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Approaches The development of biometric systems is undoubtedly on the rise in the number and the application areas. Modelling of system reliability and system data analysis after failure and the time of re-establishing the operating regime is of crucial importance for users of the system and also for producers of certain components. This paper gives an overview of the mathematical model of biometric system function recovery and its application through the UML model.

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Recovery function of Components of Additive Model

of Biometric System Reliability in UML

Zoran osi(Author)

director

Statheros d.o.o.

Katel Stari, Croatia

zoran.cosic@statheros.hr

Jasmin osi (Author)

IT Section of Police Administration

Ministry of Interior of Una-sana canton

Biha, Bosnia and Hercegovina

jacosic@gmail.com

Miroslav Baa (Author)

professor

Faculty of Organisational and Informational science

Varadin, Croatia

miroslav.baca@foi.hr

Abstract- Approaches The development of biometric systems is

undoubtedly on the rise in the number and the application areas.

Modelling of system reliability and system data analysis after

failure and the time of re-establishing the operating regime is of

crucial importance for users of the system and also for producers

of certain components. This paper gives an overview of the

mathematical model of biometric system function recovery and its

application through the UML model.

Keywords- Additive model, Biometric system, reliability, recovery

function, UML, component,

I. INTRODUCTION

Many models of reliability of biometric systems are applicable

only to specific parts or components of that same system. For

more complex considerations must be taken into account

models based on Markov processes that consider the reliability

of the system as a whole, which includes components of the

system. In this paper the approach to restoring the functions of

a biometric system that had failure at some of its components is

elaborated. The basic model is an additive model which

assumes a serial dependence between the components [1] (Xie

& Wohlin).

UML is also becoming standard in the process of system

design so the manufacture of component systems greatly

benefits from the UML view. The authors introduce the

concept of UML modelling in the process of restoring function

analysis of biometric systems. The paper defines the conceptual

class diagram in UML, which provides a framework for

analyzing the function recovery of biometric systems.

II. ADDITIVE RELIABILITY MODEL

Reliability [2] as the probability [2] (number between 0 and 1

or 0% and 100%) can be represented as a ratio between the

number of successful tasks and the total number of tasks in the

time specified for the operation of the system:

1

( )

( )

( )

n t

R t

n t

=

(1)

where :

( ) R t

- assessment of reliability,

1

( ) n t

- number of successful assignments in time t,

( ) n t

- total number of tasks performed in time t,

t - time specified for the operation of the

system.

The value

( ) R t

represents the estimated reliability due to the

fact that the number of tasks n(t) is final. Therefore, the actual

reliability R(t) is obtained when the number of tasks n(t) tends

to infinity.

( )

( )

( ) lim R t

n t

R t

=

(2)

R ( t ) = 1 F ( t ) = P ( T > t ) (3)

Where the R ( t ) 1indicates the reliability function. Thus F ( t )

can be called non reliability function. Approximate form of the

function F ( t ), is shown in Figure 1. It is a continuous and

monotonically increasing function:

F ( 0 ) = 0

F ( t ) 1, when t

Density failure function is marked with F( t ), and from

probability theory we know that:

1

R ( t ) is function of reliability

1 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011

( )

( )

dF t

f t

dt

=

(4)

where F(t) is probability distribution function.

Failure intensity [3], [4], ( t ) represents the density of

conditional probability of failure at time t provided that until

that moment there was no failure.

) (

) (

) (

t R

t f

t =

(5)

Or according to the model of Xie and Wohlin:

0 ,

) (

) ( > = t

dt

t d

t

(6)

where (t) is mean value of the expected system failure.

It is also assumed that the intensity of the failure of the entire

system is the sum of the intensity of failures of its components:

(7)

So it follows that the expectations of failure of the system are

(6):

(8)

III. BIOMETRIC SYSTEM RECOVERY FUNCTION

Term recovery consider biometric system as a system that is

maintained after a long period of use or recovered after failure of

particular components. Biometric system components, after the

failure, are maintained or exchanged and then continue to be part of

the system. When considering the reliability problems of generic

biometric system along with a random event that includes the

appearance of failure within the system, it is necessary to consider

other random event and that is recovery the system after failure.

To this event corresponds a new random variable

that indicates

the time of recovery. As a characteristic of random variable

indicators similar to those being considered for the analysis of time

without failure are used.

A. Distribution recovery function, refresh frequency

of the components in failure, then the probability of recovery is as a

function of time:

P ( < ) ( )

1

t F t = (9)

F

1

(t) probability distribution function of random variable

.

The probability of non-recovery G(t) is defined as:

P t G = ) ( ( > t) = ) ( 1

1

t F (10)

Refresh frequency

) (

1

t F

is the probability density function of

random variable

:

dt

t dG

dt

t dF

t f

) ( ) (

) (

1

1

= = (11)

From here it follows that:

) (

1

t F dt t f

t

) (

0

1

= (12)

dt t f t G

t

) ( 1 ) (

0

1

= (13)

B. Intensity of recovery function

) (t

is the conditional probability density function2 of completion

of recovery of components (repair) within time t, provided that

recovery is not completed until the moment t.

Intensity recovery function is conditional probability density

function of the end of the recovery in time t, provided that recovery

is not complete until that moment t, we have:

1 1

( ) ( ) ( )

( )

( ) ( ) ( )

F t f t G t

t

G t G t G t

'

'

= = = (14)

0 0

( )

( )

( )

t t

dG t

t dt

G t

=

(15)

0

0

ln ( ) ( )

t

t

G t t dt =

(16)

( )

0

( )

t

t dt

G t e

= (17)

0

( )

1

F (t)= 1- e

t

t dt

(18)

2 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011

C. Time recovery function

a. Mean recovery time

Mean time of recovery

M

(

random variable

) (

1

t f

,

i.e.

M ( ) dt t tf ) (

0

1

= (19)

M ( ) dt t G

=

0

) ( (20)

b. Recovery time variance

Recovery time variance

2

0

is characterized by deviation of

duration of recovery

2

0

| | | |

2

0 0

2

) ( ) ( 2 ) (

= = = dt t G dt t tG E E V

(21)

c. Availability of system after recovery time

Probability [5], that the system after time t will be available for

functioning is the expression (10).

Where intensity recovery function can be defined as:

(22)

MTTR mean time to repair

The process of transition from the state of failure to the state of

availability can be represented as in Figure 1:

Figure 1

Condition 1 represents a functional system and condition 2

represents a system that has been repaired after a failure.

The transition of system from condition 1 to 2 is represented

with failure intensity function , the transition from condition 2

to condition 1 is defined with recovery intensity function .

IV. RECOVERY FUNCTION OF BIOMETRIC SYSTEM IN UML

A. Generalized biometric system

Generalized biometric system model[7], [8], [9] is a schematic view

of Wyman biometric system model that depicts serial dependence

of a system components and can be summarized, in this exploitation

period of time, as shown on Figure 2.

Figure 2

The system shown in Figure 2 works in time t0 without failure.

After the failure the system is recovered in time t1, after recovery

occurs time period of re-operation t2.

Parameter which defines the conditions created by failure is

intensity of failure of particular component .

The intensity of the component failure can be expressed as:

1

1

EL

n n

O

= =

O

(23)

Where is:

n- number of correct parts of the confidence interval

(1 ) 0, 75 =

O

- lower limit of confidence for the mean time between failures.

Recovery time of the system is the function of the recovery

intensity as described by the expression (22).

B. The conceptual class-diagram model of system

recovery

During the study [8] of the problem of reliability of generic

biometric system, object-relational approach of description of the

problem provides easier and clearer description of the sequence

analysis of events within the system during the verification of

failure.

Figure 3 shows the diagram of classes of the recovery of biometric

system model:

3 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

ISSN 1947-5500

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,

Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011

Figure 3

Class Biometric system is a set of components of that system

and is in relation to class Failure which contains data on the

Component in failure, time of occurrence of failure and failure

intensity.

Class Recovery is in relation to class Biometrical system

because it contains information about the component, the time

of recovery of component and calculated recovery intensity of

component. Class Recovery is in relation to the class

Availability, which is a function of data on failure intensity and

the recovery intensity, with the class Mean time which contains

data of recovery start time, duration and results of recovery,

with the class Recovery intensity. Furthermore it is possible, at

the level of class diagrams to present and other factors of

reliability and facilitate access to their prediction based on

historical data (logs) of the system functioning.

V. CONCLUSION AND FURTHER RESEARCH

Information about the system failure must be considered in the

context of the whole biometric system and its performance in

time.

In accordance with the above information on the exploitation

of biometric systems must be part of a comprehensive analysis

of the functioning and also information on recovery of the

system and its functionality at any given time. The time to put

the system into operation condition is often placed in clearly

defined time frames that are stipulated in contracts or SLA

addenda to the contract. The parameters monitoring processes

associated with the reliability of the system are often

complicated and laborious so UML approach to description of

problem simplifies the same. UML also imposes as general or

universal standard for descriptions of appearance.

Further work of the authors will be directed toward

specialization of model taking into consideration the other

models of reliability dependence and different system failure

probability distributions.

REFERENCES

[1] An additive reliability model for the modular software failure data

M.Xie, C.Wohlin - 2007

[2] Teorija pouzdanosti tehnikih sistema, Vojnoizdavaki novinski centar,

Beograd 2005,

[3] Pouzdanost brodskih sustava Ante Buka, Ivica egulja Pomorstvo -

2008

[4] Pouzdanost tehnikog sustava brodskog kompresora Zoran osi

magistarski rad - 2007

[5] Eksploatacija i razvitak telekomunikacijskog sustava, Mr.sc Juraj Buzoli

, Split 2006

[6] Zasnivanje otvorene ontologije odabranih segmenata biometrijske

znanosti - Markus Schatten Magistarski rad FOI 2007

[7] Early reliability assessment of UML based software models Vittorio

Cortellessa, Harshinder Singh, Bojan Cukic WOSP02 , July 24-26,

2002 Rome Italy

[8] Modelling biometric systems in UML Miroslav Baa, Markus

Schatten, Bernardo Golenja, JIOS 2007 FOI Varadin

[9] Reliability, Availability and Maintainability in Biometric Applications

2003-2007 Optimum Biometric Labs A WHITE PAPER Version r1.0,

Date of release: January 2, 2008, SWEDEN

AUTHORS PROFILE

Zoran osi, CEO at Statheros ltd, and business consultant in business process

standardization field. He received BEng degree at Faculty of nautical

science , Split (HR) in 1990, MSc degree at Faculty of nautical science ,

Split (HR) in 2007 , actually he is a PhD candidate at Faculty of

informational and Organisational science Varadin Croatia. He is

a member of various professional societies and program

committee members. He is author or co-

author more than 20 scientific and professional papers. His main

fields of interest are: Informational security, biometrics and privacy,

business process reingeenering,

Jasmin osi has received his BE (Economics) degree from University of

Biha, B&H in 1997. He completed his study in Information Technology

field (dipl.ing.Information Technlogy) in Mostar, University of Demal

Bijedi, B&H. Currently he is PhD candidate in Faculty of Organization

and Informatics in Varadin, University of Zagreb, Croatia. He is

working in Ministry of the Interior of Una-sana canton, B&H. He is a

ICT Expert Witness, and is a member of Association of Informatics of

B&H, Member of IEEE and ACM. His areas of interests are Digital

Forensic, Computer Crime, Information Security and DBM Systems. He

has presented and published over 20 conference proceedings and journal

articles in his research area

Miroslav Baa is currently an Associate professor, University of Zagreb,

Faculty of Organization and Informatics. He is

a member of various professional societies and program

committee members, and he is reviewer of several international

journals and conferences. He is also the head of the Biometrics centre in

Varadin, Croatia. He is author or co-

author more than 70 scientific and professional papers and two books.

His main research fields are computer forensics, biometrics and privacy

professor at Faculty of informational and Organisational science

Varadin Croatia

4 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/

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