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ai so 11 www.toantrunghoc.

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www.toantrunghoc.com : Thi p n - Chuyn - Ti Liu - Phn Mm Ton ,... Trang 58







1. nh ngha ao ham tai mot iem
- Cho ham so y = f(x) xac nh tren khoang (a; b) va x
0
e (a; b):

0
0
0
x x
0
f(x) f(x )
f '(x ) lim
x x

=

=
x 0
y
lim
x A
A
A
(Ax = x x
0
, Ay = f(x
0
+ Ax) f(x
0
)
- Neu ham so y = f(x) co ao ham tai x
0
th no lien tuc tai diem o.
2. Y ngha cua ao ham
- Y ngha hnh hoc:
+ f' (x
0
) la he so goc cua tiep tuyen cua o th ham so y = f(x) tai
( )
0 0
M x ; f(x ) .
+ Khi o phng trnh tiep tuyen cua o th ham so y = f(x) tai
( )
0 0
M x ; f(x ) la:
y y
0
= f' (x
0
).(x x
0
)
- Y ngha vat l:
+ Van toc tc thi cua chuyen ong thang xac nh bi phng trnh s = s(t) tai thi
iem t
0
la v(t
0
) = s'(t
0
).
+ Cng o tc thi cua ien lng Q = Q(t) tai thi iem t
0
la I(t
0
) = Q'(t
0
).
3. Qui tac tnh ao ham
- (C)' = 0 (x)' = 1 (x
n
)' = n.x
n1

n N
n 1
| | e
|
>
\ .

( )
1
x
2 x
'
=
- (u v)' = u' v' (uv)' = u'v + v'u
2
u u v v u
v
v
'
| | ' '
=
|
\ .
(v = 0)
(ku)' = ku'
2
1 v
v
v
'
| | '
=
|
\ .

- ao ham cua ham so hp: Neu u = g(x) co ao ham tai x la u'
x
va ham so y = f(u) co
ao ham tai u la y'
u
th ham so hp y = f(g(x) co ao ham tai x la:
x u x
y y .u ' = ' '
4. ao ham cua ham so lng giac
-
x 0
sinx
lim 1
x
= ;
0
x x
sinu(x)
lim 1
u(x)
= (vi
0
x x
lim u(x) 0

= )
- (sinx)' = cosx (cosx)' = sinx
( )
2
1
tanx
cos x
' =
( )
2
1
cot x
sin x
' =
5. Vi phan
- dy df(x) f (x). x = = ' A -
0 0 0
f(x x) f(x ) f (x ). x + A ~ + ' A
6. ao ham cap cao
- | | f ''(x) f '(x)
'
= ; | | f '''(x) f ''(x)
'
= ;
(n) (n 1)
f (x) f (x)

'

=

(n e N, n > 4)
- Y ngha c hoc:
Gia toc tc thi cua chuyen ong s = f(t) tai thi iem t
0
la a(t
0
) = f''(t
0
).



CHNG V
AO HAM
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VAN E 1: Tnh ao ham bang nh ngha
e tnh ao ham cua ham so y = f(x) tai iem x
0
bang nh ngha ta thc hien cac bc:
B1: Gia s Ax la so gia cua oi so tai x
0
. Tnh Ay = f(x
0
+ Ax) f(x
0
).
B2: Tnh
x 0
y
lim
x A
A
A
.

Bai 1: Dung nh ngha tnh ao ham cua cac ham so sau tai iem c ch ra:
a)
2
y f(x) 2x x 2 = = + tai
0
x 1 = b) y f(x) 3 2x = = tai x
0
= 3
c)
2x 1
y f(x)
x 1
+
= =

tai x
0
= 2 d) y f(x) sinx = = tai x
0
=
6
t

e)
3
y f(x) x = = tai x
0
= 1 f)
2
x x 1
y f(x)
x 1
+ +
= =

tai x
0
= 0
Bai 2: Dung nh ngha tnh ao ham cua cac ham so sau:
a)
2
f(x) x 3x 1 = + b)
3
f(x) x 2x = c) f(x) x 1, (x 1) = + >
d)
1
f(x)
2x 3
=

e) f(x) sinx = f)
1
f(x)
cosx
=

VAN E 2: Tnh ao ham bang cong thc
e tnh ao ham cua ham so y = f(x) bang cong thc ta s dung cac qui tac tnh ao ham.
Chu y qui tac tnh ao ham cua ham so hp.

Bai 1: Tnh ao ham cua cac ham so sau:
a)
4 3
1
y 2x x 2 x 5
3
= + b)
2
3 2
y x x x.
3
x
= + c)
3 2
y (x 2)(1 x ) =
d)
2 2 2
y (x 1)(x 4)(x 9) = e)
2
y (x 3x)(2 x) = + f)
( )
1
y x 1 1
x
| |
= +
|
\ .

g)
3
y
2x 1
=
+
h)
2x 1
y
1 3x
+
=

i)
2
2
1 x x
y
1 x x
+
=
+

k)
2
x 3x 3
y
x 1
+
=

l)
2
2x 4x 1
y
x 3
+
=

m)
2
2
2x
y
x 2x 3
=


Bai 2: Tnh ao ham cua cac ham so sau:
a)
2 4
y (x x 1) = + + b)
2 5
y (1 2x ) = c)
3
2x 1
y
x 1
| | +
=
|

\ .

d)
2
3
(x 1)
y
(x 1)
+
=

e)
2 2
1
y
(x 2x 5)
=
+
f)
( )
4
2
y 3 2x =
Bai 3: Tnh ao ham cua cac ham so sau:
a)
2
y 2x 5x 2 = + b)
3
3
y x x 2 = + c) y x x = +
d)
2
y (x 2) x 3 = + e)
2
4x 1
y
x 2
+
=
+
f)
2
4 x
y
x
+
=
g)
3
x
y
x 1
=

h)
3
y (x 2) = i)
( )
3
y 1 1 2x = +

ai so 11 www.toantrunghoc.com Tran S Tung
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Bai 4: Tnh ao ham cua cac ham so sau:
a)
2
sinx
y
1 cosx
| |
=
|
+
\ .
b) y x.cosx = c)
3
y sin (2x 1) = +
d) y cot 2x = e)
2
y sin 2 x = + f) y sinx 2x = +
g)
3 5
2 1
y tan2x tan 2x tan 2x
3 5
= + + h)
2 3
y 2sin 4x 3cos 5x =
i)
2 3
y (2 sin 2x) = + k)
( )
2 2
y sin cos xtan x = l)
2
x 1
y cos
x 1
| |
+
= |
|

\ .

Bai 5: Cho n la so nguyen dng. Chng minh rang:
a)
n n 1
(sin x.cosnx)' nsin x.cos(n 1)x

= + b)
n n 1
(sin x.sinnx)' n.sin x.sin(n 1)x

= +
c)
n n 1
(cos x.sinnx)' n.cos x.cos(n 1)x

= + d)
n n 1
(cos x.cosnx)' n.cos x.sin(n 1)x

= +


VAN E 3: Phng trnh tiep tuyen cua o th ham so y = f(x)
1. Phng trnh tiep tuyen tai iem M(x
0
, y
0
) (C) e la:
0 0 0
y y f '(x )(x x ) = (*)
2. Viet phng trnh tiep tuyen vi (C), biet tiep tuyen co he so goc k:
+ Goi x
0
la hoanh o cua tiep iem. Ta co:
0
f (x ) k ' = (y ngha hnh hoc cua ao ham)
+ Giai phng trnh tren tm x
0
, roi tm
0 0
y f(x ). =
+ Viet phng trnh tiep tuyen theo cong thc (*)
3. Viet phng trnh tiep tuyen (d) vi (C), biet (d) i qua iem A(x
1
, y
1
) cho trc:
+ Goi (x
0
, y
0
) la tiep iem (vi y
0
= f(x
0
)).
+ Phng trnh tiep tuyen (d):
0 0 0
y y f '(x )(x x ) =
(d) qua A
1 1 1 0 0 1 0
(x , y ) y y f '(x ) (x x ) (1) =
+ Giai phng trnh (1) vi an la x
0
, roi tm
0 0
y f(x ) = va
0
f '(x ).
+ T o viet phng trnh (d) theo cong thc (*).
4. Nhac lai: Cho (A): y = ax + b. Khi o:
+
d
(d) ( ) k a A = +
d
1
(d) ( ) k
a
A =

Bai 1: Cho ham so (C):
2
y f(x) x 2x 3. = = + Viet phng trnh tiep vi (C):
a) Tai iem co hoanh o x
0
= 1.
b) Song song vi ng thang 4x 2y + 5 = 0.
c) Vuong goc vi ng thang x + 4y = 0.
d) Vuong goc vi ng phan giac th nhat cua goc hp bi cac truc toa o.
Bai 2: Cho ham so
2
2 x x
y f(x)
x 1
+
= =

(C).
a) Viet phng trnh tiep tuyen cua (C) tai iem M(2; 4).
b) Viet phng trnh ttiep tuyen cua (C) biet tiep tuyen co he so goc k = 1.
Bai 3: Cho ham so
3x 1
y f(x)
1 x
+
= =

(C).
a) Viet phng trnh tiep tuyen cua (C) tai iem A(2; 7).
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b) Viet phng trnh tiep tuyen cua (C) tai giao iem cua (C) vi truc hoanh.
c) Viet phng trnh tiep tuyen cua (C) tai giao iem cua (C) vi truc tung.
d) Viet phng trnh tiep tuyen cua (C) biet tiep tuyen song song vi d:
1
y x 100
2
= + .
e) Viet phng trnh tiep tuyen cua (C) biet tiep tuyen vuong goc vi A: 2x + 2y 5 = 0.
Bai 4: Cho ham so (C):
3 2
y x 3x . =
a) Viet phng trnh tiep tuyen cua o th (C) tai iem I(1, 2).
b) Chng minh rang cac tiep tuyen khac cua o th (C) khong i qua I.
Bai 5: Cho ham so (C):
2
y 1 x x . = Tm phng trnh tiep tuyen vi (C):
a) Tai iem co hoanh o x
0
=
1
.
2

b) Song song vi ng thang x + 2y = 0.


VAN E 4: Tnh ao ham cap cao
1. e tnh ao ham cap 2, 3, 4, ... ta dung cong thc:
(n) n 1 /
y (y ) .

=
2. e tnh ao ham cap n:
- Tnh ao ham cap 1, 2, 3, ... t o d oan cong thc ao ham cap n.
- Dung phng phap quy nap toan hoc e chng minh cong thc ung.

Bai 1: Cho ham so f(x) 3(x 1)cosx = + .
a) Tnh f '(x), f ''(x) b) Tnh f ''( ), f '' , f ''(1)
2
| | t
t
|
\ .

Bai 2: Tnh ao ham cua cac ham so en cap c ch ra:
a) y cosx, y''' = b)
4 3 2
y 5x 2x 5x 4x 7, y'' = + + c)
x 3
y , y''
x 4

=
+

d)
2
y 2x x , y'' = e) y xsinx, y'' = f) y xtanx, y'' =
g)
2 3
y (x 1) , y'' = + h)
6 3 (4)
y x 4x 4, y = + i)
(5)
1
y , y
1 x
=


Bai 3: Cho n la so nguyen dng. Chng minh rang:
a)
(n)
n
n 1
1 ( 1) n!
1 x
(1 x)
+
| |
=
|
+
+ \ .
b)
(n)
n.
(sinx) sin x
2
| | t
= +
|
\ .
c)
(n)
n.
(cosx) cos x
2
| | t
= +
|
\ .

Bai 4: Tnh ao ham cap n cua cac ham so sau:
a)
1
y
x 2
=
+
b)
2
1
y
x 3x 2
=
+
c)
2
x
y
x 1
=


d)
1 x
y
1 x

=
+
e)
2
y sin x = f)
4 4
y sin x cos x = +
Bai 5: Chng minh cac he thc sau vi cac ham so c ch ra:
a)
y xsinx
xy'' 2(y' sinx) xy 0
=

+ =

b)
2
3
y 2x x
y y'' 1 0

+ =


c)
2 2 2
y xtanx
x y'' 2(x y )(1 y) 0
=

+ + =

d)
2
x 3
y
x 4
2y (y 1)y''

=
+

' =


ai so 11 www.toantrunghoc.com Tran S Tung
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VAN E 5: Tnh gii han dang
0
x x
sinu(x)
lim
u(x)

Ta s dung cac cong thc lng giac e bien oi va s dung cong thc

0
x x
sinu(x)
lim 1
u(x)
= (vi
0
x x
lim u(x) 0

= )

Bai 1: Tnh cac gii han sau:
a)
x 0
sin3x
lim
sin2x
b)
2
x 0
1 cosx
lim
x


c)
2
x
2
1 sinx
lim
x
2
t

| | t

|
\ .
d)
x
4
cosx sinx
lim
cos2x t


e)
x 0
1 sinx cosx
lim
1 sinx cosx
+

f)
x 0
tan2x
lim
sin5x
g)
x
2
lim x tanx
2 t

| | t

|
\ .
h)
x
6
sin x
6
lim
3
cosx
2
t

| | t

|
\ .



VAN E 6: Cac bai toan khac

Bai 1: Giai phng trnh f '(x) 0 = vi:
a) f(x) 3cosx 4sinx 5x = + b) f(x) cosx 3s n 2x 1 = + +
c)
2
f(x) sin x 2cosx = + d)
cos4x cos6x
f(x) sinx
4 6
=
e)
3 x
f(x) 1 sin( x) 2cos
2
t+
= t+ + f) f(x) sin3x 3cos3x 3(cosx 3sinx) = +
Bai 2: Giai phng trnh f '(x) g(x) = vi:
a)
4
f(x) sin 3x
g(x) sin6x

b)
3
f(x) sin 2x
g(x) 4cos2x 5sin4x


c)
2 2
2
x
f(x) 2x cos
2
g(x) x x sinx

d)
2
x
f(x) 4xcos
2
x
g(x) 8cos 3 2xsinx
2


Bai 3: Giai bat phng trnh f '(x) g'(x) > vi:
a)
3 2
f(x) x x 2, g(x) 3x x 2 = + = + +
b)
2
3 2 3
x
f(x) 2x x 3, g(x) x 3
2
= + = +
c)
3
2
f(x) , g(x) x x
x
= =
Bai 4: Xac nh m e cac bat phng trnh sau nghiem ung vi moi x e R:
a)
3
2
mx
f '(x) 0 vi f(x) 3x mx 5
3
> = +
b)
3 2
mx mx
f '(x) 0 vi f(x) (m 1)x 15
3 2
< = + +