This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
(Cubao, Quezon City)
Submitted by: Group 2 ² ES 11KA3
Leader: Cedrick John S. Blauta
Submitted to: Engr. Ida Z. Ramo
Date Perpormed: July 1, 8, 2011
Date Submitted: July 19, 2011
y Introduction Laboratory operations are the collection of procedures made useful in the conduct of laboratory experiments in chemistry and 0ther natural science courses.I. All laboratory operations have to be done carefully and attentively in order to achieve the desired objectives of the activity. searching for a way to provide clean. safe heat in his . Robert Wilhelm Bunsen was a well known chemist in Germany in the mid 1800·s. Bunsen burner reflects the name of the scientist supervising the laboratory where it was invented. as well as a gas valve and a flue adjuster to control how much air is admitted through small air holes at the base of the tube. y y y Objective Familiarize with the basic laboratory operations. To develop the skill for properly operating the triple beam balance also to light and adjust the Bunsen burner flame To determine the density of an unknown substance y II. Bunsen burner includes a vertical metal tube which is connected to a weighted base. It is a small gas burner with an adjustable flame. The gas mixes with air at the bottom of the tube and then rises to the top of the Bunsen burner. rather than the actual inventor. Bunsen Burner A Bunsen burner is a laboratory device designed to heat substances for various experiments. The base includes a nozzle to connect with a fuel source. Practice the basic laboratory operations. manipulated at the base by controlling the amount of gas and air admitted into the burner. There are a lot of laboratory operations ranging from simple to complicated ones. where it can be lit with a match or lighter.
it means that there is not enough gas pressure and too much air. This burner allowed for greater control over the flame·s height and intensity. small carbon particles are produced when heated to incandescence and produce a yellow luminous flame. As a result. With an insufficient supply of oxygen. vary the amount of air entering the barrel. part where the gas and air mix. If sufficient oxygen is supplied. The combustion product includes carbon dioxide. The combustible gas used to supply the fuel for the Bunsen burner in most laboratories is a natural gas in which natural gas is a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbon. refined invention. burette or pipette. The curve is referred to as the meniscus and in reading . gas burns with a blue. The liquid surface is noticeably curved. producing carbondioxide and water as combustion products. Parts of the Bunsen Burner a) Gas orifice b) Barrel c) Collar d) Air Holes allows the exit of gas into the barrel. controls the size of the flame. Measuring Liquid Volumes A liquid is usually measured by the use of graduated cylinder.laboratory. regulates the flow of air entering the burner. If the flame ´strikes backµ and burns noisily at the base of the burner. non-luminous flame. carbon monoxide and water. Turn-off the gas cock and start again. Peter Desaga. it became popularly known as a Bunsen burner. calling the result a Tirrill burner. One of his laboratory assistant. and it quickly became associated with Bunsen·s laboratory. A flame with ´roaringµ sound means that too much air is entering the burner.
Filtration Filtration is a technique used to isolate solid or impurities from a solution. Heating Liquids When heating a liquid in a test tube. use pipette. Heating other glassware such as a beaker needs a tripod and a wire gauze. pour the liquid down a glass rod to prevent spills. tilt glassware at a 45-degree angle.the liquid volume. then. it is necessary to have the meniscus at the eye level. proper folding of the filter paper must be observed. For small quantities. with the open point of a tube not pointing to a person. slowly move it back and forth from the flame. In gravity filtration. Precipitation Precipitation is defined as the formation of a solid in a solution during the occurrence of a chemical reaction. The former is best in removing impurities from a solution and the latter when collecting a desired solid. Transferring Liquid Volumes In transferring liquid from one container to another. Heat first the upper portion of the tube. . the gravity filtration and vacuum filtration. There are two types of filtration.
Materials Bunsen Burner Iron Stand and Ring (Retort Stand) Evaporating Dish Test Tube with Rack Beaker Triple Beam Balance . First allow the solid to settle at the bottom. Materials and Procedure A. III. then. Evaporation Evaporation is the process of changing liquid to gas or vapor. Heat (energy) is necessary for evaporation to occur. Energy is used to break the bonds that hold solvent molecules together. pour off the liquid.Decantation Decantation is a very quick method used for separating a mixture of a liquid and a heavier solid.
1) Study the parts of the burner.2) Connect the rubber tubing to the gas outlet. 1.3) Unscrew the ring collar to allow the gas to enter. . . 1.4) Hold a lighted match stick above the barrel and open the supply valve.Graduated Cylinder Watch Glass Rectangular Block Funnel Stirring Rod Erlenmeyer Flask Reagent Bottle Test Tube Holder B. Procedure 1) Bunsen Burner 1.5) Observe the flame produced and it·s color with the air with the air holes closed. 1.the flame was yellow and luminous. 1.
measure 2ml of H2O (water).10) Bring test tube T2 to the tip of the inner cone. and T3. 1.the bottom of the dish became black. 1. Do the same for test tubes T3 but hold on the tip of the outer cone. Using a test tube holder.8) Hold again the evaporating dish above the flame and observed if there is any deposited substance at the bottom.the flame became blue and non-luminous. because of the black carbon produced by the flame. Label the test tubes T1. Results TEST TUBE Test Tube 1 Test Tube 2 Test Tube 3 TESTUBE (Seconds) 37 seconds 21 seconds 42 seconds . hold test tube T1 in a 450 angle position from the part of the flame just above the barrel. Record the time. it takes the water to boil. T2. 1.1. . in seconds.6) Using a crucible tong to hold an evaporating dish above the flame and observe the bottom of the dish . Record the time it takes the water to boil. .9) Into each of the three test tubes. 1.7) Open the air holes and observe the flame changes its color.nothing was deposited.
Determine its height in centimeters.Experimental Set-Up 2) Volumetric Measurement Reading Meniscus 2. 2. 8ml and 10ml. .1) In getting the reading of the measured liquid.2) Measure 4ml of H2O (water) using graduated cylinder and transfer into the test tube. For transparent liquid. always read the bottom of the meniscus. 6ml. one must set the eye in horizontal level with the liquid. Repeat with 5ml.
.Results WATER VOLUME 4ml 5ml 6ml 8ml 10ml HEIGHT 25cm 33cm 41cm 49cm 55cm 3) Density Determination Density is one of the physical properties of matter which is the ratio of mass/unit volume.2) Using the graduated cylinder and measure 30ml of H2O (water). Solid Density (Irregular Solid) 3.1) Weigh 10g of clean pebbles enough to be placed in the graduated cylinder. 3. Density = Mass/Volume (D = M/V) M = gram V = ml D = g/ml The triple beam balance is used in the laboratory operations to determine the mass of given samples.
4) Get a rectangular block and determine the weight of the object and also measure its dimension (length and width). Results Weight of the block Length of the block Width of the block 145.7 inches 2.3. Results Weight of the pebbles Volume of water Volume of water with pebbles Volume of pebbles Density of pebbles 10g 30ml 35ml 10ml 1g/ml Calculations Given 10g wt.2g 4.5 inches . of the pebbles 10ml volume of pebbles Formula Solution Answer D = M/V D = 10g/10ml D = 1g/ml Solid Density (Regular Solid) 3.3) Put the pebbles carefully in the graduated cylinder and record the increase in volume.
3.6) Pour 50ml of lead nitrate solution into the beaker. 3.51g/inch3 Calculations Given 145. Results Weight of empty beaker Weight of beaker with lead nitrate Weight of lead nitrate Volume of lead nitrate solution 45.8) Determine the density of lead nitrate solution.5) Weigh an empty 100ml beaker. 3.4g 50ml .3inch3 Answer D =9 .2g/15.6g 98g 52.3 inches 15. of the block 14.2g wt.Height of the block Volume of the block Density of the block 1.275inch3 volume of the block Formula Solution D = 145.7 Determine the weight of the solution by subtracting the weight of empty beaker from the weight of beaker with the lead nitrate solution.5g/inch3 D = M/V Liquid Densirty 3.275 inch3 9.
Density of lead nitrate solution 1.3) Place a funnel in the clay triangle on the iron ring.048g/ml Calculations Given 98g wt. 4.1) Place the iron stand on your working table.4) Moisten the filter paper with water then place the filter paper in the funnel. 4.6.6) Prepare a filter paper.4) Place a beaker on the platform of the iron stand as a receiver. 4.6. 4. of beaker with lead nitrate 50ml volume of lead nitrate solution Formula Solution Answer D = M/V D = 98g/50ml D = 1.2) Fold again through the center. but half of the crease must not coincide with the other half of the crease.1) Fold the filter paper equally in half. then place the clay triangle.6. 4. .6. 4. 4.3) Tear off the corner of the outside fold and open out 4. 4.2) Get an iron ring and clamp to the iron stand about 1ft. 4.96g/ml 4) Separation of Precipitates Filtration Filtration is the process of straining the precipitate with the use of filter paper.5) The tip of the funnel must rest on the wall of the beaker.
10) Let the solution stand for several minutes. 4.8) Pour the mixture into the filter with the aid of a stirring rod.4.11) Decant the solution. Also it is good for precipitate that are quite dense. .9) Add 20g Ca(OH)2 to 100ml water. 4. 4.7) Prepare a solution by adding 10g Ca(OH)2 to 50ml water. Experimental Set-Up Decantation Decantation is a process by allowing the mixture to stand for quite sometime to settle the precipitate. 4.
15) Withdraw the heat as soon as the water is evaporated. .Evaporation 4. IV. 4. and those are the scientist that gives more reliable ideas and concepts that are now being accepted by many people and considered as fact not a theory.16) Observe the residue left. 4.14) Place the dish on wire gauze supported by iron ring then heat gently.13) Transfer the solution to an evaporating dish.1g of sodium chloride to 1ml water. Discussion and Conclusion All the laboratory operations performed are true and tested by those who performed the first experiment. 4.12) Dissolve 0. 4.