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The Third International Conference on Systems and Networks Communications

Some Problems & Methods For Remotely Controllable Automatic Home Security Systems
R.Hariprakash G.Venkat Ramu T.Rajakumari S.Ananthi K.Padmanabhan

BIHER,Bharath University

University of Madras Chennai-25, India

Polytechnic College Univ. of Madras AC Tech, Anna Chennai, India Chenna-25, India Univ., Chennai, ck_padmanabhan@rediffmail

Abstract Security systems for home or industry have a lot to perform today and the data collection and fusion demands careful processing and discerning of security problems. The paper examines signals that are created to perform multiple surveillance systems through a common remotely monitored system. The problems of data detection without errors becomes important to avoid falsely discerning insecurity levels. The paper examines methods for this. Among this is considered the technique for encoding using the Hilbert Transform. This works better with Doppler based security sensors with lesser extra bits of transmission for error free reception at the monitoring computer station. In this, there are two categories of security levels: i) Totally un-manned and uninhabited; ii) partially manned by sentinel. The latter situation needs a different strategy in the event of an insecure event or accident. Further, these security domestic systems also simulate the presence of inmates for external observers by switching on and off, the several internal lights, issuing noise akin to speech and turning on your Television set at intervals, particularly during day time. This means a pre-planned appliance switching control from an external monitoring station, to simulate the presence of inmates in an actually vacant home or commercial site.

1. Introduction
Now-a-days, it is common to have a central monitoring system of remote surveillance doing the job for many a home or industry floor. Whenever the inmates of the home need to be away from it, they contract the monitoring system to keep an eye on their innards and to take necessary action in the event of any disturbance – burglary, fire or other causes. The monitoring system, itself securely located in a place difficult to identify, would have the problem of receiving inputs from the many signal sensors from each of its customers, periodically. It has to process them, despite any transmission system noise, identify events of insecurity and also send suitable commands to take action. The methodology and implementation of security monitoring systems are varied and wide. On the one hand, there are various methods of sensing the internal environment to be monitored. On the other, there are different approaches to implementing a fail-safe and automatic decision making. The quantity of signals is large and their time variation aspects, when included, render the data manipulation large enough.

2. Sensors and their signals
There are a variety of signal sensors in this area, the most common being the switches on the several movement paths, tampering signal detection for lockable items, door signals, lighting signals and finally the Infra-red or any other electromagnetic motion sensor of human movement and only human movement. The three states of a sensor signal are : i) inactive ii) active, indicating a presence of an event (closure, opening) and iii) failed sensor . For movement of humans in unexpected sites and areas, usually reflectance sensors or infra-red thermal detecting sensors are used. The path-way switches, the door hinge switches are digital; the motion Doppler signals are analog and need processing further; the mixed signals arise from reflectance sensors with varying threshold depending on ambient lighting conditions. It is possible to send signals all collectively as and when they are sampled and communicate them remotely to the monitoring site via a communication channel. Or else, the processing can be done by local hardware and only the final components of signal complexes be transmitted to the monitoring site.

978-0-7695-3371-1/08 $25.00 © 2008 IEEE DOI 10.1109/ICSNC.2008.41

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there are such systems of information 401 407 . depending upon the security system’s time resolution. the characteristics of sensors. Multi sensor systems and information fusion In areas related to industrial and military applications. Prior encoding of signals from motion sensors Motion signals are usually detected either by ultrasound or infra red sensors. such as. Combine this with the signals which are created to simulate human presence by the outputs to the lights. The above will need a signal vector. for instance. including answering a telephone call from recorded information.. With Doppler signal data from sensors. happens to be the possible intrusion in the monitored site. it is hardly possible to include the processing in the site itself. The programs for such periodical testing would be part of the maintenance routine which would be run as often as needed or requested by the customer. Then. Today. the movement profile of the source. the switching on of the Television or other similar simulated activity. Here again. for the Doppler signals from motion sensors. 300 signal bits would need to be processed at least once a few seconds. but also the time course of the signal indicating its positive aspect of suspicion. With all these sensors and data. which could be having a dimension that would be 50 + 12× 2 ×10 + 40 = 330. such as complex Fourier transform. The job management and control strategy as well as emergency functions of the Central monitoring system would be to analyze the above data. in our case. the site would be simulated with events from either a manned or automatic program of closure or opening of proximity switches. around 40. There could be many such homes and security monitored sites contracted by the monitoring central agency. there would be a signal processing of 30000 bits in unit time slot. movement simulators with lights or infra red beaming lights with motion and so on. Dual sensors and cumulative signal processing would enable the detection of such artifacts but at double the cost. which are analog but converted into 10 bits digital by the ADC and hence we have 12×2 × 10).say. try methods of exploitation when the system is made to ignore the false condition as being a nuisance event. If the motion is detected without ambiguity. one would think that a body of data would exist from which effective real time algorithms for information fusion or “detection” could be developed. The statistics of movement sensor signals would be required to be processed in order to obviate such eventualities. there is always a fooling that culprits could employ to camouflage a device to indicate a false event and create unwanted confusion and in the process. There could also be a protocol communicated via any of the wireless or similar communication systems. should be identified with high level of probability. 4. The IR sensor detects movement by thermal noise from the source which varies much more than threshold with an intrusion in the region of the sensor. In this. such as the Vehicular multi-sensor mine detection (VMMD) [1]. the simulated testing of the sites are also to be included as part of the sentinel system. The Doppler effect principle is used for ultrasound signal transducers to detect and determine the moving intrusion. their nonlinearities. it is known that the signal at an instantaneous time is likely to be corrupted by noise bursts. motion sensors would need not merely a signal indicating a motion that is causing a suspicion.R. There should be a multiplexed signal processing software. In motion artifacts. The mathematical processing of the signals would vary from simple to mathematically time intensive approaches. Doppler signal processing from at least two different I. which. their temporal behavior etc. need proper signal processing concepts. then the remote monitor 3. the noise speakers. which would handle the several communicated signals from time to time from the customer sites. The sampling time could be anywhere between hours to a few seconds. continuously and with around 100 customers per one network that monitors its area. around a dozen motion sensor input signals processed or given in raw format with just a digitization on an 8 or 10 bit quantization ADC. [2] processing. Thus. including the use of the cellular phone. assuming that there is no loss or corruption in the system used for transmission or any man-made interference in the system of communication. (The Doppler signals are two in number. This is just from a single site being monitored for security. in today’s complex systems of security levels expected in different homes or other vulnerable locations. a lightning flash (that could also be notoriously simulated by the intruder!). which will be therefore continuously receiving information from the several sites all through the 24 hours.Unfortunately. Consider a system with around fifty digital logic outputs from switches and proximity sensors.

. Hilbert Transform based encoding In this method. say. The decoding process at the received monitor would detect and correct errors using Viterbi’s algorithm [3]. Hence some form of detecting bit errors has to be included. The same is done using digital data with the formula given in [4].. its Hilbert transform is calculated. (2) At the receiving end the signals are combined by a simple exclusive OR and we get the signal wn. This encoding is very much like the encoding used for sending GSM signals with convolution encoded data. s’ denotes the transmitted signal comprising of the real and imaginary parts of the signal. zn = s' = sr + jsh …(3) Here. The system of motion sensor that does this convolution encoding would be built into the site. say. is beset with errors of PCM data en-route. If we take the Hilbert Transform of the latter signal sj. the advantage is the wider range of detection level and correction possible. Sensor codes are convolution encoded and transmitted.. this is combined with xn-2 in order to get yn.. The property of the Hilbert transform is used at the reception data processor. bits. giving H{sj} = . Then it means much more for these motion sensors than other direct sensors. But transmission of the signal through a medium. The signal is xn. which is treated as a composite data while sending through the usual channel. This will be similar to the above convolution encoding in so far as the number of bits are concerned. In addition. Fig. A bit error in a stream will intimate a sudden change which will be interpreted as a movement caused by Doppler shift of ultrasound reflected. The scheme works alright because only detection of errors is important here rather than its correction. we get the negative of the real part signal. along with the hardware of the sensor’s electronics. The principle is to take an encoded version of the signal.will call for operator intervention who would then switch on to direct video observation of the site. If we can detect a variation over a wider range in the data stream.(1) Another bit that is transmitted is zn. Taking for example. The imaginary part is obtained from the real part through the Hilbert Transform. would have a block diagram as shown below in a simple scheme with two delays. Therefore the data bits which are transmitted will be double the actual signal data. 256 samples of data. convolutional data can be used for use in the basic bit error correction. the encoding does not suffer the above limitation of having a correlation with just 2 or 3 time slots of data in the encoded stream. after digitization. This gives the total signal as 402 408 Let us perform the Hilbert transform of a sample window of analog data and digitize it in much the same way as the signal and then combine the data in pieces as much as one would embed convolutional codes to digital data stream. it will give the information about a change in the signal with higher level of …(4) x n EOR x n-1 EOR x n-2 . N. yn = xn EOR xn-2 . The signal s(t) that is picked from the sensor is usually digitized and the value of the same is stored in. However. which is same as xn-1. It is possible to detect errors present and to some extent correct the same. Thus each bit of sr is combined with the bit from sj and a dibit is transmitted. Two bits are transmitted for each data bit.. Suppose for the signal s(t). This is having the same overhead of 1:2 like the convolutional encoder. which uses the signal and its past samples. by some form of radio telephony. the same number of data which are obtained by transforming the former. in its nth sample. while transmitting to the distant monitoring site. . will make for total data of 512 samples. Actually GSM uses a convolution with a larger constraint length. An example of such encoding by convolving with delayed signal components. Also.1. H{sr} = sj …(5) 5. for each sample. The first term in the above equation is the actual signal and the second is the Hilbert transform.

Amongst such sensors. pp. 2002.2). The same si digitized and after combining with the Hilbert transformed bits. Discrete Hilbert Transform Transmitted dibit data stream Fig. leaving aside these data bits. Future systems should examine and standardize sensors free from artifacts and develop methods for reliable detection. 1989. If the equations are not satisfied at certain time slots. Elektor India.Now. The sample signal showing method of error detection and correction. References [1]. [4] Cizek. Trans. I. Chapter-6. these time slots have erroneous data bits. there are random locations of bit errors which cause the values to differ in the received signal at certain sample sites.B Ash and C.V. Since some of the data slots are known to be erroneous. on audio and Electroacoustics”.18(4). [3] Convolution encoding and Viterbi’s algorithm. even after correction to the extent possible.Introduction to . the choice of suitable encoding technique will also contribute to the overall system reliability. the output of the sensor itself could give a combined data set in the form of equation (3). Hilbert transform based data encoding for motion sensors 6. The use of an encoding based on Hilbert Transform for such signals is found to be better for detection than normal encoding schemes.E. Thus. in which case.2. such as convolution. motion detector sensors are having artifacts more than the direct sensors. The sensor electronics itself could be using an embedded controller. Conclusion and Future Progress A study of multiple sensor based multi-target security systems and the problems of data collection and management for a reliable security monitoring has been made.3(1-5). R. Data from sensor Thus. R/J/Mc Eliece.E. [2] “GSM phone for remote control”..Ash. the rest of the data is examined for a change from a previous data set for detection of real motion effect. The Hilbert transform of the pure signal is shown in fig. Rob Sigel.Vol.22-27.(1970). it is inferred if the data is free from corruption in the transmission channel. “Land mine Detection”. The problem of a clear detection of a motion event due to an intrusion is explained. Suppose. channel noise and interference will produce bit errors on the data. the total data stream has two bits for each actual sensor data bit (fig. Discrete Hilbert Transform. March 2002.Discrete Mathematic. 5(4).340-44. Thus. Let us illustrate a sample data stream which is just a simple continuous analog signal. Fig. a check is made on the above data bits by performing digital Hilbert transform on each of the sets of data bits.3. IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Magazine.. McGraw-Hill Intl. 5.. 403 409 .E.