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1.1 1.2 1.3
System of Forces Coplanar Forces
1.3.1 Law of Parallelogram of Forces 1.3.2 Law of Polygon of Forces 1.3.3 Resolutionand Composition
Non-coplanar Forces Resultant of Concurrent Forces
1.5.1 Resultant of Coplanar Concurrent Forces 1.5.2 Resultant of Non-coplanar Concurrent Forces
Moment of a Force
1.6.1 Moment of Coplanar Force 1.6.2 Moment of Force about a Point and an Axis 1.6.3 Couples and then Properties
Resultant of Non-concurrent Forces
1.7.'1 Resultant of Coplanar Non-concurrent Forces 1.7.2 Resultant of Non-coplanar Non-concurrentForces
1.8 Summary 1.9 Key Words 1.10 Answers to SAQs
This unit seeks to introduce to you the different systems of forces. The prerequisite for this is the concept of a force and the various forms of forces occurring in nature. In addition to this, you should have the basic knowledge of algebra, co-ordinate geometry, trigonometry and a little bit of calculus. The study of this unit will enable you to understand the effect of forces on different types of structures.
After studying this unit, you should be able to identify the different systems of forces, add concurrent forces vectorially, resolve forces into components, add forces by components, find the moment of a force, and find the resultant of non-concurrent forces.
1.2 SYSTEM OF FORCES
You will recall Newton's First Law of Mation which helps us to define a force as an external agency which tends to change the state of rest or of uniform motion of a body. Force tends to produce motion in a body, changes the motion of a body or checks the motion of a body. In simple words, the action of one body on any other body can be called a force. These actions niay be of various forms : pull or push on a body, gravitational force known as weight of a body, force exerted by an elastic spring, force :xerted by a locomotive on the train, resistance offered by the track.
To specify a force, you need to know its magnitude, direction and the point of application The magnitude is expressed in Newton in SI unit. Graphically a force is represented by &awing a line to scale, showing the magnitude and the arrowhead indicating direction. Such a straight line is called a vector. A combination of several forces acting on a body is called a system of forces or a force system.
Consider a sphere of mass m suspended by means of a string resting against a smooth wall, as shown in Figure 1.1 (a). What are the forces acting on it ?
Let us identify the forces acting on the sphere. These are as follows : (1) Weight of the sphere W = mg acting vertically downwards from the centre of gravity of the sphere. Tension in the string (3) Reaction offered by the wall. Thus, the spheqe is subjected to a system of three forces as shown in Figure 1.1 (b). (2)
Figure 1.1 (a)
Figure 1.1 (b)
Consider a dam retaining water as shown in Figure 1.2 (a). What are the forces acting on it ?
The forces acting on dam are as follows : (1) Weight of the nlasonry acting vertically downwards through the centroid of the cross-section, and The horizontal water pressure which goes-onincreasing as the depth increases. Thus, the structure shown is subjected to a system of forces as indicated in Figure 1.2 (b).
Figure 1.2 (a)
Figure 1.2 (b)
T t s);Steniof forces can be classified according to the arrangement of the lines of action h.
forces of the system.
4 (a) and 1. they are called concurrent forces. Forces I. Forces a. All these system of forces have been explained in subsequent paragraphs. In Figure 1.Coplanar and Nonsoplanar Forces E'igure 1.3 (b) are concurrent forces as they are meeting at point 0 whereas forces d . m. n and are noneplanar concurrent forces and forces 2 5 and are non-coplanar parallel forces. whereas and r or p and are unlike parallel forces as shown in Figure 1. If all the forces acting on a body meet at a point.3 (a) Figure 1. c ~oblanar forces can also be classified as parallel forces and non-parallel forces.Figure 1. Forces s.4 (b) respectively. they are called unlike parallel forces. (2) concurrent or non-concurrent. and (3) parallel or non-parallel. They are called coplanar forces.4 (b) . forces a and 6 are acting in vertical plane ABCD.4 (a) ' Figure 1. o Figre 1.3 (a).3 (c) The forces may be classified as (1) coplanar or non-coplanar. u r Non-coplanar Forces If the lines of action of forces do not lie in the same plane then the forces are called non-coplanar forces. 6 and 2 shown in . But forces a and care not coplanar forces as they are acting in two different planes. If the forces point the same direction they are called like parallel forces and if they point in opposite directions.3 (c). Forces and 2 are also called coplanar forces as they are acting in one plane. Coplanar Forces Forces acting in the same plane are called coplanar forces.3 (b) Figure 1. These forces may be concurrent or parallel as shown in the --Figures 1. i and are non-parallel forces. e and fare called as non-concurrent forces because all the three forces are not meeting at a point. Forces p and are like parallel forces. If the lines of action of forces are parallel then the forces are called parallel forces. But non-parallel forces may be concurrent or non-concurrent. Concurrent forces are non-parallel forces.
if the resultant of two forces is to be found out then the law of parallelogram of forces is used.5 (b) Figure 1. You can Figure 16 (a) . 1. Force being a vector quantity the resultant of the system of forces can bc found out by using vector algebra. Figure 16 (b) . The diagonal passing through 0 represents their resultant in magnitude and direction. e.SAQ 1 Identify the system of forces in Figures 1. 1. Shing I Beam I Shing FSgure 1.6 (a). (c) & (d) and classify them.3 COPLANAR FORCES If a system of coplanar forces is acting on a body. their resultant may be found by the law of parallelogram of forces. the diagonal of the parallelogram passing through their point of intersection gives the resultant in magnitude and direction". (b).1 Law of Parallelogram of Forces If the two coplanar forces meet at a point.g.3. Their combined effect can be found out by constructing a parallelogram using vector P and vector Q as two adjacent sides of the parallelogram as shown in Figure 1.5 (a) FSgum 1.6 (b). its total effect is usually expressed in terms of its resultant.5 (c) Figure 15 (d) . which states that.5 (a). Consider two forces P and Q acting at point 0 in the body as shown in Figure 1. "If two forces acting at a point are such that they can be represented in magnitude and direction by the two adjacent sides of parallelogram. prove by :fie geometry of the figure that the magnitude R of the resultant and the angle it makes with P are given by .
then their resultant is represented in magnitude and direction by the closing side of the polygon but taken in the opposite order". which states that. B. i ! Figure 1 (c) .Qsina. D and E represent the sides of a polygon taken in order. In the final form a polygon would be completed. if more than two coplanar forces meet at a point. Efpre 17 (b) . . s i n $ = R& a - P 132 Law of Polygon of Forces . If more than two forces are acting on a body. their teedltMt m y be found by the law of polygon of forces. each force being drawn from the end of earlier force then_ their resultant is represented by the line joining the starting point of the first force A to the end of the last force E. m t a n p = . "If a number of fmwe acting at a point are such that they can be represented in magnitude and direction by the sides of open polygon taken in order..QPsinm s a P + Qcosa + Pco where a is the angle between F and 0 m0= 0 is the angle betw'een R and P . you can fmd thn( and sin~=fsina. Example 1. 6 From the friangle of forces. Solution ---Let us construct a polygon such that the forces A. I ' p is the angle between ? and Q . E T p n 17 (a) .3 Consider five forces each of 80 N acting at 0in a body. i The above two forces can dso be combined by using the law of triangle of forces which states that if the second force is drawn from the end of fhe flrst force then the line joining the starting point of fnrst force to the end of the second force represents their resultant. Draw forces of polygon and show the resultant of d l the forces. then their resultant can be f d by repeated applications of the parallelogram law or the triangle law. C. You may start with any f W 0 forces and fmd their resultant ficst and then add vectorially to this resultant the remaining forces taking one at a time. by using trigonometric relations. . In other words..
?his process of splitting the force into components is called the resolution of a force whereas the process of finding the resultant of any number of forces is called the composition of forces. 1.8 (a) and (b) using the parallelogram law and the triangle law. If 7 and .8 @) SAQ 3 Four forces are acting at 0 as shown in the Figure 1.33 Resolution-and Composition In many engineering problems. acting along x and y axes respectively.SAQ 2 Determine the resultant in nlagnitucle and direction of two forces shown in Figures 1.8 (a) Figure 1. and F. 'Ihe resolution of forces helps in determining the resultant of a number of forces acting on a body as it reduces vectorial addition to algebraic addition. A force making an angle 0 with respect to x axis as shown in Figure 1.10 can be resolved into two components F. Find the resultant in magnitude and direction by using polygon law.9. Figure 1. it is desirable to resolve a force into rectangular components.
and Fy are the magnitudes of the components along x and y axes. F = Fcos0 . Determine the horizontal and vertical components of the force.92 N ) j A force of 80 N is acting on a bolt as shown in Figure 1.I. The magnitude of the force can also be expressed as i t I b I Example 1. ///// .- j are the unit vectors acting along x and y axes respectively then the force ji? can be expressed as & F=F.4 A force of 120 N is exerted on a hook in the ceiling as shown in Figure 1. 0' Fx=Fcos0=120cos 300"=+60N. F Y Fy = F sin 0 and tan 0 = Fx Note : 0 is measured in anticlockwise direction with respect to positive x axis.92/' Example 1.92N. F and Fyare determined as . Find the horizontal and vertical components of the force.12. The vector components of force are F Ij. FY=Fsin8=120sin300"=-103.5 8 = (-103. + x axis Solution As 0 is to be measured inanticlockwise direction from positive x axis. = (+ 60 N )? and Therefore F can be expressed as F=+607-103.10.11.i+ F~T where F. Refer Figure . then 0 = 30 . / 8 0 ~ .
are the angles made by F with respect to x. 0=80cos240°=-40N Fy = F sin 0 = 80 sin 240" = .69. The three angles 8.28 N. principles developed in two dimensions to three dimensional space. Fy = FcosO.13 (a) Figurn 1. with respect to positive x axis measured in anticlockwise direction : F. . + F. y and z axes respectively. : 0 = 68" + 180" = 240" . and cos 8. the force can be considered acting at any point on the line of action of the force. 8. To determine the direction of the force. and 0.g. a lot of visualisation is needed.Solution By principle of transmissibility of a force. If Z J and E are the unit vectors acting along x. i + F.y and z with ' ' the origin. k and the magnitude of F is given by . e.. defrne the direction of the force F and cos Ox. and F = F cos 0. a precast concrete wall section temporarily held by four cables or a tower guy wire anchored by means of bolts. a crate supported by three cables in space.4 0 ~ 1 5+ (-69. 8. 9 Rectangular Components Consider a force F acting at 0. . then we get : F = F cos Ox. m and n respectively. : F = ( . = -407 .13 (b) If 8. y and z axes as shown in Figure 1. as we have to draw three dimensional sketches on the familiar two dimensional plane of sheet of paper.cos 8. To solve problems of statics in space of three dimensions.. let us construct a 0as parallelepiped (say 'box') as shown in Figure 1. and 8. Assume a system of rectangular co-ordinates'n.28~).69. Figure 1.4 NON-COPLANAR FORCES In engineering practice..=Fcos . Vector notation will be useful in solving such problems by extending the . then force F can be expressed in vector form as under : F = F. are called the direction cosines of the forces which are also represented by I. ..28 5 1.13 (b)..13 (a). we come across situations where the fo&s acting on a body may not be in one plane.
5 RESULTANT OF CONCU NT FORCES The resultant of a concurrent force system can be defined as the simplest single force which can replace the original system without changing its external effect on a rigid body. j and Example 1.. the fotce of 815. 8. The types of force systems as classified in Section 1.84 N 5 ' Fy = F cos 8. Solution SubstitutingF = 400 N .200. = 400 cos 4 = 282.Example 1. y-and z axes respectively. 6' and 10 respectively with the x. 6 6 ' 5' 3' 1 " with y axis and 172" with z axis. y and z 5 5 ' 2' axes. = 120°. Determine the magnitude and direction of the force F = (320N) 5 + (450N)7 . the resultant will not necessarily be a single force but a force system comprising a force or a couple or a force and a couple.2 alongwitb their possible resultants are given in Table 1 1 . 6 0 6 3'2 1.6 A force of 400N forms angles of 4.41 N is making an angle of 6' 53 ' 3' with x axis.7 k are the unit vectors along x. = 400 cos 60' = 200. Express the force in vector form.847 + 200.007 . . Oy = 60' and 0.00 k where ? .we get Fx = F cos 8.(600N) Solution The magnitude of the force F is given by Thus.00 N = 282. = 4 5 ' . For the nonconcment force system.
. where.F are acting at a point in a body then each force can be resolved into two mutually perpendicular directions. after knowing about moment. noncoplanar a force and a couple noncmcurrent We will study the determination of resultant of nonconcurrent force systems in Section 1. nm-concurrent Force Force or a couple Force or a couple Parallel. Solution Resolving all faces along x axis. Thus. we can algebraically add all these components to get the components of the resultant.14. couple and their praperties. .Table 1.5. we get R = x C Fx + 50cos 315' + 30 ms 180° + 20 CQS 240' = F l ~ 8 + F 2 ~ O+2F3c0s03 + F4cos04 1 = 4Ocos 300 . and Ryvectorially.. F3. If 'n' concurrent forces F . Four forces act on a body as shown in Figure 1. Finally. noncoplanar noncmcurrent Force or a couple or Non-parallel. we get '2n' components. F2 .8 with respect to positive x axis. 8 is the angle of inclination of the resultant Example 1. 1. combining these components R. .1 Type of Force System Pcwsible Resultant Concurrent Coplanar.7. concurrent forces.1 Resultant of Coplanar Concurrent Forces The technique of resolution of a force can be used to determine the resultant of coplanar ! . Each set of 2n components acts in one direction only. Therefore. we get the resultant E. Determine the resultant of the system of forces.
1. we get. F2 and F3 is which can be written in rectangular component fbnn as R.2 Resultant of Non-coplanar Concurrent Forces In case of non-wplanar force system also...36 N and is acting in IVth quadrant making an angle of 312' 33' 6'' in anticlockwise direction from positivex axis.32.= Z F y = F1 sin Q1 = + F2 sin Q2 + F3 sin 43 + F4sin 44 ' 40 sin 30' + 50 sin 315' + 30 sin 180°+ 20 sin 240' = 20.3 0 ~ 0 ~ 0 ~ . giving the resultant of three forces F. .U ) ~ ~ 6 0 ~ 4 1 90' may be chosen in appropriate quadrant with proper signs as indicated above..and F2 can be determined by law of parallelogram of forces. If three non-coplanar forces F.T + F. the same process can be continued until all the forces have been covered. R . k + F F3* i + ~ 3 + ~F-J~ 7k ~ + FZY7+ F~~ ? + . j + R. (1. If there are more forces in the system.00 . the resultant R12of the two forces F. can next be combined with F3 by means of the parallelogram.36 + 0.. ihe resultant in vector form may be expressed as j? = (30 N)? + (.32. resolving all forces along y axis.32 Ry = . the vector sum of a noncaplanar system of concurrent forces F.5..00 . F2 and F3 as R.1) R. T e resultant of concurrent force system can also be determined as the vector sum of the h f m s of the system The vector sum of the forces can be obtained very easily if each force is resolved into rectangular components...68 N Thus.17. i + R.68'~)j The magnitude of the resultant is given by R = J P X 1 ' + (4)2 = 4(3oI2 + (. The force R.32.68)' The diction 4 can be worked out from The resultant has a magnitude of 44. Rx = 30N Similarly. note that the resultant of non-coplanar force system must pass through the point of concurrence. Here.. Thus.? + F1. = 4 0 ~ 0 ~ 3 0 ' + 5 0 ~ ~ 4 5 ~ .35.. k = F. the technique of resolution of forces can be used to determine the resultant. F2 & F3 are acting at a point 0 in a body.Note :The angle made by 50 N force is measured in anticlockwise direction from positive x axis after making the force act away from 0 by principle of Coplsoar and Noa-eoplnanr Fomes transmissibility of the force.
) + (C F. = F.6 MOMENT OF A FORCE If a force F is acting on a body resting at 0 and the line of action of f a does not pass ahTough G.? + R.le 1 15. combining these comnents R. called the Qanslatory motion.the centre of gravity of the M y .. The rotation of the body may I ' -\iae?&out a point or a line.. k . y and z axes s respectively.15 1. and R. SAQ 4 (1) (2) A hoist trolley is subjected to three forces as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1.) k j + Fb = (CFJ Ry = Fly + F2.. Determine i the magnitude and direction of the resultant. Thus. + F2. vectorially. Solve SAQ 3 by the method of resolution of forces. we get the resultant R .)' ) +~( ~ ~ 3 ~ where 0. m the angles which the resultaut ~ ' h k e with x. = (C FYI R. and 0 . + F-3. . k IR I = d ( ~+ (R.= Therefore. and R = ~~7+ R.a dy OR which it acts is called the mohen. 0.15.nliof a force. it will not give the body a straight line triotiom. R. + = (C Fz) R x = FIX+ Fz* Finally. but will t y to rotate the body about 0 as shown in r FiSd. The measure of this property of a force by virtue of which it tends to rotate U: f.)? + (C ~ . (zF.
. the magnitude and direction of resultant R can be found out very easily by resolving all the forces horizontally and vertically as discussed in Section 1.16 Figam 1. This principle of moment may be extended to any force system 1. then. if F is the force (in N) acting on the body dong AB and x is the perpendimla distance (in m) of 0 from AB. Let the resultant R makes an angle 0 with positiva axisAs shown in Figure 1. Moment of force = Force x perpendicular distance between the line of action of the force and the point or the axis about which moment is required Moment is a vector quantity and the vector direction is along the axis about which the moment is taken. e2and O3 be the angles which these forces make with positive x axis as shown in Figure 1. 'We moment @ of a force F with respect to point o is the cross product to the point C ) at any p i n t P on the line of action of the force I?" If the moment of the force about a point is zero. moment can be defined as.6. Varignon's Theorem .18 (b). "the algebraic sum of the moments of a given system of forces about a point is equal to the moment of their resultant about the same point".18 (a). .e the force passes through that point. it means either the force itself is zero 01' the perpendicular distance between the line of action of the force and the point about which moment is to be calculated is zero i.1.F2and F3be the three coplanar forces acting on a body and let . the position of resultant force R can be ascertained.17 Referring the Figure 1.5. This principle is also known as principle of moments. Varignon's theorem need not be restricted to the case of only two components but applies equally well to a system of forces and its resultant. For this it can be slightly modified as.Figure 1.17. point 0 is known as moment centre or fulcrum and distane X is termed as moment arm. In terms of vector algebra. MomentoftheforceFaboutO = M = F x x = F x O C Here. Now by computation of moment of forces.1 Moment of Coplanar Forces Let FI.-- - Now. : It states that the moment of a force about any point is equal to the sum of the moments of its components about the same point.
The moment of a force'F with respect to a point A is defined as a vector with a magnitude equal to the product of the perpendicular distance from A to F and the magnitude of the force and with a direction perpendicular to the plane containing A and Fe The sense of the moment vector is given by the direction a right-hand screw would advance if turned about A in the direction indicated by F as shown in Figure 1. let it cut the horizontal axis XOX' at A at a perpendicular distance d from D as shown in Figure 1. + F2d2 + F3d3 Now. Since the moment of a force about an axis is a measure of its tendency to turn or rotate a body about the axis.18 (a).To determine the point of application of the resultant. 1. it is the same as the moment of the force about the point of intersection of the plane and the moment axis. whosemagnitude and direction have already been detennined earlier. the position of resultant R will be such that the moment of R about point 0 . because it has no tendency to rotate the body about the axis. R. in the direction Figure 1. by applying Varignon's theorem. For point 0 in Figure 1.18 (b). let the algebraic sum of the moments of the given forces about 0 is given by 2 Mo anticlockwise. the force parallel to an axis has no moment with respect to the axis. Thus.2 Moment of a Force about a Point and an Axis The moment of a force can be determined with respect to (about) a point and also with respect to a line or axis.20. and the direction of the moment due to R about moment centre 0 must be the same as C Mo due to given system of forces.19. is now completely located. The moment of a force about a line or axis perpendicular to a plane containing the force is defined as a vector with a magnitude equal to the product of the magnitude of the force and the perpendicular distance from the line to the force and with a direction along the line.d is equal to C Mo. The moment of a force about various points and axes is illustrated in Figure 1.U) . The moment of the horizontal force F about point A has a magnitude of Fd. Then. 2 M = Fl dl . The distance d is computed from the above relation and R .6.
= . 6 and 5 N respectively from 0 and force of 8 N has zero moment about 0 as its line of action passes through this point. The side of a square ABCD is 1.6.Since F1 is parallel to line BC.the moment about point B. their resultant is zero and hence a couple has no tendency to produce translatory motion but produces rotation in the body on which it acts.6 x2 . 4 and 8 N act along the line CB. BA. CB.the point of intersection of the diagonals of the square. 2 = . 4 . Four forces equal to 6 .The moment of force F about line BC can be obtained by resolving force F into components F1and F2. x. DA and DB respectively.d3 as indicated. EF and FA respectively. .= 0. has a magnitude of Fd2 and is perpendicular to the plane determined by B and the force F. Find the moment of these forces about 0.. 3 . the moment about line BD is F. Forces l . Similarly. Figure 12 .5 x3 + 4 x1 + 8x0 where x.20 (a)).. Here. = x3 = . DE.60 m long. 5 .20 (a)) or MAE(as shown in Figure 1. and x3 are the perpendicular distances of the forces of 4 . 1. xl = x.1 Solution Taking moments about 0. you can note that MAE.6 m.6 N-m or 5. DC. Example 19 . Since a couple constitutes two equal and parallel forces.shown by MA (Figure 1. MBc and MBDare the orthogonal components of M E .5. Similarly. 1.6 Here.20 @)). Resultant moment M. M E .6 N-m (clockwise) SAQ 5 The side of a regular hexagon ABCDEF is 0. coplanar.8 m. parallel forces acting in opposite direction. The moment of force F about the line AB is the same as MA (as shown in Figure 1. 2 . it has no moment about BC.3 Couples ax! their Properties A couple is a force system consisting of two equal. Find the algebraic sum of the moments about A . The resultant F2 is in a plane perpendicular to BC and its moment is F2d3in the direction shown. 5 and 6 N are acting along the sides AB.
each equal to P and acting at A and B along parallel lines. Replacement of a Couple by two Forces Consider a couple of moment M.23 shows two equal and opposite forces. of the forces forming a couple is the same about any point in their plane. The net effect of a number of coplanar couple is equivalent to the algebraic sum of the effect. These two additional forces do not alter the system The new system is equivhlent to a force F acting at O.24. (1) (2) - . Imagine two equal and opposite forces F parallel to given force acting at O2 as shown in Figure 1. plus a couple of moment M = F. has the following properties/characteristics. The perpendicular distance AB is called the arm of the couple and is denoted by p. of each of the couples..Figure 1. Properties of Couples The properties which distinguish one couple from every other couple are called its characteristics. A couple whether positive or negative. Moment of a Couple The moment of a couple about any point in the plane containing the forces is constant ansa is measured by the product of any one of the forces and the perpendicular distance between the lines of action of the forces.where the axis of the couple is through 0 perpendicular to the plane of paper as shown -inFigure 1. A couple is frequently indicated by a clockwise or counterclockwise arrow when coplanar force systems are involved instead of showing two separate forces.e. The couple can be balanced only by another couple of the same moment but. Replacement of a Force by a Force and Couple Cohsider a force F acting at point O1. The algebraic sum of the moment.25.of the opposite sense. i.d.. thus constituting a couple. . (3) (4) The algebraic sum of the forces constituting a couple is zero. M = P x p .
the force R may be applied at any point on its established line of action. must equal to the sum of the moments of its components F2 and F3about the same point.This couple is equivalent to any two parallel forces of magnitude F acting at a distance d apart such that F. The three forces Fl. F2 and F3about this same point. The properties of force. Application of this principle of moments shown in Figure 1. the resultant of a system of forces is the simplest force system which can replace the original forces without altering their external effect on a rigid body. is zero. = m. F2and F3 shown in Figure 1. They may be moved along their lines of action to their point of concurrency A by the principle of liransmissibility. about some point must equal to the sum of the moments of its two components F. the order of combination of the forces is immaterial as may be verified by combining them in a different sequence. RESULTANT OF NON-CONCURRENT FORCES 1 7 - 1 As stated earlier.26 (a).d = M and the directions of the forces so chosen as to give the correct direction of M. Algebraically. .26 (b). The angle made by R with the x-axis is 8 = tan -1 m y - =F* ' The location of the line of action of R may be computed with the help of Varignon's theorem-Themoment of R .7. Figure 1.1 Resultant of Coplanar Non-concurrent Forces The resultant of a system of coplanar nonconcurrent forces may be obtained by adding two forces at a time and then combining their sums. in general. and R1about the s m point. = my where. In Figure 1. Goplauu nod Non-coplnnnr Forces 3 . Here. 1. Now. the same result may be obtained by forming the rectangular components of the forces in any two convenient perpendicular directions. The force R1may then be combined with F1by the parallelogram law at their point of concurrency B to obtain the resultant R of the three given forces.27.. ae however. 9 Their sum R1is formed by the law of parallelogram of forces. and IS.26 may be combined by first adding any two forces such as F2 an$ F3. The equilibrium of a body is the condition wherein the resultant of all the forces. the rectangular components of the resultant R of a coplanar system of forces may be expressed as R. moment and couple discussed in the preceding sections will now be used to determine the resultants of nonconcurrent force systems. Thus. gives the equation about the point 0. the x and y components of R are seen to be the algebraic sums of the respective components of the three forms. The moment of Rl. It follows that the moment of R about any point equals the sum of the moments of F.
whose magnitude and direction have already been determined earlier.7. but in general it is a force and a couple. The resultant of a non-parallel. it is seen that the resultant of a non-concurrent coplanar system of forces may be either a force or a couple. The three rectangular components of the resultant couple are C . the resultant couple is given by M = d(ZM.j2+ (CMYl2 ( m a 2 + and .28. Such analysis calls for representation of the system by a pictorial drawing or by means of two or more orthographic projections.For this system of forces where the clockwise direction has been taken as positive. The resultant is a force when X F is different from zero and a couple when X F is equal to zero unless W0is also zero in which case the system is in equilibrium and the resultant is xro. The resultant of any general force system can be obtained by resolving each force into a parallel force through some common mint and a couple in the manner described in Section 1.6. The resultant of concurrent forces is obtained as the vector sum of the component forces. 1.5. non-concurrent force system can be a single force or a couple. the distance d is computed from this relation. When all the forces of the system are parallel. the resultant will be a single force (parallel to the given forces) or a couple in the plane of the system or in parallel plane or the resultant may be zero. Thus. non-coplanar. there are many engineering problems which require analysis of noncoplanar nonconcurrent system of forces which is three dimensional in nature. In general. Now. y and z axes respectively. where the polygon of forces closes and consequently there is no resultant force R . . the r moment a m d of the resultant R is given by where CMostands for the algebraic sum of the moments of the forces of the system about any point 0. as explained in Section 1. the magnitude of the resultant is the algebraic sum of the several forces. The value of the couple is equal to the moment sum about any pint. and the position of its line of action may be obtained from the principle of moments. the resultant is a couple of magnitude F3d. consider a force system such as shown in Figure 1. R = IFi . The general system is thus reduced to a set of concurrent forces and a set of couples. CMy and CM. then. which are t h dgebraic sums of the moments of the couples of the M ~ system about n. For a system of parallel forces. The vector sum of the moment of the resultant of the set of the couples can be obtained if the moment of each of the couples is resolved into the rectangular components. Direct combination by the law of parallelogram shows that for the case illustrated.2. Now.3. may now be completely located. and R .2 Resultant of Non-coplanar Non-concurrent Forces As mentioned earlier. The couples are combined vectorially to get a resultant couple M.
noncoplanar non-concurrent Non-Parallel noncoplanar nonconcurrent Resultant of Concurrent Force System Force Force or a couple Force or a couple Force or a couple or a force and a couple The resolution of forces helps in determining the resultant of a number of forces acting on a body as it reduces vectorial addition to algebraic addition. you have learnt to identify the different systems of forces. e. the analytical method of fmding resultant is quicker. = m M Coplanar d Non-coplanar Forces and cos 4 = - m. All components along the respective axes are added algebraically to get the components of the resultant R along x and y axes. i. y and z axes respectively. Each force is resolved into two mutually perpendicular axes say x and y. M cos a. makes with x. which are cos a. where 8. 0. = m x -. The important equations to remember are : sin a = PfQcosa tanp = where P sin a Q+Pcosa R is the resultant of P and a = angle between 8 = angle between F R and and 0.. the angles a. and p = angle between Q and The resultant of a system of forces is the simplest force system which can replace the original forces without altering their'external effect on a rigid body. Following table gives the possible resultant force system for the various system of forces : Type of Force System Possible Resultant Concurrent Coplanar. non-concurrent Parallel. are the angles. use of law of parallelogram of forces or triangle of forces or polygon law of forces.the direction of the resultant couple may be specified by its direction cosines. = angle which the resultant R makes with the x axis. P . If more than two coplanar. concurrent forces are acting on a body. we get. You have also learnt the various techniques of adding the forces to get the resultant of the system of forces. and a.g. 1 3 SUMMARY In this unit. Thus. . M . the vector representing the couple M Here.
we get cos4 = where -. the resultant may consist of a couple of magnitude C M. y and z axes. the given force is resolved into three mutually perpendicular axes system. A couple is a force system consisting of two equal. . Generally. the resultant may be (i) a single force R (ii) a couple M.then the resultant is zem.. = 0 and DO0 . the systcm is reduced to a set of r ~ ~ ~ ~ uforces and a set of couples.alOant of any general force system cm he obtained by resolving each force into a k. e. coplanar. (ii) a couple in the plane of the system or in parallel plane.g. 8. there may be parallel or non-parallel system of forces.e.. are the angles which the resultant R makes with s y and z axes respectively. The location of the line of action of R may be computed with the help of Varignon's theorem In case of noncoplanar forces. C F. the resultant may be (i) a single force R parallel to the system of forces. pardlci farce through some common points and a couple.In case of noncoplanar forces. R = 1F and is parallel to the line of action of forces. = For nonparallel forces. Thus. parallel forces acting in opposite direction. C F Z R cos e. FY FZ . the same result may be obtained by forming the reclangular components of the forces at any two convenient perpendicular directions.d = CA3. The angles 8. In case of parallel forces. i. . or (iii) a single force R and a couple M. n. or (iii) zero. where d = perpendicular distance from the moment centre to the resultadt R C M . cos ez = - C R s y and z axes respectively. : F = 0. . Thus. = algebraic sum of the moments of all the forces with respect to the moment centre. The measure of the property of a force by virtue of which it tends to rotate the body on which it acts is called the moment of a force. The resuitant of concurrent force system can nent . The magnitude and the direction of the resultant are found in the same way as that given for the concurrent forces. 1Fy and Fz are the algebraic sums of the components of all the forces along Resultant of Non-concurrent Force System The resultant of a system of coplanar forces may be obtained by adding two forces through law of parallelogram at a time and then combining their sums. T t :ei. R *0 R. Analytically. it is a combination of a force and a couple. and 0 . = C . then the position of the line of action of the forces can be found out by : .
y and z axes respectively.g. y and z axis. = ~z R x where F. . system about x. a and a. d = M. y and z axes tespectively. x 1.ace the algebraic sums of the moments of the couples of the . . are the angles. Lines of action of forces pass through a commctn pobk Lines of action of forces are parallel to each other. A resultant is equivalent to the system of forces.9 KEY WORDS Coplanar Forces Noncoplanar Forces Concurrent Forces Parallel Forces Resolution of a Force : : Forces acting in one plane Forces acting in different planes. 0. C F X .Components : Moment of a force The moment M of a force with respect to a point 0 is the cross-product to point 0 at any point P on the line of action of the force F. x. For non-parallel forces also the position of the line of action 0f resultant can be determined by using R . and 8. The angles 8. = . In case of concurrent forces M = 0. y and z axes respectively. cos 8 = . parallel but oppositely directed. a Composition of Forces Resultant : Redangular. the vector representing the couple M makes with x. where C MX EM C MZ M .be obtained by resolvirig the farces into three mutually perpendicular axes system. The magnitude of the resultant couple is given by x x c o s a x = ~ c o s ? = ----r: . Splitting a force into its components. A couple consists of two forces equal in magnitude. A single force which has the same effect on the body as all the forces acting together are having. xM. . x and y axes. Components of a force along x and y axes. C FY . Fyand F. COS 8 = . Couple . are the algebraic sums of the components of all the farces along x. Addition of forces.are the angles which the resultant R makes with x. cos a. Generally the force are risolved along two mutually perpendicular axes e. we get. y and z axes respectively. Myand 2 M. cos 8. The angles a. . Any two axes which are perpendicular to each other may be termed as x and y axes. Thus.
the lines of all forces do not pass through any common point. (3) Compression in left leg. This is a system of non-concurrent non-parallel forces. Thus.. If the string at P is cut.10 ANSWERS TO SAOs SAQ 1 Consider forces acting at A. (4) If forces acting on the roof truss are considered. Similarly. Tension in string at P acting vertically upward.Moment of a Couple : Varignon's Theorem : The moment M of a couple with respect to any point 0 is the sum of the moments with respect to 0 of the two forces that constilute the couple. and (4) Compression in right leg. (3) Consider forces acting at C . Neither the lines of action of all forces are parallel. the string at Q is also offering an upward force. (4) Tension in string at Q acting vertically upward. (2) Tension in the tie. (1) Weight W acting vertically downwards. The gravity force acting on the mass of the body will cause stretching of the tie member and shortening of the jib member. (1) Weight W l (1) (2) (3) Weight W2acting vertically downwards. The lines of action of these forces are parallel to each other. There are five forces acting on tbc. there are three forces acting at A : (1) Weight of the body acting vertically downwards. SAQ 2 (a) Parallelogram Law LetP= 60NandQ= 8 0 N Represent the forces P and Q in magnitude and direction by drawing lines OA and OB to scale and parallel to the lines of action of forces P and Q respectively. Join OC which is the diagonal of the of parallelogram passing through the point of concurrence ' O D P and Q. point P will move downwards. 1. The moment of a force about any point is equal to the algebraic sum of the moments of the components of the force about that point. and ( 5 ) Weight of the beam acting vertically downwards. (2) Consider forces acting on the beam. This is the system of concurrent forces. Therefore. It is the product of the magnitude of one of the forces forming couple and ann of the couple. There are four forces acting at C. the string is offering a force acting upwards to keep P in position shown. Complete the parallelogram of forces. (2) Tension in the tie member. beam acting vertically downwards on the beam. These three forces pass through the common point A. and (3) Compression in the jib member. 'Ihe diagonal . ' . The system is of concurrent forces as all the forces pass through the common point C. This is the system of parallel forces.
Measure angle COA and get the direction of the resultant with respect to force P. Length OB gives the magnitude and angle BOA &tennines the direction of the resultant with respect to force P. Then line OB joining the starting point to the end point B represents theu resultant ih magnitude and direction. sine = f sina . Using trigonometric relations. represents their resultant in magnitude and direction. therefore. we get. Using t&onornetrical relations. represent force Q in magnitude and direction by drawing line AB to scale and parallel to the line of action of force Q.OC. From point A.691 . we get P = 6ON arid Q = 8 0 N where 1 and a = angle between P and 0 - 80 sin 1 0 5 ~ 60 + 80 cos 105" Also tan p = Psina Q+Pcosa - 60 sin 105' 80+60cos 105' Flgurefor Answer to SAQ 2 (a) :P d e l o g l y n Law Triangle Law LetP= 60NandQ= 80N Represent the force P in magnitude arid direction by drawing line OA to scale and parallel tu the line of action of force P. The resultant can also be found by drawing @as the first vector and P as the second as shown in the adjoining diagram. Measure the length OC and get the magnitude of the resultant.go sin 105' -86.
Measure the length to get the magnitude and angle COA to get the direction of the resultant with respect to F. we get.691 Rmre for Amwer bSAQ 2 (a) :Triangle Law (b) Padlelogram Law LetP= l00N and Q = 120N Represent forces P and Q in magnitude and direction by drawing lines OA and OB to scale and parallel to the lines of action of forces P and Q respectively. As per the law of parallelogram of forces.Also sin = .'.638" = 35" 35' 16" w. R =J$+&+2~~cosa where and P=100N and Q=120N a = angle bewtween and a tan 0 = Q sin a P+Qcosa Also tan = P sin a Q+Pcosa 1.t.a sin 105" -86. Using trigonometrical relations.sin a P R . Complete the parallelogram OABC and join OC. force Q. - loo sin 80" 12o+100<x>s8o0 . OC represents their resultant in magnitude and direction.r. 8 = 35. .
I R = = 40' 10 + 1202+2 x 100 x 120 cos 80" 169.5827 : .sin a R loo sin 8 " 0 169.019 .638" = 35"38' 1 " w. Using trigonometric relations. From point A.t.362" = 44" 2 ' 3 w.120 sin 80" 169. : 8 = 44.019 N R sin 8 = sin a (sine Rule) -. force Q 6 (Note: 0 . we get. f3 = 35.F Figure for h w e r to SAQ 2 (b):Parallelogram Law I Triangle Law C t Represent the force P in magnitude and direction by drawing line OA to scale and parallel to the line of action of force P. Then line OR joining the starting point to the end point B represents their resultant in magnitude and direction as per triangle law of forces.019 - = 0. force P 14" Also sin B = P . Tbe resultant can also be found by drawing Q as the fmt vector and P as the second vector as shown in the above Figure for Answer to SAQ 2 (b).t B = a = 809 Ffpre for h m r to SAQ 2 (b) :Trlrrpdc JAW . represent force Q in magnitude and direction by drawing line AB to scale and parallel to the line of action of force Q.r.r.t. Length OB gives the magnitude and angle BOA determines the direction of the resultant with respect to P.
57 Thus. we get. 0 to the end of the last force i.35 c n Magnitude of resultant = ( linear measurement of OD) x (Scale of drawing) = 3.57 N = F1 sin = 60 sin O0 =0 .SAQ 3 Fipm for Answer to SAQ 3 We construct a polygon such that the forces O N . To determine the direction of resultant. We find that line OD makes 80" angle with positive x axis measured in clockwise direction whereas 0 is measured in anticlockwise direction from positive x axis. the resultant is represented by the line joining the starting point of the first force i. This line OD measures 3.56.resolving all forces along y axis.50 N.e. draw a co-ordinate system at point D. each force being drawn from the end of earlier force as shown in Figure for Answer to SAQ 3 (b). 40 N and 50 N represent the sides of a polygon taken in order.45 .63 N)i + (- .80 N. SAQ 4 (1) Resolving all the forces along x axis.35 cm x 30 N/cm = 100. the resultant in vector form may be expressed as 101. Now.57 N) j The magnitude of the resultant is given by R = (38. the direction of resultant 0 = 280" (measured in anticlockwise from positive x axis). So.e. Here.101. RY = C FY + F2 sin + F3 sin o3 + 90 sin 210' + 80 sin 315' = . D. Rx = C Fx cos 81 = Fl + F2 cos €4 + F3 COS O3 Similarly. we get. the scale to construct the polygon has been taken as 1 cm = 30 N.
3.2. .17. x3 and x4 be the respective distance of the f o m of 2. we get. CB.34.12 N) j The magnitude of the resultant is given by The diction 0 can be worked out as 0 = tan-$) = tan-' (-) = .64 . the resultant in vector form may be expressed as R = (-17. 4. = 60 sin 45' L Thus.3.800 8 . = 60 cos 45' = 42.22 N + 80 cos 90' + 40 ws 150° + 50 ws 240° + 0 .60 N and is acting in IVth quadrant making an angle of 279' 51' 20" in anticlockwise diction from positive x axis. DC.42 = . x2 . DE and EF respectively.25 +' 80 sin 90' + 40 sin 1500 + 50 sin 240' Similarly.5 and 6 N are acting along the sides AB. resolving all forces along y axis. the forces 1. (2) Resolving all the forces along x axis. SAQ 5 Plgure tor A m w u t SAQ 5 o In the hexagon ABCDEF shown in Figure for Answers to SAQ 5. DE. 4 (clockwise) ~ 0 = 379' 51' 20" (anticlockwise) The resultant has a magnitude of 100. EF and FA respectively. we get. Let xl . DC.4 and 5 N along the sides CB.22 N) i + ( 99.67 N and is acting in IVth quadrant making an angle of 290° 49' 24" in anticlockwise direction from positive x axis.The direction 0 can be worked out as CoplPaar and Non-eoplmar Forces 0 = 290' 49' 24" (ahticlockwise) The resultant has a magnitude of 108.
52) = .04 .3.6 = 2.rz = x 3 = d& + B e .6~. .3 fi = 0.6 2 = 0.0. MA = .5) = 1. 1CI.6 x (-0.(2 x 0.6 N-m (anticlockwise) .52 m Considering the &C and using cosine formula .3% + 4x3 + 5x4 + 6 x 0 As the forces of 1 N and 6 N acting alopg AB and FA pass through A. Also x.04) + (5 x 0.2 5 .6 x 0.16 + 2. their moment about this point is zero.04 m : .(3 x 1.6 .1. = 1 x 0 .12 + 4.52) .Taldng moment about A.04) + (4 x 1. 6 ~+ 0. B ~ c o s l ~ = 4 0 .2 A B . = x4 = AB sin 6 0 ' -.2 x 0.
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