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American University of Sharjah Civil Engineering Department College of Engineering P.O.

Box 26666 Sharjah, UAE

Instructor: Dr. Adil K. Tamimi Office: EB1-207 Phone: 06-5152958 Fax: 06- 5152979 E-mail: Summer 2011


Sustainable Concrete July 11, 2011


It is present state of the art; successful fabrication of HPC/Sustainable Concrete depends on a combination of Empirical rules derived from experience, Laboratory work and great dose of common sense and observation.

The proposed method is a transition between an

Art and a Science.

But what went wrong???

We have to discuss three areas: 1.Rheology [Workability] 2.Strength. 3.Economy.

Main Reasons: Cement is not suitable. Aggregates are not strong. SP is not efficient enough. Not good compatibility.

Observations and Possible Causes: 1. 2. The rheology. The surface failure.

Examples: OBSERVATION: A. Not Desired Compressive Strength: Why? 1. If the Break happened through aggregate: The aggregate is to be the reason !

2. If the Fracture shows considerable debonding between the coarse and hydrated cement paste. 2.1 Smooth surface of aggregate. Use better texture aggregate. 2.2 Or simply too dirty, then clean it. 3. If fracture happened almost entirely through the hydrated cement paste: Stronger concrete can be made by lowering W/B ratio. 4. If strength does not increase by lowering W/B then either aggregate or the bond to be blamed.

B. If concrete does not have the desired slump, 1. SP dosage is not high enough. Or increase water & cement in order to keep the same W/B ratio. 2. If concrete experience a rapid slump loss Then the cement is more reactive than expected & water dosage has to be increased or SP not efficient with cement. Either increase dosage or replace SP. 3. If workability low Poor shape or gradation of coarse aggregate to be blamed. Or compatibility between cement & SP blamed. Decrease amount of coarse aggregate in the 1st Case 2nd case either cement or SP to be changed.

A. Preparation before Mixing:


Quality Control of the Materials:

Lower W/B ratio & higher Targeted Strength demand High Quality Control: 1.1. Check Cement Spuperplasticizer Compatibility. 1.2. Check Properties of Cement. 1.3. Grain Size distribution, Shape of Aggregate. 1.4. Water Content of the Sand. 1.5. Check that there is no washing water left in the Transit Mixer before Loading HPC.

1.6. Check supplementary materials.

** Any Lack of quality in one of the ingredients used to make HPC will rapidly cause a problem, because when making HPC the safety margin is not large. ** The mix proportioning can not a accommodate too much variation from its optimum intended state because all ingredients are working close to their limits. B. Mixing:

Segregation: C. Controlling the Temperature of Fresh Concrete: