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_____________________________________________________________________CHEM 100 LECTURE UNIT 1. FOUNDATIONS OF CHEMSITRY Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes it undergoes.

Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. Applications of Chemistry Energy and the Environment Fossil fuels Solar energy Nuclear energy Health and Medicine Sanitation systems Surgery with anesthesia Vaccines and antibiotics Materials and Technology Polymers, ceramics, liquid crystals Room-temperature superconductors? Molecular computing? Food and Agriculture Genetically modified crops Natural pesticides Specialized fertilizers

Classification of Matter

A substance is a form of matter that has a definite composition and distinct properties. An element is a substance that is composed of tiny particles called atoms. A compound is a substance composed of atoms of two or more elements chemically united in fixed proportions. Compounds can only be separated into their pure components (elements) by chemical means. A mixture is a combination of two or more substances in which the substances retain their distinct identities. Physical means can be used to separate a mixture into its pure components. Homogenous mixture composition of the mixture is the same throughout. Heterogeneous mixture composition is not uniform throughout.
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_____________________________________________________________________CHEM 100 LECTURE PROPERTIES OF MATTER Physical properties: readily observable/measurable without altering the composition or identity of a substance. (mass, color, density, boiling point) Chemical properties: can only be observed by altering the composition or identity of the substance(s) involved. (combustibility, flammability, oxidizability) An extensive property of a material depends upon how much matter is being considered.(mass, volume) An intensive property of a material does not depend upon how much matter is being considered. (color, boiling point, density)

DALTONS ATOMIC THEORIES (John Dalton, 1808) 1) 2) 3) 4) An element is composed of extremely small indivisible particles called atoms. All atoms of a given element have identical properties, which differ from those of other elements. Atoms cannot be created, destroyed, or transformed into atoms of another element. Compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine with each other in small wholenumber ratios. 5) The relative numbers and kinds of atoms are constant in a given compound.

LAWS OF CHEMISTRY Law of Conservations of Mass There is no observable change in the quantity of matter during a chemical reaction or during a physical change. Law of Conservations of Energy Energy cannot be created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction or in a physical change . It can only be converted from one form to another. Law of Conservations of Mass and Energy From Einsteins Theory of Relativity: E=mc2 The combined amount of matter and energy in the universe is fixed. Law of Definite Proportions Different samples of the same compound always contain its constituent elements in the same proportion by mass. Law of Multiple Proportions If two elements can combine to form more than one compound, the masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the other element are in ratios of small whole numbers.

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