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COMPUTER NETWORKS AND COMMUNICATIONS

TITLE: THE LATEST DEVELOPMENT IN NETWORKS AND COMMUNICATIONS

NAME: CHRISTINE CHIANG HUEY LI FORM: 5 PEARL IC NO: 940417-14-5628 TEACHERS NAME: NURTASNIM BT OSMAN SCHOOL: SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEBANGSAAN JITRA

1.0 INTRODUCTION
A computer network, often simply referred to as a network, is a group of computers and devices interconnected by communications channels that facilitate communications among users and allows users to share resources. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics. Communication is a process whereby information is enclosed in a package and is channeled and imparted by a sender to a receiver via some medium. The receiver then decodes the message and gives the sender a feedback. All forms of communication require a sender, a message, and an intended recipient, however the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication in order for the act of communication to occur. Communication requires that all parties have an area of communicative commonality. There are auditory means, such as speech, song, and tone of voice, and there are nonverbal means, such as body language, sign language, paralanguage, touch, eye contact, through media, i.e., pictures, graphics and sound, and writing. The purpose of a computer communications network is to allow moving information from one point to another inside the network. The information could be stored on a device, such as a personal computer in the network, it could be generated live outside the network, such as speech, or could be generated by a process on another piece of information, such as automatic sales transactions at the end of a business day. The device does not necessarily have to be a computer; it could be a hard disk, a camera or even a printer on the network. Due to a large variety of information to be moved, and due to the fact that each type of information has its own conditions for intelligibility, the computer network has evolved into a highly complex system. Specialized knowledge from many areas of science and engineering goes into the design of networks. It is practically impossible for a single area of science or engineering to be entirely responsible for the design of all the components. Therefore, a study of computer networks branches into many areas as we go up from fundamentals to the advanced levels.

2.0 MOBILE COMPUTING 2.1 DEFINITION


Mobile computing is the use of a computing device while in transit. Mobile computing implies wireless transmission, but wireless transmission does not necessarily imply mobile computing. Fixed wireless applications use satellites, radio systems and lasers to transmit between permanent objects such as buildings and towers.

2.2 SPECIFICATION, SERVICES, AND FREQUENCIES OF MOBILE COMPUTING

Specification

BlackBerry Torch 9800 User Interface y BlackBerry OS 6.0 Display y y y 3.2-inch TFT 1.6 Million Colours 480360 pixels Battery y 1300mAhLi-lon Memory y y 4GB Internal Memory 512MB RAM+512MB ROM

32GB microSD Expansion Slot Main Camera

y y y y Services y

5MP CMOS(25921944) Flash LED camera Full Time auto-Focus Geotagging GPRS/EDGE/3G/WLAN (WIFI 802.11b/g/n)

y y y Frequencies

GPS/AGPS Data transfer via Bluetooth 2.1 microUSB2.0 connector

y y

GSM 850/900/1800/1900 HSDPA850/1900/2100/800

3.0 INTERNET TECHNOLOGY AND SERVICES 3.1 VoIP


Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a general term for a family of transmission technologies for delivery of voice communications over IP (internet protocol) networks such as the Internet or other packet-switched networks. Other terms frequently encountered and synonymous with VoIP are IP telephony, Internet telephony, voice over broadband (VoBB), broadband telephony, and broadband phone. Example of VoIP adapter setup is in residential network.

3.2 BLOG
A BLOG (a contraction of the term "web log") is a type of website, usually maintained by an individual with regular entries of commentary, descriptions of events, or other

material such as graphics or video. Entries are commonly displayed in reverse-chronological order.

4.0 TYPES OF NETWORK 4.1 PAN


A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices, including telephones and personal digital assistants, in proximity to an individual's body. The devices may or may not belong to the person in question. The reach of a PAN is typically a few meters. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves (intrapersonal communication), or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet (an uplink).Personal area networks may be wired with computer buses such as USB and FireWire. A wireless personal area network (WPAN) can also be made possible with wireless network technologies such as IrDA, Bluetooth, UWB, Z-Wave and ZigBee.

4.2 VPN
A virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network that uses a public telecommunication infrastructure such as the Internet to provide remote offices or individual users with secure access to their organization's network. It aims to avoid an expensive system of owned or leased lines that can be used by only one organization. It encapsulates data transfers using a secure cryptographic method between two or more networked devices

which are not on the same private network so as to keep the transferred data private from other devices on one or more intervening local or wide area networks.

4.3 WLAN
A wireless local area network (WLAN) links two or more devices using some wireless distribution method (typically spread-spectrum or OFDM radio), and usually providing a connection through an access point to the wider internet. This gives users the mobility to move around within a local coverage area and still be connected to the network. Wireless LANs have become popular in the home due to ease of installation, and the increasing popularity of laptop computers. Public businesses such as coffee shops and malls have begun to offer wireless access to their customers; often for free.

4.4 WIMAX
WiMAX, meaning Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a telecommunications technology that provides wireless transmission of data using a variety of transmission modes, from point-to-multipoint links to portable and fully mobile internet access. The technology provides up to 3 Mbit/s broadband speeds without the need for cables. The technology is based on the IEEE 802.16 standard (also called Broadband Wireless Access). The name "WiMAX" was created by the WiMAX Forum, which was

formed in June 2001 to promote conformity and interoperability of the standard. The forum describes WiMAX as "a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL".

5.0 CONCLUSION
As conclusion, field of computer networks and communication is including mobile computing, internet technology and services and various types of network. Nowadays, mobile computing is widely used because of the function such a portable computer and it can be brings anywhere. The internet technology and services in other hand help people around the world communicate to each other as easy as ABC. Various types of network may give opportunity to the users to choose the best network to be used.

REFERENCE
y y y http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_networks http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communications http://www.scribd.com/doc/18422189/Computer-Networks-and-CommunicationForm-4 y y y y y y y y http://www.engadget.com/2010/08/04/blackberry-torch-review/ http://na.blackberry.com/devices/blackberrytorch/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VoIP http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BLOG http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PAN http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/VPN http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WLAN http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WIMAX

Content

1.0 Introduction
(Computer Network and Communications)

2.0 Mobile Computing


2.1 Definition 2.2 Specification, services and frequencies of Mobile Computing

3.0 Internet Technology and Services


3.1 VoIP 3.2 BLOG

4.0 Types of network


4.1 PAN 4.2 VPN 4.3 WLAN 4.4 WIMAX

5.0 Conclusion
(Computer Networks and Communications)

Reference