# Summary

Hooke’s Law states that force is directly proportional to their elongation,

F = kx

The value of k is known as the spring constant and sometimes can be stated as –k rather than +k. This value (negative or positive) is depends on the displacement. If the spring is compress the value of k will be in negative value and if the spring is stretch the value of k will be in positive value. The force is known as restoring force as this force show you this reading is depends on the value k. The greater the value of k, the greater the restoring force. While for the x, is also known as the displacement (meter). To find either the value of force (F), spring constant (k) or the displacement (m) it is important to know which formula that you should use. If the spring is in vertical condition (up side down) the formula that we should use is,

mg = kx (k can be negative or positive)

And so if the spring is set in horizontal position (left to right) the formula that we should use is,

ma = kx (once again the k value can be positive or negative)

Summary From Internet A string lengthens slightly when you stretch it. Similarly, we have already discussed how an apparently rigid object such as a wall is actually flexing when it participates in a normal force. In other cases, the effect is more obvious. A spring or a rubber band visibly elongates when stretched. Common to all these examples is a change in shape of some kind: lengthening, bending, compressing, etc. The change in shape can be measured by picking some part of the object and measuring its position, x. For concreteness, let's imagine a spring with one end attached to a wall. When no force is exerted, the unfixed end of the spring is at some position xo. If a force acts at the unfixed end, its position will change to some new value of x. The more force, the greater the departure of x from xo.

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xo). x. and physics. meaning: ‘As the extension. [Force required to stretch a spring. and xo in Hooke's law. Materials for which Hooke's law is a useful approximation are known as linear-elastic or "Hookean" materials. if you push down on the hood of a car. Usually when the force is so large that Hooke's law is a bad approximation. called the spring constant that depends on how stiff the object is. sic vis. Hooke's law is named after the 17th century British physicist Robert Hooke. For example. so the equation is only a good approximation if the force is sufficiently small. Back in Newton's time. it dips by an amount that is directly proportional to the force. Although Hooke's law may seem like a piece of trivia about springs. the force ends up permanently bending or breaking the spring. experiments like this were considered cutting-edge research. because all solid objects exert Hooke's-law behavior over some range of sufficiently small forces. so the force’ For systems that obey Hooke's law. the extension produced is directly proportional to the load:
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. whose solution he published in 1678 as Ut tensio.
Introduction
In mechanics. and his contemporary Hooke is remembered today for doing them and for coming up with a simple mathematical generalization called Hooke's law: F ≈ pk(x . He first stated this law in 1676 as a Latin anagram. valid for small forces only] Here k is a constant. Hooke's law of elasticity is an approximation that states that the extension of a spring is in direct proportion with the load added to it as long as this load does not exceed the elastic limit.m / Defining the quantities F. it is actually far more important than that. If too much force is applied. the spring exhibits more complicated behavior.

which relates the force exerted by a spring to the distance it is stretched by a spring constant. There is a negative sign on the right hand side of the equation because the restoring force always acts in the opposite direction of the x displacement (when a spring is stretched to the left. The potential energy stored in a spring is given by
Which comes from adding up the energy it takes to incrementally compress the spring.
The negative sign indicates that the force exerted by the spring is in direct opposition to the direction of displacement. When this holds. which is the position where the spring would naturally come to rest (meters). It is called a "restoring force".where:
x = the distance that the spring has been stretched or compressed away from
the equilibrium position. The most commonly encountered form of Hooke's law is probably the spring equation. If shown on a graph. and k = the force constant (or spring constant). as it tends to restore the system to equilibrium. k. we say that the behavior is linear.
F = the restoring force exerted by the material (Newtons). measured in force per length. That is. it pulls back to the right). (Note that potential energy of a spring is always non-negative)
Objective
To investigate and verify Hooke’s Law
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. the line should show a direct variation. The constant has units of force per
unit length (newtons per meter). the integral of force over distance.

The spring constant.1] Where. F= the force x= the elongation k= spring constant (proportionally constant)
Where F is the force. However. Many different position dependent forces exist. k. x is the elongation and k is proportionality constant. Since the force changes as the particle moves the kinematic equations are not appropriate to describe the motion.
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. Springs generates a force which is directly proportional to their elongation and are described by Hooke’s Law.Theory
In this experiment you will examine the motion of an object moving under the influence of a force that dependent on position. called the spring constant. this experiment will be restricted to the study of motion under the influence of the force which depends linearly on position: the force from a spring. and motion under the influence of these forces can result in motion that is far from simple.
F= kx ……………………………… [5. The minus sign in the Hooke’s Law expresses the fact that the force is always directed opposite its displacement. depends on the material and dimensions of the actual spring. A force which has a direction opposite to the displacement is called restoring force. since it lends to restore the objects to its original resting place.

4) Another 50 g mass is added to the hanger and the extention of the spring is measured.
3) A 50 g mass is added to the hanger. d is measured between the clamp and bottom of the mass hanger. The extention of the spring is given by D – d.
Apparatus
• • • • • Retort-stand Mass Hanger Pin Spring Ruler
SET UP
d
D
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. 2) The distance. d is measured from the clamp to the
bottom of the hanger.1. A mass hanger is suspended from the spring.Procedures
1) A light spring is attached to the clamp of a retort stand as shown in figure 5. The result recorded in a table.
This step is repeated until about six 50 g masses on the hanger. The distance.

9810 1.129 0.3924 0.255 0.255 0.255 m Distance from the clamp to the hanger Initial length.320 0.191 0.06 0.446 0.065 0.12
Force.255 0. d = 0. d (m) 0.575 0.08 0.02 0.255 0.385
Mass.81 ms-2)
x=D–d
x = Extension D = Final Length d = Initial Length
F = kx
F = Force (N) x = the elongation k = spring constant (Nm-1)
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.384 0.5886 0.1772
F = mg F = Force (N) m = Mass (Kg) g = Gravity (9. D (m) 0.1962 0.640 Extension.10 0.255 0. m (kg) 0. x (m) (x = D – d) 0.320 0. F (N) 0.7848 0.510 0.255 0.255 Final length.04 0.Results
Length.

81 ms-2) = 0.255] m = 0.065 m = 3.1962 N
b) Extension. F .320 – 0.018 Nm-1
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. F = kx k=F x = 0.02 Kg) a) Force. 1m = 100 cm
Calculations
Reading 1 (0. x . F = mg = (0.02 Kg) (9. k .065 m c) Spring Constant.1962 N 0.
x=D–d = [0.

042 Nm-1
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.Reading 2 (0.255] m = 0.384 – 0. F = kx k=F x = 0.04 Kg)
a) Force.129 m c) Spring Constant.81 ms-2) = 0.
F = mg = (0.
x=D–d = [0.04 Kg) (9.129 m = 3. F .3924 N
b) Extension. k .3924 N 0. x .

06 Kg) (9.Reading 3 (0.191 m c) Spring Constant. x .191 m = 3.06 Kg)
a) Force. F .255] m = 0.
x=D–d = [0. F = kx k=F x = 0.446 – 0.5886 N 0.5886 N
b) Extension.
F = mg = (0.81 ms-2) = 0.082 Nm-1
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. k .

08 Kg) (9.81 ms-2) = 0.Reading 4 (0. F = kx k=F x = 0.08 Kg)
a) Force.
x=D–d = [0.7848 N
b) Extension.
F = mg = (0.510 – 0. x .078 Nm-1
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.255 m = 3. k .255] m = 0.255 m c) Spring Constant. F .7848 N 0.

k . x .320 m c) Spring Constant.
F = mg = (0.
x=D–d = [0.81 ms-2) = 0.320 m = 3.9810 N
b) Extension.Reading 5 (0. F = kx k=F x = 0.066 Nm-1
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.10 Kg) (9.575 – 0.10 Kg)
a) Force.9810 N 0. F .255] m = 0.

385 m = 3.058 Nm-1
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.385 m c) Spring Constant. x . F .640 – 0.Reading 6 (0.1772 N
b) Extension. F = kx k=F x = 1.12 Kg) (9.255] m = 0.12 Kg)
a) Force.
F = mg = (0.
x=D–d = [0.1772 N 0.81 ms-2) = 1. k .

38 0.255 .130 = 0. 0. 0. x. what is the gradient of this graph?
Points is ( 0.40) and ( 0.Discussions & Question
1) Plot a graph of a force causing the extension against the extension.78 – 0.78 ) Gradient = y2 – y1 x2 – x1 = 0.40 0.130 .255 – 0.125
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.

1m? From 2 when x = 0.032 J
3) How much energy is stored in the spring when it is extended 0.04 2) How much work is done in stretching the spring through 0.32 N 0. F = 0.32 N Substitute in to equation. F = kx k=F x = 0.1 m.1m) = 0.23 N
W = Fs = (0.
Work is done in stretching the spring through 0.2) (0.1)2 = 0.32 N) (0.0115 J = 1.= 3.2 Nm-1
PEelastic = ½ kx2
= ½ (3.1 m is 0.6 × 10-2 J
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.1 m? find this from the graph.1 m =3.

the spring will not have the strength to hold on. one should not stand near the apparatus that has already been set up. when the force is add up. we did not use the exact mass.4) Describe any errors that may occurred during this experiment
Throughout this experiment. For example.
5) What can you conclude from your results about the relationship between the extension of a spring and the force causing the extension. When more mass added. which cannot be avoided. the extention too will increased. Finally yet importantly. which it is already in the first place. when we were carrying out this experiment. we can conclude something that commonsensical and judgment. It may ruin the elasticity of the spring. We had to start all over again from square one. the last factor is a human factor. 50g. for systems that Hooke's law. This too had affected the results that have been obtained.
Based on my results and from the graph. Other than that. Some of the results are approximately to be correct. In other words. What had happened was one of my course mates accidentally knocking the hanger that contained a mass and the mass fell off. This normally occurred in this kind of experiment probably because the spring has not been changed from time to time as either it should be or it has already worn out.kx
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. the force value also increase. We had used smaller mass than that because if we did not. Besides that. the results and calculations seem to turn out well as expected but not very well enough. is the elasticity of the spring. Hence. It is because one major factor. when conducting this experiment. the other factor is because of the edge of the ruler was worn out. That is why my results are affected. the extension produced is directly proportional to the load : F = kx or F = .

The longer the extension makes it to yield high value of force. Because the experiment is emphasizing on the Hooke’s law would be one of the main contributors to the failure of the experiment.
Recommendations
There are several important factors that require to be taken accounted from this experiment.Conclusions
For the conclusion. x from the graph we construct. the obeys hooke’s Law from this experiment. Try our best to avoid parallax error. In the other words. Therefore. The spring retain its original position by restoring force. To be conclude. Take at least three readings in order to get accurate readings. Some of the proper actions that should be taken to allow the experiment to succeed are such as: Check the apparatus before use for any faultiness so that the measurements taken are accurate.
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. We can conclude also the force. our experiment is successful agree to the objective of this experiment to investigate and verify Hooke’s Law. F = kx.
Make sure that the initial reading same as the beginning. Placed carefully the mass on the spring so that the reading can be taken more accurately and easily. N. Make sure the apparatus used such as retort stand is stable and not faulty. the
spring can restore its original position after certain amount of force applied. F is directly proportional to x if the x is not too great until the spring reached its limit of elasticity. N acting on the spring is proportional to the extension. spring stretched when force is being applied on positive direction. F = -kx.

org. Physics for Scientists and Engineers.
References
• • • • •
Mr. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-534-40842-7.). C. Freeman.net/hookeslaw/introduction.html http://en. Giancoli http://wikieducator..org/wiki/Hooke%27s_law http://schools. 1 (4th ed. John W. H. ISBN 0-07-072180-7.matter.html Serway. (2003). R. Paul (1998).).
•
• • •
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. (1975). Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Vol. Brooks/Cole. Make sure that the spring is in good condition during the experiment. Nur Asma lecturer for laboratory CHE 175 6th Edition. Jewett. Rudiyanto lecturer for CHE 175 ( note ) Mrs. Douglas C. Wylie. W. Physics Giancoli. Advanced Engineering Mathematics (4th ed.wikipedia.uk/Content/HookesLaw/introduction. Tipler. Raymond A. ISBN 1-57259-492-6.

Appendices
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