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Bangladesh is one of the major exporters of textiles, silk and sugar till the eighteenth century but the industrialization process was subsequently halted during the 200 years of colonial exploitation. As a result, Bangladesh inherited a narrow industrial base when it became independent in 1971. It has a good number of large, medium and small-sized industries in both public and private sectors based on both indigenous and imported raw materials. Among them are jute, cotton, textile, fertilizer, engineering, shipbuilding, steel, oil-refinery, paper, newsprint, sugar, chemicals, cement and leather. Jute Industry has traditionally played an important role in the national economy. But in recent years, Ready Made Garments Industry has replaced Jute as the principal export-earner for the country. Considerable progress has been attained in the past few years in industries such as leather, ceramic, shrimp, fish, pharmaceuticals and frozen food. The description of these industries is given below.

The garment industry of Bangladesh has been the key export division and a main source of foreign exchange for the last 25 years. At present, the country generates about $5 billion worth of products each year by exporting garment. The industry provides employment to about 3 million workers of whom 90% are women. Two non-market elements have performed a vital function in confirming the garment industry's continual success; these elements are (a) quotas under Multi- Fiber Arrangement1 (MFA) in the North American market and (b) special market entry to European markets. The whole procedure is strongly related with the trend of relocation of production. Garment industry is controlled by the transfer of production. The globalization of garment production started earlier and has expanded more than that of any other factory. The companies have transferred their blue-collar production activities from high-wage areas to low-cost manufacturing regions in industrializing countries. The enhancement of communication system and networking has played a key role in this development. Export-oriented manufacturing has brought some good returns to the industrializing nations of Asia and Latin America since the 1960s. The first relocation of garment manufacturing took place from North America and Western Europe to Japan in the 1950s and the early 1960s. But during 1965 and 1983, Japan changed its attention to more lucrative products like cars, stereos and computers and therefore, 400,000 workers were dismissed by Japanese textile and clothing industry. In impact, the second stock transfer of garment manufacturing was from Japan to the Asian Tigers - South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore in 1970s. But
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the tendency of transfer of manufacturing did not remain there. The rise in labor charge and activeness of trade unions were in proportion to the enhancement in economies of the Asian Tigers. The industry witnessed a third transfer of manufacturing from 1980s to 1990s; from the Asian Tigers to other developing countries - Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and China in particular. The 1990s have been led by the final group of exporters including Bangladesh, Srilanka, Pakistan and Vietnam. But China was leader in the current of the relocation as in less than ten years (after 1980s) China emerged from nowhere to become the world's major manufacturer and exporter of clothing. Source:

The banking industry in Bangladesh has flourished over the years, making double-digit profit percentages, sustaining growth and surviving cut-throat competition while providing attractive returns to shareholders. Competition in the banking industry is hitting from the capital market end, with the corporate increasingly going to the equity market to rise funding. This not only hits the banks in the belly by affecting their core business but also indirectly affects their contribution to market cap which dropped from 59% in 2007 to less than 25% in June 2010. More importantly it forces them to risk their position by over exposing them to volatile capital market through proprietary trading and position taking in order to maintain profitability. Source:

From time immemorial places in and around Bangladesh has been growing


for making

or sukker or khandeswari. Such sweeteners are also produced from date and palm juice. Bengal

was well known for quality sugar in the 16th century. The East India Company exported large quantities of sugar from Bengal every year. The volume was 820,186 mounds (1 mound = 37.65 kg) in 1795 and 3,324,168 mounds in 1805. Production of beet sugar caused decline in production of cane sugar towards 1840. Later, the sugar industry suffered seriously due to diversion of land to jute.

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In the 1980s, the industry employed 15% of the labor force and had 30% of the fixed assets of the food industry as a whole. With 1.5% of world production, Bangladesh ranked 67th among the 130 sugar producing nations. In 2000, the country had 15 sugar mills at Panchagarh, Thakurgaon, Setabganj, Rangpur, Shyampur, Rajshahi, Mahimaganj, Jaipurhat, Darshana, Kushtia, Mobarakganj, Jamalpur, Kaliachapra, Narsingdi, and Pabna. The estimated total annual production capacity of these mills was about 215,000 tons but the mills did not work in full capacity and, therefore, the production remained far less than the country's total estimated annual demand of about 400,000 tons. A major reason for the mills to work below full capacity is the shortage of cane as farmers often find it more rewarding to use land for production of Rabi and kharif crops. Source:

The contribution of jute sector to economy of Bangladesh is enormous. This sector has been generating employment to a large segment of total population of the country, directly and indirectly over the years. Bangladesh produces 5.5-6.0 million (55-60 lakh) bales of raw jute every year of which some 3.2 million (32 lakh) bales are used in the existing 148 jute mills. The country exports 2.4 million (24 lakh) bales of jute. Some 1, 60,000 employees of the country are directly employed in the jute mills. The total demand for jute goods in the international market is 0.75 million (7.50 lakh) tons. Bangladesh exports 0.46 million (4.60 lakh) tons of jute goods while India enjoys a share of 0.285 million (2.85 lakh) tons in the international market. Dhaka controls 62 per cent share of the total jute goods market of the world and earn Taka 20.125 billion (2012.5 crore) by exporting jute goods. Bangladesh is the lone exporter of raw jute. Last year the country exported 2.4 million (24 lakh) bales of raw jute valued at Taka 9.77 million (977 crore). In total Bangladesh fetched Taka 29.395 billion (2939.5 crore) by exporting raw jute and jute goods. Source:

We all know how ships are born, how majestic vessels are nudged into the ocean with a bottle of champagne. But few of us know how they die. And hundreds of ships meet their death every year.
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From five-star Ocean liners, to grubby freighters, literally dumped with all their steel, their asbestos, their toxins on the beaches of some the poorest countries in the world, countries like Bangladesh. This industry, which employs thousands and supplies Bangladesh with almost all its steel, began with an accident - a cyclone to be precise. In 1965, a violent storm left a giant cargo ship beached on what was then a pristine coastline. It didn't take long before people began ripping the ship apart. They took everything and businessmen took note - perhaps they didn't need a storm to bring ships onto this beach here. Source:

Development of a country depends of its economic condition. Economy is the nerve centre of a country. To strengthen economic condition of Bangladesh, tourism industry plays an important role. The government of Bangladesh has taken steps to contribute our countries economy through tourism industrys earning sources. If it is possible to spread the tame of our domestic tourism world-wide, then we will be able to attracted more foreign tourists in the country &our export earnings will also increase. Moreover, through establishing national tourism authority, it is possible to facilitate the private sector tour operators to attract more local & foreign tourists. Bangladesh tourism industry has been contributing significantly in every year, According to World Travel Tourism Council (WTTC). In 2007, Bangladesh travel & tourism industry creates 2,024,000 jobs through which it earns $539 million or 3.8percent of the countrys total exports worth 12,178 billion. And it contributes 1.5 percent or around $998.2 million to the countrys GDP. In 2008, it is expected that this sector will be able to increase employment opportunity from over 2,065,000 in 2008, 3.1 percent of total employment or one in every 32.0 jobs to 2, 791,000 jobs. Export earning of this year are expected to generate 3.4 percent or $543.7 million of total exports. And it contributes 3.9 percent or over $2.9 billion. But it is possible to infrastructures development of tourism spots then it will be able to increase 3.2 percent of total employment or one in every 31.7 jobs by 2018. By this year export earnings will grow 1099.3 million (5.3 percent) of total external trade. It can contribute around 4.0 percent or over $6.39 billion to the countrys GDP by 2018. Source:
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In Bangladesh there are three kinds of ownership of tea gardens: foreign owned sterling companies, Bangladeshi Joint Stock Companies and privately owned proprietary tea estates. In early 1990s, a total of 12 sterling companies were in tea business. They owned 26 gardens; all located in



districts. Fifty Bangladeshi companies owned and operated 73 gardens, of

these the National Tea Company owned 12 and 57 were under proprietorship management. The tea sector contributes about 0.8% of the GDP in Bangladesh. About 0.15 million people are directly employed in the tea industry which constitutes about 3.3 percent of the country's total employment. Many more people are indirectly employed in other sectors related to tea. Source:

Mobile phone has become an indispensable part of Bangladesh's everyday-life and has made a "safe haven" in one of our pockets much like our wallet that we never want to leave at home while we head for our work! Thanks to the telecom-revolution and its relentless evolution that together have made it possible even in developing countries like Bangladesh. This is the dominant device that we now express ourselves through, get our work done and share our pains and pleasures with. The introduction of telecommunication industry has been pretty late in our country compared to that of the neighboring countries. This is very much attributable to the political unrest in early 1990s. Though the first telecom company, Citycell, was introduced ages ago, the device has not become so pervasive until 1997, the year when the biggest telecom of the country, Grameen Phone (GP) hit the market with its GSM technology. Since then there was no looking back. The industry grew at such an incredible rate in just a decade that anyone could hardly imagine. Now there are a number of players battling so hard for their respective market share and the consumers as well as the economy benefitted tremendously from this fierce competition. The following sections elaborate on almost every aspect of the industry, ranging from how it become so big, what fueled the growth to what are the risks and opportunities that it currently renders for the players. Source:
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Shrimp culture is expected to continue to play an important role in ensuring food security and poverty alleviation, particularly for the rural poor. The urban population will be benefited from the improvement in processing, value adding, and marketing of the shrimp industry as a whole. Incidence like EU ban on Bangladeshi shrimp should not happen again and most importantly, this industry is operating under capacity and can increase the productivity up to five times than the current capacity. A majority of workers in the processing industries are women. The shrimp industry benefits three to four million mostly poor Bangladeshis while providing livelihood directly numbering some 11, 50,000 people. In 2007-2008, a total of 2, 23,095 Metric ton shrimp produced in Bangladesh that contributes 19,567.90 core taka in the GNP. There is ample demand in the international markets for shrimp and Bangladesh is blessed with an environment friendly for shrimp production. Technological innovation has been creating a greater impact on domestic economy. A primary study was undertaken to detect the problems plaguing the different levels of the value chain of shrimp in the country. Consequently, the study was conducted in which the participants were representatives of the various stakeholders in this industry. The increasing demand and steadily rising prices of shrimp encouraged its cultivation in the coastal belt of the country. By 2007-08, the shrimp farming area occupied nearly 2, 17,877 hectors; the main fresh water shrimp farming districts are Khulna, Bagerhat, Jessore, Narail, Gopalganj, Pirojpur and Noakhali. More or less 80% of the shrimp farming areas are in the southwestern region of Bangladesh while the rest are in the southeastern part. Shrimp is the second most important export item in Bangladesh. Source:

In Bangladesh the pharmaceutical sector is one of the most developed hi-tech sectors within the country's economy. After the promulgation of Drug Control Ordinance - 1982, the development of this sector was accelerated. The professional knowledge, thoughts and innovative ideas of the pharmaceutical professionals working in this sector are the key factors for these developments. Due
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to recent development of this sector it is exporting medicines to global market including European market. This sector is also providing 97% of the total medicine requirement of the local market. Leading pharmaceutical companies are expanding their business with the aim to expand export market. Recently few new industries have been established with high tech equipments and professionals which will enhance the strength of this sector. Source:

THE ceramic industry is eyeing a modest $100 million in exports by 2012. The industry people say this is possible provided the government supports them with due diligence. Bangladesh is now witnessing ceramic industry as a highly prospective sector for its rising export performances. The Export Promotion Bureau (EPB) statistics put the total value of exported ceramic products from the 21 Bangladeshi manufacturers at $38.33 million in the FY 2006-07, up by 28 per cent from the previous year. According to an official figure, Bangladesh exported only $1.0 million worth of ceramic wares in 1991 before recording a staggering 695 per cent growth in about a decade, investing nearly Tk 20 billion and employing some 0.1 million workers. Source:

The cement industry of Bangladesh is a rapidly developing sector of the economy. Over the years, the amount of construction projects have followed an increasing trend as the urban growth rate has boosted all across the country in places like Chittagong, Bogra, Mongla and others in addition to the expanding capital city, Dhaka. Currently, domestic production is unable to meet the complete demand for cement. Approximately 60% of the demand is met by the local cement industry while the rest is imported. According to the Banglapedia, per capita consumption of cement in the country (38 kg) is fairly low compared to India (89 kg), Indonesia (127kg), Malaysia (582 kg) and Thailand (642 kg). Source:
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Bangladeshi film industry has faced increased competition from foreign films, satellite TV, home video, and other sources. Viewership of Bangladeshi films has dropped, and the industry has been criticized for producing low-quality films whose only appeal is that of sex, violence, or melodrama. Banglar King Kong, a local take on the King Kong tale was released in May, 2010 and was widely derided for its tackiness and subpar production values. Although the majority of the films made in Bangladesh are strictly commercial in nature, a handful of directors from Bangladesh have attained critical acclamation for their outstanding work. Zahir Raihan, Khan Ataur Rahman, Salahuddin, Alamgir Kabir, Amjad Hussain, Moshiuddin Shaker, Sheikh Niyamat Ali, Humayun Ahmed, Morshedul Islam, Tanvir Mokammel, Tareque Masud, Salauddin Lavlu, Enamul Karim Nirjhar are among those prominent directors. Bangladesh has been officially submitting nominations for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film from 2003. Masud's Matir Moina (The Clay Bird) was the first film to be submitted, and won a number of other international awards from the Edinburgh, Palm Springs, Montreal, Marrakech, Cairo and Cannes Film Festivals. Another internationally acclaimed filmmaker from Bangladesh is Morshedul Islam, who won major awards at the International Filmfestival Mannheim-Heidelberg and other international film festivals. Source:

The local multi-billion taka glass industry that sprang up in a span of three years now exports produces to a number of countries after meeting around 95 per cent of the domestic demand. According to industry insiders, a growth in real estate business and construction of huge establishments has helped the industry flourish. The present market size of the countrys four glass manufacturing units is around Tk 300 crore. These factories, with a capacity of producing 250 tonnes of glass a day, are Nasir Glass Industry, PHP Float Glass Industries Limited, Usmania Glass Sheet Factory Ltd and MAB Glass Industries. Of

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these, Nasir Glass Industry and PHP Float Glass Industries Limited started commercial production in 2005. The sector people said by the end of 2002, Bangladeshs entrepreneurs started thinking about manufacturing glass locally noticing the growth of high-rise buildings and the dearth of quality glass. Previously the country was fully dependent on imported glass, whereas it now imports only 5 per cent of its demand for coloured and luxurious designed glass from China, Thailand and Indonesia. Among the local industries, Nasir and PHP are producing float glass and the rest are producing sheet glass. Palash Ahmed, GM of Nasir Group, said this industrial unit started its journey with an investment of Tk 300 crore, which now holds more than 40 percent of the total market share. He said his company produces every year around 73000 tonnes of glass, including float, shades (commonly known as mirror), tempered and reflective ones. A director of PHP Float Glass Industries Limited claimed that his company is the first one that manufactures the float glass with the thickness ranging from 2mm to 12mm. He said his company produces around 55000 tonnes of float glass per annum and it now puts its efforts for capacity building. Source: software development local-demand/

However, this year industry is one of the essential components of IT outsourcing industry with international market of 800 billion dollar. Its still major dependent on HR and some of the developing nations are taking advantage out of this opportunity. As said, for Bangladesh the present size of software development industry is very tiny. Roughly, 240 companies or organizations with some of individuals have been doing software outsourcing & data process outsourcing services. In recent time, the efforts for installing e-governance are intensified by the ministry of Bangladesh. And, some have taken big initial steps by using the ICTs for facilitate the activities of government. But the main point is that the government requires spending of more and more amount in resources for software development licensing needs and for updating the resources of hardware to meet the requirements of latest technologies likes of Windows XP for proprietorship.

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Information system should dependable for the essential of nations efficient management & operation for the private and public segments. Due to shortage of information generated by local people requires for efficient performance in these segments. In order to achieve the objective, ICT use in every sector of Software Outsourcing Development requirements to be accelerated in terms of utilization and applications & information generation. The local software outsourcing industry would gain from the big body of knowledge that will require for building the existing technology of open source and produce customized solutions for the government bodies. In the context of this area, many software development organizations have taken place in the past few years with the sector of science and technology. Source:

Developed in Bangladesh on a large-scale basis from the 1970s. About 95% of leather and leather products of Bangladesh are marketed abroad, mostly in the form of crushed leather, finished leather, leather garments, and footwear. Most leather and leather goods go to Germany, Italy, France, Netherlands, Spain, Russia, Brazil, Japan, China, Singapore and Taiwan. Value addition in these exports averages 85% local and 15% foreign. About 100 modern

units are now in

operation in the industry. These are located mostly in the Hazaribagh area of Dhaka city. In 1998, the sector exported 178 million sq ft of leather and earned $160 million. The country's share in the world leather market is 2%. The export of finished products such as shoes, slippers, leather jackets, hand gloves, bags, purses, wallets, and belts also earn a sizeable amount of foreign exchange. Bangladesh intends to increase its range of leather products to penetrate new market segments. Source:

Bangladesh still remains an agrarian country. Because of the fast population growth, the amount of per capita cultivable land is dwindling very fast. In order to survive as a nation, and to prosper in the 21st century, Bangladesh will have to shift from an agrarian economy to an industrial economy.
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Consequently, the power generation will have to increase drastically to achieve that goal. Electrification of the whole country should be taken as the top most priority. According to the Report of the Task Forces on Bangladesh Development Strategies for the 1990s, as s of 1991, 73.1% of the total energy consumption comes from biomass fuel, such as agricultural residues, tree residues, fuel wood, and dung. The use of biomass is not only an ineffective means of energy generation, it is also extremely detrimental to the environment. For instance, the forest cover in Bangladesh has been reduced from 15.6% to 13.4% between 1973 and 1987. According to some reports, the present forest cover is less than 9%. The decrease in forest cover contributes, among other adverse affects on the environment, to the increase in flooding propensity. Therefore, I believe, a drastic improvement of the power sector is an absolute prerequisite for the overall development of the country. Source:

In recent years the fisheries and livestock sector has been playing an increasingly important role in the economy uplift efforts of Bangladesh. It is a labor-intensive and quick-yielding sector which augments growth and alleviates poverty. Around 1.3 million people are directly employed in the fisheries sector alone. The country has immense natural potential for developing the fisheries subsector. The sector contributes 3.3% of the GDP and 10.33% of the agriculture sector. The sector includes open water bodies such as rivers, canals, lakes, etc. and closed water bodies such as ponds and flood-control polders totaling 4 million hectares. Almost 80% of the country's protein requirement, around 70% of exports in the primary commodity category and almost 9% of total exports come from this sub-sector. The sub-sector marked a continuous annual growth of 8.6% since 1996. This increase is due to both Government and private initiatives. Fish production increased to over 1 .4 million during 1997-98. Shortage of Livestock products is attributed to the prevalence of diseases, poor quality of animals and feed shortages. Under the public sector, improvement of the genetic quality of existing stock is currently carried out through establishment of breeding stations and cattle raising units and a wide network of artificial insemination services. An extensive program has been undertaken for fodder cultivation under which much improved seeds and seedlings are being distributed to the farmers, the NGOs and the private farms.

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Small Industry (Manufacturing) Small Industry means an industry in which the value/replacement cost of durable resources other than land and factory buildings is in between (.05 to 15 million) taka and employment generation is not more than 50 persons. Cottage Industry (Manufacturing) Cottage Industry means family an industry in which members of a are engaged part time or full time in production and service-oriented activities. BSCIC provides medium and long term loan to small industries, either directly, or through consortium of commercial banks. BSCIC also provides assistance in all other matters relating to development and expansion of small and cottage industries (SCI). The Bangladesh Small and Cottage Industry Corporation (BSCIC) is the official body which monitors the development of selfemployment, cottage industries and small enterprises. It produces statistics on the types of enterprises, their activities and the number of people employed. Its major functions are:

Promotion and registration of small and cottage industries Conducting advisory and industrial promotion services including training of entrepreneurs Skill development for artisans and craftsmen Creation of jobs for SCIs Construction and development of industrial estates with necessary infrastructural facilities for SCI

Development of linkages between SCIs and large and medium sized industries. Online Service for registration of Industry, Application for Industrial plots, Application for Training facilities will be provide very soon. At present forms for different services can be downloading from link of BSCIC Website.

Source: =en

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Historically handloom has got its predominance and heritages in Bangladesh. The tradition of weaving cloth by hand constitutes one of the richest aspects of Bangladesh culture and heritage. The level of artistry and intricacy achieved in handloom fabrics are unparallel and unique. The handloom can meet every need from exquisite fabrics of daily use. The industry has displayed innate resilience to withstand and adopt itself to the changing demand of modern times. A manpower of about one million weavers, dyers, hand spinners, embroiderers and allied artisans have been using their creative skills into more than 0.30 million active looms to produce around 620 million meters of fabrics annually. It shares 63% of the total fabric production in the country designed for home consumption, meeting 40% of the local demand for fabrics. Besides, it provides employment opportunities to a million rural people, 50% of which are female. Another half a million people are indirectly engaged in the industry. It contributes more than 10 (ten) billion taka annually to the national exchequer as value addition.

For the development of Handloom sector and ensure well being of the handloom weavers, Bangladesh Handloom Board has been implementing a number of package programmers covering supply of input, innovation of suitable designs, financing of working capital, development of human resources, modernization of handloom technology, efficient marketing management and formation of sound weavers societies. Source:

Footwear industry has grown in Bangladesh territory since the colonial era although its modernization took place only in the late 1980s. During the British period, there was no footwear manufacturing firm producing on a mass scale in East Bengal. However, traditional cottage type footwear industry with limited production facilities existed in a skeleton form in the district towns at this time. Various types of footwear were imported, mainly from

After Partition of

Bengal in 1947, footwear started being imported from West Pakistan. When Bata Shoe Company established its manufacturing plant at Tongi in 1962, it was the first manufacturing plant to produce shoes on a large scale in East Pakistan. Eastern Progressive Shoe Industries (EPSI) established its
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production plant in 1967 and started exporting footwear to USSR, Czechoslovakia and England. Bata and EPSI held a major share in the local footwear market also. The industry suffered a major setback during the

but was rehabilitated after independence. Many new footwear

manufacturing units have been established recently. Notable among them are Apex Footwear, Excelsior Shoes, and Paragon Leather and Footwear Industries. Source:

The electronics industry in Bangladesh mostly produces consumer items. Home appliances includes televisions, radios, DVDs and CD players, refrigerators, air conditioners, ovens, electronic fans, blenders etc. are being assembled to a large extent. To ensure the performance reliability, the key challenges in this sector are technical assistance and proper technology orientation of the industry. Developing the significant capacity and skill in assembly and manufacture of a wide range of electronic components and parts is crucial. As yet, Bangladesh does not have any telecommunication equipment industry in the private sector. However, an urgent need for diversification and modernization is felt among the existing entrepreneurs, government and professionals. The government is keen to provide and ensure enabling assistance to the development of this sector. Source:

Bangladesh Plastic Goods Manufacturers Association (BPGMA) is a private sector association and also representing our country total plastic goods industries with more than 700 members. The main activities of the association are to assist the industries related to plastic goods manufacturing. It represents the plastic industry as a whole to deal with matters relating to Government regulations, patent rights, import and export regulations etc. The association serves as a contact point for overseas companies who desire to buy or sell or create a contact in Bangladesh for Plastic products.
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The industrial growth in plastic sector in Bangladesh began at around the year 1980. Prior to that plastic sector industry was on such a small that it is not worth mentioning. A gradual growth in the plastic industry was noticeable from the year 1980 to the year 1990. A large number of injection grade and film grade plastic industries were set up during this period and this sector started to play a significant role in the national economy. Since then the plastic industries started to move faster than the other sectors. Bangladesh imports more than 150,000 metric tons of plastic raw materials each year and it is continuously growing. We do not have any poly-olefin unit in Bangladesh. Therefore, nearly 100 percent of our polymers are imported. Bangladesh has been exploring petroleum fields with the assistance of foreign exploration companies and we have a good reserve of natural gas. There is a good prospect for setting poly-olefin plant in Bangladesh. But we are yet to attain the world standard knowledge on the plastic sector and also participate in various kinds of international plastic fair. Source:

Because it has been in power almost continuously since 1975, the military has been in position to channel resources to the defense sector. According to A.M.A. Muhith, a former Bangladeshi finance minister and a critic of the military, "the defense establishment has become virtually unaccountable and has appropriated a disproportionate share of resources for its perpetuation and enrichment." Muhith asserts that whereas public spending increased ninefold between 1974 and 1986, defense spending during that same period increased more than twentyfold. The army has received the best treatment. According to 1985 data, the army received over 50 percent of defense outlays. Moreover, army personnel strength has tripled since 1975. Navy and air force expansion has been less spectacular, although their capital outlays for such high-cost items as ships and aircraft represented an onerous economic burden. Analysts calculate that actual outlays for defense were considerably higher than published government budgets suggested. Nevertheless, the armed forces continued to experience severe economic constraints. The defense budget for fiscal year (FY--see Glossary) 1989 totaled US$290 million and was the largest budget item, accounting for 17.2 percent of the national budget. In per capita terms, Bangladesh spent about US$3 per year, or about 2 percent of its gross national product (GNP--see Glossary), on defense. By
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any standard, this was a small sum for a military establishment numbering just over 100,000 personnel under arms. Foreign procurement took 15 to 20 percent of the defense budget. Recurring costs, such as training and pay, accounted for more than 50 percent. Source:

In the early of the eightys of the last century the then government of Bangladesh had declared the newspaper sector as an industry. Now a day it has become a wide and very important industry of the economy of our country. At present there are about four hundreds national daily newspapers and more than two thousand magazines in the country [Siddique 2002]. This is one of the most dynamic sectors of our economy. A revolutionary change has been occurring in this industry especially from the last ten years. Technological revolution has brought a dramatic development in this sector. Our newspaper industry has been flourished highly during this period. A number of renowned daily newspapers are ready to face the challenge of the era of information age. It has crossed a long path from the era of letter compose to todays updated computer compose. Internet has changed the way of the newspaper business. Now a day, publishing of newspaper is not an adventure; it has become a business. And the ultimate objective of any business venture is to maximize the profit for the owner, not to maximize the social welfare. The newspaper industry has been transformed from its old entity, social work, to a for-profit business venture. Marketing is the most critical factor of todays marketoriented newspaper industry. Thats why todays entrepreneurs of this industry have to think for various marketing variables i.e. the development and maintenance of products quality; developing price strategies; establishing effective distribution channel; and lastly conducting promotional programs to pursue consumers to buy their product. And they have to do all these things keeping the needs, wants and demands of their consumers in their minds. In this way we can see that the understanding and application of modern marketing concepts is very significant in getting success in this industry. Source:

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The Bangladesh furniture industry is one of the most promising growth sectors with high export potential. According to a Household Income and Expenditure Survey of 2005, the domestic consumption growth rate is around 20% and export markets are almost entirely untapped. There are approximately 40,000 furniture SMEs all over the country, employing around 180,000 people, turnover is in excess of BDT 100b (GBP 1b). Currently dominated by thousands of small workshops, the furniture sector is in a transition phase towards industrialization. Simultaneously, there is a small but growing segment of larger firms who are gradually entering the export market. Nevertheless, the furniture sector is struggling to reach its full potential due to various factors inhibiting its growth. Inadequate supply of production technology and consultancy services, limited access to quality inputs, absence of skilled workforce and limitations in local and international marketing are some of the main problem areas. The biggest challenges for export include: government recognition as a potential export sector, limited export order processing facilities, lack of credibility in international markets, uncoordinated association activities and absence of effective initiatives for facilitating foreign direct investment. Source:

Bricks form the backbone of the aggregate requirement in Bangladesh. Traditionally, brick making is a small-scale businesses mostly located in peri-urban areas. In Bangladesh, there are over 4,000 brick-making enterprises producing over 12 billion bricks annually. Annual growth rate of the construction sector in Bangladesh has ranged from 8.1% to 8.9% in the last decade and this is expected to continue into the foreseeable future. Brick production, however, is one of the most environmentally damaging activities in the industrial sector. It is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions in Bangladesh estimated to be in the order of 3.0 million tonnes of CO2 annually. Outmoded, inefficient and poorly constructed kilns and the use of substandard fuels such as high sulphur coal, tires and wood energy in the kilns have all contributed to these high levels of kiln emissions. The kilns utilize a technology that is centuries old. Unless interventions that will induce change are implemented, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will continue to grow unabated

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accompanied with deteriorating air quality. Besides the air pollution, brick making industries contributes to 2 other serious environmental concerns: land degradation and deforestation. Source:

Export Processing Zones (EPZs) are export oriented industrial enclaves which provide the infrastructures, the facilities, administrative and support services for a wide variety of enterprises. Bangladeshs highly successful EPZs in Dhaka and Chittagong are now complemented by new EPZ developments and other valuable real estate developments around the country. The Bangladesh Export Processing Zones Authority (BEPZA) is the official organ of the government to promote, attract and facilitate foreign investment in the Export Processing Zones. The primary objective of an EPZ is to provide special areas where potential investors would find a congenial investment climate, and location free from cumbersome procedures. Businesses from 32 countries have so far invested in the existing zones. Source:

The countrys steel industry has been getting continuous investment boom due to steady demands. Steel manufacturers see no major negative impact on their industry as they believe the countrys economy will keep its impressive growth despite the global financial recession. They said the country with nearly six per cent growth in the last three years provides enough clues to consume higher production of mild steel rod to be generated by the big players with their proposed new investments. BSRM, producer of high-grade steel, makes up more than 25 per cent of the total demand. It is now on trial production in its newly installed 3,00,000-tonne plant, set up at a cost of over Tk 3.5 billion. It has also unveiled plans to invest another Tk 500 crore to raise its capacity to around one million tonnes within the next five years. Following the footstep of the company, Kabir Steel and Re-rolling Mills is setting up a 3,00,000-tonne mild steel rod plant in Chittagong. KSRM announcement came just a month after the countrys largest conglomerate, Abul Khayer Group,
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formally entered the sector, unveiling a Tk 700 crore investment for an 8,00,000-tonne plant. Bashundhara Group, the realtor-turned-tissue to paper giant, also expressed its intention to set up an integrated steel plant. Another Chittagong based mill -Ratanpur Steels and Re-rolling Mills - has said it has started marketing 75-grade mild steel rod since late last year from its Tk 200 crore state-of-theart steel factory. Trade experts and bankers, however, expressed concern that the latest investment boom in rod, a key construction component, will outpace the countrys annual demand for rod and might result in investment glut. Dismissing such apprehension Akbar Ali said the countrys economic growth was good enough to consume the new and higher steel production that even raised no fear even for the existence of small players of the market. He, however, foresees an intense competition in future due to possible price war which will eventually benefit the consumers. Sheikh Masudul Alam, former general secretary of the Bangladesh Re-Rolling Mills Association, said he did not see any problem in new investment for the small players who were dominating the market with more than 70 per cent share. The consumption of rod will be double in near future which will allow new investors sufficient breathing space, he said. Sensing a fierce competition in the future rod market the small players are re-fixing their strategies. Many of them are adopting technology to produce high-grade rod, he added. The countrys fast growing construction industry uses nearly 25 lakh tonnes of rods every year, the market price of which is Tk 1,000 crore. More than 200 re-rolling and steel mills are producing steel products by using imported and locally available ship scraps. Only a few steel factories use imported billet to produce high quality mild steel rod. Source:

Bangladesh's private sector airlines did not grow at a rapid pace bothers many. It was quite natural for Bangladesh to expect that the local aviation industry would grow to compete with the other countries. But it has not happened. Many people think that restrictive government rules and regulations are to blame for this failure. Much of the aviation market concerning Bangladesh is controlled by foreign airlines. According to rough estimates, the state-run Biman has no more than 28 per cent of the market. The share of the local private sector airlines is less than 10 per cent. Bangladesh can facilitate the growth of its airlines without violating its open air policy. The government can and should increase the frequency of local airline flights. This would provide space
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for the local private sector airlines to grow. Bangladesh Biman is unable to operate all its flights on domestic and international routes. With limited access to routes private airlines cannot grow as they could. Private airlines need government supportto grow as in the other countries.

Aircraft, with less than 80 seats, do not have to pay for takeoff, landing and parking in India. Why Bangladesh does not extend similar facilities to its fledgling privately owned local airlines is difficult to understand. Private airlines also deserve cuts on 10 per cent tax on the import of aircraft parts. The capital market support also could help this sector. There should be better access to bank loans. Banks should extend credit on the basis of goodwill sofa airlines. The government needs to formulate a policy to facilitate rapid growth of the local private aviation industry. Source:

We have a publication section through which a good number of books has been published, say 30 titles, meanwhile. Some of the books which are of Udbodhan Publication, Kolkata, on Sri Ramakrishna, Holy Mother and Swami Vivekananda and other philosophical studies have been reprinted here. Some are original publications of Ramakrishna Math, Dhaka, viz, Bangladeshe Sri Ramakrishna o Tar Parshadvrinda, Bangladeshe Sri Ma Saradadevir Sishyavrinda O Tader Smritimala, Bangladeshe Swami Vivekananda Ebang Tar Shishya o Samakalin Anuragibrinda, Stava Samkalan, Amrita Katha, Sri Ramakrishna Amrita Shatak and a few other booklets. To collect books from Kolkata or elsewhere are troublesome affairs and also costlier. We have taken up a programme of printing more books mostly published from Udbodhan Office, Ramakrishna Math, Kolkata. We have a plan to print some other books also to make the books easily available to the devotees and other buyers if funds are forthcoming. We are always in short of funds in this field of work, even for other activities conducted by Ramakrishna Mission, Dhaka. Therefore we depend for our resources chiefly on the generous donors. Source:

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Bangladesh is endowed with a climate favourable for the cultivation of a wide variety of both tropical and temperate crops. Rice is the staple food for above 150 million populations. Rice production system depends on a various management practices such as irrigation and fertilizer applications, crop management practices, use of new high yielding varieties and modern technologies. Boro rice is one of the major cereal food grains in Bangladesh which contributed more than 55% to the total rice production during 2008-09. Hybrid Boro rice yield depends on a considerable part on irrigation and fertilizer management practices. Fertilizer is the most important nutrient elements in soils and plays the most vital role in crop production in Bangladesh. Fertilizer application mainly depends on the soil types, growing season, irrigation applications and the cultivars used and agro-climatic conditions of the locations. Every year huge amounts of chemical fertilizer are imported from foreign countries and the import rate is significantly higher for non urea fertilizer. Domestic production of urea fertilizer covered 50% to the total demand, where TSP (Triple supper phosphate) was only 10%, Gypsum was 40% and MOP (Murate of potash) was fully imported in 2008-09. Bangladesh government has set a target 19 million tons of Boro rice production under 4.8 million ha land in 2009-10. Therefore to achieve the targeted production of Boro rice in this year, the fertilizer supply would be one of the major concern things to the whole production system. The major fertilizer such as urea, TSP, MOP, gypsum and ZnSO4 would be required 13.83, 5.65, 6.94, 0.41 and 3.06 lakh tons, respectively (applying fertilizer in recommendation dose). Applying on the basis of soil fertility, fertilizer requirement would be 13.2, 4.20, 4.64, 0.38 and 2.85 lakh tons, respectively and on the basis of farmer demand in field level, it would be 12.60, 5.23, 6.43, 0.39 and 2.51 lakh tons, respectively. The urea fertilizer stock will become 9.5 lakh tons after importing 3.5 lakh tons from Qatar. More than 3 lakh tons urea may be shortage in the total growing season which is above 24% compared to the total demand. From a study, it is clear that there is large gap between targeted production of Boro rice and fertilizer input. Therefore, timely supply and availability of fertilizer should receive top priority to sustain/increase Boro rice production when food availability is crucial factors for poverty stricken people, when the country being challenged with feeding increasing population. Source:

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The Ministry of Health and Family Planning of Bangladesh is responsible for developing, coordinating, and implementing the national health and mother-and-child health care programs. Population control also was within the purview of the ministry (see Population Control. The government's policy objectives in the health care sector were to provide a minimum level of health care services for all, primarily through the construction of health facilities in rural areas and the training of health care workers. The strategy of universal health care by the year 2000 had become accepted, and government efforts toward infrastructure development included the widespread construction of rural hospitals, dispensaries, and clinics for outpatient care. Program implementation, however, was limited by severe financial constraints, insufficient program management and supervision, personnel shortages, inadequate staff performance, and insufficient numbers of buildings, equipment, and supplies. Source:

This Fashion, Art & Design jobs page for vacancies in Bangladesh is intended solely as a quick vacancy listing page, for a better way to search for jobs please use our Fashion, Art & Design job search page. If you are looking for an Fashion, Art & Design job in Bangladesh, then you have come to the right job site. Tip Top Job is the International job board listing jobs in numerous industries. On this site you can search through Fashion, Art & Design vacancies and apply online. Below you will find the current list of registered Fashion, Art & Design jobs in Bangladesh. Source: _fashion_art_design

We would like to represent ourselves as a leading trade house engage in international business including import, export, tender, marketing and supply with a strong presence both in government and private sector for a long time in Bangladesh with good reputation. Bangladesh has developed a
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good reputation in exporting medicine and toiletries products. In the line of export sector we are exporting Medicine & Toiletries products around the globe including Europe and North American region of world-class quality in a most completive and reasonable price. Bashundhara group is one of the main producers of toiletries product in our country. Source:

Bangladesh currently manufactures Auto rickshaw and loaclly designed three wheeler motor vehicle Mishuk with engine from Honda. Country has few large car plants which assemble Mitsubishi Pajero, Hino bus, Tata bus and motor cycles. In 2009, Malaysian Agate group proposed to build a car manufacturing plant in Bangladesh with cooperation with Walton which itself are on preparation to produce motorcycle. On same year 2009, TagAZ, a Russian- South Korean car manufacturing company announced that they are going to build their 3rd factory in Bangladesh aiming to export. The plant will be completed by 2012. In February, 2010, Japanese car giant Mitsubishi officially proposed Bangladesh government to manufacture Sedan and Pajero with collaboration with Pragoti Industries aiming to go on production in 2011. Source:

The research paper which was done on the topic The Recent Era of Advertisement in Bangladesh and The Contribution of Youth in it was much needed research in the context of our country and society. In the last 10 years the advertisement sector of Bangladesh has been going through a revolution. The whole scenario of the advertisement sector in our country had changed. The formulae of advertisement for each and every product has undergone massive change. The advertisement techniques of the simplest to the most complex products and services has been altered. The youths have played a vital role in bringing this change to the advertisement sector of our country and this research was necessary in order to identify and recognize their contribution. This research is of great significance in the context of our country as it focuses on a revolutionary activity. The
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research was done on 50 individuals involving undergraduate students involved with the advertisement industry, models and ad-makers from the sector under consideration, theoretical experts of the sector under consideration with the support of corporate experts in the field with consideration of the areas of research. After analyzing the results it was concluded that the youths have played a very significant part in the blooming of the advertisement sector of our country and they are the ones who carried the baton of change. The advertisements in Bangladesh has taken a new form due to the influence of the youths and they will transfer the baton of change to even more revolutionary individuals of the next generation. Source:

DHAKA - Exports by the Bangladesh knitwear industry may surge as much as 25% annually over the next three years as the sector benefits from lower tariff barriers in Europe and probable removal of Japanese duties, which will help it to boost sales and win market share from China. A relaxed tariff structure for knitted goods entering the 27-member European Union from Bangladesh begins from January 1, while zero tariffs for knitted exports are likely to be introduced by Japan next year. The combined impact could lead to a US$4.8 billion increase in exports by 2013. The knitwear industry, led by companies such as Inters off, Fakir Apparels and Viyellatex Group, employs more than 1.5 million people in Bangladesh and contributes just over 40% of the country's exports. During the fiscal year ended June 2010, Bangladesh exported around $53.06 million worth of knit goods to Japan, according to the Export Promotion Bureau in Bangladesh. The knitwear industry exported goods worth over $6.48 billion during the 2009-2010 fiscal year. According to a recent World Trade Organization (WTO) report, Bangladesh ranks fourth among the global apparel exporting nations. The Bangladesh Knitwear Manufacturers and Exporters Association said the country's knitwear sector is third in monetary value and second in terms of quantity amongst the world's knitwear exporting nations. Source:

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The development of infrastructures, supportive policies for trade and investment and comparative advantage in labor-intensive Industries, excellent prospects for investment exist in Bangladesh today. Foreign investors are pouring into the country in greater numbers, especially in the export processing zones special facilities existing at Dhaka and Chittagong. To attract local and foreign investors, the present government has introduced a number of perks and incentives. These include provision for setting up export processing zones in the private sector, initiatives to set up new EPZs in the public sector, tax holiday for export-oriented industries, scope for 100 percent foreign investments and repatriation of profits.

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