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COMPUTER ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY COMPUTER ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY DIPLOMA IN COMPUTER ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY PHYSICS FORCES AND MOTION TKK TASK

State Newtons laws of motion. Explain that a body has a inertia. Apply the formula F=m dv or F=dm dt dt State and derive the principle of conservation of linear momentum using Newtons laws of motion. Define impulse as F dt and deduce that impulse is equivalent to change of momentum. Differentiate between elastic and inelastic collisions. Solve problems involving linear collision between particles. Dynamics study of forces that cause motion. Based on Newtons Laws of motion that only applicable for bodies with velocities which are small compared to the speed of light c = 3.0 x 108 ms-1.

3.1 NEWTONS LAW OF MOTION

First Law 2.

A body will remain at rest or move along a straight line with constant speed unless it is acted upon by a force. This means that a body resists changes to its state of rest or motion. This property of a body is known as inertia. The inertia of a body is measured by it mass.

Second Law The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the resultant force and it takes place along the direction of the resultant force. Rate of momentum change F, resultant force Resultant force F mv-mu t Where m = mass of body u = initial velocity v = final velocity t = time taken for the change of momentum

Resultant force, F = k . mv mu t = km . v u t = kma , where k = constant of proportionality, the value of which depends on the system of units being used.

3. The SI unit for force is newton (1N). The newton (1N) is defined as the force, which causes a mass of

1 kg to have an acceleration of 1 ms-2. That is, if F = 1 N, m = 1 kg, a = 1 ms-2, substituting into the equation F = kma 1 N = k (1 kg) (1 ms-2) = k . kg ms-2 Hence k = 1 And N = kg ms-2 Resultant force, F = ma 4. Impulse From the equation F = ma = mv mu t Ft = mv mu = change in momentum The product of force and its duration of action t, Ft is known as impulse of a force F. Hence, impulse = Ft = change in momentum In general, resultant force, F = d (mv) dt

t2

5.

Impulse =

t1

F dt = Change of momentum

0 Example / Solution :

t1

t2

6. Third law : Action and reaction are of the same magnitude but in opposite directions. 7. Example 1 : When a bat of mass M hits a ball of mass m, the ball experiences a force of F1. At the same instant, the ball exerts of force F2 on the bat. 8. The force F2 has the same magnitude as F1 but in the opposite direction. 9. Using F = ma, the acceleration of the ball, a1 = F/m which is large since the mass of the ball is small. The acceleration of the bat, a2 = F/M. Since M >> m, then a2 << a1. 10. Example 2 : Gravitational force on a body of mass m by the Earth of mass M. 11. Magnitude of gravitational force of the Earth on the body = magnitude of the gravitational force of the body on the Earth = F. Accelaration of the body of mass m towards the Earth a1 = F/m. Accelaration of the Earth of mass M towards the body a2 = F/M. Since M >> m, a2 << a1 and is negligible. 12. Example 3 : Application for third law A rocket stands vertically on its launching pad. The total mass of the rocket and its fuel before launch is 2.0 x 103 kg. On ignition, gas is ejected from the rocket at a speed of 2.5 x 103 ms-1 relative to the rocket and fuel is consumed at 7.6 kg s-1. Find the thrust of the rocket. Explain why there is a interval between ignition and lift-off. Solution : Using F = d (mv) dt = v dm dt Thrust of rocket,

F = (2.5 x 103)(7.6) = 1.90 x 104 N Initial weight of rocket = mg = (2.0 x 103) (9.81) = 1.96 x 104 N Since the weight is greater than the thrust, the rocket does not lift from the launching pad. The ejection of gas from the rocket results in the total weight of the rocket continues to decrease. When the total weight of the rocket is less than the thrust, the rocket lifts off. Hence, there is a interval between ignition and lift-off.

3.2 CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM

1. The momentum p of mass m moving with a velocity v is p = mv. Momentum is a vector quantity. Its direction follows the direction of the velocity, v. 2. Principle of conservation of linear momentum states that the total linear momentum of a system of bodies is constant, if no external forces act on the system. 3. Collision, a phenomenon which : a) Occurs in a short time interval. b) What happens after collision differ from what happens before collision. c) The colliding bodies constitute a closed system. d) Momentum and energy are conserved during collision. 4. The principle of conservation of linear momentum for a system of colliding bodies can be deduced using Newtons laws of motion.

u1 m1 m2 u2

Information Sheet No 3

F1 m1 F2 m2 m1 v1 m2 v2

before collision

during collision

after collision

5. According to Newtons third law of motion : Action = - Reaction. F1 = F2 Using Newtons second law of motion, F = m(v-u) T Hence, m2(v2-u2) = -m1(v1-u1) t t where t = time of collision. m2(v2-u2) = -m1(v1-u1) m1v1 + m2v2 = m1u1 + m2u2 Total linear momentum after collision = Total linear momentum before collision. 6. Newtons Law of Restitution : When two bodies collide, Relative velocity after collision = -e(Relative velocity before collision) Where e = coefficient of restitution. (0 <= e <=1) For a perfectly elastic collision, kinetic energy is conserved and e = 1. For a inelastic collision, e = 0. 7. Elastics collision

u1 A m1 m2 u2 B A m1 v1 v2 B

before collision

after collision

m2

Exercise : Calculate the equation. Case 1 : When m1 = m2 From equation : v1 = u2 From equation : v2 = u1 After elastic collision, the two bodies of equal mass interchange velocities. Case 2 : When m1 << m2 When a small collides into a very large mass which is stationary, m1 << m2 and u2 = 0. From equation : v1 -u1 and v2 = 0. After collision, the small mass rebounces with the same speed, and the large mass remains stationary. Case 3 : When m1 >> m2 A very large mass m1 colliding into a small mass m2 which initially is stationary, m1 >> m2, u2 = 0. From equation v1 u1 and v2 2u1. After collision, the large mass continue its motion with the same velocity, and the small mass moves off with a velocity which is twice the initial velocity of the large mass.

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4

Information Sheet No 3

8. Inelastic collision During an inelastic collision, a) Momentum is conserved. b) Energy is conserved c) Kinetic energy is not conserved. 9. When the collision is perfectly inelastic, the two bodies coalesce and move with a common velocity. 10. Example 1 : The particles A and B of mass 7kg and 5 kg move with velocities 6ms-1 and 8ms-1 on a smooth horizontal surface. The particles collide and coalesce after collision. Calculate : a) The velocity after collision. b) The fractional loss of kinetic energy.

y

6 ms-1 O

7 kg

8 ms-1 5 kg B

Solution : 11. Example 2 : A particle A moves with a velocity u, along the x-axis makes an elastic oblique collision with another particle of the mass, B initially a rest. After collision A moves with a velocity v1 at an angle 1 to the x-axis, and particle B moves with velocity v2 at an angle 2 to the x-axis, as shown in the figure.

y y A v1

u A B

1 2

B

v2

a) b) c) Solution :

Draw a labeled vector diagram to show v, the vector sum of the velocities v1 and v2 after collision. Show that the principle of conservation of linear momentum requires the v should be equal in magnitude and direction as u1. Write down an equation to represent the elastic nature of the collision. Use this equation and the vector diagram in (a) to show that 1+ 2=90.

Page 6 Of 6 Code Number : FIZ1001 3.3 PRESSURE DUE TO A JET LIQUID Information Sheet No 3

1.

A jet of liquid of density striking a vertical wall normally. Suppose that v is the speed of the liquid jet and the liquid flows vertically downwards after striking the wall. Force on the wall, F = Rate of change of momentum = d (mv) = v (dm) dt dt where dm/dt = mass of liquid striking the wall per second = cross-sectional area of jet of liquid x Length per second x Density = Av .

2.

Hence, F = v (Av ). Pressure on the wall, p = F/A = v2 Example 1 : Water from a hose hits a wall perpendicular with a speed of 15ms-1. Suppose that the water does not rebounce, calculate the pressure on the wall. (Density of water = 1.00 x 103 kgm-1). Solution : The pressure of a gas in a container is due to the elastic collision of gas molecules with the walls of the container.

wall A v before collision after collision wall v m m -v

1.

2. 3.

Figure above, shows a jet of air striking a wall normally. Air molecules in the jet collide elastically with the wall. If the air molecules travel with a velocity v towards the wall, after collision the velocity is v. If m = mass of an air molecule, for each air molecule that hits the wall, the magnitude of the change momentum = mv - (- mv) = 2mv. If n = Number of air molecules in a unit volume of the jet of air. Then, force on the wall = change of momentum per second = number of molecule per second x change of momentum per molecule = (nAv)(2mv) Pressure, p = F/A = 2mnv2

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