PORTUGUESE GYPSIES AND GYPSYPHOBIA IN PORTUGAL

José Gabriel Pereira-Bastos Senior Researcher CRIA/ FCSH, Coordinator of NEC -CRIA ________________________________________________________________________________ ____

EUROPEAN RACISM AND GYPSY -PHOBIA IN EUROPE

1. Building upon our previous communication to the Manchester Annual Meeting (2007) while trying to avoid repetition 2. We can only admit the existence of a European racism, centred around gypsyphobia, if we deconstruct a number of givens and highlight the strategies of selective revelation and concealment that result in the creation and blaming of the victim. The main reason to avoid doing so, operative resistance, resides in the emotional difficulty to recognize the irrationality of identity, and even sociopathic behaviours within oneself, as a subject, or even more so, as an idealized socio -historical group. 3. The most efficient strategy to avoid recognizing European racism is the concealment of the history of inter-ethnic relations in Europe. While gypsies haven t been the only group so targeted (laws have also been passed against Jews, Moors, Armenians, Arabs, etc.), after a period of positive reception, they were the object of a project of cultural (through unconditional assimilation) or physical extermination that is persistent, compulsive, and with a strong sociopathic dimension, which is still being carried out, in different degrees and modes. 4. The compulsive and sociopathic dimension of inter-ethnic aggression in this case, against European gypsies (as, in parallel, against Jews) is largely directed at the target ethnic identity, with no regard for the extremely large range of behaviours actually observed. We have detected at least five indicators of irrationality: (1) the punishments promoted (death penalty, slavery, exile, lashings, confiscation of estate, intentional separation of couples and early separation of families, etc.) are absolutely out of proportion with the supposed crimes ; (2) an identity comparison is promoted that elevates its producers, making them superior and distancing them from the other group, which is portrayed as negative, sub -human or even animal ; (3) an inter-class and transideological movement appears, that produces marginalization, accusation, and direct aggression, which includes the State, the Church, and the Courts, unifies Left and Right, coordinates the action of municipalities and their officials with the police, then steps out to the pub, the town square, and into taxis, and takes the streets and back roads; (4) outraged action goes hand in hand with feelings of civic omnipotence, as well as hatred

and aggressive and destructive feelings (popular militias. separate classes in school. aristocratic hospitality. After the end of the Crusades. despite many international reports and denunciations. both in the colonies and within Europe itself. and economic changes) and of systems to produce dichotomies between the Europeans and their inferi ors . According to this affluent. and in some cases even collaborate with them). idealist. The first gypsies entered Western Europe within this framework. so much so that they contribute to the worsening of the inter-ethnic social issue that expresses national and European racism (they do not acknowledge the issue. the production of an evolutionist organizing factor. It is widely recognized that political and military European identity was built with recourse to an agonistic ethno-religious organizing factor. barbarians ). alienated. (6) as integration-based institutions (the State. or to oppose its crippling practical consequences. This anthropological organizing factor proved to be much more efficient in the simultaneous and economic production and legitimization of material hierarc hies between the Europeans themselves (slotted into a hierarchy and engaged in their own colonial identity championship. sites. geo -strategic.). and extended the laws governing the relation of elites from Christian nations. the natural superiority of groups and individuals must be freely manifested. became a second identitybased. political parties. and passive. through (1) the direct control of the State s arbitration function (Marx).3) the seizing of power on the part of the winners the central concept of white .2) that the absence of obstacles to this instrumental action leads to accelerated enrichment and that (2. (5) at the same time. they do not put forward projects to overcome the structuring identity conflict. and were granted. contrasting the civilized with various primitives ( savages . to dispute military. They were believed to be citizens of Bohemia. the protection of the Catholic Church. and liberal model. in the name of respect for differentiated cultural identity (housing for nomads ). orders of shoot to kill . which for centuries opposed Christians and Muslims (Todorov). or against a supposed animal nature (separate neighbourhoods. on the run from Islam. etc. were received openly and even accorded diplomatic protocol. the legal system) prove themselves to be apathetic. 8. THE IDENTITY STRUCTURE OF CIVILIZATIONAL POLITICS AND HISTORY 5.1) the instrumental idea that humans act according to their interest . Parents Associations and White Homeowners Associations against the attribution of new houses or schools to ethnics. and the beginning of Western European colonial expansion (1415-1945). the Church. 6. (2) associated to the leading concepts of economic liberalism (2. led first by Iberia and Catholics. they required. ethno-cultural and technological organizing factor . projects and actions appear that aim to essentialize and marginalize the group. 7. they do not punish civic excesses. and later by Northern Europe and Protestants (with exceptions). (2. municipal banishment edicts. or Egypt. etc.). Greece.

aiming for the (1) cultural or physical extermination of this ethnic population or (2) its reduction to marginality and to a negative and accusatory image. The acknowledgement that gypsies were and still are the target of a project of physical or cultural extermination. and we will therefore only touch upon it briefly here. and not at the ethnically marginalized. with the Jewish and Gypsy holocaust. against gypsies as individuals or a group. despite the fact that they were not its intended target. rhetorical or actual. and once again reached an extremist peak in recent decades. interstitial. then continued with forced sterilization programmes in Nordic countries during the post-War period. 13. or exotic criminals. and marginality were declared to be their essence. THE REINTRODUCTION OF HISTORY. institutional. It thus became necessary to affirm them once and again. despite all evidence to the contrary. We discussed the triple trauma in our Manchester communication (2007). since it was aimed at the poor in general. 11. AND LAW IN THE ANALYSIS OF INTERETHNIC RELATIONS 12. THE PROJECT EXTERMINATE THE MARGINALIZED 10. conscious or unconscious. their primitivism . Czech Republic. living in shanty towns. 9. and continues today with more or less subtle forms of State. requires that we first recognize that such a project with variations in time and space began as early as the 15th century. we define gypsyphobia as all the emotional and identity framework. and an accusatory and negative image whereby gypsies are responsible for their own degraded social condition. The analysis of the gypsy question in Portugal requires that we determine that they were the target of a triple Trauma and of a Civilizational Action that deeply modified the preexisting framework. SOCIOLOGY. as has come to light much more recently. slaves. This new organizer relegated gypsies until then viewed as a set of en slaved. nomadism . as a result of State Criminality. which includes their expulsion or reduction to marginality. was clearly and explicitly manifested in the project of Nazi extermin ation. who lacked primitives .pride is civilizational in itself and represents the best interests of humanity as a whole. to conceal the fact that this actually was merely the identity wish of the Europeans. and popular racism . For analytical purposes. slackers . The historical trauma happened on a European scale for centuries. Slovakia). and in former Eastern Bloc countries (Hungary. or marginalized ethno-linguistic minorities to the imaginary statute of Europe s primitives . of which gypsies are blamed because of their degraded social condition. . as nomadic gatherers. scientific .

democratic politics. and may be comparatively quantified. as well as in terms of levels of criminality well above the average.). education and training. The socio-cultural divide between the poor Portuguese. while denoun cing and violently attacking any occasional episode of ethnic aggression. health. etc. policemen. these authors revealed that the situation of Gypsies was immensurably worse than that of the other transnational inhabitants marginalized by the dominant strata of the Portuguese society.14. in their quest for the gypsy-phobic complicity of the dominant White populations. it reveals the double standard policy which legitimizes and denies the seriousness of white (institutional or popular) aggression. the States limited their sociopathic and criminal actions. For some time. ASAE. destroying their reputation and robbing them of their clientele (in the case of Chinese restaurants). beatings and inter-group aggressions organized by racial extremists protected or abetted by the police. In their unpublished but notable research. organized assassinations in Hungary and Bulgaria. THE ABSENCE OF DOMESTIC APPLIANCES IN GYPSY HOMES ± COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ABSENCE OF DOMESTIC APPLIANCES Gas cooker Refrigerator Heater Washing Machine Radiator .) and upon the population itself leads to a Democratic Trauma. religion. on this level. etc. etc. or seizing their stock and ruining them ( Gypsy market sellers). 15. a result of the previous two. both nationally and internationally. on the part of the Right-wing governments in Germany. focused against the new nomads of the West. 16. France. the recently created Health and Safety Police authority). officials. housing. the recent entry of Romania and Bulgaria into the European Union. The Sociological Trauma. 17. Particularly serious. has witnessed a resurgence of indiscriminate ethnic expulsion. however.. and Italy. followed by a new gypsy exodus to the West. even ones that are only projected. is the selective legal attack on ethnic minorities. urban insertion. migrants from the former colonies. represents the chasm between the dominant population and the marginalized minority population . The decentralization and informal delegation of such sociopathic State actions upon midlevel figures (judges. in concert with the media alarmism which is supposed to represent the concerns of white shopkeepers and businessmen. on the part of special forces within the Police (in Portugal. and the Portuguese gypsies who shared the same shantytowns and degraded housing a product of the protracted gypsy-phobic action of the twentieth century is clearly documented by Bruto da Costa and Manuel Pimenta (1990). in terms of obstacles to social access to work. since through a deviation to the micro level. leaving any intervention to the populations (with popular militias in Portugal.

5 44. even when aped by well-meaning but near-sighted activist imports. 21.2 18. Following Portugal s entry into the EU.0 14.5 2.5 35.0 98. going along with the general internal migration from rural into urban areas. which can even become national symbols for the culture in which they were integrated (as is the case with Flamenco and Cante Jondo in Spain. 20. despite a systematic push back onto the . thus proving their inaptitude for social life an d civilizational integration. Such a large settlement in the urban world hid the fact that the settlement of gypsies had begun centuries before. Travellers . and launched a Re -Housing Programme (PER) which was not designed to include gypsies. any inter-comparative study reveals that the same gypsies. as well as making significant cultural contributions.8 20.0 34. attend university and gain political representation.1 2. as marginalized then as they are now. 19.0 3. who are believed to have been stuck at the same evolutionary level for over a thousand years.3 80.9 66.0 0. In the meantime.0 69.0 71.9 23.2 27.1 88.8 Gypsies 32.3 64.6 58. or popular Hun garian music) and that gypsies are mostly nomadic only in the countries which cultivate such tradition . 22.4 76. or Caminanti .Cape-Verdeans Guineans Santomeans Angolans Mozambicans Indians Timorese 4.7 0.3 85. the Civilizational Action mentioned above took place.4 5. that a large majority of gypsies had been moving closer to the cities. from a scientific perspective.4 70. All these intra-comparative factors can be used by the gypsyphobe discourse as evidence of a primitive genetic inferiority.9 65. political forces of the Left decided to eliminate shantytowns within and around the larger urban centres. and was received ambivalently by the State.0 9. which does not exist in Portugal.9 70. in different socio-historical settings.2 2.6 82.5 83.1 66.8 22.3 63. However.4 92.8 80.4 71. since the time when they supposedly wandered the Indus valley as pariahs.2 73. so much so that in certain Western countries there exists a general identity category such as Gens du Voyage .6 68. but from which they benefited in terms of an improved quality of life and higher inter -ethnic integration. attributed to nomads by vocation.

as well as on the part of representatives of the Ministry of Education. teachers. protected by a long -standing persecutory and marginalizing tradition. who are most directly responsible of school attendance monitoring. 24. Churches. namely during the Report they gave to the Portuguese Parliament in 2009. 25. this proves that Gypsyphobia is not merely a trait of the people. which came after the feminine phase of begging and palm -reading. thus bringing thousands of gypsy children into the school system. the Armed Forces. However. and even more so in the case of access to stores within urban commercial spaces.road on the part of the police forces.g. 23. which have had little success. for example. The White tradition of refusing to employ gypsies (as well as barring them from White institutions and organizations in general. since the White ideal of forcing the insertion of gypsies into the job market of employees a nd bureaucrats. the attribution of social welfare payments aimed at decreasing poverty and the potentially associated marginalization helped to rebuild and re-capitalize urbanized gypsy families. The MP who promoted the Report repeatedly expressed her decision and will to avoid any change. unemployment payments now require attendance of short training courses. some elite families have succeeded in entering this space and transnationalize. The pervasive State Gypsyphobia in Portugal is clear to any observer. are complicit. GYPSYPHOBE DISCOURSE AND PRACTICE IN PORTUGAL . introduced the requirement that children of compulsory school age be integrated. and the result of ignorance or the civilizational backwardness of rural or suburban populations. e. who however faced serious limitations in obtaining licences and stalls at market. the shoe trade. and Seminaries). On the other hand. that gypsies had been long integrated as Itinerant and Market Sellers (as well as occasional or seasonal service providers) in the national commercial network. split between the Law and gypsyphobe pressure. is most clearly visible in the total absence of Portuguese Gypsies in the Civil Service. This resulted in the opposition of Parents and Teachers Associations. the great majority of gypsy children abandon school after just 4 years. and especially Social Services. to make them just like everybody else clashes with the gypsy tradition. 26. which prizes self-employment and with the white employers tradition of refusing to employ gypsies. resulting in a middle class of market sellers. with their own capital and economic self-sufficient. However. while only a few complete the previous compulsory school 9-year cycle (currently raised to 12). repeatedly proven by Employment Centre officials. and that was anything but nomadic. The transition from RMG (minimum guaranteed income. Parallel to the process of integration into the EU. merely supportive) to RSI (social insertion income ). this while the Portuguese State is the largest national employer.

which in its Article 81 provides for the special vigilance of nomads . 29. to the social production of nomadic gypsies. . where decent people and good citizens live. rejects ethnic differentiat ion. And as a result. and maintains them in a criminal marginality which can be used against them at any time. while the Constitutional Court validated the GNR (R ural Police) 1985 regulations. According to the racializing profile that is widespread among the officials who work most closely with them (Bastos et al. There is only a small step. and cafés. with the specious argument that the word gypsy was not mentioned (unlike the previous 1920 Regulations). Law nº797 has limited access to social housing to nationals whose housing conditions do not meet the needs of their family. unable to properly look after their children (who should be taken away from them). even when authorized by its owner . 30. 28. which contributes to the gypsyphobe confusion between gypsies. since 1976. under the accusation of illegal camping . (4) turn the other way and become complicit with the denial of social housing to gypsy families. for all these reasons. since by definition they do not have nor are they supposed to have housing . and therefore incapable of working and attending school. the engagement on the part of the Police.27. (5) accept the creation of separate classes. while blocking its use towards positive discrimination. gypsies are nomadic . Such a performative accusatory procedure is supported by the Democratic Laws of the country. primitive . only able to live o utside. 2007). as well as to keep them from stopping for more than 24 or 48 hours on the same land. or keep their children from integrating into State schools. aggressive. with no direction. (2) persecute gypsies and keep them from camping for more than 48 hours. (6) accept the occupation of housin g. exclusion. and one easily taken. The Constitution of 1975. which represents a double gain: it avoids the need to re-house gypsies at a cost for municipal authorities. from the transformation of nomadism (currently affecting only a small minority) into an essential trait.. (3) isolate gypsy families in gypsy neighbourhoods or nomad sites against their will. (7) accept illegal behaviours as typical of gypsies . thus introducing racism into State schools. and criminality. This accusatory profile becomes performative when local authorities and officials. which exists de facto. restaurants. and who wish to settle in the area of the municipality where houses become available . liars. and forbids positive discrimination to correct historically constructed social damage. (1) push families that were previously settled in shanties back onto the road. in cooperation with the Police. but with the support of local accusers to push gypsies back onto the road. they should be kept from settling in urban spaces. which excludes nomads from the onset. in its Article 13. even when they are able to pay for their purchases. with the argument that they re not from here . This is a gimmick which makes it possible to introduce racial profiling in order to accuse or discriminate negatively. a persecutory action of the not in our backyard kind which often also leads to them being turned away in groceries. and to the attribution of primitivism and inability to keep up with the civilizational process. they are thieves.

" (Facebook.) . informa que (. elitista.. 33. in this Conference) o que permite poupar para quem merece os réditos municipais. Moreover. they cannot access RSI and other welfare payment and subsidies from the State. (Cf. num documento enviado para a GNR e para a Câmara Municipal de Loulé . Dado o clima ciganófobo sustentado nas Leis. forcibly turning them into nomads in order to feed the myth of identity superiority of the Senhores .) uma intitulada Associação de Produtores de Alfarroba.. através de Éditos que mandaram afixar publicamente. já este ano. by definition. Junho de 2010) 34. What is most certainly denied is access to the right to education for many hundreds of children. especially when the Municipal Regulations clearly state that only nationals whose residence is within the municipal territory are eligible (Regulations of the Salvaterra de Magos municipality. 32.31. a emergência de programas locais orientados para as famílias e comunidades de portugueses ciganos é raríssima. avisa (. técnicos sociais e polícias e mobilizam uma série de estratégias mais ou menos admitidas pela Constituição e pelas Leis para os distanciar e marginalizar. tanto mais que a população se revoltaria se os autarcas começassem a construir casas para os ciganos (que neste contexto já não são vistos como cidadãos portugueses ) e os puniria nas eleições seguintes. Daí a sistemática demolição de barracas de famílias que viviam há décadas numa vila ou de bairros inteiros de barracas.. família a família. como já aconteceu.. uma vez que autarcas reconhecem que têm medo do consenso social negativo estabelecido entre populares. superabundando as más práticas . expulsando ou ameaçando vir a expulsar dos seus distritos os ciganos aí estabelecidos. obviamente ilegal. Do mesmo modo que foi usado de forma ameaçadora por Comissões de Cidadãos ameaçando queimar as casas dos que vendessem terrenos locais a ciganos ou declarando. Convergindo com a prática persecutória. não admira a reutilização do procedimento persecutório de banimento directo colectivo .322. não identificada. ordem para matar os ciganos que roubassem o fruto que comercializavam. something that greatly contributes to the labels of wretched and primitives to such families.. Temos assim a conjunção de um discurso liberal dominante. 12). unless some enlightened official deigns to open their file. em Évora) e sua expulsão para a estrada. 35.. com subordinação dos direitos do homem à concepção sociológica de um contrato social de cidadania (que . since gypsies are not from here . even when these go back several generations. someone lacking municipal and local roots. Correia. em que viviam largas dezenas de famílias ciganas. perante o silêncio das Instituições democráticas e religiosas. Temos uma milícia organizada e armada e batedores por toda a região com licença para matar . it is necessary to erase their roots in the sedentary space. Once these roots are arbitrarily severed by officials. there is no chance for these families to put their name on lists for social housing. p. 22 nd April 2010. já utilizado por Governadores Civis de Distritos. alimentado pelas Polícias e pelos media.) não vai haver tolerância com o roubo. por vezes há várias gerações (como o bairro da Casinha. "(. in Público nº 7. Since a nomad is.

Este discurso tem sido promovido por culturalistas (antropólogos. forçada a construir uma cultura de sobrevivência. o que abre espaço para um discurso neo-romântico que acusa as autoridades centrais e locais de não os deixarem viver a vida nómada que supostamente desejam. não trabalham . cada vez mais imaginário. A INEFICÁCIA SOCIAL DO DISCURSO CIENTÍFICO 37. a sul. A tríade mítica do nomadismo vocacional . religiões e etnias que mutuamente se ignoram. Dada a existência deste discurso. que apaga ou desconhece a existência de estratos de elite e de classe média feirante. já que. Essa alteridade perseguida sociopáticamente. reificador. com um discurso de ciganofobia acusatória e persecutória ( eles não merecem viver entre nós e ao nosso nível.) de cunho essencialista. da organização tribal . são parasitas sociais que querem viver dos nossos impostos . etc. politicamente fragmentada e bloqueada. uma cultura de justaposições entre classes. muito bem aceite em Portugal. são pobres e mal agradecidos (Sousa Tavares. em quem estaria delegada a tarefa de integrar os portugueses ciganos. sendo primitivos . laissez passer . organiza. isto é. como vimos. os arquitectos deveriam reinventar casas para ciganos . 38. nada mais desejam do que a natureza e a liberdade de vaguear como filhos da estrada e do vento e príncipes do nada . não se portam como cidadãos . 2009). 39. numa cultura popular suburbana do tipo laissez faire.tende a excluir os Ciganos). a conviver de perto e a colaborar com a criminalidade branca . performativamente obrigada a desempenhar o papel identitário primitivo e nómada . conceptualizado como primitivo . a ciganofobia hegemónica. Neste discurso alternativo. que introduz a dinâmica da inter-etnicidade assimétrica ( exótica ) e da criminalidade marginal (a ciganice ). sob ameaça de extermínio cultural. produz como seu . ocultando a responsabilidade civilizacional do s Europeus na produção sóciocultural de uma alteridade perseguida. em agregados populacionais só para eles e o país deveria encher-se de parques nómadas . repetidamente despojada dos seus bens e do acesso à integração social. 36. o discurso culturalista romântico. se bem que minoritário. técnicos sociais e polícias e mobilizam uma série de estratégias mais ou menos admitidas pela Constituição e pelas Leis para os distanciar e marginal. poderíamos esperar a emergência de programas locais orientados para as famílias e comunidades ciganas. e com uma identidade pejorativada sobre eles projectada. reconhecem que têm medo do consenso social negativo estabelecido entre populares. permitindo que abandonass em os bairros Sociais onde erradamente os alojaram e devolvendo-os à estrada onde se sentiriam como peixe na água . Mas tais programas são raríssimos e alguns autarcas. arquitectos. inventando um mundo de grupos sociais justapostos e incomunicáveis. militantes de esquerda. complementar do comunitarismo rural católico (a norte). querem ter direitos mas não cumprem os seus deveres ).

e as suas formas de agregação na Direita Radical. inerente à fantasia de superioridade identitária não-circunstancial e à invasão imperial de países do Médio Oriente. São estas linhas. simultaneamente homogeneizante e dicotómica. reconhecidamente heterogénea a muitos títulos.). relações inter-étnicas) como um objecto estratégico para problematizar a multidimensionalidade dos .efeito mais ocultado o envelhecimento precoce e a perda de quinze a vinte anos de vida. Com este novo organizador científico . raciais e incivilizados . 43. ) que ocultam. a guerra civilizacional contra o Islão (Huntington. 40. . a derrota militar do Orgulho Branco nazi e fascista exigiu uma rápida cicratização da fenda identitária. por extensão. portanto. colocando outros sob pressão e tutela político-militar. face à esperança de vida dos Senhores . a minoria WASP (de White. . 2004) e lançando a Nova Europa afluente contra a Velha Europa franco germânica. Entretanto. Skin Heads. baseado na Crença Iluminista. etc. de tipo antropológico . a Civilização Ocidental . 41. em média. americano ou colonial. 44. uma desvitalização momentânea do conceito racial (mas não do mito WASP) e um rebaptizar político do mito identitário. 42. organiza a política hegemónica do capitalismo. entretanto desqualificada. a Frente Anglo-Americana. de modo a restabelecer a ideia de unidade e consenso transatlântico. de modo a aumentar o seu poder militar. por sua vez liderada por uma minoria fundadora. fundamentalista e terrorista. na Europa e nos USA (Castels. Na actualidade. É esta Minoria Civilizacional WASP que se auto-atribui a gestão política da identidade norte-americana e. é actualmente liderada por uma minoria linguísticocultural pressupostamente mais superior . que o foco do Orgulho Branco . de que existe uma Civilização Superior. depois da Queda do Mundo de Berlim. repescando o poder anglo-americano o velho conceito evolucionista de Civilização Ocidental . 1996). a gestão da própria Civilização Ocidental . após grandes variações nas lideranças e hierarquias identitárias essa Civilização . como organizou imperialismos e colonialismos e. também as políticas da pobreza e da marginalização dos seus imprescindíveis inferiores . anglo-americano. 1906) que é o Orgulho Branco . Anglo-Saxon Protestants) residente em solo norteamericano (Calhoun. Italianos). liberal ou selvagem. uma vez perdido o Inimigo Estruturante. relações coloniais. reactiva ndo. em solo europeu. pelo seu histrionismo violento. muito mais generalizado. herdeira das Civilizações Mediterrânicas. o facciosismo religioso passou para a esfera privada e introduziu-se essa forma de etnocentrismo racializado (Sumner. agarrados às ideologias de superioridade com que tentaram disfarçar a sua impotência político-militar (Hammerskins. encontramos sub-linhas de Orgulho Branco em grupos perdedores (Nazis. Franceses. Perdidas duas guerras mundiais. As ciências sociais ganham em considerar um padrão sociopático de relações inter-étnicas assimétricas entre Estados e grupos étnicos sem Estado (relações imperiais.

fundamentada numa teoria estrutural-dinâmica dos processos e das estratégias identitárias que lhes constroiem os objectivos e lhes fornecem as estratégias bem como as discursividades e racionalizações legitimantes (J. ocultam e legitimam à luz de parte do seu sistema de valores uma estratégia identitária sociopática.factores que o permitem. Augé. Bastos e S. etç) (Barth. 2001. 45. 1993) para a análise pós-disciplinar das relações intergrupais e inter-categoriais. povos. Bastos. 1998. 2010. terão que passar de análises etnográficas descritivas de isolats artificiais (países. géneros. . a qual será constantemente mobilizada para denegar a acção histórica sociopática e criminal. contraditória com uma outra parte do seu sistema de valores. 2010). 2005. Bastos e J. 1969. S. Bastos. Bastos. etnias. 1997. J. Para tanto.

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