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EMA Chapter 1 1. What is an organization and why are managers important to an organizations success?

Organization is defined as a deliberate arrangement of people brought together to accomplish some specific purpose. Organization shares 3 common characteristics. First, organization has a distinct purpose in term of goals. Second, peoples work together in organization to make decision and engage in work activities to achieve the goal. All organizations develop a deliberate and systematic structure that defines and limit the members behavior. Managers are individuals in an organization who direct and oversee other peoples activities. Top managers decide the direction of the organization and establishing policies and philosophies. Middle managers manage other managers and nonmanagerial employees and translate the goals into specific details. First-line managers direct the day-to-day activities of nonmanagerial employees. Managers have 4 management functions. Planning includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities. Organizing includes determining what tasks are to be done and by whom, how task are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decision are to be made. Leading includes directing and coordinating the work activities of an organizations people. Controlling includes monitoring activities to ensure that they are accomplished as planned. 2. Are all effective organizations also efficient? Discuss. If you had to choose between being effective or being efficient, which one would you say is more important? Why? Not all effective organizations are also efficient. Efficiency means doing a task correctly andgetting the most output from the least amount of inputs. Effectiveness means doing the right things by doing those work tasks that help the organization reach it goals. Efficiency is concerned with the means of getting things done, effectiveness is concerned with the ends, or attainment of organization goals.Effectiveness is more important than efficiency. 3. Is your course instructor a manager? Discuss in terms of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Also discuss using Mintzbergs managerial roles approach. 4. Is there one best style of management? Why or why not? Chapter 2 1. What are the managerial implications of Hofstedes research on cultural environments? The GLOBE study? Not sure Hofstede found that managers and employees vary on five value dimensions of national culture. The first one is power distance which means the degree to which people in a country accept that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally. It ranges from relatively low (low power distance) to extremely unequal (high power distance). For example, countries like England have small power distance, while countries like Singapore have large power distance. Second is individualism versus collectivism. Individualismis the degree to

which people in a country prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups. Collectivism is the equivalent of low individualism. Most Asian countries like Singapore were more collectivistic than individualistic. In the contrast, Western countries like United States prefer individualism. Third is achievement versus nurturing. Achievement is the degree to which values such as assertiveness, the acquisition of money and material goods, and competition are important. Nurturing is the degree to which people value relationships and show sensitivity and concern for the welfare of others. In countries like France, they place high value on nurturing, while achievement is important in countries like Unites States. In countries like Japan, they have high uncertainty avoidance as people in the country prefer structured over unstructured situations compared to countries like United States. The last one is long-term versus short-term orientation. People in cultures with long-term orientations look to the future and value thrift and persistence. A short-term orientation values the past and present and emphasizes respect for tradition and fulfilling social obligations.GLOBE studies confirm that Hofstedes research are still valid, and extend his research rather than replace it. The studies identified nine dimensions on which national cultures differ. Three of the dimensions, uncertainty avoidance, power distance, individual/collectivism are same as Hofstedes research. 2. How can managers help employees deal with work/life balance issues? 3. Describe the characteristics and behaviors of someone you consider to be an ethical person. How could the types of decisions and actions this person engages in be encouraged in a workplace? Chapter 3 1.Why is decision making often described as the essence of a managers job? Decision making process is a set of eight steps that begins with identifying a problem; it moves through selecting an alternative that can alleviate a problem and concludes with evaluating the decisions effectiveness. 2. Because managers have software tools to use, they should be able to make more rational decisions. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Why? 3. Why do you think organizations have increased the use of groups for making decisions? When would you recommend using groups to make decisions? Many organizations have increased the use of groups for making decisions. It is because in many cases, these groups represent the people who will be most affected by the decisions being made. Because of their expertise, these people are often best qualified to make decisions that affect them. Group decisions provide more complete information than individual ones do. A group will bring a diversity of experiences and perspectives than an individual acting alone cannot. Groups also generate more alternativesas groups have a greater quantity and diversity of information. Quantity and diversity of information are greatest when group members represent different specialties. Furthermore, group decision making increase acceptance of a solution. If the people who will be affected by a certain

solution, and who will help implement it, participate in the decision they will be more likely to accept the decision and encourage others to accept it. And finally, this process increase legitimacy. The group decision-making process is consistent with democratic ideals; therefore, decisions made by groups may be perceived as more legitimate than decisions made by a single person. Group decisions tend to be more accurate. On average, groups tend to make better decisions than individuals, although groupthink may occur. Teams tend to be better than individuals if creativity is important. And if effectiveness means the degree of acceptance the final solution achieves, the nod again goes to the group. Chapter 4 1. Contrast formal with informal planning. Discuss why planning is beneficial. Planning includes defining the organizations objectives or goals, establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals, and developing a comprehensive hierarchy of plans o integrate and coordinate activities. Its concerned with ends (what is to be done) as well as with means (how its to be done). In informal planning, very little, if anything, is written down. What is to be accomplished is in the heads of one or a few people. Furthermore, the organizations goals are rarely verbalized. Informal planning generally describes the planning that takes place in many smaller businesses. The planning is general and lacks continuity. In formal planning, specific goals covering a specific time period are defined. These goals are written down and made available to organization members. Using these goals, managers develop specific plans that clearly define the path the organization will take to get from where it is to where it wants to be. Planning establishes coordinated effort and gives direction to managers and nonmanagerial employees. When all organizational members understand where the organization is going and what they must contribute to reach the goals, they can begin to coordinate their activities, thus fostering teamwork and cooperation. By forcing managers to look ahead, anticipate change, consider the impact of change, and develop appropriate responses, planning reduce uncertainty. It also clarifies the consequences of the actions managers might take in response to change. Planning reduces overlapping and wasteful activities. Planning also establishes the goals or standard that facilitates control. When managers plan, they develop goals and plans. When they control, they see whether the plans have been carried out and the goals met. If significant deviations are identified, corrective action can be taken. Formal planning generally means higher profit, higher return to assets, and other positive financial results. The quality of the planning process and the appropriate implementation of the plan probably contribute more to high performance than the extent of planning does. 2. Describe in detail the six-step strategic management process. Strategic management is what managers do to develop an organizations strategies. The strategic management process is a six-step process that encompasses strategic planning, implementation, and evaluation. First step is identifying the organizations current mission, goals and strategies. Every organization needs a mission - a statement of its purpose. Defining the mission forces managers to identify what its business to do. Its also important

for managers to identify the current goals and strategies, so managers have a basis for assessing whether they need to be changed. Second step is doing an external analysis. In an external analysis, managers should examine both the specific and general environments to see the trend and changes. Once theyve analyze the environment, managers need to pinpoint opportunities that the organization can exploit and threats that it must counteract or buffer against. The next step is doing an internal analysis, which provides important information about an organizations specific resources and capabilities. An organizations resources are its assets financial, physical, human and intangible what it uses to develop, manufacture, and deliver products to its customers. On the other hand, its capabilities are its skills and abilities in doing the work activities needed in its business. The major value-creating capabilities of the organization are known as its core competencies. After completing an internal analysis, managers should be able to identify organizational strength and weaknesses. Then, managers are ready to formulate appropriate strategies that exploit an organizations strengths and external opportunities, buffer or protect the organization from external threats or correct critical weaknesses. As managers formulate strategies, they should consider the realities of the external environment and their available resources and capabilities and design strategies that will help an organization achieve its goals. There are three main types of strategies managers will formulate: corporate, competitive, and functional. The next step is implementing strategies that have been formulated. The final step in the strategic management process is evaluating results. 3. What is a SWOT analysis and why is it important to managers? (not completed) SWOT analysis is the combination of external and internal analysis because its an analysis of the organizations strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Opportunities are positive trends in the external environment; while threats are negative trends. Any activities the organization does well or any unique resources that it has are called strengths, while weaknesses are activities the organization doesnt do well or resources it needs but doesnt possess. 4. Organizations that fail to plan are planning to fail. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Explain your position. Planning includes defining the organizations objectives or goals, establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals, and developing a comprehensive hierarchy of plans o integrate and coordinate activities. Its concerned with ends (what is to be done) as well as with means (how its to be done). Organizations that fail to plan are planning to fail. I agree with this statement. Planning establishes coordinated effort and gives direction to managers and nonmanagerial employees. A lack of planning can cause organizational members or work units to work against one another and keep the organization from moving efficiently toward its goals. It can also cause overlapping and wasteful activities. Planning establishes the goals or standard that facilitates control. Without planning, there would be no goals against which to measure or evaluate work efforts. Chapter 5

1. Can an organizations structure be changed quickly? Why or why not? Should it be changed quickly? Why or why not? 2. An organization can have no structure. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Explain. An organization can have no structure. I agree with this statement. Boundaryless organization is an organization whose design is not defined by, or limited to, the horizontal, vertical, or external boundaries imposed by a predefined structure. It is highly flexible and responsive. It also utilizes talent wherever its found. Boundaryless organizations operate most effectively by remaining flexible and unstructured. The ideal structure for them is not having a rigid, bounded, and predefined structure. A virtual organization consists of a small core of full-time employees and outside specialists temporarily hired as needed to work on projects. Another structural option for managers wanting to minimize or eliminate organizational boundaries is a network organization, which is one that uses its own employees to do some work activities and networks of outside suppliers to provide other needed product components or work processes. This structural approach allows organizations to concentrate on what they do best by contracting out other activities to companies that do those activities best. 3. With the availability of information technology that allows employees to work anywhere, anytime, is organizing still an important managerial function? Why or why not? 4. Researchers are now saying that efforts to simplify work tasks actually have negative results for both companies and their employees. Do you agree? Why or why not? Chapter 6 1. Do you think its ethical for a prospective employer to delve into an applicants life by means of interviews, tests, and background investigations? What if those investigations involved looking at your Facebook page or personal blogs? Explain your position. 2. Discuss the advantages and drawbacks of the various recruiting sources Organizations recruit employees through internet searches. It has advantages of low cost, build employee morale and the candidates are familiar with organization. However, the disadvantage is there is limited supply of candidates and may not increase proportion of protected group employees. When recruiting employees through advertisements, wide distributions of candidates can be targeted to specific group, but it also generate many unqualified candidates. Employees that recruited through employee referrals has knowledge about the organization provided by current employees and they are strong candidates because a good referral reflects on the recommender. However, this may not increase the diversity and mix of employees. Its free or nominal cost when recruiting employees through public employment agencies, but candidates tend to be lower skilled. In the other hand, private employment agencies have wide contacts and careful screening and often give short-term guarantees, but the cost is expensive. School placement as a recruiting source is a large, centralized body of candidates, but the candidates are limited to entry-level positions. Employees recruited from temporary help services fill temporary needs, but it is expensive.

When recruiting employees from employee leasing and independent contractors, it fill temporary needs for more specific, longer-term projects. However, the employees have little commitment to an organization other than current project. Chapter 7 1. Explain how to manage resistance to change. Organizational change is any alteration of an organizations people, structure or technology. People resist organizational change because change replaces the known with uncertainty, people do things out of habit, fear of losing something already possessed or a persons belief that the change is incompatible with the goals and interests of the organization. Managers can use different techniques to reduce resistance to change depend on situations. When resistance is due to misinformation, education and communication can help reduce resistance to change by helping employees see the logic of the change effort. Participation involves bringing those individuals directly affected by the proposed change into the decision making process. Their participation allows these individuals to express their feelings, increase the quality of the process, and increase employee commitment to the final decision. Facilitation and support such as employee counseling, therapy, new skills training, or a short paid leave of absence involve helping employees deal with the fear and anxiety associated with the change effort. Negotiation involves exchanging something of value for an agreement to lessen the resistance to the change effort. Manipulation and co-optation refers to covert attempts to influence others about the change. Coercion involves the use of direct threats or force against the resisters. 2. Describe Lewins three-step change process. How is it different from the change process needed in the whitewater rapids metaphor of change? (not completed) According to Lewin, successful change requires unfreezing the status quo, changing to a new state, and freezing new change to make it permanent. The status quo can be considered an equilibrium state. Unfreezing can be achieved in one of three ways which are increasing the driving forces which direct behavior away from the status quo, decreasing the restraining forces which hinder movement from the existing equilibrium or combine the two approaches. Once the situation has been unfrozen, the change itself can be implemented. The new situation needs to be frozen by balancing the driving and restraining forces so that it can be sustained over time. 3. How do creativity and innovation differ? Give an example of each Creativity refers to the ability to combine ideas in a unique way or to make unusual associations between ideas. Chapter 8 1. Describe what is meant by the term emotional intelligence. Provide an example of how its used in contemporary organizations.

Emotional Intelligence (EI) refers to an assortment of noncognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influences a persons ability to cope with environmental demands and pressures. Its composed of five dimensions, which are self-awareness (being aware of what youre feeling), self-management (the ability to manage your own emotions and impulses), self-motivation (the ability to persist in the face of setbacks and failures), empathy (the ability to sense how others are feeling) and social skills (the ability to handle the emotion of others). Several studies suggest that EI may play an important role in job performance. Organizations such as American Express have found that implementing EI programs has helped increase its effectiveness; other organizations also found similar results that EI contributes to team effectiveness. 2. Instead of worrying about job satisfaction, companies should be trying to create environments where performance is enabled. What do you think this statement means? Explain. Whats your reaction to this statement? Do you agree? Disagree? Why? 3. How might a manager use personality traits to improve employee selection in his department? Emotional intelligence? Discuss. 4. Describe the implications of social learning theory for managing people at work. 5. A Gallup Organization survey shows that most workers rate having a caring boss even higher than they value money or fringe benefits. How should managers interpret this information? What are the implications? Chapter 9 1. Contrast (a) self-managed and cross-functional teams and (b) virtual and face-to-face teams. Work teams are groups whose members work intensely on a specific, common goal using their positive synergy, individual and mutual accountability, and complementary skills. Selfmanaged teams are formal group of employees who operate without a manager and are responsible for a complete work process or segment. A self-managed team is responsible for getting the work done and for managing themselves. This usually includes planning and scheduling of work, assigning tasks to members, collective control over the pace of work, making operating decisions, and taking action on problems. In the other hand, crossfunctional teams are groups that bring together the knowledge and skills of individuals from various areas or groups whose members have been trained to do each other jobs. Virtual team is a team that uses technology to link physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal. Virtual teams can do all the things that other teams can-share information, make decisions, and complete tasks; however, they lack the normal give-and-take of face-toface discussions. Thats why virtual teams tend to be more task oriented-especially if the team members have never personally met. 2. How do you explain the popularity of work teams in countries such as the United States and Canada, whose national cultures place a high value on individualism?

In countries such as the United States and Canada, they place a high value on individualism as people in the country prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups. However, its estimated that over 70% of US manufacturers use work teams. Work teams are groups whose members work intensely on a specific, common goal using their positive synergy, individual and mutual accountability, and complementary skills.Research suggest that teams typically outperform individuals when the tasks being done require multiple skills, judgment, and experiences. Organizations are using team-based structures because theyve found that teams are more flexible and responsive to changing events than traditional departments or other permanent work groups. Teams have the ability to quickly assemble, deploy, refocus and disband.Teams provide more complete information than individuals. A team will bring a diversity of experiences and perspectives than an individual acting alone cannot. Teams also generate more alternatives. Because teams have a greater quantity and diversity of information, they can identify more alternatives than an individual can. Quantity and diversity of information are greatest when team member represent different specialties. Group decisions tend to be more accurate. On average, groups tend to make better decisions than individuals, although groupthink may occur. Teams tend to be better than individuals if creativity is important. The extensive use of teams creates the potential for an organization to generate greater outputs with no increase in (or even fewer) inputs. 3. All work teams are work groups, but not all work groups are work teams. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Discuss. I agree with this statement. It is true that all work teams are work groups, but not all work groups are work teams. A group is defined as two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who come together to achieve specific goals. Works teams do differ from work groups and have their own unique traits. Work groups interact primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each member do his/her job more efficiently and effectively. Theres no need or opportunity for work groups to engage in collective work that requires joint effort. In the other hand, work teams are groups whose members work intensely on a specific, common goal using their positive synergy, individual and mutual accountability, and complementary skills.Compared to work teams, work groups have neutral or sometimes even negative synergy. Work groups also have individual accountability only and they have random and varies skills. Therefore, merely calling a group a team doesnt automatically increase its performance. 4. To have a successful team, first find a great leader. What do you think of this statement? Do you agree? Why or why not? 5. What challenges would there be in creating an effective crossfunctional team? How can the senior management deal with these challenges? 6. Explain how each of the characteristics of effective teams would be important for an effective cross-functional team. Chapter 10

1. What role would money play in (a) the hierarchy of needs theory, (b) two-factor theory, (c) equity theory, (d) expectancy theory, and (e) motivating employees with a high nAch? How do needs affect motivation? Motivation refers to the process by which a persons effort are energized, directed and sustained toward attaining a goal. The hierarchy of needs theory proposed that within every person is a hierarchy of five needs, which are physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs. Physiological and safety needs were considered lower order needs, while social, esteem and self-actualization needs were considered higher order needs. Money can be used to buy food, drink, shelter and other physical requirement. Hence, money is considered as physiological needs and is lower order needs. However, the theory also says that once a need is substantially satisfied, an individual isnt motivated to satisfy the need. Therefore, to motivate someone, manager need to understand what need level that person is on in the hierarchy and focus on satisfying needs at or above that level. Two factors theory proposes that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are associated with job dissatisfaction. Money is one of the hygiene factors which are extrinsic factors that create job dissatisfaction. When these factors are adequate, people wont be dissatisfied, but they wont be motivated either. Equity theory proposes that employees compare his or her input-outcomes ratio with of relevant others and then corrects any inequity. The result might be lower or higher productivity, improved or reduced quality of output, increased absenteeism, or voluntary resignation. Money play an important role in this theory as employees tend to compare their salary, bonus, and rewards with others. Expectancy theory states that an individual tends to act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. As this theory emphasizes payoffs or rewards, money plays an important role in this theory as well. If the reward is attractive enough for the person and helps him/she achieves his/her personal goals, the person will put enough effort to achieve certain level of performance and get the reward. The need of achievement (nAch) is the drive to succeed and excel in relation to a set of standards. Money is not important in motivating employees with a high nAch as they are striving for personal achievement rather than for the reward of success. 2. What are some of the possible consequences of employees perceiving an inequity between their inputs and outcomes and those of others? 3. What are some advantages of using pay-for-performance to motivate employee performance? Are there drawbacks? Explain. Pay-for-performance programs are variable compensation plans that pay employees on the basis of some performance measure. Piece-rate pay plans, wage incentives plans, profitsharing and lump-sum bonuses are examples. 4. Many job design experts who have studied the changing nature of work say that people do their best work when theyre motivated by a sense of purpose rather than by the pursuit of money. Do you agree? Explain your position. What are the implications for managers?

5. Can an individual be too motivated? Discuss. Chapter 11 1. Do you think that most managers in real life use a contingency approach to increase their leadership effectiveness? Discuss. 2. All managers should be leaders, but not all leaders should be managers. Do you agree or disagree this statement? Support your position. 3. Do you think trust evolves out of an individuals personal characteristics or out of specific situations? Explain. 4. When might leaders be irrelevant? Chapter 12 1. Which type of communication do you think is most effective in a work setting? Why? I think that written communications is most effective in a work setting. Written communications includes memo, letters, e-mail, organizational periodicals, bulletin boards, or any other device that transmits written words or symbols. Written communications are tangible, verifiable, and more permanent than the oral variety. Typically, both sender and receiver have a record of the communication. The message can be stored for an indefinite period of time. If questions arise about the content of the message, its physically available for later reference. This feature is particularly important for complex or lengthy communications. For example, the marketing plan for a new product is likely to contain a number of tasks spread out over several months. By putting it in writing, those who have to carry out the plan can readily refer to the document over the life of the plan. A final benefit of written communication comes from the process itself. Except in rare instances, such as presenting a formal speech, more care is taken with the written word than with the spoken word. Having to put something in writing forces a person to think more carefully about what he/she want to convey. Therefore, written communications are more likely to be well thought out, logical and clear. 2. Which do you think is more important for a manager: speaking accurately or listening actively? Why? (not completed) I think that both speaking accurately and listening actively is important for a manager. Listening actively means listen for the full meaning of the message without making premature judgment or interpretation or thinking about what you are going to say in response. Active listening requires four essential elements, which are intensity, empathy, acceptance and a willingness to take responsibilities for completeness. In listening,managers should put effort and total concentration into the communication.Empathy requires managers to put themselves in the senders position. Because senders differ in attitudes, interests, needs, and expectations, empathy makes it easier to understand the actual content of a message. An active listener manager that demonstrates acceptance absorbs whats being said and

withholds judgment on content until the speaker is finished. In order to get the full intended meaning from the speakers communication, listening for feeling as well as for content and asking questions to ensure understanding. 3. Ineffective communication is the fault of the sender. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Discuss. 4. Is information technology helping managers be more efficient and effective? Explain your answer. Information technology is helping managers to be more efficient and effective. It has significantly improved a managers ability to monitor individual and team performance, it has allowed employees more opportunities to collaborate and share information. In addition, information technology has made it possible for people in organizations to be fully accessible 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, regardless of where they are. Employees dont have to be at their desks with their computers turned on in order to communicate with others in the organization. Three developments in information technology appear to have had a significant effect on current managerial communication: networked computer systems, wireless capabilities, and knowledge management systems. In a networked computer system, an organization links its computers together through compatible hardware and software, creating an integrated organizational network. E-mail, instant messaging (IM), voice mail and Internet-based voice communication is a fast way to transfer message. Fax machines can transmit documents containing both text and graphics over ordinary telephone lines. Electronic data interchange (EDI) is a way for organizations to exchange business transaction documents such as invoices or purchase order, using direct, computer to computer networks. Teleconferencing and videoconferencing allow a group of people that in different locations to have meeting. Wireless communication such as smartphones, netbook computers, notebook computers and other devices have created a whole new way for managers to keep in touch. Globally, millions of users use wireless technology to send and receive information from anywhere. One result: employees no longer have to be at their desks with their computers in order to communicate with others in the organization. Knowledge management involves cultivating a learning culture in which organizational members systematically gather knowledge and share it with others in the organization so as to achieve better performance. Chapter 13 1. What is the role of control in management? 2. Describe four methods managers can use to acquire information about actual work performance. 3. How are planning and control linked? Is the control function linked to the organizing and leading functions of management? Explain 4. Why is what is measured in the control process probably more critical to the control process than how it is measured?

5. Why do you believe feedback control is the most popular type of control? Justify your response. The most popular type of control relies on feedback. In feedback control, the control takes place after the activity is done. Feedback controls have two advantages. First, feedback gives managers meaningful information on how effective their planning efforts were. Feedback that shows little variance between standard and actual performance indicates that the planning was generally on target. If the deviation is significant, a manager can use that information to formulate on new plans. Second, feedback can enhance motivation. People want to know how well theyre doing, and feedback provides that information. In many work areas, the financial area being one example, feedback is the only viable type of control.