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FACES OF RACIAL

PROFILING
A Report from
Communities Across
America

SEPTEMBER 2010

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ENDNOTES

1.!

!U.S.!House!of!Representatives.!End!Racial!Profiling!Act!of!2010,!111th!Congress,!
2nd!Sess.!2010!H.R.!5748.

2.!

U.S.!Department!of!Justice,!Bureau!of!Justice!Statistics.!Contacts!between!Police!
and!the!Public:!Findings!from!the!2002!National!Survey,!<http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/
content/pub/pdf/cpp02.pdf>.

3.!

American!Civil!Liberties!Union!of!Rhode!Island.!The!Persistence!of!Racial!Profiling!in!
Rhode!Island:!An!Update,!April!2005,!<http://www.aclu.org/FilesPDFs/profiling_ri_
update.pdf>.

4.!

U.S.!Customs!and!Border!Protection,!Department!of!Homeland!Security.!Policy!
Regarding!Border!Search!of!Information,!July!16,!2008,!<http://www.customs.gov/
linkhandler/cgov/travel/admissibility/search_authority.ctt/search_authority.pdf>.

5.!

The!Sikh!Coalition.!The!TSA!Report!Card:!A!Quarterly!Review!of!Security!
Screenings!of!Sikh!Travelers!in!U.S.!Airports,!August!2009.

6.!

Amardeep!Singh,!testimony!before!the!House!Judiciary!Committee!Subcommittee!
on!the!Constitution,!Civil!Rights!and!Civil!Liberties,!<http://judiciary.house.gov/
hearings/pdf/Singh100617.pdf>.

7.!

Sheldon!Jacobson,!interviewed!by!Phil!Ciciora.!News!Bureau,!Jan.!7,!2010,!<http://
illinois.edu/lb/article/72/33799>.

8.!

The!DIOG,!giving!guidance!to!the!implementation!of!the!guidelines,!was!only!made!
available!in!a!heavily!redacted!version!through!FOIA!suitsthere!is!currently!a!suit!to!
disclose!all!of!the!DIOG,!unredacted.!<!<http://www.muslimadvocates.org/DIOGs_
pt1.pdf>.

9.!

U.S.!Department!of!Justice.!The!Attorney!Generals!Guide!for!Domestic!FBI!
Operations,!December!2008,!<http://www.justice.gov/ag/readingroom/guidelines.
pdf>.

10.! Federal!Bureau!of!Investigation.!Domestic!Investigation!and!Operations!Guide,!
December!2008,!pp.!27,!32,!<http://www.muslimadvocates.org/DIOGs_Chapter4.
pdf>.!
11.! Attorney!Generals!Guide!for!Domestic!FBI!Operations,!11A.,!December!2008,!
<http://www.justice.gov/ag/readingroom/guidelines.pdf>.!
12.! Vera!Institute!of!Justice.!Law!Enforcement!and!Arab-American!Community!Relations!
after!September!11,!2001:!Engagement!in!a!Time!of!Uncertainty;!2006,!pp!13,!21,!
<http://www.vera.org/download?file=147/Arab%2BAmerican%2Bcommunity%2Br
elations.pdf>.
67

13.! Immigration!Policy!Center,!Targets!of!Suspicion:!The!Impact!of!Post-9/11!Policies!
on!Muslims,!Arabs!and!South!Asians!in!the!United!States,!2004,!!<http://ispu.org/
reports/articledetailpb-63.html>.

!
14.! Lisa!M.!Seghetti,!Karma!Ester!and!Michael!John!Garcia.!Enforcing!Immigration!Law:!
The!Role!of!State!and!Local!Law!Enforcement,!Congressional!Research!Service,!
2009,!!<http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/crs/rl32270.pdf>.
15.! University!of!North!Carolina!Immigration!and!Human!Rights!Policy!Clinic!and!the!
American!Civil!Liberties!Union!of!North!Carolina!Foundation.!The!Policies!and!Politics!
of!Local!Immigration!Enforcement!Laws,!February!2009!<http://www.law.unc.edu/
documents/clinicalprograms/287gpolicyreview.pdf>.!
16.! Government!Accountability!Office,!Immigration.!Enforcement:!Better!Controls!
Needed!over!Program!Authorizing!State!and!Local!Enforcement!of!Federal!
Immigration!Laws,!January!2009,!<http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d09109.pdf>
17.! U.S.!Department!of!Homeland!Security,!Immigration!and!Customs!Enforcement.!
Criminal!Alien!Program,!Fact!Sheet,!(Nov.!19,!2008),!!<http://www.ice.gov/pi/
news/factsheets/criminal_alien_program.htm>.
18.! Trevor!Gardner!II!and!Aarti!Kohli,!The!Chief!Justice!Earl!Warren!Institute!on!Race,!
Ethnicity,!and!Diversity,!University!of!California!Berkeley,!Berkeley!Law!School.!The!
C.A.P.!Effect:!Racial!Profiling!in!the!ICE!Criminal!Alien!Program,!2009,!!!<http://www.
law.berkeley.edu/files/policybrief_irving_FINAL.pdf>.
19.! U.S.!Immigration!and!Customs!Enforcement.!Secure!Communities;!IDENT/IAFIS!
Interoperability!Monthly!Statistics!through!October!31,!2009,!!!<http://www.
ccrjustice.org/secure-communities/files2.!IDENT!Interoperability!Statistics.pdf.
20.! Id.
21.! To!view!the!documents!released!by!DHS,!ICE,!and!the!FBI!in!response!to!this!FOIA!
request!in!their!entirety,!see!!<http://www.ccrjustice.org/secure-communities>.
22.! Whren!v.!United!States,!517!U.S.!806!(1996).
23.! U.S.!v.!Brignoni-Ponce,!422!U.S.!873!(1975).
24.! Reno!v.!American-Arab!Anti-Discrimination!Committee!(ADC),!525!U.S.!471!(1999).
25.! Reno!at!488.
26.! The!testimonies!quoted!in!this!report!were!received!by!a!panel!of!local!and!national!
commissioners!at!a!series!of!hearings!held!in!the!summer!of!2010!by!Rights!Working!
Group!and!local!and!national!partners.!Some!of!these!testimonies!were!given!
anonymously.!All!of!the!testimonies!are!on!file!with!the!authors!of!this!report.!
27.! End!Racial!Profiling!Act!of!2010,!H.R.!5748,!111th!Cong.!(2nd!Sess.!2010).
28.! Police!Executive!Research!Forum,!Racially!Biased!Policing:!A!Principled!Response,!
2001,!!!!<http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/html/cd_rom/resources_law_enf/pubs/
MiamiPoliceDepartmentCitizenContactCard.pdf>.

68