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(Consonants)(Vowels) 1

(Parts of Speech)

(The Infinitives) (The Participles)


(The Preterite or the Perfect Tense)
Primary Forms2
(The Present Tense)
(The Imperfect or the Future Tense)
(The Present Tense)
1

Wolfram von Soden, The Ancient Orient, pp3130.


2

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(The Active Participle)


(The Imperfect Tense or the Future Tense)

(default vowels)

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(lingua franca)6

Susan Niditch, Oral


World and Written Word: Ancient Israelite Literature (Louisville, KY:
Westminster, 1996)
4
Susan Niditch, Oral World and Written Word: Ancient Israelite Literature
(Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 1996), pp4647.
5
Suzette H Elgin, What is Linguistics? (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey:
Prentice-Hall Inc, 1973), p44.
6

2500

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(el-Amarna
Tablets)

von Soden, p55.

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9
8

G. Enerst Wright (
2003 ), p7.
9
Avi Hurvitz, The Historical Quest for Ancient Israel and the Linguistic
Evidence of the Hebrew Bible: some Methodological Observations Vetus
Testamentum, Vol. 47, No. 3, (1997), p308309; Gary A.

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10Schniedewind 11

12
13
()
Rendsburg, "Israel Without the Bible," in F. E. Greenspahn, ed. The Hebrew
Bible: New Insights and Scholarship, Jewish Studies in the Twenty-First
Century Series (New York: New York University Press, 2007), pp323; Gary
A. Rendsburg, "The Genesis of the Bible in The Blanche and Irving Laurie
Chair in Jewish History, Separatum published by the Allen and Joan Bildner
Center for the Study of Jewish Life (Rutgers: The State University of New
Jersey, 2005), pp1130 [ p28]; William M. Schniedewind,
Jerusalem, the Late Judahite Monarchy, and the Composition of the Biblical
Texts Jerusalem in Bible and Archaeology: The First Temple Period Andrew
G. Gaughn and Ann E Killebrew, eds. (Society of Biblical Literature, 2003),
pp375393.
10
Gary Rendsburg, Reading David in Genesis: How We know the Torah Was
Written in the Tenth Century B.C.E Bible Review Vol. 17, No. 1, (February
2001), p22, p46.
11
William M. Schniedewind, Jerusalem, the Late Judahite Monarchy, and the
Composition of the Biblical Texts in Jerusalem in Bible and Archaeology: The
First Temple Period, Andrew G. Gaughn and Ann E Killebrew, eds. (Society of
Biblical Literature, 2003), pp375393 p378.
12
Schniedewind, p390.
13
782747 786746
John Rogerson,
Chronicle of the Old Testament Kings (London: Thames and Hudson, 1999).
Edwin R. Thiele, The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew
Kings, 3rd. ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan/Kregel, 1983).
1981

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14

()
15
26:15

(1981
)
14
14:25

15
767737 783742 792740 Thiele, p217.

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16

751/750
() 17
18 739

750
752732
16

27:1
18
26:19

17

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19
2021

754 Ashur-nirari

22
473470

23
( 739735 )

19

752732
Edwin R. Thiele,
The Mysterious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 2nd. ed. (Grand Rapids, MI:
Eerdmans, 1983), p129130.
21
ibid.
22
15:19

23
15:37

20

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24
25

735

24

27:3

25
27:5

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26

760

26

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25:27

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2728
29

30

27

jubilation
jubilee
28
25:855
29
Stephen Kaufman
Stephen A Kaufman, A Reconstruction of the Social Welfare Systems of
Ancient Israel in In the Shelter of Elyon: Essays on Ancient Palestinian Life
and Literature in Honor of G. W. Ahlstrom, W. Boyd Barrick and John R.
Spencer, ed. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series 31,
(Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1984), pp278285 1
p284.
30
25:817

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31

31

Stephen A Kaufman,A Reconstruction of the Social Welfare Systems of


Ancient Israel in In the Shelter of Elyon: Essays on Ancient Palestinian Life
and Literature in Honor of G. W. Ahlstrom, W. Boyd Barrick and John R.
Spencer, ed. Journal for the Study of the Old Testament Supplement Series 31,
(Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1984), p281.

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32

32

William D. Barrick, The Eschatological


Significance of Leviticus 26, The Masters Seminary Journal, Vol. 16, No. 1,
(Spring 2005), pp95126.

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752
33 34
750
753 752

752-742

3536

33

34
15:812

35
18:1920

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37 742
740

732 38
733/2

39

John A. Thompson 743 John A.


Thompson, p139.
36
()
37
James B. Pritchard ed., The Ancient Near East: An Anthology of Texts and
Pictures, Vol. 1, (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1958), p1934
Winton Thomas, Documents from Old Testament Times (London: Thomas
Nelson, 1958), p54. COS 2, 285, 2.117A Calah Annals ca. 73837 of The
Context of Scriptures. 3 volumes. Eds. William W. Hallo and K. Lawson
Younger (Leiden: Brill, 19972002).
38

15:2327
39

7:6 15:37

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40
41

42

13:9-11

4:9

40

John A. Thompson, p140.


Stephanie Dalley
Stephanie Dalley, Recent Evidence from Assyrian Sources for Judaean History
from Uzziah to Manasseh, Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, Vol 28.
No 4, (2004), p387401.
42
J. A. Thompson, p141.
41

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7:13-16

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