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7, July 2011

**Even Harmonious Graphs with Applications
**

P.B.SARASIJA Department of Mathematics, Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Kumaracoil,TamilNadu,India. R .BINTHIYA Department of Mathematics, Noorul Islam Centre for Higher Education, Kumaracoil,TamilNadu,India.

Abstract— In this paper we plan to contribute an even harmonious labeling of some well known graphs. Let G(V,E) be a graph with p vertices and q edges. A graph G(p,q) is said to be even harmonious if there exists an injection f : V → { 0,1,…,2q} such that the induced mapping f*(uv) = (f(u)+f(v)) (mod 2q) is a bijection from E onto { 0,2,4,…,2(q-1)}. Keywords- Harmonious labeling, Path, Cycle, Complete bipartite graph, Bistar.

A function f is called the even harmonious labeling of a graph G(V, E) if f : V → {0, 1, 2, ……., 2q} is injective and the induced function f * : E → {0, 2,…,2(q– 1)} is defined as f*(uv) = (f(u) + f(v)) (mod 2q ) is bijective, the resulting edge labels should be distinct. A graph which admits even harmonious labeling is called an even harmonious graph. Theorem 1.1. If a graph G (p,q) is even harmonious graph then 2q and 0 are the maximal label and the minimal label of vertices respectively . Theorem 1.2. In even harmonious labeling two consecutive integers cannot be the labels of any two vertices in G. II. MAIN RESULTS Theorem 2.1. Proof. Case (i): The number of vertices is even. Let m = 2n Let Pm be the path with vertices vi, 1 ≤ i ≤ m Define f(vi) = 2( i – 1 ), 1 ≤ i ≤ m . Then f is an even harmonious labeling of Pm. Case (ii): The number of vertices is odd. Let m = 2n + 1 Let Pm be the path with vertices vi, 1 ≤ i ≤ m Define f(v2i - 1) = 2( i – 1 ), i = 1,2,…, m/2. f(v2i) = m+ ( 2i – 1 ), i = 1,2,…, m/2 Then f is an even harmonious labeling of Pm. Theorem 2.2. harmonious. The complete bipartite graph Km,n is even A path Pn (n ≥ 2 ) is even harmonious.

I.INTRODUCTION

Throughout this paper, by a graph we mean a finite, undirected, simple graph. For notations and terminology we follow Bondy and Murthy [ 1 ]. Graph labeling where the vertices are assigned values subject to certain conditions have been motivated by practical problems. Labeled graphs serves as models in a wide range of applications such as Coding theory, the x-ray crystallography , to design a communication network addressing system etc. We denoted the path on n vertices by Pn, the cycle on n vertices by Cn, the complete bipartite graph by Km,n and the star graph by K1,n. In [ 3 ] Graham and Sloane have introduced the harmonious labeling of a graph. Zhi – He Liang, Zhan – LiBai [ 4 ] have introduced the odd harmonious labeling of a graph. For a detailed survey on graph labeling we refer to Gallian [2 ]. We refer [ 5] also. Let G(V,E) be a graph with p vertices and q edges. A graph G with q edges is harmonious if there is an injection ‘f’ from the vertices of G to the group of integers modulo q such that when each edge xy is assigned the label (f(x) + f(y)) (mod q), the resulting edge labels should be distinct. A graph G(p,q) is said to be odd harmonious if there exists an injection f : V → {0, 1, 2, …., 2q – 1 } such that induced mapping f*(uv) = (f(u) + f(v)) is bijection from E on to {1, 3, 5, …., 2q - 1}. Then f is said to become an odd harmonious labeling of G. The floor function assigns to the real number x the largest integer that is less than or equal x. The value of the floor function at x is denoted by x . The ceiling function assigns to the real number x the smallest integer that is greater than or equal x. The value of the ceiling function at x is denoted by x .

Proof. Let the vertices sets U and V be the bipartition of Km,n, where U = { uj, 1 ≤ j ≤ m} and V = { vi, 1 ≤ i ≤ n}. Define f(uj) = 2( j – 1 ), 1 ≤ j ≤ m and f(vi) = 2mi, 1 ≤ i ≤ n. Then f is an even harmonious labeling of Km,n.

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Corollary 2.3. Proof.

**The star graph K1,n is even harmonious.
**

10 0 10

**Replaced m by 1 in Theorem 2.2 the result followed.
**

14

Theorem 2.4.

Any cycle of odd length is even harmonious.

12 2 4 16 2 4

6 8 0 6 8

Proof. Let C2n+1 ( n ≥ 1) be the cycle of odd length with vertices v1,v2, …,v2n+1. Define f(vi) = 2( i – 1 ), 1 ≤ i ≤ 2n+ 1. Then f is an even harmonious labeling of odd cycles. Definition 2.5. The Bistar graph Bm,n is the graph obtained from K2 by joining m pendant edges to one end of K2 and n pendant edges to the other end of K2. Theorem 2.6. The Bistar graph Bm,n is an even harmonious. Proof . Let u, v be the vertices of K2 in Bistar graph Bm,n and U = { uj, 1 ≤ j ≤ m} and V = { v i, 1 ≤ i ≤ n} be the vertices adjacent to u and v respectively. Define f(u) = 0, f(v) = 2q, f(uj) = 2n+2j, 1 ≤ j ≤ m and f(vi) = 2i, 1 ≤ i ≤ n. Then f becomes an even harmonious labeling of Bistar graph For example, even harmonious labeling of the Bistar graph B3,4 is shown in Figure 1. Theorem 2.7. Proof. Let V(K2) = {u1,u2} and V(Knc) = { v1, v2,…, vn} . Define f(u1) = 2(n + 1) , f(u2) = 0 and f(vi) = 2i, 1 ≤ i ≤ n Then f becomes an even harmonious labeling of K2 + Knc. For example, even harmonious labeling of the graph K2 + Knc. is shown in Figure 2. The graph K2 + Knc is even harmonious.

Figure 2 : K2 + K4 c

Pn , the kth power of Pn, is the graph Definition 2.8. obtained from the path Pn by adding edges that join all vertices u and v with distance (u,v) = k.

Theorem 2.9. Proof.

2 Let v1,v2,…,vn be the vertices of Pn . Define f(vi) = 2( i – 1), 1 ≤ i ≤ n. Then f is even harmonious. 2 For example, Figure 3 is an even harmonious graph of Pn . 2 The graph Pn is an even harmonious.

k

Definition 2.10. [3] The friendship graph Fn ( n ≥ 1 ) consists of n triangles with a common vertex. Theorem 2.11. harmonious. Proof. The friendship graph F 2n+1 consists of 2n + 1 triangle with 4n + 3 vertices and 6n + 3 edges. Let v 1 be the common vertex and v1,vi,vi+1 , i= 2,4,…,2(2n+1) be the vertices of each triangle. Define f(v1) = 0, f( v2i +2) = 2(3i +1), i = 0, 1,…, 2n and f(v2j+1) = 2(3j -1), j = 1, 2,…, 2n + 1. Then f becomes an even harmonious graph.

4 8 12

The friendship graph F2n +1 is even

2 14 14 12 12 10 10 16 0 0 6 8 6 2 4 4

2 0 2

6 4

10 6

2

0 8

Figure 1:B3,4

8

Figure 3 : Pn

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REFERENCES [1] [2] [3]

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 7, July 2011

J.A.Bondy and U.S.R.Murthy, Graph Theory with Applications, Macmillan, London, 1976. J.A.Gallian, A dynamic survey of graph labeling, The electronics J. of Combinatorics, 16, 2009. R.L.,Graham and N.J.A.,Sloane, On additive bases and harmonious graphs, SIAM J. Alg. Discrete Meth., 1,1980, pp. 382-404. Z-H Liang and Z-L Bai , On the odd harmonious graphs with applications, J. Appl. Math. Comput., 29, 2009, pp. 105-116. B.Liu and X.Zhang, On harmonious labeling of graphs, Ars. Combin.,36 ,1993, pp. 315 – 326.

[4]

[5]

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UsefulNot usefulIn this paper we plan to contribute an even harmonious labeling of some well known graphs. Let G(V,E) be a graph with p vertices and q edges. A graph G(p,q) is said to be even harmonious if there e...

In this paper we plan to contribute an even harmonious labeling of some well known graphs. Let G(V,E) be a graph with p vertices and q edges. A graph G(p,q) is said to be even harmonious if there exists an injection f : V → { 0,1,…,2q} such that the induced mapping f*(uv) = (f(u)+f(v)) (mod 2q) is a bijection from E onto { 0,2,4,…,2(q-1)}.

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