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No.

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Subject Acknowledgement Objective Introduction Question 2 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Reflection Conclusion

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First of all, I would like to say Alhamdulillah all praise to Allah for giving me the strength and good health to finish this additional mathematics project work.

I would like to thank to my parents for providing all the stuff needed related to this project work and also their precious time.

They also had supported me and encourage me to complete this task before the holiday end so that I will not procrastinate in doing it.

I also want to thank my teacher, sir Jupri for lending us the senior folio as our guidance to do this project. At the moment he gave us the task, all of us was like being strucked as we haven t got any clue how to do it. Luckily he had explained a little bit about the format and how to get high marks.

Last but not least, my friend who willingly to do this project together and share their constructive ideas. They were had help me a lot in order to finish this task.

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OBJECTIVES

The aims of carrying out project work are:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. To apply and adapt variety of problem-solving strategies to solve problem To improve thinking skills To promote effective mathematical communication To develop mathematical communication To develop mathematical knowledge through problem solving in a way that increases students interest and confidence 6. To provide learning environment that stimulates and enhances effective learning 7. To use language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely 8. To develop positive attitude towards mathematics

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INTRODUCTION

A circle is a simple shape of Eulidean geometry consisting of those points in a plane which are the same distance from a given point called the centre. The common distance of the points of a circle from its center is called radius. A diameter is a line segment whose endpoints lie on the circle and which passes through the centre of the circle. The length of a diameter is twice the length of the radius. A circle is never a polygon because it has no sides or vertices

Circles are simple closed curved which divided the plane into two region, an interior and an exterior. In everyday use the term circle may be used interchangeably to refer to either the boundary of the figure(known as the perimeter) or the whole figure including its interior but in strict technical usage circle refer to the perimeter while the interior of the circle is called disk. The circumference of a circle is the perimeter of the circle.

A circle is a special ellipse in which two foci are coincident. Circles are conic sections attained when aright circular cone is intersected with a plane perpendicular to the axis of the cone.

The circle has been known since before the beginning of the recorded history. It is the basic for the wheel, which with related inventions such as gears makes much of modern civilization possible. In mathematics, the study of the circle has helped inspire the development of geometry and calculus.

WHAT IS GEOMETRY??? Geometry (Ancient Greek: ; geo earth , -metri measurement ) Earth-measuring

is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures and the properties of the space. Geometry is one of the oldest mathematical sciences. Initially a body of practical knowledge concerning lengths, areas and volumes, in the 3rd century BC geometry was put into an axiomatic form by Euclid, whose treatment Euclidean geometry set a standard for many centuries to follow. Archimedes developed ingenious techniques for

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calculating areas and volumes, in many ways anticipating modern integral calculus. The field of astronomy, especially mapping the positions of the stars and planets on the celestial sphere and describing the relationship between movements of celestial bodies, served as an important source of geometric problems during the next one and a half millennia. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer.

HISTORY OF GEOMETRY The earliest recorded beginnings of geometry can be traced to ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley from around 3000 BCE. Early geometry was a collection of empirically discovered principles concerning lengths, angles, areas, and volumes, which were developed to meet some practical need in surveying, construction, astronomy, and various crafts. The earliest known texts on geometry are the Egyptian Rhind Papyrus and Moscow Papyrus, the Babylonian clay tablets, and the Indian Shulba Sutras, while the Chinese had the work of Mozi, Zhang Heng, and the Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, edited by Liu Hui. South of Egypt the ancient Nubians established a system of geometry including early versions of sun clocks.

Until relatively recently (i.e. the last 200 years), the teaching and development of geometry in Europe and the Islamic world was based on Greek geometry.Euclid's Elements (c. 300 BCE) was one of the most important early texts on geometry, in which he presented geometry in an ideal axiomatic form, which came to be known as Euclidean geometry. The treatise is not, as is sometimes thought, a compendium of all that Hellenistic mathematicians knew about geometry at that time; rather, it is an elementary introduction to it; Euclid himself wrote eight more advanced books on geometry. We know from other references that Euclid s was not the first elementary geometry textbook, but the others fell into disuse and were lost.

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In the Middle Ages, mathematics in medieval Islam contributed to the development of geometry, especially algebraic geometry and geometric algebra. Al-Mahani (b. 853) conceived the idea of reducing geometrical problems such as duplicating the cube to problems in algebra.Th bitibnQurra (known as Thebit in Latin) (836 901) dealt with arithmetical operations applied to ratios of geometrical quantities, and contributed to the development of analytic geometry. Omar Khayym (1048 1131) found geometric solutions to cubic equations, and his extensive studies of the parallel postulate contributed to the development of non-Euclidian geometry. The theorems of Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), Omar Khayyam and Nasir al-Din al-Tusi on quadrilaterals, including the Lambert quadrilateral and Saccheri quadrilateral, were the first theorems on elliptical geometry and hyperbolic geometry, and along with their alternative postulates, such as Playfair's axiom, these works had a considerable influence on the development of non-Euclidean geometry among later European geometers, including Witelo, Levi ben Gerson, Alfonso, John Wallis, and Giovanni GirolamoSaccheri.

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PART 1:

There are many lot of things around us that related to circles or parts of cicles

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PART 1:

In our daily lifes,cakes become one of the most popular food in the world that commonly used.Cakes come in a variety of forms and flavours and are among favourite desserts served during festival or special occasions such as birthday parties,Hari Raya,weddings and many more.Cakes are treasured not only because of their wonderful taste but also in the art of cake baking and cake decorating.As we know,mathematics is very helpful in baking and decorating.This is what we call the beauty of mathematics. Geometry is one of the beauty it matehematicsfor baking and decorating cake.Geometry help us to determine suitable dimensions for the cake, to assist in designing and decorating cakes that comes in many attractive shapes and designs.It also help to estimate volume of cake to be produced. Calculus formula such as equalities or differentiation also help for baking and decorating cake.This beauty help to determine minimum or maximum amount of ingredients for cakebaking.It also help to estimate minimum or maximum amount of cream needed for decorating and it also help to estimate minimum or maximum size of cake produced. Progressions make the cake baking and decorating more easier because it help to determine total weight or volume of multi-storey cakes with proportional dimensions.This type of cake needed accuracy in calculating.It also help to estimate total ingredients needed for cake-baking and to estimate total amount of cream for decoration. So this is all about the beauty of mathematics that can help baking and decorating cake.Mathematics are prove that very helpful in producing cakes.Always appreciate mathematics and don t blame mathematics.

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PART 2 :

1)

If a kilogram of cake has a volume of 3800 , and the height of the cake is to be 7.0cm, calculate the diameter of the baking tray to be used to fit the 5 kg cake ordered by your school. The diameter can be measured by using this method: = 3.142]

[Use

Volume of 5kg cake = Base area of cake x Height of cake 3800 x 5 = (3.142)( ) x 7 (3.142) = ( ) 863.872 = ( ) = 29.392 d = 58.784 cm

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2) The cake will be baked in an oven with inner dimensions of 80.0 cm in length, 60.0 cmin width and 45.0 cm in height. a) If the volume of cake remains the same, explore by using different values of heights,h cm, and the corresponding values of diameters of the baking tray to be used,d cm. Tabulate your answers: First, form the formula for d in terms of h by using the above formula for volume of cake, V = 19000, that is: 19000 = (3.142)(d/2)h

= d

d=

Height,h (cm) 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0

Diameter,d(cm) 155.53 109.98 89.80 77.77 68.56 63.49 58.78 54.99 51.84 49.18

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(b) Based on the values in your table, (i) state the range of heights that is NOT suitable for the cakes and explain your answers. The range of the heights: h < 7cm is NOT suitable, because the resulting diameter produced is too large to fit into the oven. Furthermore, the cake would be too short and too wide, making it less attractive.

(ii) suggest the dimensions that you think most suitable for the cake. Give reasons for your answer.

h = 8cm, d = 54.99cm, because it can fit into the oven, and the size is suitable for easy handling.

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(c) (i) Form an equation to represent the linear relation between h and d. Hence, plot a suitable graph based on the equation that you have formed. The equation: 19000 = (3.142)( )h

19000/(3.142)h =

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(ii) (a) If Best Bakery received an order to bake a cake where the height of the cake is 10.5 cm, use your graph to determine the diameter of the round cake pan required. h = 10.5cm, log h = 1.021, log d = 1.680, d = 47.86cm (b) If Best Bakery used a 42 cm diameter round cake tray, use your graph to estimate the height of the cake obtained. d = 42cm, log d = 1.623, log h = 1.140, h = 13.80cm 3) Best Bakery has been requested to decorate the cake with fresh cream. The thickness of the cream is normally set to a uniform layer of about 1cm (a) Estimate the amount of fresh cream required to decorate the cake using the dimensions that you have suggested in 2(b)(ii). h = 8cm, d = 54.99cm Amount of fresh cream = VOLUME of fresh cream needed (area x height) Amount of fresh cream = Vol. of cream at the top surface + Vol. of cream at the side surface Vol. of cream at the top surface = Area of top surface x Height of cream = (3.142)( = 2375 cm Vol. of cream at the side surface = Area of side surface x Height of cream = (Circumference of cake x Height of cake) x Height of cream = 2(3.142)(54.99/2)(8) x 1 = 1382.23 cm Therefore, amount of fresh cream = 2375 + 1382.23 = 3757.23 cm ) x 1

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(b) Suggest three other shapes for cake, that will have the same height and volume as those suggested in 2(b)(ii). Estimate the amount of fresh cream to be used on each of the cakes.

19000 = base area x height base area = length x width = 2375 By trial and improvement, 2375 = 50 x 47.5 (length = 50, width = 47.5, height = 8) Therefore, volume of cream = 2(Area of left/right side surface)(Height of cream) + 2(Area of front/back side surface)(Height of cream) + Vol. of top surface = 2(8 x 50)(1) + 2(8 x 47.5)(1) + 2375 = 3935 cm 2 Triangle-shaped base

19000 = base area x height base area = 2375 x length x width = 2375 length x width = 4750 By trial and improvement, 4750 = 95 x 50 (length = 95, width = 50) Slant length of triangle = (95 + 25)= 98.23

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Therefore, amount of cream = Area of rectangular front side surface(Height of cream) + 2(Area of slant rectangular left/right side surface)(Height of cream) + Vol. of top surface = (50 x 8)(1) + 2(98.23 x 8)(1) + 2375 = 4346.68 cm 3 Pentagon-shaped base

19000 = base area x height base area = 2375 = area of 5 similar isosceles triangles in a pentagon therefore: 2375 = 5(length x width) 475 = length x width By trial and improvement, 475 = 25 x 19 (length = 25, width = 19) Therefore, amount of cream = 5(area of one rectangular side surface)(height of cream) + vol. of top surface = 5(8 x 19) + 2375 = 3135 cm (c) Based on the values that you have found which shape requires the least amount of fresh cream to be used? Pentagon-shaped cake, since it requires only 3135 cm of cream to be used.

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PART 3:

Find the dimension of a 5 kg round cake that requires the minimum amount of fresh cream to decorate. Use at least two different methods including Calculus. State whether you would choose to bake a cake of such dimensions. Give reasons for your answers. Answer: Method 1: Differentiation Use two equations for this method: the formula for volume of cake (as in Q2/a), and the formula for amount (volume) of cream to be used for the round cake (as in Q3/a). 19000 = (3.142)rh (1) V = (3.142)r + 2(3.142)rh (2) From (1): h = Sub. (3) into (2): V = (3.142)r + 2(3.142)r( V = (3.142)r + ( ) ) (3)

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Method 2: Quadratic Functions Use the two same equations as in Method 1, but only the formula for amount of cream is the main equation used as the quadratic function. Let f(r) = volume of cream, r = radius of round cake: 19000 = (3.142)rh (1) f(r) = (3.142)r + 2(3.142)hr (2) From (2): f(r) = (3.142)(r + 2hr) -->> factorize (3.142) = (3.142)[ (r + ) ( ) ] -->> completing square, with a = (3.142), b = 2h and c = 0

= (3.142)[ (r + h) h ] = (3.142)(r + h) (3.142)h (a = (3.142) (positive indicates min. value), min. value = f(r) = (3.142)h, corresponding value of x = r = --h) Sub. r = --h into (1): 19000 = (3.142)(--h)h h = 6047.104 h = 18.22 Sub. h = 18.22 into (1): 19000 = (3.142)r(18.22) r = 331.894 r = 18.22 therefore, h = 18.22 cm, d = 2r = 2(18.22) = 36.44 cm I would choose not to bake a cake with such dimensions because its dimensions are not suitable (the height is too high) and therefore less attractive. Furthermore, such cakes are difficult to handle easily.

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FURTHER EXPLORATION:

Best Bakery received an order to bake a multi-storey cake for Merdeka Day celebration, as shown in Diagram 2. The height of each cake is 6.0 cm and the radius of the largest cake is 31.0 cm. The radius of the second cake is 10% less than the radius of the first cake, the radius of the third cake is10% less than the radius of the second cake and so on.(a) Find the volume of the first, the second, the third and the fourth cakes. By comparing all these values, determine whether the volumes of the cakes form a number pattern? Explain and elaborate on the number patterns. Answer: height, h of each cake = 6cm radius of largest cake = 31cm radius of 2nd cake = 10% smaller than 1st cake radius of 3rd cake = 10% smaller than 2nd cake 31, 27.9, 25.11, 22.599 a = 31, r = V = (3.142)rh Radius of 1st cake = 31, volume of 1st cake = (3.142)(31)(6) = 18116.772 Radius of 2nd cake = 27.9, vol. of 2nd cake = 14674.585 Radius of 3rd cake = 25.11, vol. of 3rd cake = 11886.414 Radius of 4th cake = 22.599, vol. of 4th cake = 9627.995 18116.772, 14674.585, 11886.414, 9627.995, a = 18116.772, ratio, r = T2/T1 = T3 /T2 = = 0.81

(b) If the total mass of all the cakes should not exceed 15 kg, calculate the maximum number of cakes that the bakery needs to bake. Verify your answer using other methods. Answer:

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Sn =

Sn = 57000, a = 18116.772 and r = 0.81 57000 = 1 0.81n = 0.59779 0.40221 = 0.81n og0.81 0.40221 = n n=

n = 4.322 therefore, n 4

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REFLECTION

After spending countless hours,days and night to finish this project and also sacrificing my time for chatting and movies in this mid year holiday,there are several things that I can say: Additional Mathematics, From the day I born, From the day I was able to holding pencil, From the day I start learning, And, From the day I heard your name, I always thought that you will be, my greatest obstacle and rival in excelling in my life, But after countless of hours, Countless of days, Countless of nights, After sacrificing my precious time just for you, Sacrificing my play Time, Sacrificing my Chatting, Sacrificing my Facebook, Sacrificing my Internet, Sacrifing my Anime, Sacrificing my Movies, I realized something really important in you, I really love you, You are my real friend, You my partner, You are my soulmate, I LOVE U ADDITIONAL MATHEMATIC.

For the things of this world cannot be made known without a knowledge of mathematics -Roger Bacon-

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Conclusion

From the Additional Mathematics Form 5 project work,we can conclude that mathematics many part of role in human life.There are some things that mathematics in shape and calculus are created by people.By using some additional mathematics Form 4 and 5 calculus formula,we can solve many problems in our daily life.

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