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Following is a list of antibiotics, sorted by class. The highest division is between bactericidal antibiotics and bacteriostatic antibiotics.

Bactericidals kill bacteria directly where bacteriostatics prevent them from dividing. However, these classifications are based on laboratory behavior; in practice, both of these are capable of ending a bacterial infection. Antibiotics by class Brand Common Mechanism Possible side effects[2] names uses[2] of action Aminoglycosides Amikin Binding to the bacterial 30S Garamycin ribosomal Kantrex subunit (some Mycifradin Infections work by Netromycin caused by binding to the Nebcin Gram-negative 50S subunit), bacteria, such as inhibiting the Escherichia coli translocation Hearing loss and Klebsiella of the Vertigo particularly peptidylPseudomonas tRNA from aeruginosa. the A-site to Kidney Effective the P-site and damage against Aerobic also causing Humatin bacteria (not misreading of obligate/facultat mRNA, ive anaerobes) leaving the and tularemia. bacterium unable to synthesize proteins vital to its growth. Ansamycins Experimental, as antitumor antibiotics Carbacephem prevents bacterial cell division by Lorabid Discontinued inhibiting cell wall synthesis.

Generic name Amikacin Gentamicin Kanamycin Neomycin Netilmicin Tobramycin


Geldanamycin Herbimycin


Ertapenem Invanz Doripenem Doribax Imipenem/Cilastatin Primaxin


Cefadroxil Cefazolin Cefalotin or Cefalothin


Carbapenems Bactericidal for both Gram Gastrointestina positive and l upset and Gram-negative diarrhea organisms and Nausea therefore useful Seizures for empiric Headache broad-spectrum Merrem antibacterial Rash and coverage. (Note allergic MRSA reactions resistance to this class.) Cephalosporins (First generation) Duricef Gastrointestina Ancef l upset and Keflin diarrhea Good coverage Nausea (if against Gram alcohol taken positive concurrently) infections. Keflex Allergic reactions Cephalosporins (Second generation) Ceclor Gastrointestina Mandol l upset and Mefoxin diarrhea Cefzil Less gram Nausea (if positive cover, alcohol taken improved gram concurrently) negative cover. Ceftin, Zinnat Allergic reactions Cephalosporins (Third generation) Suprax Improved Gastrointestina coverage of l upset and Omnicef, Gram negative diarrhea Cefdiel organisms, Nausea (if Spectracef except alcohol taken Cefobid Pseudomonas. concurrently) Claforan

Inhibition of cell wall synthesis

Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of

Cefaclor Cefamandole Cefoxitin Cefprozil


Cefixime Cefdinir Cefditoren Cefoperazone Cefotaxime

Cefpodoxime Ceftazidime Ceftibuten Ceftizoxime Ceftriaxone

Vantin Fortaz Cedax Reduced Gram Cefizox positive cover. Allergic Rocephin reactions Cephalosporins (Fourth generation)

the peptidoglycan layer of



Teicoplanin Vancomycin Telavancin Clindamycin


Same mode of Gastrointestina action as other l upset and beta-lactam diarrhea antibiotics: Nausea (if Covers disrupt the alcohol taken synthesis of Maxipime pseudomonal concurrently) the infections. peptidoglycan layer of Allergic bacterial cell reactions walls. Cephalosporins (Fifth generation) Same mode of Gastrointestina action as other l upset and beta-lactam diarrhea antibiotics: Nausea (if disrupt the Used to treat alcohol taken synthesis of Zeftera MRSA concurrently) the peptidoglycan layer of Allergic bacterial cell reactions walls. Glycopeptides Targocid inhibiting Vancocin peptidoglycan synthesis Vibativ Lincosamides Cleocin Serious staph-, pneumo-, and streptococcal Bind to 50S infections in subunit of Possible C. difficilepenicillinbacterial RNA related allergic patients, thereby pseudomembranous Lincocin also anaerobic inhibiting enterocolitis infections; protein clindamycin synthesis topically for acne

Lipopeptide Bind to the membrane and cause rapid depolarization , resulting in a loss of membrane potential leading to inhibition of protein, DNA and RNA synthesis



Gram-positive organisms

Azithromycin Clarithromycin Dirithromycin Erythromycin Roxithromycin Troleandomycin Telithromycin Spectinomycin

Macrolides Zithromax, Streptococcal Sumamed, infections, Zitrocin syphilis, upper respiratory tract Biaxin infections, Dynabac Erythocin, lower Erythroped respiratory tract infections, mycoplasmal infections, TAO Lyme disease Ketek Trobicin





inhibition of bacterial Nausea, protein vomiting, and biosynthesis diarrhea by binding (especially at reversibly to higher doses) the subunit 50S of the bacterial Jaundice ribosome, thereby Visual Disturbance, inhibiting Pneumonia translocation Liver Toxicity.[3] of peptidyl Gonorrhea tRNA. Monobactams Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls. Nitrofurans Bacterial or protozoal


Amoxicillin Ampicillin Azlocillin Carbenicillin Cloxacillin Dicloxacillin Flucloxacillin Mezlocillin Methicillin Nafcillin Oxacillin Penicillin G Penicillin V Piperacillin Temocillin Ticarcillin

diarrhea or enteritis Macrodantin Urinary tract , Macrobid infections Penicillins Novamox, Amoxil Principen Geocillin Wide range of Tegopen infections; Dynapen penicillin used Floxapen for Mezlin streptococcal Staphcillin infections, Unipen syphilis, and Prostaphlin Lyme disease Pentids Pen-Vee-K Pipracil Negaban Ticar Penicillin combinations

Gastrointestina l upset and diarrhea Allergy with serious anaphylactic reactions

Same mode of action as other beta-lactam antibiotics: disrupt the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer of Brain and kidney damage bacterial cell walls. (rare)

Amoxicillin/clavulan Augmentin ate Ampicillin/sulbactam Unasyn Piperacillin/tazobacta Zosyn m Ticarcillin/clavulanat Timentin e Polypeptides Eye, ear or Kidney and nerve bladder damage (when given infections; by injection) usually applied directly to the eye or inhaled into the lungs; rarely given by injection

The second component prevents bacterial resistance to the first component Inhibits isoprenyl pyrophosphat e, a molecule that carries the building blocks of the peptidoglycan bacterial cell wall outside of the inner membrane [4] Interact with





Polymyxin B

the gram negative bacterial outer membrane and cytoplasmic membrane. It displaces bacterial counter ions, which destabilizes the outer membrane. They act like a detergent against the cytoplasmic membrane, which alters its permeability. Polymyxin B and E are bactericidal even in an isosmotic solution. Quinolones Urinary tract infections, bacterial prostatitis, communityacquired pneumonia, bacterial diarrhea, mycoplasmal infections, gonorrhea Withdrawn Withdrawn Withdrawn Withdrawn

Ciprofloxacin Enoxacin Gatifloxacin Levofloxacin Lomefloxacin Moxifloxacin Nalidixic acid Norfloxacin Ofloxacin Trovafloxacin Grepafloxacin Sparfloxacin Temafloxacin

Cipro, Ciproxin, Ciprobay Penetrex Tequin Levaquin Maxaquin Avelox NegGram Noroxin Floxin, Ocuflox Trovan Raxar Zagam Omniflox

inhibit the bacterial DNA gyrase or the Nausea (rare), topoisomerase irreversible damage to IV enzyme, central nervous system thereby (uncommon), inhibiting tendinosis (rare) DNA replication and transcription.

Sulfonamides Mafenide Sulfamylon Sulfonamidochrysoid Prontosil ine (archaic) Sulamyd, Sulfacetamide Bleph-10 MicroSulfadiazine Sulfon Silver sulfadiazine Silvadene Thiosulfil Sulfamethizole Forte Sulfamethoxazole Gantanol Sulfanilimide (archaic) Sulfasalazine Azulfidine Sulfisoxazole Gantrisin Folate synthesis inhibition. They are competitive inhibitors of the enzyme dihydropteroa te synthetase, DHPS. DHPS Nausea, catalyses the vomiting, and conversion of diarrhea PABA (paraAllergy aminobenzoat (including skin e) to rashes) dihydropteroa Crystals in te, a key step urine in folate Kidney failure synthesis. Decrease in Folate is white blood necessary for cell count the cell to synthesize Sensitivity to nucleic acids sunlight (nucleic acids are essential building blocks of DNA and RNA), and in its absence cells will be unable to divide.

Urinary tract infections (except sulfacetamide, used for eye infections, and mafenide and silver sulfadiazine, used topically for burns)


Proloprim, Trimpex

TrimethoprimSulfamethoxazole (Co-trimoxazole) (TMP-SMX) Demeclocycline Doxycycline Minocycline Oxytetracycline Tetracycline

Bactrim, Septra Tetracyclines Declomycin Syphilis, Vibramycin chlamydial infections, Minocin Terramycin Lyme disease, mycoplasmal Sumycin, infections, acne

Gastrointestina l upset Sensitivity to sunlight Potential toxicity to

inhibiting the binding of aminoacyltRNA to the mRNAribosome

Clofazimine Dapsone Capreomycin Cycloserine Ethambutol Ethionamide Isoniazid Pyrazinamide Rifampicin (Rifampin in US)

Achromycin V, Steclin rickettsial mother and infections, fetus during *malaria *Note: pregnancy Malaria is Enamel caused by a hypoplasia protist and not a (staining of bacterium. teeth; Drugs against mycobacteria Lamprene Antileprotic Avlosulfon Antileprotic Capastat Antituberculosis Antituberculosis Seromycin , urinary tract infections Myambutol Antituberculosis Trecator Antituberculosis

complex. They do so mainly by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit in the mRNA

Inhibits peptide synthesis

I.N.H. Antituberculosis Aldinamide Antituberculosis Binds to the subunit of mostly GramRifadin, Reddish-orange sweat, RNA positive and Rimactane tears, and urine polymerase to mycobacteria inhibit transcription Mycobacterium rash, discolored urine, Mycobutin avium complex GI symptoms Priftin Antituberculosis As other Neurotoxicity, Antituberculosis aminoglycosi ototoxicity des Others Spirochaetal Salvarsan infections (obsolete) Chloromyce meningitis, Rarely: aplastic Inhibits tin MRSA, topical anemia. bacterial use, or for low protein

Rifabutin Rifapentine Streptomycin

Arsphenamine Chloramphenicol

cost internal treatment. Historic: typhus, cholera. gram negative, gram positive, anaerobes Acute cystitis in women

synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosome Inactivates enolpyruvyl transferase, thereby blocking cell wall synthesis



Fusidic acid Linezolid

Fucidin Zyvox

VRSA Produces toxic free radicals which disrupt DNA Infections and proteins. caused by This nonDiscolored urine, anaerobic specific headache, metallic bacteria; also mechanism is taste, nausea ; alcohol amoebiasis, responsible is contraindicated trichomoniasis, for its activity Giardiasis against a variety of bacteria, amoebae, and protozoa. Ointment for impetigo, cream for infected cuts





Platensimycin Quinupristin/Dalfopri Synercid stin Rifaximin Thiamphenicol Xifaxan Traveler's diarrhea caused by E. coli Gram-negative, Lacks known anemic Gram-positive, side-effects. anaerobes. widely used in veterinary medicine.

A chlorampheni col analog. May inhibit bacterial protein

synthesis by binding to the 50S subunit of the ribosome Tigecycline Tinidazole Generic Name Tigacyl Tindamax Fasigyn Brand Names protozoan infections Common Uses[2] upset stomach, bitter taste, and itchiness Possible Side Effects[2]

Mechanism of action