x phng v bn chi c ra.
+ Ra li bng nc sch.
+ Ngm trong bn cha chlorine 200 ppm trong 15 pht.
Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r
16

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
+ Ra li bng nc sch cho ht chlorine.

GVHD:

+ ro, ct gi ng ni quy nh.


Lm v sinh bn, gh, thng cha.
+ Dn sch hng.
+ Ra bng vi nc sch.
+ Dng x phng v bn chi c ra. Ch nhng ch gc cnh cn ch k.
+ Ra sch x phng bng nc sch.
+ Ra bng dung dch chlorine 200 ppm trong 10 pht.
+ Ra li bng nc sch cho ht chlorine.
+ ro v ct gi ng ni quy nh.
Git khn lau v bo h lao ng.
+ Cui ngy sn xut bo h lao ng, khn lau bn, khn lau tay c git sch
v kh trng.
+ em phi sy cho kh, sau ct gi ng ni quy nh.
-My mc, trang thit b ch bin, phng tin vn chuyn thng xuyn c kim tra, v sinh
ng k thut, ng phng php, nh k thay hoc bo dng theo ng nhu cn.
PHN 2. NGUYN LIU SN XUT CH GI
1.NGUYN LIU CHNH:
1.1.Tht heo:

Gii thiu chung:

Tht l ngun cung cp dinh dng giu nng lng cho c th.
Thnh phn cu trc ca tht l t l ca 3 loi m: m c, m lin kt v m m.
Thnh phn ha hc ca tht ph thuc vo nhiu yu t: c th gia sc, ging loi, gii tnh,
mc bo, mc ch nui dng, tui git tht v tng b phn ly tht.
nh gi phm cht tht phi cn c vo thnh phn ha hc, gi tr nng lng, mi v. Thnh
phn ha hc ca tht heo c xc nh nh sau:
1.1.1. Axit amin:

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


17

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


GVHD:
L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
Cc axit amin c trong tht heo hu ht l cc loi khng thay th cn tht cho c th con ngi:
tryptophan, lysin, arginin, methionin, cystine, threonine, locine, histidin, valin, phenylalanyl,
isoleucine to nn nhng protein c gi tr .
Bng 2. 1. Thnh phn cc axit amin khng thay th trong tht [8]

1.1.2.Khong:
Cht
khong: chim
khong 1,2
1,5%,

cha

nhiu

cht

Axit amin
Lysine
Methionine
Tryptophane
Phenyl alanine
Threonine
Valine
Leucine
Isoleucine
Arginine
Histidine

Hm lng % trong protit


7.8
2.5
1.4
4.1
5.1
5.0
7.5
4.9
6.4
3.2

khong: canxi, photpho, natri, kali, magie, lu hunh, clo


1.1.3. Vitamin:
Tht cha hu ht cc vitamin quan trng, cung cp kh y nhng loi vitamin c th cn
nh: vitamin B1, B2, B6, PP, H

Cc qu trnh bin i ca tht sau khi git m

Trc co cng:
Sau khi git m xong tht cn nng, m c mm, kh nng lin kt vi nc cao nht, pH gn bng
7, nhit khong 360C, trng thi ny ko di khong 2-4 gi.

Qa trnh co cng:
Sau giai on trc co cng tht bt u co cng, lc ny bn c hc tng. Tht giai on ny
khng c mi v thm ngon. m tht thp, ti thi gian ny lng dch tht tch ra khi li tm s
tng ln khong 40%. M c suy yu dn sau khi s co cng t cc i. l kt qu ca qu
trnh sinh ha phc tp do enzym gy ra:
+ Phn hy glucogen to acid lactic v chuyn pH t trung ha v acid. S acid ha mi
trng c tc dng c ch s pht trin ca vi sinh vt gy thi.
+ Phn hy acid adenosintriphosphoric (ATP)
ATP

ADP + (P) + Q

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


18

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


GVHD:
L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
Nh vy trong giai on ny s phn gii lm gim glycogen, ATP, creatin, hm lng
acid lactic tng, protein b bin i dn n c cng lm gim chc nng gi nc.
Tht bo qun lnh dng trong ch bin:
- Lnh ng l phng php bo qun tht rt tt, tuy nhin cng lm xu i mt s tnh cht ca
tht. Cc bin i xy ra khi lm lnh ng nh: mt nc, kt cu thay i; ph thuc vo tc
lm lnh, nhit ti thiu t c v thi gian bo qun.
-

Lnh ng cng c th lm thit hi cu trc ca t bo. Khi lm lnh chm th cc tinh th

nc ln s to ra trong mi trng ngoi bo. p sut thm thu khi u ca n nh hn


mi trng ni bo nn nc s chuyn t mi trng ni bo ra mi trng ngoi bo. Khi lc
ion trong mi trng ngoi bo tng ln ng k, t bo b tiu nguyn sinh v cc protein b bin
tnh.
- Khi lm lnh nhanh s to ra nhiu tinh th nc trong tht v do s chuyn nc gia
mi trng ni bo v ngoi bo l ti thiu, lc ny s bin tnh protein khng ln.
-

Hu qu chnh ca s bin tnh protein l kh nng gi nc b gim v s chy dch s


xut hin ngay khi lm tan gi. Dch chy ra thng cha cc vitamin, mui khong, cc
axit amin Tn tht v gi tr dinh dng t nhng tn tht trng lng c th rt ln.

Cc yu cu k thut khi s dng tht lnh ng trong qu trnh ch bin :


Trc khi a vo ch bin nguyn liu tht cn phi c kim tra v cc ch tiu cm quan,

ha l, vi sinh theo ng quy nh nhm m bo cht lng sn phm.

Cc dng h hng ca tht


Tht sau khi git m nu khng c bo qun tt rt d b nhim vi sinh vt gy bnh v c

th b nhim bn t bn ngoi vo nh: bi, da, lng Ngoi ra tht cn b nhim bn t bn


trong do th b bnh.
Cc dng h hng ca tht sau khi git m:

S ha nhy b mt:
y l dng h hng thng gp tht bo qun khi m khng kh cao (trn 90%) ch
yu do vi khun Pseudomonas, Streptococus, Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Achromobacter v mt
s loi thuc ging Lactobacillus. Nhit ti u cho s ha nhy l 2-100C, m tng
ng ca khng kh l 85-90%.

S ln men chua:

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


19

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


GVHD:
L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
Hin tng ny gy ra do khng lm sch ht mu khi git m to iu kin thun li cho vi
khun ym kh pht trin nh: Clostridium butyricum, Coliformes lm cho tht c mu xm,
mm nhn v c mi chua. Sn phm qu trnh ny to ra acid formic, acid acetic, acid
butyric, acid propyonic

S mc tht:
S mc tht gy ra do s pht trin ca cc loi nm mc gy ra trn b mt tht. Nm mc
khng gy thi ra nhng thy phn protein, ko theo s thay i pH, nh hng n cht
lng tht.

S thi ra:
Hin tng thi ra xy ra do vi sinh vt hiu kh gy ra nh: Proteus vulgaris,
Bac.msentericus, Bac.subtilis. Qa trnh xy ra bt u t b mt sau pht trin vo su
trong lng tht qua cc mch mu, ng tip xc gia tht v xng.

S bin i mu sc ca sc t tht:
Mu ca tht c th bin thnh mu xm nu hoc mu lc do s sn sinh cc cht oxy
ha hydrosunfua ca vi khun.

S bin i ca m:
Vi khun phn gii m c kh nng lm tan m v thc y nhanh chng qu trnh oxy ha
m, lm m b i thiu. Hin tng ny xy ra do vi khun Pseudomonas v Achromobacter
gy nn.

Bng 2.2.Ch tiu cm quan ca tht lnh ng


Tn ch tiu
Trng thi lnh ng
Trng thi bn ngoi

Yu cu theo TCVN 7074 : 2002


Khi tht ng cng, lnh dnh tay, b mt kh,
g c ting vang, cho php c t tuyt trn

Mu sc
Trng thi sau r ng
Trng thi bn ngoi

b mt ngoi ca khi tht.


Mu hng ti c trng.
- Dai, n hi, b mt khng b nht, khng dnh
tp cht l. Khi n ngn tay khng ln su,
khng c cc ng mu ln.

Mu sc

- M mm, dai, nh hnh.


Mu hng m n ti c trng ca tht.

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


20

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
Mi

GVHD:
C mi thm t nhin, c trng ca khi tht,
khng c mi l.

Trng thi tht sau khi luc


Mu sc
Hng nht.
Mi
c trng, khng c mi l.
V
Ngt c trng ca sn phm.
Nc luc
Trong, vng m ln.
Bng 2.3. Ch tiu ha l ca tht
Tn ch tiu
pH
Phn ng nh tnh H2S
Hm lng NH3
Nc luc tht khi phn ng CuSO4

Yu cu theo TCVN 7074 : 2002


5,5 6,2
m tnh
35 mg/100g.
Cho php hi c

Bng 2.4. D lng cc kim loi nng (TCVN 7074 :2002)


Tn ch tiu

Gii hn ti a (mg/kg)

Ch (Pb)

0,5

Cadimi (Cd)

0,05

Thy ngn (Hg)

0,03

Bng 2.5. Ch tiu vi sinh vt ca tht lnh ng (TCVN 7074:2002)


Tn ch tiu
Gii hn ti a
Tng s vi sinh vt hiu kh (trong 1g)
106
E.Coli (trong 1g sn phm)
102
Coliforms (trong 1g sn phm)
102
Samonella (trong 25g sn phm)
0
Bacillus.cereus (trong 1g)
102
Staphilococus aureus (trong 1g)
102
Clostridium botulium (trong 1g)
m tnh
Clostridium perfringens (trong 1g)
10
Bng 2.6.Ch tiu nh gi cht lng sn phm tht qua ch bin nhit theo TCVN
7049:2002
Tn ch tiu
1. Cm quan

Mc cht lng
Mu sc, mi v phi c trng cho
sn phm.

2. Ha l:
Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r
21

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
- Hm lng H2S.

GVHD:
-

m tnh.

- Hm lng NH3.

< 40mg/100g.

- Hm lng NO2.
3. Vi sinh:

< 167mg/100g.

- Tng s vi sinh vt hiu kh.

< 3.105khun lc/gam.

- Coliform.

< 50 khun lc/gam.

- E.coli.

< 3 khun lc/gam.

- Staphilococus aureus.

< 10 khun lc/gam.

- Shamollena.

m tnh.

- Clostridium botulinum.

0 khun lc/gam.

- Clotridium perfringens.

< 10 khun lc/gam.

- Bacillus cereus.

< 10 khun lc/gam.

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


22

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
Bng 2.7. Ch tiu cht lng m theo quy nh Q 867/1998/Q_BYT
Tn ch tiu
1. Cm quan:

Mc cht lng

- Mu sc

- Mi v

GVHD:

Bnh thng, trong, khng vn


c.

Khng c mi i chua, khng c


mi l.

2. Ha l:
- Hm lng nc

- chua (s ml NaOH 1N dng -

< 0,2 0,3%.


< 6 .

trung ha 100 g du).


- Phn ng Kress (xc nh i -

m tnh

kht).
- Ch s Peroxit (PV)
3. Vi sinh:

<5
< 103 khun lc/gam.

- Tng s vi sinh vt hiu kh.

< 10 khun lc/gam.

- Coliform

< 3 khun lc/gam.

- E.Coli

0 khun lc/gam.

- Staphilococus aureus

m tnh.

- Samollena
1.2.Tm
Gii thiu chung:
-Tm thuc loi gip xc, thn di hi trn, c bao bng mt lp v
mng cu to bng cht chitin. Mu sc ca tm do sc t thuc lp cuticum
hay nhng t bo ring bit quyt nh.Tht tm ngon v rt c gi tr, hm
lng protein v mui khong trong tht tm rt cao. Trong tht tm c
cha nhiu enzym, do khi bo qun tm khng ng cch tm rt d b
h hng. Nu lu m khng c bin php bo qun th trong tht tm s
tch ly acid lactic lm cho tm nhanh chng b thi hng, m c tht s b
phn hy, mu sc ca tm s b bin i t mu trng sang xm, hm lng
NH3 trong tht tm s tng ln gy h hng sn phm.
Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r
23

Hnh 1- Tm

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


GVHD:
L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
- Ngoi ra thnh phn ha hc ca tm cng ph thuc vo trng thi sinh l, ma v, thi tit
S khc nhau v thnh phn ha hc v s bin i ca chng lm nh hng rt ln n mi v v
gi tr dinh dng ca sn phm.

Ga tr dinh dng ca tm

a. Nc
C tht ca tm cha khong 70 85% nc. Hm lng nc ph thuc vo ging loi v
tnh trng ca tm. Trong c v trong t bo nc ng vai tr lm dung mi cho cc cht
tan, l mi trng cho cc phn ng sinh ha.
b. Protein
C tht ca tm cha khong 13 25% protein. Hm lng protein bin thin ty thuc vo
ging loi, iu kin dinh dng v cc loi c tht. im ng in ca protein tm l pH =
4,5 5,5. pH ny cc protein trung tnh v in, km a nc v ha tan trong nc
im cc tiu.
c. Lipid
M c ca tm cha lipid rt t, khong 0,05 3%. Thnh phn ch yu l photpholipid.
d. Vitamin
Cc vitamin c trong tm: vitamin B1, B2, PP, H, C Hm lng vitamin bin thin theo
ma v.
e. Khong cht
Tm l loi thc phm kh giu cht khong. Hm lng cht khong c trong tht tm bin
thin trong khong 0,6

1,5%. Hm lng cht khong ph thuc vo iu kin mi trng

sng ca tm.
Bng 2.8. Thnh phn ha hc ca tm [8]
(tnh theo trng lng ti)
Thnh phn
Protein

n v
g/100g

Tm
19 33

Lipid

0,3 1,4

Nc

76 79

Tro

1,3 1,87

Gluxit

0,5 1,5

Canxi

mg/100g

29 50

Photpho
33 67,6
Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r
St
1,2 5,1
24
Natri
11 127
Kali

127 - 565

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
Cc yu cu k thut khi s dng tm trong qu trnh ch bin:

GVHD:

m bo tnh an ton thc phm tm cn c kim tra theo cc ch tiu sau:


Bng 2.9.Yu cu cm quan ca tm
Tm nguyn liu (TCVN 3726 1989)
Tn ch tiu
Mc cht lng
Tm c bit
Mu sc
c trng, sng

Tm hng 1
bng, c trng,

sng

khng c m en

bng,

bt c im no trn

qu 10% s con

thn.

en
vnh

khng
ui

bng,

nhng co nh
vt en s mt
Trng thi

i.
Nguyn vn, khng mm, Nguyn vn khng
v u dnh cht vo

mm v, u

thn, khng long t,

lng lo nhng

v v, ru nguyn

khng v gch,

vn.

dn t nhng

Mi

khng st v.
Tanh t nhin, khng c Tanh t nhin, khng

mi l.
Ngt m, nc luc trong.

c mi l.
Ngt, nc luc
trong.

Bng 2.10. Ch tiu vi sinh ca tm (TCVN 5289 1992)


Tn ch tiu
Gii hn ti a
Tng s vi sinh vt hiu kh (trong 1g) < 106
Coliforms (trong 1g)
< 2.102
Staphilococus aureus (trong 1g)
< 102
Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r
Samonella (trong 25g sn phm)
Khng c
25
Shigella
Khng c
E.coli
Khng c

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy

GVHD:

1.3. Gh

Gii thiu chung:

-Gh l i tng hi sn qu, c gi tr dinh dng v thng mi cao


-Gh phn b khp cc vng bin nc ta, sng su 50 100m
Hnh 2- Gh

ca sng v y bn.

Thnh phn ha hc ca gh:

Tht gh l ngun protein cht lng cao, c nhiu vitamin v cc cht


khong cn thit cho dinh dng ca c th. Trong tht gh c cha: photpho, km, canxi, st v
rt t cht bo, c bit l cht bo no.
Bng 2.11. Thnh phn ha hc ca gh [8]
Nng lng

Thnh phn dinh dng trong 100g thc phm n c


Thnh phn chnh
Mui khong

(g)
(Kcal)
Nc Protein
Lipid Gluxit
93
75,5
19,9
0,5
2,2

Canxi
1,9

134

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


26

(mg)
Phospho
180 3,8

Vitamin
(mg)
35,8

0.04

0,07

3,9

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
2. NGUYN LIU PH:

GVHD:

2.1. Nm mo
Gii thiu chung:
-Nm mo l mt loi thc phm c gi tr dinh dng tng i cao. Giu cht khong v cc
acid amin khng thay th, cc vitamin A, B, C, Dv khng c cc c
t
- C th coi nm mo nh mt loi rau sch. Ngoi gi tr dinh dng
nm mo cn c nhiu c tnh ca bit dc, c kh nng phng v
cha bnh nh: lm h huyt p, chng bo ph, cha bnh ng rut,

Hnh 3-Nm mo

Bng 2.12. Thnh phn ha hc ca nm mo


Nm mo

Thnh phn (%)


m
Protein
Lipid
Cacbonhydrat
Si
Tro

Ti
87,1
7,7
0,8
87,6
14,0
3,9

Kh
13,0
,97
1,2
84,2
9,1
6,7

2.2. C sn
Gii thiu chung
- Cy sn c ngun gc Nam M, sn c du nhp vo Vit Nam
t th k 19. Sn pht trin tt trn cc vng t ct ven bin, ph sa
mi min t nc.
- Ty theo ging, iu kin canh tc v mu m ca t m c
sn c kch thc: di 0,1

Hnh 4-C sn

1,2cm v ng knh 2 12cm. Hnh

dng c khng ng nht, c c thng, c cong, c c li bin dng cc b.


- Hm lng protein trong sn kh cao, giu vitamin cn thit cho c th: vitamin B1, B2 , PP
- Trong ht c sn c cht c gi l rotenon (C23H22O6), tephrosin (C23H22O7). T l rotenon trong
ht c sn: 0,56

1,01%. Trong l cng c cht nh trong ht.

Bng 2.13. Thnh phn ha hc ca c sn [8]


Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r
27

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
Thnh phn
Nc
Tinh bt
m ton phn
Cht bo
Cht khong
Vitamin B1
Vitamin B2

GVHD:
Sn vng (%)
63,18
34,20
0,61
0,20
0,50
31g
75g

Sn trng (%)
91,80
32,90
0,13
0,21
0,83
58g
75g

2.3. Ti
Gii thiu chung
Ti c dng trong ch bin thc phm nhm lm tng tnh thm ngon
v cn c tc dng h tr tiu ha v khng sinh.
-Cc dc tnh quan trng ca hot tnh allicin trong ti:
- C tnh khng sinh mnh i vi 72 loi vi khun v nm mc gy bnh.

Hnh 5-Ti

- Ti lm tng sc khng cho c th bng cch lm tng kh nng min


dch,l hng ro chng nhim trng u tin.
-Trong 100 kg ti cha 60 200g tinh du, thnh phn ch yu ca tinh du l allicin. Cht ny c
tc dng dit khun rt mnh, n cng c tc dng chng xy ha Ngoi ra trong ti cn c cc
glycoside allinin, vitamin C, cc vitamin B1, B2, B6, cc cht phytosterol, inulin.
2.4. Hnh tm
Gii thiu chung
-

Hnh c tn khoa hc l Allium fistulosumlinn.Tn ting Anh l:

Onion.
- C hnh c v cay tnh bnh, khng c c tcdng thng kh hot
huyt, kch thch tiu ha. Trong c hnh c cha tinh du allixin c
tnh khng sinh, acid malic, phytin C hnh ti c cha caroten, vitamin B1, B2, v C.

Hnh 6- Hnh tm

- C hnh c dng trong ch bin thc phm nhm lm tng hng v v gi tr dinh dng.
Bng 2.14. Thnh phn ha hc ca c hnh tm. [8]
Thnh phn ha hc ca c hnh ti (%)
Nc

Protid

Glucid

Cellulos Tro

Ca

Mg

Fe

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


28

Vitamin(%)
Caroten B1

B2

PP

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
70,1

1,1

3,6

0,5

GVHD:

0,5

24,5

37,2

0,5

0,02 0,02

0,03

0,15

7,1

2.5. Khoai mn
Gii thiu chung
Khoai mn c tn ting Anh l: Taro.
- C khoai mn rt giu tinh bt v cht x. Ngoi ra trong c cn
cha nhiu vitamin v khong cht.
- L ngun cung cp cc vitamin B1, B2, Fe, P, Zn v rt nhiu
vitamin B6, C, B12, K v Mg.

Hnh 7- Khoai mn

2.6. C rt
Gii thiu chung
C rt c tn khoa hc l Daucus Carrota L.C ngun gc t Chu u, Chu
v Bc phi.
Trong 100g c rt cha:
Nc: 88.5%
Protein: 1.5%
Glucid: 8,8%
Hnh 8- C rt
Cellulo: 1.2%
Tro: 0.85%
-Yu cu k thut: Theo cm quan c rt phi cn nguyn vn, khng dp nt, khng su bnh,
mu ti sng, c mp
2.7. u xanh
Gii thiu chung
-L loi ht cung cp hm lng Protein rt cao, c th thay th mt phn
protein trong khu phn thiu protein t tht ng vt.
-u xanh c tnh mt, dng bi dng c th do c cha nhiu vitamin
v khong cht, trong dn gian n c dng nu xi, ch
-Trong cc phm thc phm chay nh ch gi chay th y l nguyn liu
rt quan trng.
-Yu cu k thut: Theo cm quan ht u nhp loi v, ht vng u, to,
khng b mc, m, c mi v l v xu
2.8. Nc thoa bnh trng v h dn
-Tc dng:
Thoa bnh trng, vt nc ct da
Gi m cho sn phm.
- Ngun nc phi c kim tra m bo cc ch tiu sinh hc v ha hc.

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


29

Hnh 9- u xanh

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


GVHD:
L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
- Nc thoa bnh trng c s dng vi mc ch lm bnh mm, d cun, gip bnh sau khi
chin s vng, p, khng b. Thnh phn: nc l:30l, da no: 3kg, ng: 0.3kg, nc mu:
150g. T l ng v nc l 1:10, nu hn hp ny n 70oC l c.
-H dn: c dng vi mc ch nh hnh cho bnh khng b, cun ch gi tr nn chc v p.
Thnh phn h dn: bt nng v nc vi t l 1:5. Dng bt nng pha vi nc si khuy u n
khi to dung dch st v ng nht.
2.9. Bt nng
-C tc dng lm kt dnh.
Cm quan
Bt mn, khng vn cc
Mu trng n trng ng
Mi thm c trng
Khng cha borat
Khng ln tp cht l..
2.10. Bnh r
-c lm t bt go, c mu trng c, ng knh 29 30 cm, 60 64
l /kg, bnh phi nguyn vn khng b nt.
Trong 100g bnh r cha:
Nng lng: 342 kcal
Protein: 4g
Lipit: 0,2g
Glucid: 78,9g
Tro: 1,4g
Cenllulose: 0,5g
Canxi: 20mg
Phosphor: 6,5mg
Cm quan

Mu trng c hoc trng ng


Khng mi l
Khng c m hoc vt l dnh trn bnh
Nguyn vn, khng rch.

2.11. Bn tu v min
Cm quan

Si kh, khng gy vn

Sau khi ngm: dai, khng nhn hoc b

Mu trng n trng ng

Khng c mi l.
3. GIA V
3.1. Bt ngt
Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r
30

Hnh 10 bnh r

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
Cc ch tiu yu cu khi s dng bt ngt trong ch bin

GVHD:

Ch tiu cm quan
-

Trng thi: bt mn khng vn cc, d tan trong nc, s lng im en trong 10 cm2 < 2.

Mu sc : trng sng.

Mi : thm c trng, khng ln chua, khng tanh, khng c mi l.

V : ngt c trng.

Ch tiu ha l
Bng 2.15. Ch tiu ha l ca bt ngt (TCVN 1459 1974)
Tn ch tiu
pH

Gii hn cho php


6,5 7

Hm lng nc

< 1,4%

Hm lng Natri glutamat

> 80%

Hm lng NaCl

18%

St

< 0,05%

Hm lng SO42

< 0,002%

Liu lng bt ngt dng trong ch bin thc phm c quy nh trong ch gi
l 0,3 0,5% v gii hn ti a l 10g/kg.
3.2. ng ct trng
Yu cu v ch tiu ca ng
Ch tiu cm quan

Hnh dng: dng tinh th tng i ng u, ti kh, khng vn cc.

Mi v: v ngt, khng c mi l.

Mu sc: tinh th c mu trng, sng.

Ch tiu ha l
Bng 2.16. Ch tiu ha l ca ng (TCVN 6958 - 2001)
STT

Tn ch tiu
Mc
pol (0Z)
99,80
Hm lng ng kh, %khi lng (m/m)
0,03
Tro dn in, % khi lng (m/m)
0,03
0
S gim khi lng khi sy 105 C trong 3h, 0,05
% khi lng (m/m).
mu, n v ICUSAM

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


31

30

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
D lng sunfua dioxit (SO2)
Asen (As)
ng (Cu)
Ch (Pb)

GVHD:

7 ppm
1 mg/kg
2 mg/kg
0,05 mg/kg

3.3. Tiu
Gii thiu chung
- Tiu l mt loi gia v c s dng trong ch bin thc phm ti gia nh v
trong cng nghip thc phm. Tiu c v cay nng, ngt, mi thm rt c bit.
Khi cho tiu vo trong thc phm s lm tng hng v, to s hp dn, nng

Hnh 11- Tiu

cao gi tr cm quan cho sn phm.


- Ngoi ra tiu cn c tc dng h tr tiu ha, gii c v khng khun.
- Cc dc tnh quan trng ca tiu:

Tinh du tiu: c tc dng lm gim au, li tiu, nhun trng, khng khun

Piperin: c tc dng lm tng tnh kh dng sinh hc ca nhiu cht dinh dng cn
thit cho c th.

Yu cu k thut khi dng tiu vo ch bin

Ch tiu cm quan (TCVN 5387 1994)

- Trng thi: ti, mn kh, khng ln tp cht.


- Mu sc: c mu nu sm hoc en.
- Mi v: v cay nng t nhin, c mi thm c trng, khng c mi v l.
- Khng c nm mc su mt.

Ch tiu ha l

Bng 2.17. Ch tiu ha l ht tiu (TCVN 5387 1994)


Tn ch tiu
Hm lng m (%khi lng)

Mc gii hn
< 13

Tinh du bay hi (ml/100g khi lng kh)

Hm lng piperin (% khi lng kh).

Tro tng s (% khi lng kh).


4. BAO B

Gii thiu chung:

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


32

<6

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


GVHD:
L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
- Ngy nay bao b tr nn rt quan trng i vi hng ha ni chung v thc phm ni ring. Bao
b l vt liu dng bao gi sn phm gip bo v sn phm khng b tc ng bi cc yu t bn
ngoi gy h hng sn phm.
- Trong sn xut ch bin thc phm thng s dng cc loi bao b tip xc trc tip vi thc
phm: bao b thy tinh thng dng cho cc sn phm nc gii kht, bia, ru , bao b kim loi
dng cho sn phm hp v bao b lm t cht do dng bao gi rt nhiu loi sn phm. Bao
b mang li rt nhiu li ch:

Bo v nguyn trng thc phm cha bn trong, lm gim n mc thp nht h

hng c th xy ra khi vn chuyn.

To thun li khi thc hin mt s cng on k thut sau khi sn phm c a

vo bn trong bao b.

Thun li cho qu trnh bo qun, vn chuyn sn phm.

Bo v sn phm khng b tp cht, vi sinh vt xm nhp v pht trin.

Bao b cn c chc nng d dng in n, trnh by hnh nh bt mt th hin c

c y thng tin v sn phm gip ngi tiu dng d dng la chn sn phm.

Bao b cng l ni qung co sn phm tt nht, khng nh c thng hiu cho

cng ty.

Bao b PE (Polyethylene)

Bao b PE l loi bao b c tnh nng do dai, chu nhit tt thun tin cho vic thc hin cc cng
on k thut v bo v sn phm trnh nhng tc ng bn ngoi.

u im ca bao b PE:
- Tnh chng thm nc v hi nc tt.
- Chng thm cht bo, cht kh v hng tt.

bn c hc cao.

D dng hn ghp m.

Chu nhit tt.

Kh nng in n tt.

Nhc im ca bao b PE
- PE c tnh chng thm oxy km nn khng dng lm bao b chng xy ha.

Mt s ch tiu ca bao b PE:

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


33

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
- Lc bn ko cng: 100 200kg/cm2.

GVHD:

- Lc bn x rch cao, c nh hng n mc ch s dng ca nhiu loi bao b. Ga tr


ny cho bit kh nng ng dng ca cc mng mng khi vn hnh mt vi thit b.
- PE c lc bn hn nhit rt cao.
-

Mc hn rt tt khi chu nhit thp, thch hp cho bao b thc phm ng lnh.

Ngoi ra bao b PE c tnh n nh, c kh nng chu c nhit cao.


- n nh kch thc: PE khng b co gin khi m tng i xung quanh bao b thay
i.
- trt: l tnh ma st xut hin khi mng nha PE tip xc vi mt b phn thit b no
. PE c 3 trt:
trt cao vi h s: 0,1 0,3.
trt trung bnh vi h s: 0,3 0,5.
trt thp vi h s: > 0,5.
- bng, m: l nhng tnh cht rt quan trng i vi bao b nha do, v mt cm
quan i hi bao b trong sut phi c b mt bng v sng.

PHN 3. QUI TRNH CNG NGH SN XUT CH GI


Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r
34

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy

GVHD:

1. Quy trnh sn xut


Nng sn

Tht, m

Tm

s ch

r ng

r ng

ngm

ra

ra

ra

ra

xay

xay

xay

xo
xay

ct si

li tm
Bnh r

phi trn

gia v

nh hnh

ph liu

bao gi
p m
cp ng

Sn phm

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


35

Nm, Bn
ngm

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
2. THUYT MINH QUI TRNH CNG NGH:

GVHD:

2.1. Tip nhn nguyn liu


- Cc nguyn liu: tht heo, tm, gh c vn chuyn n x nghip nhit khong -20 0C.
Sau nhn vin KCS ca x nghip xem xt giy kim dch ca c qua th y, giy xut x ngun
gc ca nguyn liu v kim tra cm quan. Ly mi l 1-5% thng, mi thng ly 1 n v sn
phm em r ng kim tra cm quan: tm phi t trng thi ti, mu sc t nhin, thn tm
cn nguyn vn khng xy xt; tht heo c mu t nhin c trng, n hi tt, khng c mi
hi. Nguyn liu t cht lng c nhp vo kho lnh bo qun, khi cn s dng th vn chuyn
n phng x l thc hin r ng.
- Nm mo, bn tu, bnh trng, gia v: khi vn chuyn n cng ty phi c giy cam kt ca nh
sn xut t cc ch tiu v: kh, khng c nm mc xut hin, t l v nt khng c vt
qu mc cho php.
- Khoai mn, sn, hnh c, ti: cc nguyn liu ny vn chuyn n cng ty c nhn vin KCS
kim tra cm quan nguyn liu: mu sc, trng thi, mc su bnh, h hng, dp nt do vn
chuyn. Nu nguyn liu khng t cc yu cu cam kt gia x nghip vi nh cung cp th
nguyn liu s khng c thu nhn.
2.2. Lt v
- Khoai mn a vo my nh v, sau c cng nhn gt li nhng ch cn st v, mt v
ct b nhng ch h hng su bnh.
- Hnh tm, ti, c sn c cng nhn gt, lt b sch v, ct b nhng phn h hng v phn
gc r c.
2.3. Ngm
- Nm mo, bn tu: a vo bn nc sch ngm nhit thng trong khong 15 18 gi
cho trng n ra t mc yu cu.
2.4. Tan gi
- Tm, tht heo, gh: c ly ra t kho lnh trng thi ng cng rt kh khn khi xay. Do
cn phi lm r ng n nhit yu cu thc hin cc qu trnh sau c d dng. Nhit
nguyn liu sau khi r ng:
+ Tht heo: 0 50C
+ M heo: 10 140C
+ Tm: 0 50C
Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r
36

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
+ Gh: 20 220C

GVHD:

2.5. Ra, ro
- Cc nguyn liu: tht heo, tm, gh, nm mo, bn tu sau khi ngm, lt v, lm tan gi cn
phi ra li bng nc sch, sau ro cho bt nc.
- Khoi mn, sn, hnh c v ti sau khi gt v c ra trong dung dch chlorine 50ppm nhm
loi b tp cht. Sau ra li 3 ln trong bn nc trc khi cht nh v em i xay.
2.6. Xay th
- Tht heo, tm: c em i xay vi kch c a 10mm.
- Gh, tm kh: sau khi gh lm tan gi v tm kh c ngm lm sch trong nc a vo my
xay. Kch thc sau khi xay l 0,5 1mm.
- Khoai mn: mt phn khoai mn a vo my thi si nh, kch thc: di: 3-5cm, rng: 1cm;
phn cn li em i xay t kch thc 1 2mm. Nm mo, bn tu: sau khi ngm cho trng n
em xay t kch thc 1 10mm.
-

Hnh c, ti: sau khi bc v, ra sch s em xay nh t kch thc 1 2mm.

2.7. Ly tm
- Sn sau khi xay c a vo my ly tm tch nc. Di tc dng ca lc ly tm sinh ra, vi
vn tc ca bung ly tm khong 500 600vng/pht, sn c tch ring nm trn li v phn
nc i qua l ra bn ngoi. Thi gian ly tm trong vng 3 pht.
2.8. Xo, lm ngui
- un nng cho du (700C), sau a tht gh v tm kh xay nh vo xo.
- Thi gian xo: 2-3 pht.
- Sau khi xo xong tin hnh lm ngui ngay bng qut n nhit thng.
2.9. Phi trn
- Cc nguyn liu sau khi x l xong em trn u vi gia v (mui, ng, tiu, bt ngt) theo t
l quy nh.
- My trn vi cc dao trn lp xen k trn hai trc song song s lm cho hn hp cc nguyn
liu c trn u, ng nht.

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


37

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
Bng 3.1. Thnh phn khi lng nguyn liu trong mt m trn
Nguyn liu
Tht heo
Tm
Gh
M
Tm kh
Sn
Khoai mn
Nm mo
Bn tu
Hnh
Ti
ng
Bt ngt
Tiu
Bnh trng
Tng cng

GVHD:

Khi lng (kg)


4
2
1,5
2,5
0,5
5,0
5,0
0,3
0,2
1,5
0,5
2,4
0,5
0,1
9,0
35

2.10. To hnh

Ngi ta s dung bnh r to hnh cho sn phm. To gin ngon cho sn phm khi s

dng
- Phn nhn v bnh r chun b xong, cng nhn tin hnh gi tng cun. Cc cun gi phi
ng yu cu k thut, khng b gy, v bao khng b rch hoc bung ra.
2.11. Cn, bao gi
- Sn phm sau khi to hnh phi cn trng lng theo yu cu quy nh.
- Trng lng mi cun khong 16g. Cng nhn gi 30 cun ri t ln cn sao cho khi
lng ca mt bao l 500g 1%.
- Sau khi cn xong sn phm c ng vo bao PE sch

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


38

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy

GVHD:

2.12. p m
- Sn phm sau khi v bao c a n my p kn. Vi nhit cao (150

2200C) ca my p

ti v tr p s nng chy v hai mp bao dnh cht li vi nhau.


-

Sn phm sau khi ghp m phi m bo mi ghp thng, khng c h, khng c qun

hoc chy.
2.13. Cp ng
- Sn phm ng gi xong c vn chuyn ti kho ch ng trong 3 gi. Sau a ti kho cp
ng. Nhit kho cp ng -250C -200C
- Nhit tm sn phm sau khi cp ng t khong - 180C.
- Bo qun sn phm trong kho lnh, thi gian 6 thng.

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


39

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy

GVHD:

PHN 4 CC THIT B S DNG

1.CC TRANG THIT B, DNG C, MY MC


Dng c:
1.1 R nha, khay nha
-

c lm bng nha cng, chc chn, an ton, khng thm nc,

khng nh hng n thc phm v d dng vn chuyn.


- R v khay thng xuyn c v sinh sch s sau mi ca sn xut.
- Dng cha ng nguyn liu sau khi c x l.
1.2 Thau nha
- Thau c lm bng nha sch, an ton. Thau c kch thc va phi thun tin khi vn chuyn
v trong tnh trng s dng tt, khng b h hng, c v sinh hng ngy.
- Dng cha nguyn liu, nhn sau khi phi trn.
1.3. Xe y
-

c lm bng Inox, an ton, chc chn, cu to n gin, chu ti trng ln v b mt trn

lng d dng v sinh.


-

Xe trong tnh trng s dng tt, thng xuyn c v sinh.

Dng vn chuyn nguyn liu, bn thnh phm.

1.4. Khay kim loi


-

Khay c lm bng thp hoc Inox, vi b mt nhn khng gy try sc cho sn phm, d

dng v sinh v vn chuyn.


- Khay khng b g st, bin dng, s dng tt v c v sinh ngay sau khi s dng.
- Dng cha ng sn phm em i tr ng.
2. Thit b dng trong ch bin

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


40

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy

GVHD:

My xay
2. My xay
My xay tht
S dng my xay th Mincer.
2.1Cu to ca my gm:
- Morto
- Dy cuaro

Pulis

Ca

nhp liu

Ca tho liu

Dao 4 li

- Dao 4 li(dao ct)


- Tm sng ca tho liu (v chn)
-

Trc chuyn

My c cc kch c a khc nhau (8mm, 10mm ) c th thay i cho tng nguyn liu.

My trong tnh trng hat ng tt, thng xuyn c bo tr v v sinh ngay sau khi lm vic

2.2Nguyn tc hot ng ca my:


Khi motor quay qua pulis v dy cuaro truyn ng cho trc vt, nguyn liu c
np vo ca nhp liu. Trc vt quay va y nguyn liu n dao ct ng thi trc vt
ko dao quay theo ct nguyn liu thnh nhng mnh nh va vi kch thc l trn mt
sn. Do bc vt gim dn y st nguyn liu vo thnh my.
Trong qu trnh nghin, ca tho liu ng kn. Nguyn liu dn c nghin nh do
lc ct v lc va p vo thnh my, a ra ngoi v dng thau hng.
2.3 Vn hnh my
Cc thao tc vn hnh my c thc hin theo th t sau:
Lp trc xon, dao, mt din vo my
Ra li cho sch trc khi vn hnh
Kim tra ngun in, cng tc cu dao
ng cu dao in, vn hnh khng ti pht hin nhng bt thng. Nu
bnh thng th cho nguyn liu vo v vn hnh.
Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r
41

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy

GVHD:

Sau khi s dng tho

tun t mt din, dao,


trc xon ra v sinh, lau
-

Motor

tho liu, Dao ct

Mt din

Mt din

Ca nhp liu v Trc xon

Ca nhp liu

Trc xon

3. My ly tm
3.1Cu to ca my gm:
Bung ly tm.

Mng hng.

L xo gim chn.

Gi my.

Ct my.

Kch c a: 8 mm

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


42

My ly tm

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
3.2 Nguyn tc hot ng ca my
-

GVHD:

Sau khi m cng tc, motor quay truyn chuyn ng sang ct my thng qua dy cuaro. Vn
tc quay ca my 500
-

600 vng/pht

Do ct my gn lin vi bung ly tm nn khi ct my chuyn ng dn n bung ly tm


cng chuyn ng theo.

Bung ly tm
- Do lc ly tm lm cho phn t rn (sn qua my xay) bn vo thnh bung ly tm, cn cc
phn t lng (nc t do) c thot ra bung ly tm thng qua cc l nh trn thnh i ra
mng hng ri i ra ngoi.
4. My trn
4.1 Cu to:

Cu to ca my trn bao gm cc chi tit sau:


ng c in
B iu khin
Thit b nng h khung gi ni cha liu
Cnh khy
Ni cha liu

My trn
Khung gi ni cha liu
4.2Nguyn tc hot ng
Khi ng c chy qua b phn pulis v bnh ai truyn ng cho hp s (dy cuaro,
vi 4 tc quay khc nhau) v truyn qua cp bnh rng truyn ng cho cnh khy.
Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r
43

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy

GVHD:

ng thi cnh khy c t lch tm so vi a to nn chuyn ng quay ngc chiu


vi cnh khy, nh chuyn ng ny m nguyn liu trong ni c trn u.
Khi quay, tay quay truyn chuyn ng qua trc thng ng v nh cc ren trn trc
lm cho b khung gi ni nng ln h xung, do nguyn liu sau khi trn c ly ra
d dng hn.
4.3.Quy trnh vn hnh my:
Mun vn hnh my tt, cn nm r cc bc sau:
V sinh my cho sch trc khi vn hnh.
Kim tra ngun in, cu dao
Ni cha liu v Cnh khuy

ng cu dao in, n cng tc vn hnh khng ti pht hin nhng bt

thng nu c.
Cho nguyn liu vo.
Sau khi s dng xong v sinh my cho sch.
4.4 Cng dng:
Cng dng ca my l dng nh, nho trn cc nguyn, ph liu v gia v sao
cho cc thnh phn ny c trn u vo nhau. Cc nguyn liu sau khi xay c cho
vo my trn, nh cnh khy (c nhiu dao trn lp xen k trn trc) o trn thnh khi
ng nht. Cng sut trn 150kg/m trong 2 3 pht.
5 cc thit b khc

5.1My bo si
Cng dng: bo khoai mn thnh nhng si vi kch thc: di 35 cm, rng 1 cm.
My bo si

Ca tho liu

5.2My ct lt hnh:
Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r
44

Dao ct v cc Rng ca

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy

GVHD:

Cng
dng: ct hnh thnh lt mng trc khi xay.

My ct lt hnh
5.3L t
Cng dng: dng xo, chn, v luc mc.

L t
5.4 CC YU T V SINH CNG NGHIP NH HNG N CHT LNG SN
PHM

Quan st trong thi gian thc tp, sinh vin nhn thy c rt nhiu yu t nh hng
n cht lng sn phm, t rt ra nhng nhn xt nh gi ca bn thn nh sau:

5.4.1: V sinh cng nhn:


Cng nhn va thao tac lam vic cua ho la mt trong nhng ngun ly nhim tim
tang. V vy, cng nhn lam vic trong xng ch bin khng c bi cac bnh nhim
trung, chng han nh nhim trung da, nm da, cac bnh ng c thc phm, cac vt try
xt trn tay chn. iu cn thit la moi ngi lam vic trong xng ch bin phai v sinh
sach mong tay. Moi ngi vao xng ch bin phai:
-

Mc ao qun bao h sach se.

Ra sach tay trc khi vao khu vc ch bin.

Gi sach tay va ao qun bao h trong khi ch bin.

Khng mang thc n vao khu vc ch bin thc phm.

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


45

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy

GVHD:

Khng hut thuc trong khu vc ch bin thc phm.


-

Khng khac nh va hi

mui

bt c

ch

nao
trong

khu vc ch bin thc phm.

Cc thao tc ra tay trc khi vo ch bin


-

Cc thao tc ra tay ca cng nhn trc khi vo sn xut:


1 - Mng tay ct ngn khng c vt try xc, gh
2 - Ra bng nc sch.
3 - St x phng t khuu tay tr xung.
4 - Ra li bng nc sch.
5 - Ra bng nc pha chlorine.
6 - Lau kh tay bng khn dng mt ln.

Moi ngi trc khi lam vic trong xng ch bin phai thng sut lut l quan trong nay
am bao rng cac san phm o khng bi ly nhim bi nhng li trn.
5.4.2: V sinh qun ao bao h lao ng:

Mi ngi lam vic trong xng ch bin thc phm phai mc qun ao bao h lao
ng do cng ty cung cp. Hu ht qun ao bao h lao ng trong cac xng ch bin u
mau trng, gm co ao s mi hoc ao khoac, giay ng, non bao h, tap d. Nhng b qun
Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r
46

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy

GVHD:

o ny phai c gi sach se trnh nhim khun. Tap d va giay ng phai c ra sach


hang ngay. Phai bit gi tt qun ao bao h lao ng nhm trach nhiu chi phi khng cn
thit cho cng ty. Trong vai trng hp cn thit phai mang gng tay hoc phai eo thit bi
bao h tai.

Bng nh gi vic thc hin v sinh c nhn ca cng nhn


THC HIN CA CNG NHN

NHN XT

KT QU

Trc khi vo ch bin


Cng nhn thay qun o bo h lao
ng sch s trong mt phng thay
ring bit.

Cng nhn thc hin nghim tc,


qun o bo h y v sch s.

Thc hin thao tc ra tay v ng


ng vi qui nh (c nhng vo
dung dch chlorine)

Cng nhn thc hin nghim tc


v ng quy nh.

Thao tc thc hin sch s, an ton


ng vi yu cu

Cng nhn thc hin nghim tc

Ra tay gia gi

a s cng nhn thc hin tt quy


nh ra tay gia gi

V sinh c nhn (Trong lc ch bin


nu cng nhn i ra ngoi th phi
thay bo h ra trnh lm
nhim khun)

a s cng nhn thc hin tt.

Trong lc ch bin

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


47

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy

Sau khi ch bin cng nhn thay


bo h lao ng ra git sch s

GVHD:

Cng nhn thc hin tt ng vi


quy nh.

5.4.3: V sinh may moc:


My mc tham gia trc tip vo cc cng on sn xut, v vy v sinh my mc l
mt vic lm rt quan trng, n quyt nh cht lng sn phm lm ra, cho nn:
-

Phai ra sach va sat trung tt ca may moc thit bi mi ngay va sau khi s dung.

Trc ht cn ly tt ca phn vun thc phm con sot lai trong may moc, thit bi ra mi ra
khp ni trong may bng xa phong vi nc m tach thit va m.... Sau o dung nc
sach ra may. git 99% vi khun luc nay phai dung nc nong 82oC phun xit ln
tt ca cac phn cua may moc. Sau khi lam sach va x ly bng nc nong, may moc c
lam kh tranh s phat trin cua vi sinh vt.
-

S dung may moc se lam giam nguy c ly nhim t con ngi, tuy nhin nu

khng c bao dng va lam sach cn thn no co th tr thanh ngun ly nhim nghim
trong. Moi may moc cn c kim tra ky trc khi bt u ca san xut am bao chung
c lam sach, kh trung va di ra ky lng, rap lai ung cach.
-

Cac phng phap va dung cu lam v sinh:


Co ra cht bn bng dung dich cht ty ra
Dung voi nc ap lc xit ra
Lam kh may moc thit bi

5.4.4: V sinh dung cu, ban gh:


Tt ca cac dung cu lao ng nh dao, r, gia ng, xe y va cac dung cu cn thit
khac cho qua trinh ch bin u phai c gi sach se. iu cn thit la phai gi dao lun
sc ben trong moi luc. Dao cun la mt nguy c d gy thng tich cho ngi cm dao. Cn
thu gom nhng loi ph thi trong qu trnh ch bin nh: vun thit va cac san phm thit,
cc loi ph liu cn st li trn cng cu, bi v co th la nguyn nhn ly nhim qua
lai gia dung cu va nguyn liu. Tng t ban gh va tht lun c gi sach, lam xong
phai ra ngay v t ng ni quy nh am bao thit bi s dung lu dai va cung am
bao cho san phm c tt.

5.4.5: V sinh sn nha va tng vach trong xng ch bin


Sn nha va vach tng phai lun c gi sach. Cc ph thi trong qua trnh ch bin
ri trn sn nha lam trn trt co th gy nguy him. Cm chay nhy trong khu vc sn
Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r
48

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy

GVHD:

xut. Hang ngay sn nha phai c gi v sinh sch s: bt u l qut dn, thu gom ph
phm trong lc ch bin gm: nhng mnh vn ca nguyn liu v ph liu nhm trnh
tnh trng nhng ph phm ny b ri vo h thng thot nc; sau khi thu gom xong th
dung voi nc sach co ap lc cao ra nn va cac vach tng; cui cng l lm kh sn
nh v tng vch v mi trng m t cng to iu kin cho vi sinh vt pht trin.
2.5.6: Bng nh gi vic thc hin thao tc v sinh my mc, dng c v sn nh,
tng vch
CC THC HIN

NHN XT

KT QU

V sinh my mc
V sinh my mc hng Thc hin ng cc thao tc v sinh my mc.
ngy

Bo dng v kim tra My mc c kim tra v bo dng thng t


my mc
xuyn, trnh h hng v tp nhim.
V sinh dng c cha c v sinh sch s sau khi lm vic.
ng v phng cha my
mc
V sinh dng c bn gh

Lun c v sinh sch s trong lc v sau khi t


ch bin.

V sinh sn nh v tng Sau mi ln lm vic, sn nh, tng vch c t


vch
qut dn thu gom rc thi v vn thc phm,
sau c di ra sch s v qut kh.

5.4.7: V sinh trong luc ch bin


Trong thi gian bo qun v ch bin th tt c cc loi nguyn vt liu bao gm c
nhng nguyn liu ti sng hay nguyn liu nu chn, cc loi ph liu, ph gia v gia
v cng vi nhng loi thc phm ch bin v bao b, v bc cn phi c gi iu
kin v sinh tt nht. Bt c mt loi sn phm no cng khng c tn tr ngay trn sn
kho hoc nn nh. Thung, xe v cc dng c cha ng nguyn liu phai c v sinh sach
se. tranh s ly nhim, khng tr thit ti hay cac san phm thit ti cung vi thit chin
va cac san phm thit chin. Thit chin va cac san phm thit chin co th bi ly nhim t thit
ti hay cac san phm thit ti. Tt c cc loi nguyn vt liu dung ch bin phai at
tiu chun cht lng, phai ti tt, khng co bt ki du hiu nao cua s phat trin nm
mc va vi khun.

5.4.8: V sinh tn tr
Bt ki ni nao tn tr cc nguyn vt liu cng nh cc sn phm ch bin u
phai sach se va v sinh thng xuyn. C nh vy mi giam thiu s phat trin vi khun va
s h hong thc phm. Tn tr nhit theo yu cu cung la cach giai quyt vn
h hong thc phm.
Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r
49

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy

GVHD:

5.4.9: V sinh vn chuyn


Moi san phm ch bin v cc loi nguyn, ph liu, chi c vn chuyn trong cac
thung cha, xe y sach se va v sinh. Vn chuyn di iu kin d bn khng v sinh se
co nhiu nguy c ly nhim nhiu loai vi khun nguy him. Sau khi vn chuyn, tt c cc
h thng, phng tin u phai lam sach va sat trung tiu dit vi sinh vt ly nhim.

5.4.10: Bng nh gi vic thc hin v sinh trong lc ch bin, tn tr v vn


chuyn
CC THC HIN
V sinh trong lc
ch bin

NHN XT

KT QU

- Cc sn phm ch bin lun c k ln cao trnh tip t


xc trc tip vi sn.
- Cc sn phm v nguyn liu ti sng lun tr ring
vi sn phm chn
- Dng nguyn liu ti tt, t tiu chun cht lng

V sinh tn tr

Ni tn tr lun c gi sch s, trnh tp nhim, nhit t


thch hp ty loi sn phm. Khng tr nguyn liu
qu lu, loi b nguyn liu ht hn s dng.

V sinh vn
chuyn

Khi vn chuyn trnh lm tp nhim, va p gy h t


hng sn phm.

5.5: Mt s s c thng gp v cch khc phc:


My xay tht:

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


50

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


GVHD:
L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
My xay tht thng b mn trc dao dn ti tht xay khng c nhanh v u, dao b mn
hoc dao qu mng u lm tht b nt nn kim tra thng xuyn pht hin, mi dao, thay th
kp thi.
My b nghn tht do tht trc khi xay c kch thc ln, cho mt khi lng tht ln vo xay
cng lc, v vy cn cht nh tht, cho tht vo t t xay.
Motor h my s ngng chy khi phi thay mi hoc sa li.
My trn d b h cnh khuy, lp ni khng chnh xc gy va p lm qu trnh trn khng t
yu cu, cn kim tra, thao tc ng k thut trong vn hnh.

PHN 5: SN PHM

Mt s sn phm ca x nghip.

Ch gi r
Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r
51

Ch gi r tm cua

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy

GVHD:

Mt s sn phm ca cng ty
Ch gi l sn phm ch lc v truyn thng ca x nghip cng nh ca cng ty VISSAN. Vi s
a dng v phong ph v thnh phn nguyn liu v chng loi sn phm: ch gi chay, ch gi r,
ch gi c bit, ch gi tm cua, ch gi tht p ng c rt nhiu i tng khch hng.
Ngoi ra y l sn phm rt giu cht dinh dng v tin dng nn c rt nhiu b ni tr la
chn lm thc n hng ngy cho gia nh.
2. NH GI CHT LNG CH GI R:
Ch tiu cm quan

Mu sc
- Sn phm sng: c mu trng c ca bnh trng.
- Sn phm chn: c mu vng ti, c trng ca sn phm.

M
- Sn phm sng: c mi c trng ca cc nguyn liu, gia v, khng c mi l.
- Sau khi chin chn: sn phm c mi thm c trng, khng c mi i chua, mi v l, c
gi v xp cao

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


52

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
- Sn phm c v ngt, mn va phi, khng c v l.

GVHD:

Trng thi
- Sn phm hnh tr trn, kch thc tng i ng u, chiu di: 4cm, ng knh: 1,5
1,6 cm.
- Cc cun Ch gi r sau khi cun xong u cht, khng b h u, rch bnh r.
- Sn phm sau khi chin: v bnh n u, xp gin, cun khng b h, rch.

Ch tiu ha l
Bng 4.1. Ch tiu ha l ca sn phm.
Cc ch tiu
1. Khi l ng tnh tnh bng g
2. pH
3. Hm lng protit tnh trn % khi lng

Yu cu
500g/gi
5,5 6,6
4,5

khng nh hn.
4. Hm lng NH3
5. Hm lng NaCl, tnh trn % khi lng.
6. Phn ng Eber v HS nh tnh.
7. Hm lng kim loi nng (mg/kg):

0,5 1,5
m tnh

- As

0,1

- Pb

0,2

- Hg

0,05

- Sn

250

45

Ch tiu vi sinh
Bng 4.2. Ch tiu vi sinh ca sn phm.
Tn ch tiu
Mc
1. Tng s vi sinh vt hiu kh (khun 106

3.BO
QUN V

lc/g).
2. E.coli (khun lc/g)
3. Staphylococcus aureus (khun lc/g)
4. Samonella (khun lc/25g)
5. Bacellus cereus (khun lc/g)

VN CHUYN:
3.1.Bo qun:
Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r
53

102
102
m tnh
102

SVTH: Phnh Th M Linh


GVHD:
L Vn Hin
Qung Th Nh Thy
-Trong kho lnh, khi cht hng vo kho phi m bo khng kh lnh c phn b ng u v
lin tc n tng kin hng.
-Hng ha c xp ngay ngn trn k hay palet theo chiu cao qui nh.
-Hng ha c cht theo l, loi sn phm c ghi k hiu.
-Khi kho trng phi tin hnh gom gn hng, khng hng xp ri rc trong kho.
-Hng ha c xp trong kho theo nguyn tc: cch sn( nu trn palet) 0.1-0.15m, cch tng
0.2-0.3m, cch trn >0.5m, khong cch li i gia cc cy hng 1-1.2m, thi gian bo qun <6
thng.
3.2.Vn chuyn:
-Phng tin vn chuyn thng dng nh xe ti, xe my
nhng phi sch, hng ha c ng thnh tng kin hng
ring bit.
-Cc phng tin vn chuyn trc khng c vn
chuyn cc cht c hi, cc cht bn phng thc
phm b nhim bn.
-c v sinh, st khun trc khi vn chuyn.
-Vi cc sn phm ng lnh khi vn chuyn phi c ng trong thng cch nhit, che chn k
trnh s tc ng ca nh sng, bi, gi

Kho st quy trnh sn xut ch gi r


54