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Char ot ar Inst i t ut e of Technol gy Changa

V.T. Pat el Depar t ment of El ect roni cs and Communi cat i on Engi neeri ng
Subj ect : Di gi t al Si gnal Processi ng (EC702)
Assi gnment
Pr oblem: 1 Det ermine whet her t he f ollowing syst ems are (i) st able (ii) causal (iii) linear (iv) t ime
invar iant and (v) memor y-less.
1. ] [ ]} [ {
2
n x n x T =
2.

=
=
0
] [ ] [ ]} [ {
k
k n n x n x T
3. ] 1 [ 3 ] [ ]} [ { + + = n u n x n x T
Sol ut i on:
1. ] [ ]} [ {
2
n x n x T =
(i) St able: if ] [n x is bounded t hen ] [
2
n x is bounded.
(ii) Not causal: f or example ] 25 [ ]} 5 [ { x x T = .
(iii) Linear : if ] [ ]} [ { ] [ ], [ ]} [ { ] [
2
2 2
2
1 1
n x n x T n y n x n x T n y = = = = t hen
] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]} [ ] [ {
2 1
2
2
2
1 2 1
n by n ay n bx n ax n bx n ax T + = + = +
(iv) Not t ime invar iant :
If ] [ ] [ ] [
2
n x n Tx n y = = Then ] 1 [ ] 1 [ ] 1 [ {
2
= = n y n x n x T
(v) Memoryless
2.

=
=
0
] [ ] [ ]} [ {
k
k n n x n x T
Not ice t hat ] [ ] [
0
n u k n
k
=

=
, t heref ore ] [ ] [ ]} [ { n u n x n x T =
(i) St able: if M n x < ] [ t hen M n u n x n x T < = ] [ ] [ ]} [ {
(ii) Causal: Does not depend on f ut ur e value.
(iii) Linear : = + = + ]) [ ] [ ( ]} [ ] [ {
2 1 2 1
n bx n ax n bx n ax T
3. As
_____________________________________________________________________________________
Pr oblem: 2 Consider the cascade of two LTI systems shown in Fig. 2. The first system
is described by the frequency response,
Char ot ar Inst i t ut e of Technol gy Changa
While the second system is described by the difference equation y[n] = x[n] x[n-1]. The input to the
system is x[n] = cos (0.6 n) + 3 [n-5] + 2. Determine the output y[n].
Solution: First x[n] goes through a low pass filter with cut off freq 0.5 . Since the cosine has frequency of
0.6 , it will be filtered out.
If the input is [n] for the first LTI system, the output is the inverse Fourier transform of H(e
jw
). Which is
sin(0.5 n )/n .
If the input is [n-5] (i.e. delayed by 5 samples) , output will be sin(0.5 (n-5) )/(n -5) . So for the input
3 * [n-5], output is 3 sin(0.5 (n-5) )/(n -5) .
Similarly for the input to 2 , the output will be 2.
Therefore w[n] = 3 sin(0.5 (n-5) )/(n -5) + 2.
y[n] is given by y[n] = w[n] w[n-1] = 3 sin(0.5 (n-5) )/(n -5) - 3 sin(0.5 (n-6) )/(n -6) .
Problem:3 Sample the two signals x1(t) = sin(2 3t) and x2(t) = sin(2 0.3t) with sampling period
T = 0.2. Sketch the spectrum of the continuous signal, the spectrum of the sampled one and the
reconstructed signal from lowpass filtering of the sampled signal.
Solution:
The spectrum of the continuous signal x1(t) = sin(2 3t) is shown in Figure 1(a). The frequency
of x1(t) is f1 = 3Hz. The sampled signal contains frequency components at nfs + f1 for n Z, as
shown in Figure 1(b). Since the sampling frequency fs = 5Hz is less than 2f1 = 6Hz, aliasing will
occur as expected from the sampling theorem. The reconstructed signal from ideal lowpass
filtering is x1(t) = - sin(2 2t), which is different from the original signal x1(t). x1(t) has its
frequency components at f1 = +2Hz, and the spectrum is shown in Figure 1(c).
Problem: 4 Consider the system shown in figure .
(a) Find the impulse response of overall system.
(b) Find the frequency response of overall system.
(c) Specify the difference equation that related output y[n] to input x[n].
Char ot ar Inst i t ut e of Technol gy Changa
(d) Is this system causal? Under what condition would the system be stable?
Solution:
(a)
From the figure, y[n] = (x[n] + x[n] * h
1
[n] ) * h
2
[n] = x[n] * (h
2
[n] + h
1
[n] * h
2
[n])
The impulse response of the system is
h[n] = (h
2
[n] + h
1
[n] * h
2
[n])
h
1
[n] =
n
u[ n] + [ n-1] *
n
u[ n]
h
1
[ n] =
n
u[ n] +
n-1
u[ n-1]
(b) The frequency response of overall system is Fourier transform of the impulse response.
jw
jw
jw
jwn
n
n jwn
n
n
jwn
n
n jwn
n
n jw
n
jw
e
e
e
e e
e n u e n u e n h e H

= + =
+ = =



1 1
1
) 1 ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1
1
0
1
(c) Taking inverse Fourier transform
Y[n] y[n-1] = x[n] + x[n-1]
(d) System is causal.
Problem: 5 Consider the LTI system that is stable and for which H(z) , the z transform of the impulse
response is given
1
3 / 1 1
3
) (

+
=
z
z H . Suppose that x[n] is input to the system, is unit step sequence. Find
(a)Find the output y[n] by evaluating the discrete convolution of x[n] and h[n].
(b) fin the output y[n] by computing the inverse transform of Y(z).
Solution : Tutorial 3. Ex.1
h1[ n] = [ n-1]
h2[ n] =
n
u[ n] y[ n]
x[ n]
Char ot ar Inst i t ut e of Technol gy Changa
Problem: Let the system function of a causal LTI system is
1
1
9 . 0 1
5 . 0 1
) (

=
z
z
z H . Find the system function
of corresponding inverse system and its impulse response. Is inverse system stable and causal?
Solution : Tutorial 5
Problem: LTI system function is
2
2 1
81 . 0 1
) 9 1 )( 2 1 (
) (

+
=
z
z z
z H .
(a) Is system stable?
(b) Find the expression for minimum phase system h
1
(z) and an all pass system H
ap
(z) such
that H(z) = h
1
(z) H
ap
(z).
Solution : Tutorial 5.
Problem: Express the signals 5 , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 ), ( = i t f
i
in the figure below using only f(t), and its time shifted,
time scaled and time inverted version. For example, ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) (
2
t f t f t f + = .
Solution:
|
.
|

\
|
=
+ + =
+ =
+ =
=
2
2
2 / 3 ) (
)) 5 . 0 ( ( ) 5 . 0 ( ) (
) 1 ( ) 1 (
) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) (
), ( ) (
5
4
3
2
1
t
f t f
t f t f t f
t f t f f
t f t f t f
t f t f