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A PROJECT REPORT ON

DELTA MODULATION

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE DEGREE


BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN

ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING By


Raju prasad saini (7EC83)

Under the guidance of Mr. Lokesh Lodha & Mr. Punit Kaliya
Lecturer, JNU, Jaipur

Department Of Electronics and Communication JAIPUR NATIONAL UNIVERSITY, JAIPUR

Del

l i

Demodul ion

Delta modulation is a differential Pulse code Modulation, in which the difference signal between two successive samples is encoded into a single bit code.

Reason to use Delta Modulation


We have observed in PCM that it transmits all the bits which are used to code a sample. Hence, signaling rate and transmission channel bandwidth are quite large in PCM.To overcome this problem, Delta modulation is used.

T eory
Delta modulation is also known as Linear Delta Modulator. In Delta Modulation, we have used the Comparator, Level Shifter, Up and Down Counter, DAC (Digital to Analog Converter). The signal m (t) is the analog input signal. While r (t) is a reconstructed signal which is same as the quantized input signal with 1 bit delay. The signal r (t) tries to follows the input signal m (t) with one bit period delay.

The process is encoding as follows. The comparator compares the input signal m (t) and r (t). If m (t)>r (t) a logic 1 is generated at the output of the comparator otherwise a logic 0 is generated. The value of logic 1 or logic 0 turned as (t) is held for the bit duration by the

sample and hold current to generate the delta modulated output. This output So (t) is fed to the 8 bit binary up/down counter to control its count direction. A logic 1at the mode control input increases the count value by one and a logic 0 decrements he

count values by one. All the 8 outputs of the counter are given to DAC to reconstruct the original signal. In essence the counter & Decoder form the Delta Modulator in the feedback loop of the comparator. Thus, if the input signal is higher than the reconstructed signal the counter increments at each step so as to enable the DAC output to reach to the input signal values. Similarly, if the input signal m (t) is lower than the reconstructed signal r (t), the counter decrements at each step, and the DAC output gets reduced to reach a value to that of m (t). The block diagram of Delta Modulator is shown above. It works on the same way as it was in the feedback loop of the Delta modulator. The received Delta modulated signal So (t) is given to the mode control input of the up/down counter. All the 8 bit outputs are connected to an 8 bit DAC which gives a quantized analog signal (stepped waveform). A low pass filter is used to smooth out the steps. A buffer amplifier provides the necessary drive capability to the output signal. Thus, the digital delta modulated data is demodulated and reconstructed into analog signal. Although, this process of Delta Modulation and Demodulation is a simple and cost effective method of coding, there will be poor approximation at starting buildup.