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# The University of Western Ontario 2010-2011 Mathematical Biology OPTIONAL FINAL EXAM PROBLEM You may submit a neat,

, handwritten solution to the following problem instead of completing the last problem on the nal exam. Submissions are due at the beginning of the AM 3615a nal exam. You may withdraw your submission upon completion of the nal exam if you wish. 1. Consider a metapopulation in which each patch is inhabited by exactly one breeding adult. Assume that individuals in this metapopulation are diploid hermaphrodites that choose one mate uniformly at random from the metapopulation as a whole. Since individuals are hermaphrodites, breeding adults not only choose a mate (i.e. play role of mother), but may also be chosen as a mate (i.e. play role of father). Lets assume that any generation begins with mating among the breeding adults that occupy the habitat patches of the metapopulation. Once mated, each mother is assumed to produce a large (ideally innite) number of offspring; she dies soon thereafter. We assume that a fraction of offspring leave their natal patch (i.e. disperse) independently to compete for the breeding opportunities left behind by non-relative adults; however, dispersal is costly, and a fraction of dispersing offspring die before nding a new patch. A complementary fraction of offspring do not disperse, and so they compete for the breeding opportunity left behind by their own mother. Competition for a given breeding opportunity occurs among offspring found on the corresponding patch after all dispersal has taken place. A given breeding opportunity is awarded to offspring is chosen uniformly at random from the corresponding group of competitors. Unsuccessful competitors promptly die, and the next generation begins. (a) Assume that the probability with which an individual disperses from its natal site is controlled by the genes it itself carries at a single genetic locus. Use this assumption and the information above to nd an dispersal rate, d , that is predicted to be favoured by natural selection. [5 marks] (b) Compare your result in part (a) to the result obtained in class, d = 1/(1 + c), under the assumption that it is the mothers genotype that determines individuals dispersal. Provide a brief, biological rationale for the difference/equivalence. [2 marks] (c) In this model, offspring born to the same mother are full siblings; how would your result to change if they were half siblings (i.e. if mom chose a father for each the offspring she produced by making an independent mate choice)? How would your modelling effort in (a) change as a result of these new assumptions? [3 marks]