You are on page 1of 28

FUNDAMENTALS OF NURSING

Important Topics PART I- Theoretical aspects A. Terminologies Man- In wellness and in sickness Humanity Nursing Environment Health Illness Disease Hospital Clinics Infirmary Lying- In Periculture Center Health unit B. Nursing Theories Florence Nightingale PATRICIA BENNER Faye Abdella Betty Neuman Jean Watson Ida Orlando Virginia Henderson Dorothy Johnson Dorothea Orem Sister Calixta Roy Madeline Leninger Joyce Travelbee Imogene King Hildegard Peplau Martha Rohers Myrna Levine Lydioa Hall Philippine Nurses Association PRC Board of Nursing

C. Health Care Delivery System C.1. Levels of Prevention Primary Prevention Secondary Prevention Tertiary Prevention C.2. Five Stages of Illness By Suchman Symptom experience Assumption of sick role Medical care contrast Dependent client role Recovery or Rehabilitation C.3. The Nursing Process

Assessment Planning Intervention or Interaction Evaluation C.4. Physical Assessment Inspection Palpation Percussion Auscultation C.5. Head to Toe Assessment Skin Head Eyes Ears Neck Mouth Pharynx Thorax and Lungs Heart sounds Peripheral vascular system Breast Abdomen Neurologic test Musculo-Skeletal system Motor functions Anus Urethra Rectum C.6. Communication Phases of Client relationship Factors influencing Communication Phases of Nurse- Client relationship o Pre-interaction o Introduction o Action or working o Termination C.7. Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Physiologic Safety and Security Love and Belongingness Self-esteem SelfActualization C.8. Fluids and Electrolyte Balance C.9. Care of the Patients with Pain C.10. Respiratory Functions C.11. Tube Feeding C.12. Urinary Elimination C.13. Fecal Elimination C.14. Body Pressure Areas C.15. Pre Operative Asepsis

C.16. Infection C.17. C.18. C.19. C.20. C.21. C.22. Practice

Post operative Control of Diets Medical Asepsis Surgical Asepsis Therapeutic Procedures Oxygen Therapy Chest Physiotherapy Pulmonary Function Test Suctioning Thoracentesis Endotracheal Tube Incentive Spirometry Visualization Procedures related to Oxygenation Tracheostomy care Elimination Urinary Catheterization Catheter Irrigation Catheter change Intermittent Catheterization Closed Intermittent Irrigation Bladder Training Ostomy care Enema Hemodialysis Peritoneal Dialysis Dressings Bandaging Medications 10 Rights for Drug Administration Converting weights and measures among systems Calculating Dosages Common Abbreviations used in Medication orders Methods of Administration of Medicines Scientific Basis for Nursing

C.25. Nutrition and Therapeutic Functions of food to Human Body Classification of Food Groups o Carbohydrate o Fat o Proteins o Vitamins o Minerals Therapeutic Diets Acid Ash diet Alkaline Ash Diet Bland Diet BRAT Diet Butter Ball Diet Clear Liquid Diet Full Liquid Diet Diabetic Diet Gluten Free Diet High Fiber Diet High Protein Diet Low Carbohydrate Diet Low Residue Diet Purine Restricted Diet Sodium Restricted Diet Soft Diet Sippy Diet Ketogenic Diet Non Irritating Diet Sleep and Rest Therapeutic Procedures Chart and Charting Pain Relief and Measure Grief and Loss Death

C.26.

C.27. C.28. C.29. C.30. C.31. C.32.

Vital signs- Normal and abnormal o Temperature o Pulse o Respiration o Blood pressure C.23. Mobility and Immobility C.24. Therapeutic Positions Dorsal Dorsal Recumbent Prone Supine Trendelenburg Fowlers Sims Lithotomy Knee Chest

PART II- Clinical or Practical Aspects A. Hospital and Housekeeping B. Care of room and Bed unit C. Daily care and procedures Kinds of Bath o Sponge bath o Cleansing bath o Tipid Sponge bath o Hot bath o Cold bath o Sitz bath o Alcohol bath o Compress Bathing Procedures D. Preparation of Patients Mouth care Care of Dentures Care of the hair Bed shampoo Care of the nails Care of the back

Evening care Morning care Serving Bedpans Measures Changing Patients Gown Turning mattress, pillow with patient on bed Moving patients upward and downward Turning patient side to side Positioning for Physical Examination F. Routine Procedures T.P.R. Taking blood pressure Feeding Helpless patient Collecting specimens Catheterization: Asepsis o Kind of Catheter o Preparation of Patient Enema o Kinds of Enema o Purpose of enema o Solutions for enema o Distance, time and length o Precautions Irrigations o Ear o Nose o Vagina o Colon o Eye o Throat o Preparation of solution to be used o Position of patient o Precautions Oxygen Therapy o Tank o Balloon o Precautions Admission Procedures Discharge of Patient G. Therapeutic Procedures for Oxygenation Oxygen Therapy Pulmonary Function Test Chest Physiotherapy Endotracheal tube Tracheostomy care Topics to be Reviewed: E. Comfort

Suctioning Thoracentesis Incentive spirometry H. Elimination Procedures Enema Urinary Catheterization Ostomy care Catheter change Bladder training Catheter irrigation Intermittent self catheterization Closed Intermittent Irrigation Hemodialysis Peritoneal dialysis Kidney dialysis I. Rehabilitation Self Help and mobility Exercises Manual Therapy Electrical Therapy Medication Therapy Nutritional Therapy Sleep Therapy J. Comfort and Pain K. Grief and Loss L. Death and Dying

Professional Adjustment
A. Terminologies Nursing Profession Professional Nursing Professional Adjustment Professional Ethics Nursing Jurisprudence D. Qualifying for Nurse Examination QualificationRecords for Evidence Subjects for Examination Ratings- pass and failure Oath Taking PRC Registration Certificate PRC Registration I.D. Renewal for Registration I.D. E. Qualifying for Nurse Practice By ExaminationQualifications, Ratings By ReciprocityDefinition, example

Nursing Legislation Nursing Ethics B. Law- Definition Kinds of Law and its classification Purpose of Law COURT and Justice Service Process Summon Subpoena Subpoena Duces Tecum Right Legal Right Remedies C. Practice of Nursing In the government Public health Rural health Government Hospitals Periculture Center Clinics C.1. Classification of Nurse in General According to Field of Nursingexample According to Type of Duty- example According to Professional Status- example According to Position Head- example By Missionary workPermit from DOH, PNA, Board of Nursing Example: o MissionariesPriest, nuns, lay ministers o Volunteers o Peace Corps F. Characteristics of Nursing Profession Autonomy, Authority, Accountability and Altruism- give examples Scope of Professional Nursing Qualification of a nurse to practice Midwifery

Scope of Midwifery practice Scope of Medical Practice by a Nurse Nurses and Intravenous Therapy Private Duty Nursing Practical Nursing Registered Nurses qualifying for Registered Midwife G. Nurse and Contract Definition of Contract Importance of Contract Kinds of Contract Essentials or Element of a Contract Null and Void Contracts H. Nurses and Wills Definition of Wills Kinds of Wills J. Legal Responsibilities Admission of Patients Operation of Patients Discharge of patients Professional Negligence Doctrines - Respondeat Suprerior - Res Ipsa Loquitur - Force Majeure Nurse and carrying Doctors Order Charting and Recording Nurses and Taxes K. Board Examiner for Nurses Organization and Composition Qualifications of Board Examinees Tenure of Office Powers Duties and Functions Causes for Revocation and Suspension of

Requirements of a Valid will Qualification of a Testator Null and Void wills Nurses and Criminal Liabilities Classification of Felonies Persons Criminally Liable Circumstances affecting Criminal Liabilities Crimes involving Nurses o Feticide o Infanticide o Homicide o Parricide o Suicide o Illegal Detention o Simulation of Births o Criminal NegligenceSomera Case o Narcotics

Nurses and Citizenship Nursing Organizations Nursing Law Presidential Decrees Fundamental Responsibilities of Nurses Code of Ethics for Nurses Bill of Rights of Patient Nightingale Pledge Nurses Oath Board of Nursing Appointees PNA Officers Registration Certificate Reissuance of Revoked Certificate L. Philippine Nurses Association Founded Date Founder- Name Objectives

Number f Board of Directors Departments of PNA Membership Chapters of PNA I.1. International Council of Nurses (I.C.N) Founded Objectives M Terminologies- in Jurisprudence N. People in Nursing History O. Current Trends and Issues in Nursing P. R.A.- Nursing Laws Q. P.D.- Presidential Decrees R. Nursing Organizations

Research Topics to be reviewed: - Quantitative Research - Qualitative Research - Research Utilization Sample, variables in Research Study Processes used in research Statistics in Research writing Evaluations used in Research Measurements in Research Kinds of Research Research Problem Steps in Research writing

Qualities of a Researcher Format of a Research Terminologies Theory Model Concepts Paradigm Hypothesis Variable Validity Sampling Statistics Framework Ratio Methodology Design in Research Literature in Research

Research Design and Methodology Purpose of Research Characteristics of Research

Management Topics to be reviewed: A. Definition of Management Goals of Management Kinds of Management Theories Qualities of a Good Manager B. Nursing Management Planning- Purpose, Phases OrganizationFunctions, types StaffingDeterminants, types Directing- Dieting, Authority Controllingchecking, activities conforms to plan Leadership Topics to be reviewed: A. Definition Leader Leadership Kinds of Leadership or Leadership style Qualities of a Good Leader Goals of Leadership

OBSTETRICAL NURSING (MATERNITY NURSING)


Topics to be reviewed: A. Objectives of Maternal or Obstetrical care B. Anatomy and Physiology of Female External and Internal Reproductive System B.1. Female External Reproductive Organs Mons Veneris Labia Majora Labia Minora Clitoris Hymen Vestibule Vagina OrificeSuperior Introitus Perineum B.2. Internal Reproductive Organs Uterus Ovaries Fallopian tubes Vaginal passage Include its structure, shapes or parts, functions B.3. Female Pelvis Normal measurements Parts of the Female Pelvis Division of the Female Pelvis Kinds of Types of Pelvis Functions of the Pelvis C. Menstruation Definition

Factors affecting Menstruation Phases or stages of Menstruation Menstrual cycle Hormones or Enzymes Triggering Menstruation or Regulating Menstruation Signs of nearing menstruation D. Fertilization Definition Organ involved Duration E. Implantation Organ involved Duration Decidua Placenta Fetal membrane Umbilical cord Amniotic Fluid F. Fetal Development First Trimester Second Trimester Third Trimester G. Local changes in Pregnancy Uterus Vagina Abdominal wall Skin pigmentation Breast Ovaries H. Signs of Pregnancy Presumptive signs Probable signs Positive signs Braxton- hicks sign Chadwicks sign Heager signs Goodell sign I. General changes in Pregnancy T.P.R. Blood Pressure Circulatory changes Respiratory changes Urinary changes Endocrine changes Gastrointestinal changes Weight Emotional changes J. Prenatal Care Definition of Antepartal and Antenatal care

J.1. Prenatal Data History Personal Data Obstetrical Data Medical Data Frequency of visits J.2. Assessment Physical Examination Vital signs Pelvic Measurements Blood test Urine test E.D.C. Naegeles Rule Bartholomews rule Mc Donalds rule Areys rule J.3. Fetal Development J.4. Dietary Requirements Foods avoided Food recommended Activities- avoided and recommended K. Minor Discomforts in Pregnancy Nausea and vomiting Heartburn Flatulence Constipation Cramps Edema Leukorrhea Pruritus Included is its nursing care management L. Major complications in Pregnancy L.1. Hemorrhage Abortion Miscarriage Prematurity Ectopic Pregnancy Hydaditiform mole Placenta previa Abruption Placenta L.2. Toxomias and P.I.H. Hyperemesis Gravidarum Pre- eclampsia Eclampsia L.3. Disease in Pregnancy Pregnancy anemia Heart trouble Respiratory disease Goiter

Diabetes Include its sign and symptoms, nursing care and management M. Danger Signs in Pregnancy Visual disturbanceblurring, double visions and spots Swelling of the fingers Severe, frequent, continuous headache Muscular irritability or convulsion Epigastric pain Persistent vomiting or severe vomiting beyond 1st trimester Fluid discharge from vagina- bleeding or amniotic fluid Signs of infectionchills, fever, burning on urination Difficulty- painful urination Unusual severe abdominal pain Decreasing fetal movement Absence of Fetal movement Fainting Difficulty of breathing Mental disorders N. Vitamins Vitamin A- 5,000 I.U daily- prevents xeropthalmia Vitamin B1Thiamine- 1.5. mg. daily- prevents Beriberi and gives energy to muscles Vitamin B6Pyridoxine- 2.5. mg/day- helps serum levels Vitamin B2Riboflavin- 1.4 mg/daily- energy caloric intake Vitamin B12Cobalamin- 4 mg.- if lacking causes changes on serum level

Vitamin C- Ascorbic Acid- 80 mg. daily Vitamin D- Positive Calcium Balance400-600 I.U.- for calcium balance Vitamin ETocopherol- 10 mg.daily- for maternal fertility and fetal blood O. Mental Hygiene in Pregnancy Dick read method Lamaze method P. Definition Habitus or Lie Station Presentation Head Breec Me Transverse h ntu m Occipu Sacru Fac Scapula t m, e Feet Position - LOA, LOP, LOT, ROA, ROP, ROT - LSA, LSP, LST, RSA, RSP, RST - LMA, LMP, LMT, RMA, RMP, RMT - LScA, LScP, RScA, RScP Leopolds Maneuver1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th maneuvers Q. Leopolds Maneuver Theories of Labor Mechanism of Labor True Labor vs. False Labor signs Stages of Labor - 1st Dilatation Stage - 2nd Expulsion Stage - 3rd Placental Stage - 4th Post Delivery Stage - Include is their duration, signs and symptoms, nursing care and management for each stage R. Delivery Techniques Ritgens ManeuverDelivery Technique Credes ManeuverPlacental Technique S. Signs of Placental separation T. Placental Separation

Schultz Mechanism Duncan Mechanism U. Abnormal Conditions in Pregnancy Labor and Delivery Atony Over pregnancy or overmaturiy Precipitate delivery Multiple pregnancy Prolapse cord Prolapze uterus Inversion of uterus Includes causes of signs and symptoms, complications and nursing care management U.1. Postpartal Care Bleeding or lochia Care of the breast Personal hygiene Diet Exercise Rest and sleep Mother check up Baby check up Vital signs Voiding B.M. Ambulation U.2. Postpartum Complication Bleeding, lacerations, episiotomy Retention of placenta Includes sign and symptoms and its nursing care and management Mastitis V. Family Planning Objectives Contraceptive methods Contraindications of Family Planning Methods Role of Nurses W. Gynecology Gynecologic positions Gynecologic procedures Menstrual defects or disorders Gynecologic operations

Gynecologic test Papanicolau or Pap smear test Rubins test or Tubal Insufflations Hubners test or Sperm test Schillers Test or Iodine test

PEDIATRIC NURSING
Topics to be reviewed: A. The Newborn A.1. Physical Characteristic of a Newborn Length and weight TPR Skin Head Chest Muscles Respiratory systemAPGAR score Circulatory System Gastrointestinal system Nervous system Senses Sleep B. Care of the Newborn Care of the eyes Care of the skin Care of the Umbilical cord Maintenance of Respiration and Temperature Breast feeding Bottle feeding Prevention of Infection C. Premature Infant Characteristics Care and Treatment

Temperature Clothing Feeding Oxygenation Handling Urination and BM and Development Characteristics of Growth and Development D.1. Patterns in Groth and Development Stages of Growth and Development Norms of Growth Growth Patterns D.2. Factors in Growth and Development Heredity Racial Sex Environment D.3. Types of Growth and Development Physical Growth Mental Development Emotional Development Social Development Parental attitudes towards Growth and Development E. Illness- sick child Response of child to illness Care of the sick child Anatomic Difference Physiologic difference Psycho logic difference Growth factor Disease peculiar to certain Age group F. Growth and Development Traits Infant Toddler Pre school child School child Puberty child Adolescent child Included is their personality traits, development, problems, nutrition, play, mental development and school activities D. Growth

G. Congenital Diseases and Birth Injuries Erythroblastosis Fetalis or Hemolytic Disease of the New born Cleft Palate Nasopharyngeal Anomaly Tracheoesophageal Anomaly Imperforated Anus Mega colonHirschsprung Disease Hernia Pyloric Stenosis Tetralogy of Fallot Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) Atrial Spetal Defect (ASD) Spina Bifida Hydrocephalus Club foot Phenylketonuria (PKU) Galactosemia Hypothyroidism Intussusception S.I.D.S Hemphilia Mental Deficiency Epilepsy Cryptoorchidism Rheumatic fever Diabetes Included is their definition, causes or etiology, signs and symptoms, complications and nursing care management. H. Infection in Children Definition, cause or etiology, signs and symptoms, complication, nursing care management and treatment is included Cough Bronchitis Bronchiolitis ]Pneumonia Emphysema Emphyema

Meningitis Otitis media Encephalitis Tonsillitis U.T.I. Opthalmia neonatarum Sepsis neonatarum Thush or oral moniliasis Syphilis Impetigo Scabies Pediculosis Appendicitis Pharyngitis Laryngitis Measles Chicken pox Diptheria Poliomylitis I. Accidents Fall or fracture Burns Poisoning Foreign bodies Drowning Bites Swallowing objects Included are their first aid remedy, nursing care management and treatment J. New Growth Wilms Tumor Kawasaki Disease Cancer Tumor Nodules Lumps Included are their signs and symptoms, nursing care management and treatment K. Nutrition, Feeding Infants Kinds of feeding Kinds of milk and use L. Play, toys and socialization Importance of play Types of play Criteria or suitability of toys Selection of play materials M. Special Problems Thumb sucking

Bed wetting Masturbation Destructiveness Phobias Alcohol addiction Autism Nail biting Temper tantrum Stuttering Sex problems Obesity

COMMUNICABLE DISEASE NURSING


Topics to be reviewed: A. Terminology Communicable Infectious Epidemiology Contamination Colonization Contagious Isolation Anti bodies Host Bacteria Virus Agent Transmission Pathologic Reservoir Vector Antigens Epidemic Pandemic

Endemic Carrier Detergent Antiseptic Disinfectant Disinfection Immunization B. Communicable Disease Types of C.D. Patterns of a Disease Types of host Chain of Infection - Reservoir - Portal of exit Transmissions - Direct - Indirect Stages of Infection Stages of Diseases Stages of Defense B.1. Infectious Agents Bacteria - Cocci - Baccili - Spirochette Virus Protozoa Rickettsia Fungi C. Classification of Virus RNA- Ribonucleic acid- tissue being attacked; small to large in size DNADeoxyribonucleic Acid- whether the nucleic acid that forms the core of the virus is DNA. D. Protozoa One celled organism of the animal kingdom. Ex: plasmodium malaria, Entamoeba hepatolica or Amoebic Dysentery E. Rickettsiae Round or rod shape transmitted by bites of lice, fleas and mites causing Rocky Mountain Fever, Typhus from rodent and insects. F. Fungi

Small organism of the plant kingdom. Ex: yeast and molds. They thrive in warm, moist and dirty place. In human they are called mycoses. F.1. Three Types System or Deep Mycoses involving internal organs. Ex: lungs Subcutaneous mycoses deep layer of the skin and bones Superficial or Cutaneous mycoses in outer layer of skin, hair and nails. Long and hard period to cure. G. Disease produced by Specific Organism
Bacteria Brucellosis Chancroid Cholera Virus Chicke n pox Commo n cold Diarrhe a of newbor n Enceph alitis Germa n measle s Infecti ous hepatit is Herpes zoster Influen za Measle s Mumps Poliom yelitis Psittac osis Rabies Small pox Yellow Fever Helm inths Ascar iasis Filari asis Hook worm Pinw orm Schiz toso miasi s Tape worm Trich uris Proto zoa
Amebic Dysent ery Malaria Trichin oma Vagina lis

Fungi Candidi asis Monilia vaginitis Ringwor m Thrush

Diarrhea Gangrene

Gonorrhea

Plague Peumonia Scarlet fever Pertussis Syphilis Tetanus Typhoid Yaws Rickettsia pox Rocky mountain spotted fever

Definition, cause,

sign and symptoms, complications, nursing care

management and medication included H. Immunity Natural- active or passive Acquired Artificial- active or passive Treatment modalities G. Communicable Disease G.1. Central Nervous System Tetanus Rabies Meningitis Meningococcemia Poliomyelitis Herpes Zoster Measles German measles Scarlet fever Chicken pox Pediculosos Definition, cause, signs and symptoms, nursing care management and treatment should be included. G.2. Circulatory System Malaria Dengue- Grade I, II, III Filiariasis Leptospirosis Kawasaki- 1st, 2nd, 3rd phase Definition, cause, signs and symptoms, nursing care management and treatment should be included. G.3. Respiratory Disease Diptheria- Laryngeal and Pharyngeal Pertussis Tuberculosis Pneumonia- Lobar, Bronchial Avian bird flu Influenza Mumps Definition, cause, signs and symptoms, nursing care management G.4.

G.5. Disease Genital HerpesHSV-2 Chlamydia Trachomatis Gonorrhea AIDS/ H.I.V Syphilis Genital warts Definition, cause, signs and symptoms, nursing care management and treatment should be included. G.6. Community Resources Barrio, Municipality, Towns, Cities, Department of Health

and treatment should be included. Gastrointestinal Helminths- skin, feet and mouth Pinworm- seat worm Ascariasis- round worm Trichuriasis- whip worm FlatwormParagonimiasis Schistosomiasis Hepatitis A,B,C,D,E Typhoid Cholera Definition, cause, signs and symptoms, nursing care management and treatment should be included. Sexually Transmitted

COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING


Topics to be reviewed: A. Basic Concepts of Community Health Nursing Goals of Community Health Nursing Philosophy of Community Health Nursing Concepts of Community Nursing Principles of Community Health Nursing Health Principles Factors affecting Health Principles Health Care Delivery System Essential Health Care Services Local Government CodeDecentralization Family and its major functions Population Groups Community and its functions Categories of Health Problems Five folds mission of Community Health Nursing Duties and Responsibilities of: - Community Health Nurse - Rural Health Midwife Department of Health Basic Principles B. Primary Health Care Goals Services Health Care Workers Health Programs

Health Activities Health Campaigns Reproductive Health Family Planning Contraceptive Methods Primary Health Care Components and its elements Primary Health Care Cornerstone or Pillars Primary Health Workers Rooming-in Breastfeeding- R.A. 7600 Advantages of Breastfeeding vs. Bottle feeding Alternative Therapies Herbal Medication AcupressureIndication and its Precautions AcupunctureIndication and its Precautions Milk Code Extended Program on Immunization Nutritional Guidelines Vitamins Minerals Aroma Therapy Alternative Health Care Public Health Programs Health Activities C. Community Nursing Clinic Visit Home visit Frequency of Home Visit Priorities for Home visit Public Health Nurse Preparation Bag TechniquePrinciples Contents of Bag Medicines Ready for Use Teachings in Home visits Ligtas Buntis 2005 Campaign

Goals and Priorities Reproductive Health Goals and its Framework Sick Infants Newborn Special: Milk Formula Contraindications of Rooming- In Ligtas Tigdas- 2004 Tuberculosis Rabies Exposure Leprosy Control Program Diarrheal Disease Sentrong Sigla Movement D. Department of Health Family PlanningContraceptive Method Expanded Program on Immunization G.M.A.- 50%- SONA Pledge Stop T.B.- D.O.T.S CARI- Control of Acute Respiratory Infection IMCI- Integrated Management of Childhood Illness C.D.D- Control of Diarrheal Disease Kilatis Kutis Program- Leprosy Control Program Schistosomiasis Control Program Leprosy Control Program Malaria Control Program HIV/ AIDS Prevention Program Sentrong Sigla Movement Dental Health Program Environmental Santation Proper Excreta and Sewage Disposal Program Community Resources in Wellness and Sickness - Barrios - Municipalities -

Towns Cities Provinces Department of Health

MENTAL HEALTH AND PSYCHIATRIC NURSING


Topics to be reviewed: A. Definition of Terms Mental Health Mental Hygiene Psychiatry Psychology Psychoanalysis Psychodynamics Psychosis Psyche Psychobiologic Mentality

B. Psychodynamics of Personality Development Structure of Personality Behavioral Symptoms and their meaning Behavior Influences, Manifestation and Meaning Mental Mechanics Creating Therapeutic Environment Patients physical and spiritual needs Psychotherapy Tranquilizers and Anti-Depressant Drugs Shock Therapies C. Mental Disorders Classification of Mental Disorders Etiology of Mental Disorders Drug Addiction Alcoholism Convulsive Disorders Acute and Chronic Brain Disorders Mental Deficiency Psychotic Reactions (Involutional) Schizophrenic Reaction Paranoid Reaction Psychosomatic Disorders or Psychoneurotic Disorders Personality Disorders Psychosis differ from neurosis D. Communication Skills Creating a Therapeutic Environment Interpersonal Relations in meeting emotional needs Patients Spiritual Needs Patients Physical Needs

E. Defense -

Communication for Children or Mentally Handicap Disturbance in speech Nurse Patient Relationship Techniques of Communication Criteria of successful communication Disturbance of Vocal- oral expression Problems in communication Techniques of Communication Mechanism Treatment modalities Theories of Personality Development Freuds Psychosexual Theory Eriksons Psychosocial Theory Pagets Cognitive Theory Biological Therapy Psychopharmalogica l Agents Anti psychotics Anti manic Anti convulsive Anti depressants Anti cholinergic Anti anxiety Disturbances in Perception Disturbances of Affect Disturbances of Motor Activities Disturbances in Memory Types of Psychotherapy Remotivation Therapy Music Therapy Play therapy Group Therapy Mileu Therapy Family Therapy Psychoanalytic Therapy Behavior Therapy

Cognitive Therapy Structured Therapy Humor Therapy Activity Therapy Specific Disorders Neurosis Psychosis Axis for Mental Disorders IV - Axis I - Axis II - Axis III - Axis IV Crisis and Crisis Intervention Phases of Crisis Rape Trauma Syndrome Battered Wife Syndrome Battered Children Child Abuse Mood Disorders or ADHD Suicide Elderly Conditions - Delirium - Disorientation - Alzheimers - Forgetfulness - Hearing Defects - Sight Defects Substance abuse Substance dependence Alcohol-Drugs Withdrawal signs and symptoms F. Medications- Action to Body and Right Dose Analgesics Anesthesia Sedatives Barbiturates Hypnotics Stimulants Depressants G. Nursing Care for all of this Conditions H. Management and Treatment

MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING


Topics to be reviewed: A. The Central Nervous System A.1. Anatomy and Physiology Frontal Lobe Parietal Lobe Temporal Lobe Occipital Lobe Cerebrum Cerebellum And its functions A.2. Cranial Nerves Olfactory Optic Trigeminal Facial Acoustic Gloss pharyngeal Vagus Accessory Hypoglossal Spinal A.3. Autonomic Nervous System Heart G.I. Tract Rectum Bladder Ejaculation Pupil of the Eye Salivary gland Blood vessels And its functions B. Disease Producing Factors Mechanical factors Chemical factors Genetic factors Infection factors Then set some examples C. Protective Organs of the Body Defensive cells Immunologic factors- Active or Passive Types of Immune Response

Humural- Anti bodies Cellular- Antigens Disorder of the Immune System HypersensitivityAllergy Signs of Local Inflammation Repair and Healing Factors necessary for wound healing Methods of Sterilization Antiseptics Disinfectants Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Causes of Fluid Imbalance Acidosis Alkalosis

D. The Nursing Process D.1. Example of application of the Nursing Process: Prevention of Dehydration D.2. Problem- Prevent Dehydration D.3. Assessment Patients age Medical Diagnosis Physical strength Nutritional status Mental status Patients understanding about importance of adequate fluid intake Preference for kinds of liquids Interaction of care plan D.4. Intervention Offer juice, water or other liquids every 2 hours day and night Measure fluid intake Measure output Offer ice water or fresh tap water according to patients preference Explain need for fluids D.5. Evaluation Condition of skin

Condition of mucous membrane Amount if intake for each 8 hour period Amount of output for each 8 hour period Concentration of urine Thirst of patient Vital signs every hour Note patient condition: weak, lethargic, sleepy etc. Note mental awareness E. Signs of Dehydration F. Nausea and Vomiting- its Nursing care and Management G. Fluid Imbalance Water Sodium Potassium Calcium Magnesium Chloride Phosphate Bicarbonate Include its treatment, functions, effect and the best sources H. Intravenous Therapy Isotonic Solution Hypertonic Solution Hypotonic Solution I. Common Solutions used for I.V. Therapy Normal Saline 0.9% Dextrose or glucose solution Lactated Ringers Solution I.1. Principles that affect rate of flow I.2. Possible Complications of I.V. Therapy Air embolismcauses and symptoms Circulatory Overload- causes and symptoms Nerve damagecauses and symptoms Phlebitis- causes and symptoms

Pyogenic reactionscauses and symptoms J. Body Fluid Distribution Intracellular- within the cell Extracellularoutside the cell Interstitial- in tissue spaces Intravascular- within the blood vessels Transcellular- body secretions and excretions K. Diseases or Defects of the Respiratory System Colds Cough Bronchitis Bronchoecstasis Asthma Pneumonia- Lobar, Bronchial, Hypostatic Emphyema Emphysema Laryngitis Pharyngitis Tonsillitis Pleurisy C.O.P.D. Respiratory Acidosis Respiratory Alkalosis Include the definition, causes and etiology, signs and symptoms, complications, nursing care, management and treatment, medications and nutrition L. Surgery- Terminologies Surgical Asepsis Spirometry Pulmonary Function Test Sputum Analysis Blood Gas Analysis Bronchogram Bronchoscopy Tracheostomy Thoracentesis IPPB- Intermittent Positive Pressure Breathing M. Oxygen Administration

Nasal Cannula Oxygen masks Nasal Catheter Oxygen by Tent N. Surgical OperationsRespiratory System Tonsillectomy Laryngectomy Pneumonectomy Tracheostomy Thyroidectomy Lobectomy Include the definition, causes and etiology, signs and symptoms, complications, nursing care, management and treatment, medications and nutrition DISEASES OR DISORDERS OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM O. Disorder of the Blood Cytopenia Polycythemia or Leukemia Hemophilia Disorders of the Spleen Anemia- Kinds of anemia Leukemia- Kinds of Leukemia HemophiliaClassification P. Disorders of the Heart- Kinds Myocardial Infarction Congestive Heart Failure Heart Block Endocarditis Congenital Heart Defects Atherosclerosis Coronary Insufficiency Angina Pectoris Q. Terminologies Electrocardiogram Heart Catheterization Angiocardiogram Echocardiogram Stress Test Monitoring Technique

Include the definition, causes and etiology, signs and symptoms, complications, nursing care, management and treatment, medications and nutrition R. Heart Disease and Disorders Congestive Heart Failure Congenital Heart Failure Mitral Stenosis Atherosclerosis Valvular Disease Buergers Disease Reynauds Disease Arterial embolism Aneurysm Hypertension Include the definition, causes and etiology, signs and symptoms, complications, nursing care, management and treatment, medications and nutrition R.1. Classifications Myocarditis Endocarditis Pericarditis Rheumatic Heart Disease Include the definition, causes and etiology, signs and symptoms, complications, nursing care, management and treatment, medications and nutrition R.2. Types of Congenital Heart Disease Ventricular Septic Defect Overiding of the Aorta Pulmonary Stenosis Enlarged Right Ventricle R.3. Blue Baby or Tetralogy of the Fallot

Common Therapies Diuretics Anti coagulant Vasodilators Anti arrhythmic Cardiotonics Example of Drugs, dosage and mode of administration S. Anesthetics Choice of Anesthesia General Anesthesia Inhalation Anesthesia Intravenous Anesthesia Rectal Anesthesia Conduction or Regional Anesthesia Topical Anesthesia Infiltration Anesthesia Spinal Anesthesia Induced Hypothermia General Hypothermia Include mode of administration, effects, medication use, dosage, signs and symptoms of its effects, nursing care and management T. Positioning Patient for Operation Supine Prone Trendelenburg Reverse Trendelenburg Lithotomy Fowlers Knee Chest Jack Knife Sims Dorsal Recumbent Suitability for kin of operations U. Cardiovascular Surgery and Procedure Cardiac Catheterization Electrocardiogram Pacemaker Venous pressure Angiocardiogram Cardiac Monitoring -

V. E.E.N.T. Conditions

Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation Angiography Arteriography Cardiac Massage Plaster casts Plastic Surgery Splints Sympathectomy Cardiac Endarterectomy Disease or

DISEASE AND DISORDER OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM A. Terminologies Hematemesis Melena Alimentary Tract Digestion Metabolism Peristalsis Absorption Dysphagia SGOT SGPT LDH B. Examinations Radiologic X-ray Gastroscopy Esophagoscopy Proctoscopy Sigmoidoscopy Gastric Analysis Stool Examination Cholecystography C. Diseases Stomatitis Gatritis Gastric Ulcer Duodenal Ulcer Peptic ulcer Cholecystitis Cholelithiasis Pancreatitis Hepatitis Peritonitis Hernia Abdominal Hemorrhoids Cirrhosis of the Liver Panmcreatitis Diarrhea Pyloric Stenosis Diverticulitis Appendicitis Dysentery Cholera Typhoid fever Intestinal Obstruction Cancer of: - Esophagus - Stomach - Small Intestine - Large Intestine - Colon Include the definition, causes and etiology, signs and symptoms, complications,

Cataract Glaucoma Retinal Detachment Foreign Bodies Infections Injuries Tumors Include the definition, causes and etiology, signs and symptoms, complications, nursing care, management and treatment, medications and nutrition W. Immediate Postoperative Nursing Care Recovery room care and attention Pulmonary VentilationRespiration Maintenance of Circulation Prevention of Shock Protection from Injury Reaction from anesthesia Pulse normal rate Temperature Frequent Inspection for Bleeding W.1. Complications and their Prevention Hemorrhage Infection Respiratory Complication Circulatory Complication Nursing care and management

nursing care, management and treatment, medications and nutrition D. Surgery- Digestive System Pre operative Procedures Post operative Procedures D.1. OperationsExamination and Tests Gastrectomy Cholycystecomy Hemorrhoidectomy Appendectomy Colectomy Colostomy Esophagectomy Esophagogastrosto my Ileostomy Choledoectomy Barium Enema Endoscopy Anoscopy Proctoscopy Sigmoidoscopy Gastric Analysis Insulin Tolerance Test Exfoliative Cytology Biopsy ( Bowel Mucosa) Stool Examination Intestinal Decompression Esophagial Diverticulus Liver Function Test Radioisotope Scanning Cholangiogram Include the definition, causes and etiology, signs and symptoms, complications, nursing care, management and treatment, medications and nutrition E. Laboratory Test and Procedures Hormone Levels Assay Hormone Levels T3T4

Radioactive Iodine Uptake- RAI Thyroid Scan Fasting Blood Glucose Glucose Tolerance Test Glycosylated Hemoglobin A-IC Clearance Test Phenolsuephthalein Test (PSP) Cystoscopy Hemodialysis F. Endocrine System The Hypothalamus The Pituitary GlandAnterior and Posterior The Thyroid Gland The Parathyroid Gland The Adrenal GlandMedulla and Cortex The Pancreas The Uterus The Ovaries The Testes Include its anatomy and physiology, definition, functions, disorders, laboratory tests, nursing care, management and treatment G. Disease of the Endocrine System G.1. Functions of the Endocrine SystemTerminologies ACTHAdenocorticotropic Hormone. Stimulate the secretions of the glucocorticoids. TSH- Thyroid Stimulating Hormone. Stimulate the secretion of the Thyroid Hormone. GH- Gonadotropic Hormone. Stimulate the secretion of the testicular and ovarian hormone. GSH- Growth Stimulating Hormone. Interact with other hormones

to regulate bodys growth and development ADH- Anti diuretic Hormone. Stimulate blood vessel of intestine and uterus to contract Atrophy- Decrease or failure to secrete hormone. HypertrophyIncrease production or secretion of hormone. HypoplasiaDecrease production or secretion of hormone. Basal Metabolism Protein Bound Iodine Test Blood Cholesterol Test Thyroid Function Test Thyroid Scan Test Hypothyroidismsigns and symptoms Hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis, toxic goiter, Graves Disease, Basedorous Disease. Include its signs and symptoms, nursing care and management. Diabetes- definition, types, nursing care and management. Urine tests Blood Sugar Test Glucose Tolerance Test Addisons Disease Cushings Syndrome Pituitary Gland - HypofunctionAnterior Lobe and Posterior Lobe - HyperfunctionAnterior and Posterior Lobe Osteoporosiscauses, signs and symptoms, nursing care and management

G.2. Surgery of the Endocrine Disease Thyroidectomy Parathyroidectomy Diabetic Amputation Adrenalectomy Resection Hypophysectomy Incluew pre operative and post operative care, diet and medications H. Integumentary System H.1. Skin LayersFunctions of the Skin H.2. Classification of Skin Lesions Macule Papule Pustule Vesicle Blab Excoriation Wheal Include an example, description, definition, signs and symptoms, nursing care and management H.3. Disease of the Skin Herpes Simplex Herpes Zoster Impetigo Contagiosa Scabies Pediculosis Dermatitis- Allergic Eczema Acne Psoriasis Fungal Infection Ringworm Cancer of the Skin Burns Include its definition, causes, symptoms, nursing care management and treatment I. Cancer Definition Causative Factors Diagnosis Method Types of Cancer Signs and Symptoms Preventive and Detection Kinds of Treatment - Chemotherapy

- Surgery - Radiation - Immunotherapy - Drug therapy J. Skeletal (Bone) Disorders Fractures- Kinds Types of Cast - Brace - Traction - Frame - Crutch Sprain Dislocation Amputation Include its nursing care and management K. Excretory- Genitourinary System K.1. Terminologies Hematuria Dysuria Oliguria Polyuria Anuria Urinary Urgency Urinary Retention Renal Failure Dialysis Hyperplasia Hypervolemia K.2. Laboratory Examination Urinalysis Serum Electrolyte BUN Creatinine Level Creatinine Clearance Test Mosenthal Concentration Fishberg Dilution Test Renal Angiography Include its procedure, time needed, specimen and medication. K.3. Diagnostic Examination Radiographic IVP KUB x-ray KUB Ultrasound CT MRI Cystography PSP Cystoscopy

Pyedography Include its definition, purpose, patients preparation and medication K.4. Disease and Disorder of the Urinary System Cystitis Urethritis Nephritis Glumerolonephritis Pyelonephritis Uremia Renal Failure Renal Tumors Hydronephrosis Renal Calculi Neoplasma Wilms Tumor Cancer - Obstructions - Calculi - Blood - Crystal - New growth Hypospadias Epispadias Balanitis Prostitis Include its definition, cause or etiology, signs and symptoms, nursing care management, treatment and medications K.5. Genito- Urinary Surgical Procedures Cystectomy Prostatectomy Nephrostomy Kidney Transplant Ureterostomy Uterosigmoidostomy Colostomy Ileostomy Urostomy Transurethral Resection TURP Colocystoplasty Ileal Conduit Include its definition, pre and post operative procedures, medications, post operative care, medication and positioning

L. Cerebro- Vascular System L.1. Warning Signs of Impending Cerebral Disaster Change in level of consciousness Change in vital signs Change in Limb motion Change in pupil of the eyes Include its signs and symptoms, nursing care, management and medication L.2. Infectious Disease Meningitis Poliomyelitis Guillain- Barre Syndrome L.3. Head Injuries L.4. Cerebral Vascular Accident Include its signs and symptoms, nursing care, management and medication L.5. Causative Factors of Neurologic Disorders Genetic Factors Infectious Agents Mechanical Factors Set examples L.6. Neurologic Examinations Lumbar Puncture Grain Scanning Cistermal Puncture Pneumoencephalogr aphy Mylography Radilogic Studies Ventriculography Radionuclides Arteriography Include its purpose, nursing procedure and nursing responsibilities L.7. Neurologic Problems Immobility Incontinence Bowel Problems Aphasia Coma Seizures Convulsions Increase Intra cranial pressure Include its signs and symptoms, nursing

care, management and medication L.8. Degenerative Disease Multiple Sclerosis Parkinsons Disease Myasthenia Gravis Progressive Muscular Atrophy Include its signs and symptoms, nursing care, management and medication L.9. Vascular Diseases Cerebro Vascular Accident Cerebral Thrombosis Cerebral Hemorrhage Cerebral Atelosclerosis Cerebral Aneurysm Include its signs and symptoms, nursing care, management and medication L.10. Infections of the Nervous System Meningitis Encephalitis Poliomyelitis Infectious Polyneuritis or Guillan Barre Syndrome Neurosyphillis Include its signs and symptoms, nursing care, management and medication L.11. Surgical OperationsCentral Nervous System Craniotomy Laminectomy Include its definition, purpose, nursing care, management and medication L.12. Special Examination Kernigs Sign Brudzinkis sign Babinskis sign Rombergs sign Akinesia Include its definition, indication and nursing care L.13. Pre operative Medication Sedatives

Tranquilizer Drying Agents Analgesics Types of Anesthesia Inhalation Ether Halothrene Fluothrene Cyclopropane Intravenous Pentothal Sodium or Thiopental - Innovar - Ketamine or Ketalar - Morphine Sulfate Regional - Topical - Butacaine - Tetracaine or Pontocaine - Lidocaine or xylocane - Cocaine Spinal Anesthesia Refrigeration Anesthesia Hypothermia Include its pre operative and post operative care, dosage, mode of administration and assessment L.1.5. Post Operative Nursing Care Vital Signs after Color of the skin, lips, nails and extremities Respiration- normal rate, oxygen needed, patent airway, suctioning, deep breathing. Fluids- IV and blood rate Site of Operation - check dressing - check drainage tubings - note color of drainage - note patients needs - charting- honestly and accurately L.16. Post Operative Complications Shock Syncope Apnea L.14. -

Dyspnea Hemorrhage Infection Include causes, signs and symptoms, immediate remedial measures, nursing care, positioning, management and treatment L.17. Types or Kinds of Paralysis Paraplegia Hemiplegia Quadriplehia Flaccid Paralysis Spastic Paralysis Include definition, causes, signs and symptoms, nursing care, management and treatment