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Neelam Dewangan

Chattrapati Shivaji Institute of Technology,Durg(C.G) CSVTU, Bhilai neelamdewangan@csitdurg.in

Suchita Chatterjee

Chattrapati Shivaji Institute of Technology,Durg(C.G) CSVTU, Bhilai Suchitachatterjee@csitdurg.in

AbstractIn wireless communication systems, peakto-average power ratio (PAPR) is a performance measurement that is indicative of the power efficiency of the transmitter. In this paper, an improved method based on tone reservation method for PAPR reduction was proposed. To improve PAPR reduction performance, the more appropriate magnitude of the time domain PAPR reduction signals was found by the proposed method. Simulation in single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) system demonstrates that PAPR reduction performance of the proposed method is better than that of the original approach when several PAPR reduction subcarriers were used. Keywords-PAPR; Tone Reservation; SC-FDMA

II.

A. PAPR of SC-FDMA Signals SC-FDMA can be regarded as discrete Fourier transform (DFT) spread OFDMA, where time domain data symbols are transformed to frequency domain by DFT before going through OFDMA modulation [3].

I.

INTRODUCTION

Peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) is indicative of the power efficiency of the mobile terminal. High PAPR at the transmitter can cause the transmitter high power amplifier (HPA) to go into non-linear regions and degrade the transmitter power efficiency. And low PAPR means longer battery life and cheaper output power amplifier for the same average transmitted power. To get lower PAPR, many PAPR reduction approaches for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) have been proposed [1], which can also be used to reduce PAPR in orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) system, such as amplitude clipping, clipping and filtering, tone reservation (TR) and so on. In these methods, TR method is based on adding PAPR reduction signals to the data signals to reduce its peaks. TR method does not only eliminate the need for side information but also prevents the bit error rate (BER) degradation. In this paper, an improved method based on TR method for PAPR reduction is proposed. To improve PAPR reduction performance, the more appropriate magnitude of the time signals used to reduce PAPR was found by the proposed method. Simulations in single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) system demonstrate that the proposed method has better PAPR reduction performance than the original approach in [2]. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In Section II, PAPR of SC-FDMA signals and tone reservation method are reviewed. Section III introduces the approach for PAPR reduction in [2]. Then an improved method was proposed in Section IV. The simulation results and performance analysis are shown in Section V. Finally, conclusions are given in Section VI.

xm

Figure 1. Block diagram of SC-FDMA transmitter. x m ( m = 0,1,, M 1 ) are time domain symbols after SC-FDMA modulation. M is the total number of subcarriers, and N ( N < M ) is the number of subcarriers occupied by the input data.

Fig. 1 shows the block diagram of an SC-FDMA transmitter, where M is the total number of subcarriers, xm ( m = 0,1,, M 1 ) are time domain symbols after SCFDMA modulation, and N ( N < M ) is the number of subcarriers occupied by the input data. SC-FDMA transmitter groups the modulation symbols into blocks each containing N symbols. Then each time domain data block was transformed to a frequency domain data block by an N-point DFT. Next it maps each of the N-point DFT outputs to one of the M orthogonal subcarriers. Then an M-point IDFT transforms subcarrier mapping outputs into a complex time domain signal xm. The cyclic prefix (CP) is a guard time to prevent intersymbol interference (ISI) due to multipath propagation. PAPR was widely used to evaluate envelope fluctuations of signals. PAPR of SC-FDMA signals without pulse shaping with symbol rate sampling can be expresses as follows [4]. max xm

2 2

PAPR =

m = 0,1,, M 1 M 1

1 M

(1)

m= 0

xm

B. Tone Reservation Method Tone reservation (TR) method is based on adding time domain PAPR reduction signals to the time domain data signals to reduce its peaks. Both the transmitter and the receiver agree on reserving a small subset of tones for generating PAPR reduction signals. Those reserved tones are not used for data transmission. When TR method is used, the new time domain vector x can be represented as x = x + c = IDFT ( X + C ) , (2)

c [ n] =

= c [ n ] + ( x [ n1 ] + c [ n1 ])

c [ n] + ( c [ n1 ] c [ n1 ] )

(6)

Lastly, the time domain PAPR reduction vector c above has been generated by the original method in [2]. By adding the c to x, generate the new time domain data vector x which has lower PAPR. And the first maximum peak magnitude x [ n1 ] was suppressed as x [ n1 ] = x [ n1 ] c [ n1 ] = x [ n1 ] + x [ n2 ] 2 < x [ n1 ] . (7)

where c is the corresponding time domain PAPR reduction vector of the frequency domain PAPR reduction vector C, and x is the corresponding time domain data vector of the frequency domain data vector X. X and C must lie in disjoint frequency subspaces, i.e. X k = 0, C k = 0, kS kS , (3)

And the second maximum peak magnitude x ( n2 ) will be never larger than the first maximum peak magnitude x ( n1 ) . x[n2 ] IV. x [ n2 ] + c [ n2 ] x [ n1 ] + x [ n2 ] 2 x[n1 ] (8)

where k is the subcarrier index and S is a set of subcarrier indices for data transmission. TR method does not need any side information and any receiver operation. III.

THE O RIGINAL APPROACH BASED ON TR METHOD

the phase differences between c [ nl ] and x [ nl ] , where nl is a c = c [ n] = n = 0,1,, N 1 , (4) time index of the l-th maximum peak. When add c to x, because the magnitude of c is larger than that of c , the first maximum peak magnitude x [ n1 ] was suppressed further. So where N is the total number of subcarriers. c has a constant the improved method has better PAPR reduction magnitude and a time varying phase for all n. performance. To reduce the first maximum peak magnitude x [ n1 ] , the First, we use one reserved subcarrier to generate time magnitude and the phase of c must be modified. The phase of domain PAPR reduction vector c by the original method, c [ n1 ] must be modified into an opposite phase of x [ n1 ] , whose magnitude and phases have been modified by (5) and (6), respectively. Then normalize c as follow. where nl is a time index of the l-th maximum peak. Next, let c be the modified c. Since c has a constant c magnitude and a time varying phase for all n, the magnitude (9) c= c of c was set as (5) and the phases of c [ n] were calculated 1 2 kn C k exp j N N out by (6). c = c [ n ] = c [ n1 ] = x [ n1 ] x [ n2 ] 2 And let [ nl ] = [ n1 ] , [ n2 ] ,, [ nN ] be a set of the (5) phase differences between c [ n l ] and x [ nl ] . [ n l ] can be expressed as follow . [ nl ] = c [ nl ] x [ nl ] (10)

The approach based on TR method in [2] uses one reserved subcarrier to generate time domain PAPR reduction signals for reducing the first maximum peak magnitude of time domain data vector x. First, the frequency domain PAPR reduction vector C has only one nonzero element Ck. k is the subcarrier index. The time domain PAPR reduction vector c is computed out as follow.

In this section, we propose an improved method based on the original method in [2]. Let c be the time domain PAPR reduction vector which was generated by the original method, and c be the more appropriate time domain PAPR reduction vector which was generated by the proposed improved method. The magnitude of c ( c c ) was calculated out by

Both original and proposed methods are to suppress x [ n1 ] for PAPR reduction and to prevent other peak magnitudes larger than x [ n1 ] after PAPR reduction. So it is very important that x [ nl ] must be always smaller than the x [ n1 ] in both methods, i.e. x [ nl ] x [ n1 ]

2 2

And c calculated out by (16) will be never smaller than c , even though the phase c [ nl ] is the same to x [ nl ] for l = 2, 3,, N (the worst case), i.e. [ nl ] = 0 . x [ n1 ] x [ nl ]

2 2

c l = 2, 3,, N , (11)

l = 2,3,, N

min

2 x [ n 1] + x [ n l] x [ n1 ] x [ nl ] 2

}

. (17)

where x [ nl ] = x [ nl ] + c [ nl ]

2 2 2

l = 2,3,, N

min

x [ n1 ] x [ n2 ] 2 c

= x [ nl ] + c [ nl ] + 2 cos [ nl ] x [ nl ] c [ nl ]

2

.(12)

2 2 2

set to an opposite phase of x [ n1 ] . Then the appropriate time domain PAPR reduction vector c could be calculated out as follow. (13) c= c c exp j ( c [ n1 ] c [ n1 ]) c

So the optimal magnitude of the PAPR reduction vector c can be set as (16) after derivation. And the phase of c [ n1 ] is

Next, since c has a constant magnitude, then ranges of [n c l ] for l = 2, 3,, N can be derived from (11), (12) and (13). x [ n1 ] x [ nl ]

2 2

} }

, (18)

c c exp j ( x [ n1 ] + c [ n1 ] ) = c

[n c l]

2 x [ n1 ] + x [ nl ] cos [ nl ]

)}

, l = 2, 3,, N . (14) where c and c is calculated out by (4) and (16), respectively. Because c has larger magnitude than c , the magnitude of ( x [ n1 ] + c [ n1 ]) will be not larger than that of So the new vector x + c has lower PAPR than x + c . But the maximum PAPR reduction gain for the proposed method is the same as that for the original method, which is 6.02dB [2].

1 1

To reduce x [ n1 ] further, c must be as large as possible. [n So let c l ] for l = 2, 3,, N be maximums, i.e. x [ n1 ] x [ nl ]

2 2

( x [ n ] + c [ n ]) .

[n c l] =

2 x [ n1 ] + x [ nl ] cos [ nl ]

)}

, l = 2, 3,, N . (15)

V.

SIMULATION RESULTS

Then N 1 candidate magnitudes of c will be found by (15). Lastly, to make sure (11) for all l, the optimal magnitude of c must be the minimum of N 1 candidate magnitudes, i.e. c = = min ( c[n ] )

l

Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF) of PAPR, which is defined by (19), is the probability that PAPR is higher than a certain PAPR value PAPR0. The CCDF curve which is closer to the vertical axis has the better PAPR characteristic. CCDF = 1 Pr ( PAPR PAPR0 ) . (19)

l = 2,3,, N

l = 2,3,, N

min

2 x [ n 1] + x [ n l] cos [ n l]

x [ n1 ] x [ nl ]

2

)}

Let method I be the original method in [2] and method II be the proposed improved method in this paper. Simulations . (16) are according to SC-FDMA system model in [4]. 10 4 uniformly random data points were generated to acquire the CCDF of PAPR which is calculated by Monte Carlo simulation. Subcarrier mapping modes is localized modes. The total number of subcarriers M was set to 256, input data

block size N to 64 and the number of PAPR reduction subcarriers i to 1, 3 and 5. And 16QAM symbol constellations were considered.

respectively. When i = 3 , PAPR for method I and that for method II reduce approximately to 7.32dB and 6.86dB at the CCDF of 10-3, resulting in 1.04dB and 1.50 dB reductions, respectively. Fig. 3 shows that if PAPR reduction subcarriers are more, the result of reducing PAPR is better. Fig. 4 illustrates that the better PAPR reduction effect will be not obvious after several iterations because the magnitudes of peak signals will be closer and closer to each other.

Figure 2. Comparison of the PAPR reduction performance for method I and method II in SC-FDMA system using 16QAM modulation. The total number of subcarriers M was set to 256, input data block size N to 64 and the number of PAPR reduction subcarriers i to 1.

Fig. 2 illustrates that the PAPR reduction performance comparison of two methods for 16QAM. When both methods are used, method II achieves approximately 0.60 dB more PAPR reduction than method Iat the CCDF of 10-4. From Fig. 2, it is confirmed that the PAPR reduction performance of method II is better than that of method I.

Figure 4. Comparison of the PAPR reduction performance for three PAPR reduction subcarrier and five PAPR reduction subcarriers in SC-FDMA system using 16QAM modulation. The total number of subcarriers M was set to 256, input data block size N to 64.

VI.

CONCLUSION

In this paper, an improved method for PAPR reduction based on the original approach in [2] was proposed. The proposed method improves PAPR reduction performance by finding out the optimal magnitude of PAPR reduction signals. Simulation results in SC-FDMA system shows that the PAPR reduction performance of the proposed improved method is better than that of the approach in [2] for using only one subcarrier and several subcarriers, respectively. REFERENCES

[1] T. Jiang, and Y. Wu, An Overview: Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction Techniques for OFDM Signals, IEEE Trans. On Broadcasting, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 257-268, Jun. 2008. Yunmok Son, Chang Hyun Nam, and Hwang Soo Lee, An Approach for PAPR Reduction Based on Tone Reservation Method, IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, 10-13 Jan. 2009 Myung, H.G., Junsung Lim, and Goodman, D.J., Single carrier FDMA for uplink wireless transmission, IEEE Vehicular Technology Mag., vol. 1, no. 3, pp.30-38, Sept. 2006 Myung H. G., Junsung Lim, and Goodman D. J., Peak-to-average Power Ratio of Single Carrier FDMA Signals with Pulse Shaping, IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, 11-14 Sept. 2006

[2]

Figure 3. Comparison of the PAPR reduction performance for one PAPR reduction subcarrier and three PAPR reduction subcarriers.

[3]

In Fig. 3, when i = 1 , PAPR for method I and that for method II reduce approximately to 7.70 dB and 7.15 dB at the CCDF of 10-3, resulting in 0.66 dB and 1.21 dB reductions,

[4]

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