uGsefawmfwdk h ucsifvlr_zHG h+zdK;a&;uGef,uftzJG haejzifh TtpD&ifcHpm xGufay:vmzdk‹

twGut
f pjyL;ulnaD xmufyahH y;cJah om tvl&iS rf sm;jzpf=uaom DCMF ESihf GGF wd‹k ukd
txl;aus;Zl;oif&Sdygonf?
xked nf;wl TtpD&ifcpH mtwGuf enf;pepfrsm;jzifh yHyh ;kd I taumif;qH;k jzpfatmif 0dik ;f 0ef;
ulnD=uaom BRC, E-desk ESifh ERI okd hudkvnf; txl;aus;Zl;wifygonf? xdk‹twl
TtpD&ifcpH mukd tprStqH;k wdik f owif;tcsut
f vuf aumufcpH ak qmif;jcif;udk wm0ef
,laqmif&u
G cf ahJ om ucsio
f bm0ywf0ef;usiq
f ikd &f mtzJŒG ESihf yg0ifun
l aD y;aom ucsif
ausmif;om;vli,frsm;tzJŒG ESihf enf;pepfrsm;/ t}uHn%fjzif0h ikd ;f 0ef; uln=D uaom tjcm;
obm0ywf0ef;usifqdkif&m tzJGŒrsm;tm;vHk;udk vnf;txl;aus;Zl;oif&Sdygonf?

Kachin Development Networking Group
ucsifvlr_zHG h+zdK;a&;uGef,uftzJGŒ
onf 2004 ckEpS w
f iG f pwifwnfaxmifaom ucsijf ynfe,ftwGi;f ESihf jynfyEdik if H
rsm;&Sd ucsijf ynfe,f zHŒG òz;a&;qdik &f mtzJŒG rsm;ESihf vlxt
k ajcjyKvlrt
_ zJŒG tpnf;. uGe,
f uf
wpfcjk zpfygonf? KDNG . OD;wnfcsurf mS a&&Snzf ŒGH òz;wd;k wufa&;twGuf ucsijf ynfe,f
twGif;&Sda'ocHtzJGŒtpnf;rsm;ESifh twlvufwGJ+yD; xda&mufpmG taumiftxnfazmf
aqmif&u
G Ef ikd &f efjzpfygonf? tzJŒG tpnf;.&nf&,
G cf surf mS jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f vlra_ &;ESiEhf ikd if H
a&;wdk;wufajymif;vJ jzpfay:ap&eftwGuf wdkufyJG0ifae=uaom a'ocHjynfolrsm;t
wGuf wef;wlnDr#r_ESifh w&m;r#wr_tay: tajccHonfh vlr_tzJGŒtpnf;wpf&yfudk xl
axmifjrifw
h ifay;&efjzpfonf? ucsio
f bm0 ywf0ef;usiq
f ikd &f m tzJŒG onf ucsiv
f rl z_ ŒGH òz;
a&;uGe,
f uftzJŒG wGif tzGŒJ 0ifjzpf+yD; TtpD&ifcpH mjzpf ajrmufzŒkd twGut
f ptqH;k wm0ef
,lpDpOfa&;om;onfhtzJG hjzpfonf?
KDNG

Kachin Environmental Organization
ucsifobm0ywf0ef;usifqdkif&mtzJGŒ
ucsifobm0ywf0ef;usifqdkif&mtzJG‹onf {+yDv 2004 ckESpfwGif ucsifjynftwGif;
obm0o,HZmw/ opfawmESifh obm0ywf0ef;usif tvGeftu|HŒðyef;wD;aer_jy\em
rsm;udk umuG,fxdef;odrf;ae=uaom ao'cHvlxktzJGŒtpnf;rsm;jzifhzJGŒpnf;xm;aom
tzJGŒjzpfygonf?
TtpD&ifcpH m rS "gwyf rkH sm;udk toH;k jyKvdyk gu oufqikd &f m ucsiv
f rl z_ ŒGH òz;a&;uGef,uf
tzJGŒodk‹ ta=umif;=um;+yD; toHk;jyK=uyg&ef arwWm&yfcHtyfygonf?

rmwdum
tpD & if c H p m tusOf ; csKyf

1

tcef ; (1)? aemuf c H o rd k i f ; a-umif ;
ppfwyf}uD;pdk;r_ESifh ucsifjynfe,ftwGif; jzpfay: ajymif;vJr_rsm;
jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd a&tm;v#yfppfxkwfvkyfief;
jrpf}uD;{&m0wD
{&m0wDjrpf0Srf;
jrpfqHka'oESifhucsifwdk@twGuf ,Ofaus;r_t&ta&;ygr_

5
6
8
10
11
14

tyd k i f ; (2) {&m0wD j rpf q H k q nf aqmuf v k y f a &;pD r H c suf
qnfudk rnfodk@toHk;csrnfenf;
v#yfppf"gwftm;a&mif;csr_rS &&Sdrnfh cef@rSef;ajcwefbdk;
b¾maiG rnfr#ukefusrnfenf;?
tifrdkifc (arc) jrpfudkqnfzdk@jcif;
tcsdefumv owfrSwfcsufrsm;
qnfaqmufvkyfrnfhae&mY vwfwavm jzpfay:wdk;wufr_rsm;
tusKd;pD;yGm;t& yg0ifywfoufae=uolrsm;

16
17
18
18
19
20
23
25

tyd k i f ; (3)? {&m0wD j rpf q H k q nf a -umif h jzpf v mEd k i f a om
&d k u f c wf r + qd k ; usKd ; rsm;
{&m0wD jrpfqHkqnf pDrHcsufa=umifh a&v$rf;cH&rnfhae&mrsm;
vlrsm; ae&yf&if;pGef@cGg ajymif;a&$@&jcif;ESifh ‚if;.aemufqufwGJjy\emrsm;
jrefrmEdkifiHwGif qnfwnfaqmufa&;vkyfief;rsm;a=umifh a&$@ajymif;=u&r_rsm;
,Ofaus;r_qdkif&m ysufpD;qHk;&_H;apr_rsm;
toufarG;0rf;ausmif;r_b0rsm; ysufpD;=u&jcif;?
jrpfatmufydkif;&Sd ajrEkEHk;wif pdkufcif;rsm; ysufpD;apjcif;?
vHkðcHa&;twGuf ylyef&r_rsm;
obm0ywf0ef;usif ysufpD;qHk;&_H;r_rsm;
usef;rma&;qdkif&m tE W&m,frsm;

33
33
34
35
41
43
44
47
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60

ppftiftm;wdk;csJ@ csxm;jcif;?
trsKd;orD;rsm;twGuf txl;xdcdkufepfemapEdkifonfh tE W&m,frsm;

63
65

tcef ; (4)? tod & S d & S d j zif h oabmwl I tepf e mcH - u&jcif ; /
od k ‹ r[k w f tjcm;a&G ; cs,f p &m enf ; vrf ; rsm; !$ e f j ya&G ; cs,f a pjcif ; r&S d b J
vl t rsm;u xd c d k u f e pf e m-u&jcif ; ?
ti,fpm;a&tm;v#yfppf xkwfvkyfief;rsm;

69

atmuf a jcrS w f p k r sm;

71

aemuf q uf w G J 1?

76

69

{&m0wDjrpfqHkqnf wnfaqmufrnfhae&m

tpD&ifcpH m tusOf;csKyf
jrefrmEdkifiH. tcsuftcsma'orsm;udk jzwfoef;pD;qif;aeaom/ tm&Swdkuf. t"du
jrpf}uD;woG,jf zpfonfh {&m0wDjrpfukd qnfz@kd =uayawmhrnf? jrefrmEdik if .
H ppftpd;k &onf
{&m0wDjrpfuykd w
d I
f (152) rDwm tjrif&h adS om {&mrqnf}uD;wckukd wnfaqmuf+yD;/
v#ypf pf"gwt
f m;udk w&kwjf ynfo@kd y@kd vw
$ f a&mif;cs&ef w&kwu
f rk %
` rD sm;tm; &if;ES;D jr‡KyfEcHS iG hf
ðycJhonf? jrefrmppftpdk;&tzdk@ 0ifaiG0ifvrf;topfrsm;&&Sdrnfjzpfaomfvnf; rnfonfh
ta&;qdkydkifcGifhr# r&Sdaom jrefrmEdkifiHjynfolrsm;tzdk@rl TpDrHcsuftwGuf xdcdkufepfem
r_rsm;jzifh wefbdk;ay;qyf=u&rnfjzpfonf?
(2007) ckESpfwGif jrefrmEdkifiHY qnfopfrsm;aqmufvkyfa&;ESifh ywfoufaom pDrHudef;
tajrmuftrsm;udk xkwjf yefa=ujimcJ+h yD;/ ‚wd@k txJwiG f tdref ;D csi;f wdik ;f jynfrsm;od@k v#yf
h nf?
ppf"gwt
f m;wify@kd a&mif;csEikd f rnfh a&tm;v#ypf pfxw
k v
f yk if ef;rsm;vnf; yg0ifaecJo
v#ypf pfprG ;f tifqmavmif rufarmae=uaom tdref ;D csi;f wdik ;f jynfrsm;tzd@k jrefrmEdik if t
H
wGif;wGif qnfrsm;aqmufvkyfjcif;onf v#yfppf"gwftm;udk aps;csdKcsdKESifh &apEdkifonfh
twGuaf =umifh tusK;d tjrwfjzpfapaomfvnf;/ Tqnfrsm;wnfaqmufjcif;a=umifjh zpf
ay:vmaprnfh pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra_ &;ESihf ywf0ef;usiq
f ikd &f m xdcu
kd ef pfem&r_rsm;udk jrefrmEdik if H
bufjcrf;&Sd vlxkrsm;odk@ yHkcswGef;ydk@xm;Edkifygonf?
jrefrmjynfajrmufydkif;tpGefqHk;jzpfaom ucsifjynfe,f&Sd {&m0wDjrpf tpðy&mjrpfqHkY
qnfaqmufvyk af &; pDrcH suzf iG yhf t
JG cef;tem;wckukd (2007) ckEpS /f arvwGif usi;f ycJyh g
onf? TqnfraS eI a&tm; v#ypf pf"gwt
f m; rD*g0yf 3˜600 (MW) udk xkwv
f w
$ af y;
Edik rf nfjzpf+yD;/ trsm;pkukd w&kwEf ikd if o
H @kd yd@k vw
$ af &mif;csaprnf jzpfonf? Tqnfwnf
aqmufa&;vkyif ef;rsm;onf w&kwEf ikd if H A[dt
k pd;k &. “taemufrS ta&S@o@kd pGr;f tify@kd
v$waf pa&; rl0g'” (West to East Power Transmission Policy) t& aqmif&u
G jf cif;
jzpfygonf? Tv#ypf pf"gwt
f m; a&mif;csrw
_ efz;kd onf wESpv
f #if tar&duefa':vmoef;
(500) cef@&Sdvdrfhrnf[k cef@rSef;&onf? {&m0wD jrpfqHkqnfonf Tjrpfa=umif;w
av#muf w&kwfwdk@u wnfaqmufrnfh qnf}uD; (7) ckteuf yxrOD;qHk;qnfvnf;
jzpfonf?
qnfa=umifh jzpfay:vmp&m&Sdaom qdk;usKd;rsm;ESifhywfoufI pdk;&drfylyefrdaoma=umifh
ucsifjynfe,f wv$m;&Sd &yf&Gmvl}uD;rsm;ESifh &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;u AdkvfcsKyfrSL;}uD;oef;
a&$EiS hf ajrmufyikd ;f wdik ;f ppfXmecsKyf wdik ;f rSL;xH Tqnfaqmufvyk af &; pDrcH suu
f kd &yfqikd ;f ay;
{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

1

&ef uef@uu
G pf mrsm; ay;yd@k c=hJ uonf? od@k aomfvnf; Tuef@uu
G rf r_ sm;udk vspv
f sLðyxm;
=uqJyifjzpfonf?
ZD0owW pHkvifaxGjym;r_ESifhywfoufI urBm@ “tausmf=um;qHk;ae&m” ae&m (8) ck
teuf Ta'oudk wcktygt0iftjzpf owfrw
S x
f m;=u+yD;/ qnfwnfaqmuf+yD;pD;ygu
Ta'owGi;f &Sd cef@reS ;f ajc&Gmaygi;f (47) &Gm a&ðryfomG ;ayawmhrnf? vlO;D a& cef@reS ;f ajc
tm;jzifh (10000) onfvnf; td;k tdrt
f ajcysuf a&$@ajymif;=u&rnfjzpfum tvkyt
f udik f
qHk;&_H;&jcif;/ tvkyfvufrJhjy\emudk ydkrdkqdk;&Gm;vmapjcif;/ rl;,pfaq;pGJr_ jy\emrsm;
wd;k yGm;vmapjcif;ESihf ud,
k cf t
H m;usa&m*g (tdycf st
f ikd Af -DG attdik 'f t
D ufp)f ul;pyfys@H ymG ;r_
ydrk q
kd ;kd &Gm;vmzG,f &Sad eayonf? a&v$r;f r_a=umifh a0;vHacgio
f o
D nfh a'orsm;ESihf òr@}uD;
rsm;udk qufoG,fxm;aom vrf;rsm;vnf; jywfawmufum vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;ESifh
ukefoG,fa&; xdcdkufepfem=u&ayawmhrnf?
r=umao;rDumv/ (2006) ckESpf twGif;uvnf; teD;tem;&Sdjrpfay:Y wnfaqmuf
xm;aom qnfusKd;aygufjcif;a=umifh aetdrfrsm;ESifh wHwm;rsm; arsmyg qHk;&_H;=u&+yD;/
vlrsm;toufqHk;&_H;&jcif;/ v#yfppf"gwf tm;ay;puf&HkESifh qnftaqmuftODrsm; jyef
jyifIr&awmhavmufatmif ysupf ;D jcif;rsm; jzpfay:cJ&h ygonf? jrefrmEdik if H ajrmufyikd ;f onf
ajrivsi'f %f r=umc% cH&wwfaomae&mjzpf+yD;/ {&m0wDjrpfqkH qnfae&monf t"du
ppfuikd ;f ajrivsiaf =umESihf uDvrkd w
D m (100)yif rjynfw
h wfaom tuGmta0;wGif wnf
&Sad eygonf? qnfatmufbuf uDvrkd w
D m (40) r# tuGmta0;wGi&f adS e=uaom ucsif
jynfe,f. òr@awmf jzpfonfh jrpf}uD;em;òr@aevlxrk sm;tzd@k qnfusK;d aygujf cif;/ od@k r[kwf
obm0t& r[kwaf om &kww
f &uf a&v#w
H ufrE_ iS v
hf nf; ñuH&Edik yf gao;onf?
xdk@tjyif qnf}uD;rsm; wnfaqmufr_a=umifh jzpf&aom qdk;usKd;rsm;rSm ig;zrf;vkyfief;/
EH;k wifajrEkviG jf yifrsm;wGif ,mpdu
k yf sK;d =uolrsm;ESihf jrpf&;kd wav#muf jrpfurf;yg;rsm;ay:wGif
pdkufysKd;rSDcdkae=uolrsm;wdk@tay: aocsmayguf usa&muf&ayawmhrnf? tjcm;qnf}uD;
rsm; aqmufvkyfa&;vkyfief;rsm;rS Todk@qdk;usKd;rsm; ñuH=u&yHkudk aocsmrSwfwrf;wif
xm;cJ=h u+yD; jzpfonf? Tod@k jzpfvmrnfh qd;k usK;d '%foifrh r_ sm;udk {&m0wDjrpfukd rSw
D if;
aexdkif=uonfh vloef;aygif;rsm;pGmwdk@ cHpm;=u&ayawmhrnf? xdk@tjyif iSufzsm;a&m*g
ys@H E@HS u;l pufvmEdik o
f uJo
h @kd / a&avSmifwmwrHrsm;rS xGuv
f maom rDoikd ;f rmusL&D jy'g;qdyf
oifrh _ ponfh use;f rma&;jy\emrsm;udv
k nf; jrefrmjynfow
l @kd cHpm;=u&vdrrhf nf jzpfyg
onf? Ttajctae jzpfay:vmygu urBmay:wGif use;f rma&;apmifah &Smufrp_ epf tnHh
zsif;qHk; EdkifiHwcktjzpf owfrSwfcHxm;&aom jrefrmEdkifiH. usef;rma&;pepftwGuf

2

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

ydkI0efxkyf0efydk; jzpfvmapawmhrnf? {&m0wDjrpf.trnfESifhtwl ,SOfwGJausmf=um;
vSonfh &Sm;yg;rsKd;wkef;awmhrnfjzpfaom {&m0wDvif;ydkifig;}uD;rsm;onfvnf; Tjrpf
twGif;rS t+yD;wdkif aysmufuG,foGm;Edkifygonf?
ppftpd;k &onf wnfaqmufa&;pDrcH su}f uD;rsm;. vHðk cHa&;twGuq
f u
kd m ppftiftm;wd;k cs@J
csxm;jcif;ESifh xdka'owGif ajrjr‡Kyfrdkif;rsm; cif;vmzG,f &Sdaeygao;onf? ppftpdk;&.
tus,t
f jyef@v@l tcGit
hf a&; csKd;azmufrr_ sm;twGuf tpD&ifcpH m tapmifapmifu rSwf
wrf;wifazmfjycJh=u+yD;/ twif;tusyf vkyftm;apcdkif;jcif;/ ajrodrf;jcif;ESifh vltrsm;.
touftE W&,f+cdrf;ajcmufjcif; ponfh vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azmuf zdESdyfr_rsm;onfvnf;
Tqnfwnfaqmufa&; pDru
H ed ;f rsm;ESit
hf wl vdu
k yf gvmEdik yf gonf? {&m0wD jrpf qHq
k nf
ae&mwGif aexdkifae=uaom vlxkrsm;onfvnf; c|if;csufrjzpfEdkifyg? tvm;wltusKd;
qufrsm; udk cHpm;&&ef ta=umif;&Sad eygonf? txl;ojzifh trsK;d orD;rsm;tzd@k ppfwyf.
vdirf q
_ ikd &f mt& t=urf; zufrr_ sm;udk cH&Edik pf &m ta=umif;&Sad eygonf? TuJo
h @kd aom
ab;tE &W m,frsm; omru/ qnfaqmufvyk rf nfah e&mudk owfrw
S t
f +yD;/ ajymif;a&$@=u&
onft
h cg toufarG;0rf;ausmif; vkyif ef;rsm;vnf; qH;k &_;H xdcu
kd =f urnfjzpf+yD;/ b0tajc
ysu=f u&aoma=umifh trsK;d orD;rsm; taejzif/h vdiaf zsmaf jza&; vkyif ef;rsm;ESihf vlarSmifckd
ukeful;r_rsm;xJodk@ usa&mufoGm;apEdkifonfh tE W&m,fvnf; &SdEdkifygonf?
&mpkESpfrsm;ESifhcsDI jrpfqHka'oonf ucsifwdk@. *k%f,lzG,f tarGtESpfomru jrefrm
Edik if o
H El ikd if o
H m;tm;vH;k . tarGtESpv
f nf;jzpfaom aw;oDcsi;f rsm;/ uAsmrsm;ESihf '¾m
kd m qufIaqmuf
&DyjkH yifrsm;. blred ufoefvnf; jzpfcyhJ gonf? tu,fI Tqnfuo
oGm;rnfqykd gu trsK;d om; ,Ofaus;r_ txdr;f trSwaf e&mwckvnf; tem*wfrsK;d quf
rsm;twGuf tpOfxm0& qHk;&_H;oGm;&ayawmhrnf?
ucsizf @HG òzd;wk;d wufa&;uGe&f uftzG@J (KDNG) u {&m0wDjrpfqq
kH nf wnfaqmufa&;pDrH
csuf &yfwef;u &yfypfa&;twGuf twdtvif; zGifh[awmif;qdkvmcJholrsm;ESifhtwlw
om;wnf; &yfwnfygonf? vuf&dS ppftpd;k &onf ‚. ppftm%mwnfjrJa&;twGuf
om óu;yrf;aev#uf&Sd+yD;/ ‚wdk@ tjrwftpGef;rsm;aprnfh {&mrwnfaqmufa&;vkyf
ief;}uD;rsm;udk wd;k jr‡iv
hf yk af qmifv#uf &Syd gonf? Twnf aqmufa&;vkyif ef;rsm;. tusK;d
qufaumif;usKd;csrf;omudk jynfolvlxkrsm; cHpm;cGifh&Sd=urnf r[kwfbJ/ xdcdkufepfem
&rnfh ay;qyfrr_ sm;ESihf tE &W m,freS o
f r#uo
kd m tm%mrJjh ynforl sm;tay: usa&mufap
ygvrd rhf nf? Tod@k {&mrpDrcH su}f uD;rsm;tpm; a'oae jynfov
l x
l rk sm;. tcGit
hf a&;rsm;
udk todtrSwfðyay;+yD;/ obm0t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk pDrHcef@cGJ&mY olwdk@udk,fwdkif yg0if
{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

3

aqmif&u
G pf rD cH iG ahf y;&ef vdt
k yfygonf? xd@k tjyif tjcm;a&G;cs,pf &menf;vrf;rsm;udv
k nf;
&Sm=uHaqmif&u
G &f ef vdt
k yfygonf? w&kwEf ikd if o
H nf tdref ;D csi;f tiftm;}uD; Edik if w
H ckjzpf
+yD;/ a'otwGi;f Edik if rH sm;twGurf sm;pGmaom aumif;usK;d rsm; aqmifusO;f ay;Edik yf gonf?
ucsizf @HG òzd;wk;d wufa&;uGe&f uftzG@J (KDNG) taejzifh w&kwEf ikd if t
H ay:awmif;qdv
k o
kd nf
rSm jrefrmEdik if t
H wGi;f w&kwEf ikd if u
H aqmif&u
G af eonfh pDrcH surf sm;wGiv
f nf; w&kwEf ikd if H
wGi;f csrw
S x
f m;onfh usi0hf wfpo
H wfrw
S cf surf sm;twdik ;f av;pm;vdu
k ef m aqmif&u
G yf g
&efESifh TpDrHcsufrsm;. qdk;usKd; tusKd;quf'%fudk cHpm;=u&rnfh jynfolvlxkrsm;.
toHudk tav;teufðyyg&ef awmif;qdkygonf?

4

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

Photo: tab

jrpfqt
kH eD;&Sd rvdcjrpf pD;0ifaeyHk

tcef; (1)? aemufco
H rdik ;f a-umif;
jrefrmEdkifiHESifh ucsifjynfe,f
jrefrmEdkifiHonf (1948) ckESpfwGif vGwfvyfaom 'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHwck jzpfvmcJhonf?
(1962) ckESpfwGif ppfwyfu 'Drdkua&pDtpdk;&xHrS tm%modrf;,lcJh+yD;/ xdktcsdefrSpI
ppfwyfu wdik ;f jynfukd tkycf sKyfvmcJo
h nf? (1990) jynfEh pS w
f iG f ESpaf ygi;f (30) eD;yg;=um
+yD;aemufyikd ;f vGwv
f yfI w&m;r#waom a&G;aumufyrJG sm;udk yxrOD;qH;k t}udrt
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vnf; ppfwyfu a&G;aumufy&JG v'fukd todtrSwrf ðycJah cs? ppfwyfu Edik if aH wmfat;csr;f
om,ma&;ESihf zG@H òz;a&;aumifpD (SPDC) trnfjzif/h ppfaumifpu
D tm%mudq
k ufvuf
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f m;qJjzpf+yD;/ ‚. nHzh si;f qd;k &Gm;aom vl@tcGit
hf a&;rSww
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dS mvwGif ppfwyfu rsm;pGmtjiif;yGm;zG,f &Sad eaom
zG@J pnf;yHt
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J tem*wftpd;k & tkycf sKyfa&;vkyif ef;rsm;wGif ppfwyf.
tcef;u¾udk w&m;0ifjzpfatmif óu;yrf;aev#uf&Sdonf?
ucsijf ynfe,fonf jrefrmEdik if .
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dS nf? ajrmufbufEiS hf
ta&S@bufwiG f w&kwEf ikd if /H awmifbufwiG f &Sr;f jynfe,f/ taemufbufwiG f ppfuikd ;f wdik ;f /
tdENd,EdkifiHwdk@ESifh e,fedrdwfcsif; qufpyfv#uf&Sdonf? ucsifjynfe,f. vlOD;a&rSm 1²2
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5

oef;ausm&f +dS yD;/ ucsiv
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ESihf /&Sr;f vlrsK;d / ArmvlrsK;d / w&kwEf iS hf tif';D ,ef;EG,zf mG ; vlrsK;d rsm; rSw
D if;aexdik =f uonf?
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wwfonfh (tjrifh 5˜881 rDwm&Sd cgumbd&k mZDawmif) wnf&&dS m t&yfvnf;jzpfonf?
ajrmufyikd ;f &Sd ESi;f zH;k awmifrsm;onf wdik ;f jynf. yifrjrpfjzpfaom {&m0wDjrpf. jrpfzsm;
cH&mae&mvnf;jzpfonf? ucsijf ynfe,fwiG f obm0o,HZmwESihf ouf&o
dS wW0gtrsK;d
rsKd;wdk@ pHkvifºu,f0onf? jynfe,fw ckxJrSmyifv#if opfcGrsKd;pdwfaygif; (800) &Sdonfh
tjyif/ &Sm;yg; awm&dik ;f wd&p>mefrsm;jzpfonfh (leaf deer) ac: orifwrsK;d ESihf taumift
a&twGuf qkwf,kwfav#mhyg;vmaeaom usm;tygt0if tjcm;&Sm;yg; owW0grsKd;pdwf
aygif;rsm;pGm&Sdonf? ausmf=um;aom +Adwdo# &kuQaA'ynm&Sifjzpfol tufzf-uif;'ef;
0g'h f (F.Kingdon Ward) u ucsijf ynfe,fonf “ta&S@awmiftm&Sa'o&Sd pdw0f ifpm;
zG,f taumif;qH;k &kuaQ A'ESihf owWaA'qdik &f m obm0Xmaeawmwck” [k azmfjyajymqdk
cJhygonf?
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ppfwyf}uD;pdk;r_ESifh ucsifjynfe,ftwGif; jzpfay:
ajymif;vJr_rsm;
a&&Snf jynfwGif;ppfyGJ'%fESifh jrefrmppfwyfu
ucsifjynfe,fae jynfolvlxkrsm;tay: zdESdyfr_/
vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufr_rsm; ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm
cHpm;cJh=u&+yD; aemufydkif;wGif/ (1994) ckESpfY
jrefrmppftpd;k &ESihf ucsiv
f w
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ucsijf ynfe,ftwGi;f wGif jrefrmppfwyf wyfz@JG rsm;
ododomomwdk;csJ@csxm;vmonfESifh ñuH=u&+yD;/
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apmif=h uyfaeaom ppfom;wOD;
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TtusKd;qufrsm;a=umifh jzpfay:vm&aom bufaygif;pHk tajctaeudk a'ocHacgif;
aqmiftcsKd @u taxGaxGp;D yGm;a&;/ obm 0ywf0ef;usiaf &;&mESihf vlra_ &; uyfoifrh [
_ yk if
ac:qdkcJh=uygonf? pdkufysKd;ajr{u axmifaygif;rsm;pGmESifh vlaetdrfrsm;udk ppftm%m
ydik rf sm;ESihf ‚wd@k . taygi;f yg pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;&Sirf sm;u zG@H òz;a&;trnfcv
H #uf odr;f ,lchJ

6

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
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qH;k &_;H cJ&h ygonf? owWKwl;az:a&;vkyif ef;rsm;a=umifh jrpfacsmif;rsm; npfnrf;=u&ygonf?
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rsm;xJo@kd wikd af tmif jrefrmppfwyfrsm; wd;k cs@J csxm;vm+yD;/ e,fpyfa'ozG@H òz;a&; tpDtpOf
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cJyh gonf? Tenf;tm;jzifh opfvyk if ef;rS aocsmayguf wdu
k &f u
kd f tjrwfxw
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ToabmwlnDr_rsm;wGif obm0"gwfaiG@ydkufvdkif; wnfaqmufa&;twGuf t}uD;pm;
Edik if jH cm;&if;ES;D jr‡KyfErHS r_ sm;vnf; yg0ifygonf? tdref ;D csi;f Edik if H od@k r[kwf Edik if jH cm;ukr%
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7

&m/ ppftpdk;&u T “obm0pGrf;tifa&mif;csr_”rSaeI EdkifiHa&;t&omru/ b¾m
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vnf; jzpfaeygonf?

Adv
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olrsm;vnf; wufa&mufco
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H iG f &S+d yD;om;
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tm;v#ypf pfxw
k v
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E_ef;&Sdonf[k cef@rSef;&ygonf? aemufxyf a&tm;v#yfppfxkwfvkyfEdkifrnfh puf&Hkrsm;udk
vnf; wnfaqmufaeqJ jzpfonf[k a=ujimcJyh gonf?
jrefrmEdkifiHwGif a&tm;v#yfppfxkwfvkyfrnf[k cef@rSef;wGufcsufxm;onfh yrm%onf
(38˜ 000) rD*g0yf jzpf&m/ ‚onf ta&S@awmiftm&Suek ;f ajr&Sd Edik if rH sm;xuf ausmv
f eG f
rsm;jym;aeonfh yrm%yif jzpfonf?3 (etz) ppftpd;k &onf Ttvm;tvmtwdik ;f
taumiftxnfaz:Edkifa&;twGuf tvGefpdwfxufoefaeonfjzpf&m/ owfrSwfxm;

8

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

aom tvm;tvm&So
d nfh ae&mrsm;Y &if;ES;D jr‡KyfEo
HS rl sm;ESihf em;vnfr_ pmc|ev
f m$ rsm;
trsm;tjym;udk tvsifpvdk a&;xdk;csKyfqdk v#uf&Sdygonf?
a&tm;v#ypf pf xkwv
f yk rf E_ iS hf qnfrsm; (Hydropower and Dams) trnf&dS pufrv
_ yk f
ief;r*~Zif;wGif r=umao;rDu azmfjycJhaom aqmif;yg;wapmift& “avmavmq,f
jrefrmEdkifiHwGif taumiftxnfaz:&ef pDrHcsufa&;qGJaeqJjzpfaom pDrHcsuf (29) ckudk
pm&if;ðypk az: jycJyh gonf? Tpm&if;xJwiG f ucsijf ynfe,f&dS qnfwnfaqmufa&;pDrcH suf
(5) ckta=umif; rygcahJ cs? ta=umif;rSm aqmif;yg; yHEk ydS af z: jy+yD; aemufyikd ;f rSom xkwf
jyef=ujimcJah oma=umifjh zpfonf?4 vuf&dS a=ujimxm;onfrsm; omru tpOfw;kd vmae
v#u&f adS om pDrcH surf sm;u az:nGe;f jyaeonfrmS ppftpd;k &taejzifh tvm;tvm&Sad e
onfh a&tm;v#yfppf"gwftm;ay;puf&Hkrsm; tjreftaumiftxnfaz:a&;ESifh xdkpuf&Hk
rsm; rSaeI EdkifiHjcm;aiGa':vmrsm; tirf;r&&&Sdvdkaeaom taetxm;yifjzpfonf?
tpd;k &onf v#ypf pf"gwt
f m;ay; vkyif ef;rsm;wGif t"duavmifpmtjzpf obm0"gwaf iG@
udk tm;xm;ae&mrS (2030) ckEpS f ta&mufwiG f a&tm;pGr;f tifbufo@kd ajymif;vJtm;
xm;awmhrnf[k v#ypf pfprG ;f tm; 0ef}uD;XmerS t&m&Sw
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obm0ywf0ef;usifqdkif&m qdk;usKd;rsm;udkrl jrefrmEdkifiHbuf tjcrf;rSmom c|if;csefxm;
&pfv=kd uygonf? xdik ;f Edik if EH iS hf tdE,
dN Edik if w
H @kd wiG f &Sad eonfh qnf}uD;rsm; wnfaqmufr_
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H iG f a&G;+yD; qnf
wnfaqmufvakd e=uygonf? Ttcsuo
f nfvnf; TEdik if rH sm;twGuf txl;qGaJ qmif
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_ kd pDppf=unf&h efEiS hf qnf
Conservation Union)wd@k u {&mrqnf}uD;rsm;. xda&mufru
}uD;rsm;aqmufvyk af &;ESihf ywfoufI pHxm;csurf sm; csrw
S Ef ikd &f ef urBmq
h nfrsm;qdik &f m
aumfr&Sif (World Commision on Dams--WCD) udk zG@J pnf;xm;cJyh gonf? Taumfr&Sif
{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

9

u (2)ESpaf usm=f um avhvmcJ+h yD;aemuf awG@&cdS &hJ onfrmS “ae&mtawmfrsm;rsm;Y qnf
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f pDtpOf (UN Environment Programme). urBmh
ywf0ef;usif xde;f odr;f r_ apmif=h unfah &; Xme (World Conservation Monitoring Centre)
u {&m0wDjrpfudk ‚. ZD0owW0g pHkvifaxGjym;jcif;ESifh tem*wfumvwGif zdpD;+cdrf;
ajcmufr_cH&zG,f ta=umif;rsm;a=umifh urBmay:wGif OD;pm;ay;xdef;odrf;&rnfh jrpf0Srf;
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rsm;t& {&m0wDjrpf0Srf;Y vltrsm; todtrSwfðyxm;aom iSufpm;usufe,fajr (4)

10

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

{&m0wD jrpf0rS ;f
© EarthTrends 2002 World Resources Institute

ckvnf;&Sdonf?11jrpf. ZD0owWpHkvifaxGjym;r_ta=umif;ESifh ywfoufI aumif;pGmavh
vmxm;onfrsm;vnf;r&Sad o;acs? r=umao;rDu awmifusacsmif; ig;clrsK;d pdwo
f pfrsm;
udk xyfrHawG@&SdcJh+yD;/ {&m0wDjrpfqHkESifh odyfra0;vSaomae&mrsm;wGif (2005) ckESpfu
awG@&SdcJh&jcif; jzpfonf?12 {&m0wDjrpfonf urBmay:wGif yOPrajrmuf EHk;wifajrESpfrsm;
trsm;qHk;ydk@csay;Edkifaomjrpfvnf;jzpfonf?
{&m0wDjrpfonf jrefrmEdkifiH. A[dkcsufrae&m
rsm;udk jzwfoef; pD;qif;oGm;onf? jrpf0rS ;f onf
(413˜ 674) pwk&ef;uDvrkd w
D m us,0f ef;+yD;/ jref
rmEdkifiH pkpkaygif;tus,ft0ef;. (61) &mcdkif
E_e;f udk v$r;f ðcHxm;onf?13 {&m0wDjrpfonf jrpf
a=umif;tv#m; (2˜170) uDvdkrDwmeD;yg;&Snf
v#m;+yD;/ wdkif;jynf. ta&;t}uD;qHk; ul;oef;
a&mif;0,fa&; a&a=umif;vrf;vnf;jzpfonf?

“{&m0wD[laomtrnfonf
tdik &f m0wD (Iravati) [laom
ooFu&dkuf bmompum;rS
qif;oufvmonf[k ,lq&
+yD;/ txGÉftjrwfxm;aom
jrpfEiS hf tdE,
dN '¾m&D vmewf
orD ; i,f w yg;[k t"d y ` g ,f
&ygonf?”
{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

11

The Myitsone
Song of praise for the Kachin confluence
Memorable ever pleasant Kachin homeland
Mali hka and Nmai hka flow there with beautiful and colorful surroundings
Local residents enjoy their lives
This is the lovely natural homeland of the Kachin people
Dear loving brothers and sisters
Will you forget it due to long loss of contact?
Will you be looking forward to my return?
On the river banks of Mali hka and Nmai hka
The singer’s song spreads
The fascinating environment of Kachin homeland
Impressed my heart and nostalgia is felt
I will keep the music of my soul in my heart for you brothers and sisters

Photo: tab

12

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

{&m0wDjrpfonf ucsifjynfe,f&Sd rvdcESifh tifrdkifc (arc) jrpfrsm;aygif;qHk&mrSaeI
pwifp;D qif;onf? Tjrpfzsm;c&m jrpfEpS pf if;vH;k onf [dr0E mW awmifwef;. ta&S@awmif
ydik ;f a'orS jrpfzsm;cHvmjcif; jzpfonf? tifrikd cf jrpfonf ylwmtdak jrmufbuf&dS vifa*Gvm
a&cJawmifxGÉf (Languela Glacier) rSm pwifay:xGef;onf? jrpfqHkonf ucsifjynf
e,fòr@awmf jrpf}uD;em;òr@. ajrmufbuf (28) rdkif tuGmwGif wnf&Sdonf? jrpfonf
jrefrmEdik if .
H A[dck surf a'orsm;ESihf wdik ;f jynf. 'kw,
d t}uD;qH;k òr@jzpfaom rE aW v;òr@ukd
jzwfoef;pD;qif;oGm;onf?
jrpfatmufyikd ;f jzpfaom {&m0wDjrpf0u|e;f ay:a'oonf us,0f ef;I ajrqDajrESpjf ynf0h
aom ajrjyef@ vGifjyifwckjzpf+yD;/ tvsm; (290) uDvdkrDwmESifh teH (240) uDvdkrDwm
&So
d nf? jrpf0u|e;f ay:a'o atmufyikd ;f onf vrk&@H$ !aHG wmESihf 'Da&a&muf jrpf0a'ojzpf
+yD;/ xdcdkufvG,faom El;nHhodrfarG@aom a*[pepfwckvnf;jzpfonf?14 jrpf0u|ef;ay:
a'oonf vlO;D a& (3) oef;ausmrf w
DS if;aexdik &f mjzpf+yD;/ jrefrmEdik if H qefpyg;txGu.
f
(60) &mcdik Ef e_ ;f eD;yg;udk Ta'ouxkwv
f yk f jznfq
h nf;ay;aeonf? od@k jzpfapumrl jrpf0
u|ef;ay:a'oae jynfolwdk@onf ppftpdk;&. tcGeftwkwfzdpD;r_ESifh ajr,mydkifqdkifcGifhrJh
aer_w@kd a=umifh qd;k &Gm;jyif;xefaom qif;&JraJG wr_'%fukd cHpm;ae=u&ygonf?15 yk*v
~ u
d ydik f
ykZeG af rG;vkyif ef;rsm; pnf;urf;rJv
h yk u
f ikd af e=ur_EiS hf opfawmðyef;wD;r_rsm;a=umifh obm0
ywf0ef;usirf sm; ysupf ;D qH;k &_;H ae=u&+yD;/ urBm@awm&dik ;f wd&p>mefrsm; &efyakH iGtzG@J (World
d @H$ !aHG wmrsm;&Sd a*[pepftwGi;f aexdik af e=uaom
Wildlife Fund) u {&m0wD a&csK&
awm&dik ;f wd&p>mefrsm;tzd@k tem*wf&iS o
f efEikd af &;onf “txl;pd;k &drzf ,
G f tajctaeqd;k
16
&Gm;aea=umif;” azmfjycJhygonf?
“urBmOD; wnfpuwnf;u usaemfwdk@&J@ obm0tarGjzpfcJhwJhae&m
wcsKd @&Syd gw,f? jrefrmEdik if rH mS qd&k if tJ't
D arGawGxrJ mS ykyg` ;awmif/ ZGu
J
yifawmife@J rvdc/ tifrikd cf jrpfqakH wG ygwmayg?h 'D&wemawG zsuq
f ;D
cHvdkuf&+yDqdk&if tm;vHk;zsufqD;cHvdkuf&ovdk jzpfoGm;rSmaygh?”
(ucsijf ynfe,frS oif;tkyq
f &mwOD;ESihf awG@qHak r;jref;csu/f awG@qHak r;
jref;cef; trSwf-30)

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

13

rvdcESihf tifrikd cf jrpfwYkd aygi;f qHI
k {&m0wDjrpfjzpf ay:vmaomae&m jrpfqkH

jrpfqHka'oESifhucsifwdk@twGuf
,Ofaus;r_t& ta&;ygr_

ucsiw
f @kd . rlvXmaeonf {&m
0wDjrpf/ jrpfzsm;cH&mawmifwef;
rsm;aomf v nf ; aumif ; / od k @ r
[k w f y d k I a0;uG m vS r f ; aom
ajrmufbuf&Sd wdbufukef;ajr
jrif h r S a omf v nf ; aumif ; qif ;
ouf v mol r sm;jzpf = uonf ?
vufqifhurf;ajym=um;vmcJh=u
aom vl}uD;olrrsm;. a&S;pum;rsm;t&/ ucsiw
f @kd onf rvdcESihf tifrikd cf (arc) jrpf
a=umif;rsm;wav#muf ajymif;a&$@tajccsqif;oufvm=uonf[k qdyk gonf? xd@k a=umifh
jrpfqHka'oonf ucsifvlrsKd;wdk@twGuf tvGefta&;ygaom ordkif;0ifae&mjzpfonf?
jrpfESpfoG,ft=um;&Sd }wd*HyHk o¿mefa'oudk ucsifvlrsKd;wdk@. tonf;ESvHk;ozG,f
tcsut
f csma'o[k vltrsm;u ,lqxm;=uonf? jrpfqakH 'oonf jrefrmEdik if &H x
dS if
&Sm;aom ae&mrsm;teufvnf;wckjzpf+yD;/ ESpfpOf vltrsm;tjym;vma&mufvnfywf

14

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

avh & S d = uonf ? Tae&monf {&m0wD . csuf j r‡ K yf Z mwd a e&mjzpf a oma=umif h
ucsif v l r sKd ; wd k i f ; u Tae&mtwG u f *k % f ,l = uonf ? *D w pmqd k E S i f h
uAsmq&mtawmfrsm;rsm;u jrpfqHkta=umif;a&;zGJ@cJh=u+yD;/ TjrpfqHkajrta=umif;ESifh
ywfoufI txl;a&;zGJ@xm;aom aw;oDcsif;trsm;tjym; &Sdaeonf?
wefz&Jaus;&Gmonf rvdcESihf tifrikd cf jrpfqw
kH iG f wnf&+dS yD;/ Tvrf;qHv
k rf;cGY avSqyd f
vnf;&So
d nf? jrpf}uD;em;rS jrpfnmydik ;f &Sd ydak 0;vHaom ae&mrsm;od@k omG ;vdyk gu Tae&m
wGif avSajymif;pD;=u&onf? ucsijf ynfe,f&dS ordik ;f 0if omoemðytzG@J }uD;wzG@J jzpfaom
±dkrefuufovpfausmif;awmf A[dkXmeonf wefz&Jaus;&GmwGif wnfxm;ouJhodk@/ t
jcm;ordkif;0ifbk&m;&Sdcdk;ausmif;rsm;vnf; T&GmY wnf&Sdae=uonf?
ucsifwdk@. '¾m&Dwyk'fu Todk@qdkygonf? urBmapmifhewf}uD;u vufwzufpDwGif
a&$cu
G w
f cGupf u
D ikd v
f #uf a&rsm;oGe;f csvu
kd o
f nf? vuf,mbufraS eI pD;qif;aomrvdc
({&m0wD) jrpfonf jrpftzdk jzpf+yD;/ ydI
k us,o
f nf? a&wdro
f nf? a&pD;oefonf? vuf0J
bufvufrSaeI oGef;csvdkufaom tifrdkifcjrpfonf ol. ESpfrjzpfonf? olronf
jrifrh m;aomawmifacsmuf urf;yg;rsm;/ opfyifjrif}h uD;rsm; xlxyf&mawmrsm;tkyrf ;kd xm;
v#uf jzwfoef;pD;qif;cJ&h +yD; vlrjrifomaom a&eufyikd ;f rsm;&So
d nf? xd@k twGuaf =umifh
olronf wdwfqdwfonf? tod&cufonf? tE W&m,fðywwfonf[k ,lq=uonf?
TonfrSmvnf; jrpfESpfoG,f. ,ae@yx0Dtaetxm; twdkif;yifjzpfonf? a&$cGufrS
aeIaygufzGm;vmojzifh/ jrpfESpfoG,fpvHk;wGif a&$tr_efrsm;/ twHk;tcJrsm; yg0ifpD;qif;
vm=uonf? a&$usio
f rl sm;onf ESpaf ygi;f rsm;pGmuwnf;uyif jrpfurf;oJjyifrsm;ay:wGif
f id_ f &Sad eaomig;
ydik ef ufowfrw
S I
f ,m,DwrJ sm;aqmufvyk f tdypf uf=u+yD;/ aygaygvid_ v
rsm;ESihf awmxJrS opfOopfzEk iS hf toD;t&Gurf sm;udk csuðf ywfpm;aomuf=uv#u/f Tjrpf
rsm;xJY a&$&SmcJh=uonf?17
jrpfqakH 'oonf '¾m&Dvm rdbrJh nDaemifjzpfol c±dik *f rf; (Hkrai Gam) ESihf c±dik af emf
(Hkrai Naw) wdk@ aexdkifvmcJh&m Zmwdt&yfa'otjzpfvnf; vltrsm;od=uonf?
'¾m&DyjkH yifu qd&k mwGif nDjzpfol c±dik af emfonf raumif;qd;k &Gm; odr;f iSu}f uD;waumif
udk ol.av;r#m;ESifh &J&ifhpGmcGif;+yD;aemuf ucsifjynfolwdk@udk u,fwifcJholtjzpfvnf;
trsm;. ,H=k unfu;kd pm;jcif; cHc&hJ onf? ol@ukd ,ae@umvwdik f ewftjzpf ylaZmfyoae
=uqJjzpfonf?

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

15

tydik ;f (2) {&m0wDjrpfqq
kH nf aqmufvyk af &;pDrcH suf
qnfEiS yhf wfoufaom tao;pdwt
f csut
f vufrsm;

(etz) ppftpdk;&onf w&kwfEdkifiHrS yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufrnfholrsm;ESifh yl;aygif;I (yxr
OD;pGm) {&m0wD jrpfr}uD;ay:wGif qnf}uD;wckwnf aqmufEikd &f eftwGuf pDru
H ed ;f jyifqif
a&;qGJv#uf&Sdaeygonf? odk@jzpfygu T}uD;rm;aomqnfa=umifh jrpf. obm0a&
a=umif;udk rkcsajymif;vJ oGm;aprnfjzpfonf? od@k aomfvnf; ppftpd;k &u Tqnfaqmuf
a&; pDrcH suaf qmif &Gurf nfh a'owGif aexdik =f uaom jynfov
l x
l rk sm;udk today;jcif;
rðybJ/ qnfwnfaqmufa&;ESihf ywfoufonfh tao;pdwf tcsut
f vufrsm;udv
k nf;
vlo&d iS f =um; xkwjf yefjcif; rðyao;yg? uHtm;avsmpf mG ucsizf @HG òzd;wk;d wufa&;uGe&f uf
tzG@J (KDNG) u TpDrcH suEf iS hf ywfoufonfh pm&Gupf mwrf;tcsK@d ukd &&SEd ikd cf +hJ yD;/ aqmuf
vkyrf nfh qnf. oabmobm0ESihf twdik ;f tqudk od&EdS ikd cf yhJ gonf? jrefrm v#ypf pf"gwf
tm; ay;vkyfief;ESifh/ pdkufysKd;a&;ESifh qnfajrmif;0ef}uD;Xmewdk@u a&;om;ðypkxm;aom
(2002) ckESpf/ azaz:0g&Dv &ufpGJazmfjyxm;onfh “{&m0wDjrpfqkHqnf bufpHka&tm;
pGr;f tif toH;k csa&; pDrcH su”f (Irrawaddy Myitsone Dam Multipurpose Water Utilizing
Project) trnf&dS Ttaxmuftxm; pmwrf;Y pDrc
H su.
f tao;pdwt
f csut
f vuf
rsm;udk az: jyxm;onf? (atmufwiG f azmfjyxm;ygonf?) TpDrcH suw
f iG f yg0ifywfouf
ae=uaom w&kwEf ikd if rH S ukr%
` t
D csKd @. qdik &f mtcsut
f vufrsm;udv
k nf; vwfwavm
owif;rD'D,mESifh pmapmifpmwrf;rsm;wGif azmfjycsufrsm;udk pkpnf;I az: jyay;xm;yg
onf?
(1) wnfae&m
(2) ajryHt
k n$e;f

tifrikd cf / rvdcjrpfq.
kH atmufbuf
(3)rdik f (jrpf}uD;em;òr@rS 25rdik t
f uGm)
1 vufrv#if 1 rdik pf au;/
92G 10 24 2860

(3) qnfe,fajrtus,f
(4) txufa&avSmifuef}uD;. a&tjrifh
(5) qnftjrifh

16

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

18˜ 000 pwk&ef;rdik f
980- ay (299-rDwm)
500-ay (152-rDwm)

(6) a&avSmifuef}uD; tjrifq
h ;kH xde;f Edik af oma&tjrifh
(7) a&avSiu
f ef}uD; trsm;qH;k xde;f xm;Edik af oma&xk
(8) yifrqnf.tvsm;
(9) txufqnf (awmifa=um) trSwf (1) tvsm;
(10) txufqnf (awmifa=um) trSw(f 2) tvsm;
(11) txufqnf (awmifa=um) trSwf (3) tvsm;
(12) qnftrsK;d tpm;
(13) owfrw
S x
f m;aom v#ypf pf"gwt
f m;
(14) trmcH v#ypf pf"gwt
f m;
(15) ESppf Ofxw
k v
f yk rf _

950-ay (290-rDwm)
34- {uay oef;
500-ay (152-rDwm)
4˜200-ay (1,280-rDwm)
4˜300-ay (1,311-rDwm)
1˜850-ay (564-rDwm)
ausmufpD uGeu
f &pfuikd f (a&jznfq
h nf)
3˜200 rD*g0yf
1˜ 100 rD*g0yf
16˜634 uDv0kd yf em&Doef;aygi;f

qnfukd rnfo@kd toH;k csrnfenf;

pDrcH suw
f iG f t"du yg0ifvyk af qmifrnfo
h l wOD;jzpf
aom w&kwfEdkifiH v#yfppf"gwftm; &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_
aumfyakd &;&Si;f (CPI) . tqdt
k &/ ,leefv#ypf pf
"gwftm;uGef&ufukr`%D (Yunnan Power Grid
H S xkwv
f w
$ af y;rnfh v#yf
Company) u jrefrmEdik if r
ppf"gwftm;rsm;udk ,leefv#yfppf"gwftm; uGef
&ufjzifh w&kwEf ikd if o
H @kd yd@k vw
$ af y;rnfjzpfonf?18
w&kwfEdkifiHonf ‚. “taemufrS ta&S@odk@
v#ypf pf"gwt
f m; yd@k vw
$ af y;a&;tpDtpOf” enf;
wlyif/ r[mrJacgifa'o v#yfppf"gwftm;uGef
&uf19 xJo@kd v#ypf pf"gwt
f m;rsm; yd@k vw
$ Ef ikd af &;
twGuf tjyif;txefavmaqmf aqmif&u
G af eonf? xd@k tjyif
Tqnfrsm;rS xkwfv$wf rnfh a&tm;v#yfppf &&Sda&;onf/ w&kwfEdkifiH. “taemuf
ydkif;a'orsm;wGif zGH@òz;r_jzpfay:vmapa&;”r[mAsL[m. ta&;}uD; tpdwftydkif;wck
jzpf+yD;/ w&kwEf ikd if H taemufyikd ;f rS aps;csKd oufompGm xkwv
f w
$ v
f u
kd af om v#ypf pf"gwf
tm;udk pGr;f tifvt
kd yfaev#u&f adS om ta&S@yikd ;f jynfe,f urf;&d;k wef;a'orsm;od@k yd@k vw
$ f
ay;&ef &nf&,
G cf suv
f nf; &Sad eonf?20
ucsifjynfe,f&Sd qnfrsm;ESifh &Srf;jynfe,f&Sd a&$vDqnfwdk@ ta=umif;ajymqdk&mY bef
aumuftajcpdu
k f pGr;f tifqikd &f m ydik ;f jcm;oH;k oyfow
l OD;u “jrefrmEdik if rH mS u 'Davmuf
rsm;wJh v#ypf pf"gwt
f m;udk yd@k vw
$ af y;Edik w
f hJ jzef@a0ay;a&; aumif;uif*&pf óu;uGe&f uf
{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

17

r&Sb
d ;l ? txl;ojzifh ucsijf ynfe,fvkd a0;vHoD acgiw
f t
hJ &yfrsK;d rSm 'Dvt
kd ajccHtaqmuf
tODrsKd;&Sdae[ef rwlbl;? 'Dawmh/ "gwftm;trsm;pkudk e,fpyfjzwf+yD; w&kwfEdkifiHbuf
ydk@ay;zdk@ ydkrsm;aew,f?”21[k oHk;oyfygonf?
tu,fIv#ypf pf"gwt
f m; tcsKd @t0ufukd jynfwiG ;f od@k jzef@a0ay;rnfqv
kd #iaf omfrS ppft
pd;k &. v#ypf pf "gwt
f m; xkwv
f yk rf E_ iS hf jzef@a0r_ tpOftvmt& a'ocHjynfow
l @kd tzd@k
v#ypf pf"gwt
f m;udk aps;csKcd sKEd iS hf azmazmoDoD &&Srd nfh tvm;tvm r&Sad cs? Oyrmjy&yg
v#if u&ifejD ynfe,f&dS avmydw a&tm;v#ypf pf "gwt
f m;ay;puf&rkH S v#ypf pf"gwt
f m;udk
&efuek Ef iS hf rE aW v;od@k yd@k ay;+yD; a'ocHaus;&Gmom;rsm;udk tarSmifxYJ xm;ypfcyhJ gonf?
(1993) ckESpfu ucsifjynfe,fY wnfaqmuf+yD;pD;cJhaom }udrfc&rfqnfrS v#yfppf"gwf
tm; trsm;pkudkvnf; teD;tem;&Sd ppfpcef;rsm;odk@om ydk@v$wfxdefvif;apcJhygonf?
(azmfjyxm;aom uGif;twGif;udk =unfhyg?)
v#yfppf"gwftm;a&mif;csr_rS &&Sdrnfh cef@rSef;ajcwefbdk;
v#ypf pfprG ;f tm; 0ef}uD;XmeESihf qnfajrmif;OD;pD;Xme wd@k . (2002) ckEpS /f azaz:0g&v
D xkwf
rSww
f rf;rsm;t& {&m0wDjrpfqq
kH nf. pDrcH suyf g v#ypf pf"gwt
f m; xkwv
f yk rf o
_ nf wESpf
v#if (16˜634) uDvdk0yf em&Doef;aygif; &SdEdkifygonf?
{&m0wDjrpfonf urBmay:wGif yOPrajrmuf EH;k ajr tenftESpt
f usq;kH jrpfjzpfygonf?
tenftESpfrsm;r_ a=umifh a&avSmifuef}uD;twGif; tenftESpf ydk@csr_E_ef; ydkjref+yD;/odk
avSmifEdkifpGrf;vnf; tv#iftjref av#mhenf; usqif;apygvdrfhrnf? odk@twGufa=umifh
‚. v#ypf pf"gwt
f m; xkwv
f yk rf o
_ nfvnf; av#mu
h somG ;zG,&f adS eygonf? (qdv
k o
kd nf
rSm a&avSmifuef}uD;xJwGif tenftESpfrsm; w0ufwysuf jynfhaeygu/ rdk;&moDwGif
a&odkavSmifEdkifpGrf; usqif;av#mhenf;ap+yD; aEG&moDwGif toHk;ðya&;twGuf t&enf;
oGm;apEdkifygonf?)
b¾maiG rnfr#ukefusrnfenf;?
trsm;tm;jzifh tif*sifeD,mrsm;u cef@rSef;=uonfrSm a&tm;v#yfppfxkwfrnfh qnf
wnfaqmuf&mY wyfqifaom pGr;f tm; (1) rD*g0yfv#if tar&duefa':vm (1) oef;cef@
ukeu
f sEikd yf gonf? ajrae&m tvGeaf umif;ygu Txuf ukeu
f spm;&dwf av#meh nf;Edik +f yD;/
pDrcH suw
f iG f rar#mv
f ifah om jy\emrsm; ñuHawG@&ygu ukeu
f spm;&dwf ydrk sm;Edik yf gonf?
t=urf;zsi;f tm;jzifh wGucf su&f v#i/f {&m0wDjrpfqq
kH nftwGuf &if;ES;D jr‡KyfErHS o
_ nf tar
&duefa':vm (3²6) bDvsHtxd&SdEdkifygonf?

18

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

tifrdkifc (arc) jrpfudkqnfzdk@jcif;
ppftpd;k onf {&m0wDjrpfay:&Sd yifrqnf}uD;tjyif/ jrpfqakH jrmufbuf&dS tifrikd cf jrpfay:Y
vnf; aemufxyf qnf (7)ck wnfaqmuf&ef vsmxm;aom pDrHudef;rsm;&Sdaeygao;
onf? (2007) ckESpf/ arv tpdk;&xkwf jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmyg aqmif;yg;wyk'fY
atmufygtwdkif;az: jyxm;ygonf?
trSwf (1) v#yfppfpGrf;tm; 0ef}uD;Xme vufatmuf&Sd/ a&tm;v#yfppf taumift
xnfaz:a&;XmeESifh w&kwfEdkifiH v#yfppf"gwftm; &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_aumfydka&;&Sif; (China
f pfvyk if ef; pDrcH suf (7)
Power Investment Corporation--CPI) wd@k onf a&tm;v#yp
ck ({&m0wDjrpfqHkY 3˜600- rD*g0yf pDrHcsuf/ csDaAGY 2˜000-rD*g0yf pDrHcsuf/ yg&SD;Y 1˜
600-rD * g0yf pD r H c suf / vm
rvdcESifh tifrdkifcjrpfay:&Sd qnfwnfaqmuf&ef
uifY 1˜400-rD*g0yf pDrcH su/f
zDaZmY 1˜500-rD*g0yf pDrH tqdjk yKxm;aom ae&mrsm;
csuf/ acgif*vefzlY 1˜700rD * g0yf pD r H c suf / vd k i f Z mY
1˜560-rD *g0yfpDrHcsuf) udk
ucsijf ynfe,ftwGi;f Y wnf
aqmuf o G m ;rnf j zpf o nf ?
Khaunglanphu
qnftm;vH;k wnfaqmuf+yD;
Phizaw
pD;oGm;yg u pkpak ygi;f rD*g0yf
Lakin
Laiza
(13˜36 0)udk xkwfv$wfay;
Pashe
Ed k i f r nf [ k ar#mf v if h x m;yg
Chibwe
onf? TpDrcH suo
f nf jrefrm
Myitsone
Edik if YH t}uD;qH;k a&tm; v#yf
ppfvyk if ef; jzpf+yD; wdik ;f jynf.
t}uD ; qH k ; a&tm;v#yf p pf
vkyif ef; pDrcH sujf zpfaom &Sr;f
jynfe,f&Sd (7˜100) rD*g0yf
xk w f a y;Ed k i f o nf h wmqef ;
qnf . tif t m;xuf o m
vGefaeygonf?22
jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmyg tcsuftvufrsm;t&
qnfwnfaqmufrnfh ae&mrsm;

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

19

tifrikd cf jrpfay:wGif wnfaqmuf&efvsmxm;aom {&mrqnf}uD;rsm; wnfaqmufrnfh
pDru
H ed ;f onf oef@f pifaomTjrpf. a*[pepfukd aocsmayguf xdcu
kd yf supf ;D aprnfjzpfyg
onf? xdrk #omru/ {&m0wD jrpftay:wGiv
f nf; rvGrJ aoGtusK;d oufa&mufrr_ sm;jzpf
ay:apygvrd rhf nf? TtpD&ifcpH mwGif az: jyxm;aom {&m0wDjrpfqq
kH nf. xdcu
kd &f u
kd f
cwfEikd rf _ qd;k usK;d rsm;twdik ;f yif/ tifrikd cf qnfrsm; tm;vH;k . &du
k cf wfr_ qd;k usK;d rsm;onf
vnf; tvm;wlyif jzpfygvrd rhf nf? Tqnfrsm;wnfaqmufrnft
h wGuaf =umifh vltrsm;
tdk;tdrftajcysuf&r_ taetxm;udk rod&SdEdkifao;yg?

w&kwfEdkifiH v#yfppf"gwftm; &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_ aumfydka&;&Sif; CPI)
ESifh jrefrmEdkifiH pGrf;tif0ef}uD;Xmewdk@ em;vnfr_pmc|efv$m
vufrSwfa&;xdk;yGJ tcrf;tem;

qnfwnfaqmufrnfhae&modk@ oGm;rnfh
vrf;azmufvkyfxm;yHk

tcsdefumv owfrSwfcsufrsm;
2002
{&m0wDjrpfqq
Hk nfa&bufpt
kH oH;k csa&;pDrcH suf trnfay;xm;aom
avhvmwdkif;xGmr_ w&yfudk jrefrmv#yfppf"gwftm;ay;vkyfief;ESifh
pdkufysKd;a&;ESifh qnfajrmif; 0ef}uD;Xmewdk@u a&;om;ðypkcJhonf?
uefqikd ;f v#ypf pf"gwt
f m; ukr%
` (D Kansai Electric Power
kH dS wefz&J&mG wGif tao;pm; rd;k av0\Xme
Company)u jrpfq&
wckwnfaqmufcJhonf?
2003
qnfaqmufrnfah e&mod@k KEPCO .wdik ;f wma&;tzG@J wzG@J 2-}udrf
a&mufvmcJh onf?
2004/ azaz:0g&D wefz&J&mG om;rsm;u ajrmufyikd ;f wdik ;f ppfXmecsKyf wdik ;f rSL; Adv
k cf sKyf
armifarmifa&$ xHo@kd uef@uu
G pf m ay;yd@k co
hJ nf?
2005/
atmufwdkbmv w&kwEf ikd if &H dS ,leef puf,E ,
W m; oGi;f uke/f xkwu
f ek f ukr%
` D
(Yunnan Machinery Export & Import Company)ESihf ulrif;
a&tm;v#ypf pf 'DZikd ;f Xme (Kunming Hydropower Institute of
k ;f wm=uonf?
Design) wd@k u qnfaqmufrnfh ae&mudk wdi

20

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

2005/ Edk0ifbmv (YMEC) ESihf jrefrm v#ypf pfprG ;f tif 0ef}uD;Xmewd@k tifrikd cf jrpf0rS ;f
zG@H òz;r_ yl;aygi;f aqmif&u
G af &;twGuf em;vnfrp_ mc|ev
f m$ w&yfukd
ulrif;òr@wGif vufrSwfa&;xdk; cJhonf?
2006/ =o*kw-f
pufwifbmv
ajryHka&;qGJjcif;vkyfief;udk txl;ðyvkyfudkifaom jrefrmEdkifiHrS pef;
wufenf;ynm ukr%
` v
D rD w
d uf (Suntac Technologies Co. Ltd)
u wefz&J&mG &Sd bke;f }uD;ausmif; wausmif;wGif &H;k pdu
k v
f #uf qnf
aqmufrnfah e&mudk wdik ;f wmcJo
h nf? wdik ;f wma&;vkyif ef;rSm toH;k
ðyrnfph uf,E ,
W m;rsm;udk w&kwjf ynfrS o,f,al &;udpP tqifajy
atmif aqmif&u
G af &;twGuf 0ga&Smif&mG wGiv
f nf; ,m,Dpcef;pdu
k f
J yk u
f ikd f
onf? pef;wufurk %
` o
D nf w&kwu
f rk %
` D (YMEC)ESihf yl;wGv
onf?
2006/
atmufwdkbmv qnfaqmufrnfah e&m (jrpfqrkH S atmufbuf 3-rdik t
f uGm) Y jref
rmEdkifiHrS at&Sa0gvfukr`%Du pDrHcsufaqmif&Gufa&; pcef;wck
wnfaqmufco
hJ nf? pcef;aqmufvyk +f yD;pD;onfEiS hf wòyifeuf w
&kwfvlrsKd;ajrae&mppfaq;a&;ynm&Sifrsm;onf pcef;wGif 5-v
=umr# aexdik v
f #uf ajr ae&m ppfaq;onf?
2006/ 'DZifbmv v#yfppfpGrf;tm; trSwf(1)0ef}uD;XmeESifh w&kyfEdkifiH. t}uD;qHk;
v#ypf pf"gwt
f m; xkwv
f yk af &; tzG@J jzpfaom w&kyEf ikd if H v#ypf pf"gwf
tm; &if;ES;D jr‡KyfErHS _ aumfyakd &;&Si;f (CPI)wd@k onf “arc-rvdc a&t
&if;tjrpfzGH@òz;a&;qdkif&m {&m0wDjrpfqHk a&tm;v#yfppf pDrHcsuf”
twGuf em;vnfrp_ m c|ev
f m$ w&yfukd vufrw
S af &;xd;k cJo
h nf? T
oabmwlnrD w
_ iG f jrpfqw
kH iG f 3˜600 rD*g0yf pDrcH suEf iS hf tifrikd cf jrpf
ay:&Sd csaD AGwiG f 2˜000 rD*g0yf pDrcH suw
f @kd yg0ifonf? Tvufrw
S af &;
xdk;onfh tcrf;tem;odk@ at&Sa0gvfukr`%Dvnf; wufa&muf
onf? ("gwyf &kH )_
2007/ Zefe0g&rD aS r w&kwEf ikd if rH S cse*f si;f 'DZikd ;f Xme (Changjing Design Institute of
f ufjzifh ajrwl;azmufjcif;/ a&avSmifuef ppfaq;jcif;
China)u vGep
ESihf ZvaA'wdik ;f wmjcif;rsm; aqmif&u
G &f eftwGuf 'DZikd ;f a&;qGaJ &;
tkyfpkrsm;apv$wfcJhonf?
2007/ {+yDv
qnf (7) ckwnfaqmuf&mY v#ypf pf"gwt
f m;ay;rnfh 65-rD*g0yf
"gwt
f m;ay; puf&w
kH &Hu
k kd csaD AGacsmif;teD;wGif wnfaqmufa&;t
{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

21

2007/ arv

wGuf tkwfjrpfcsajrnd‡yGJ tcrf;tem; usif;ycJhonf? puf&kHonf
{&m0wDjrpfqHkqnf tygt0if tifrdkifcESifh rvdcjrpfrsm;ay:wGif
qnf}uD; (7)ck wnfaqmufI v#yfppf"gwftm;ay;rnfjzpfonf?
tcrf;tem;udk ajrmufyikd ;f wdik ;f ppfXmecsKyfwikd ;f rSL; Adv
k rf LS ;csKyftek ;f
jrifhESifh v#yfppfpGrf;tm; trSwf(1)0ef}uD;Xme 0ef}uD; AdkvfrSL;}uD;
aZmfrif;wdk@u tzGifhrdef@cGef;ajym=um;zGifhvSpfcJhonf?23
trSwf (1) v#ypf pfprG ;f tm; 0ef}uD;Xme vufatmuf&dS a&tm;v#yf
ppfprD cH suf taumiftxnfaz:a&;XmeESihf w&kwEf ikd if H v#ypf pf"gwf
tm;&if;ES;D jr‡KyfErHS _ aumfyakd &;&Si;f (CPI)wd@k onf tifrikd cf ESihf {&m0wD
jrpfrsm;ay:Y pkpak ygi;f a&tm;v#ypf pfprD cH suf (7) ckwnfaqmufrnf
jzpfa=umif; jrefrmhtvif;owif;pmuaz: jycJhonf?
arv (1) &ufae@/ jrpf}uD;em;òr@Y “arc-rvdcjrpf0rS ;f ESihf jrpfqakH 'o
a&tm; v#ypf pfprD cH surf sm;ESihf csaD AGacsmif; a&tm;v#ypf pf pDrcH su”f
uGyfuJa&;&Hk; zGifhyGJtcrf;tem; usif;ycJhonf?
arv (21) &ufae@/ ucsijf ynfe,fw0Sr;f vH;k &Sd òr@e,frsm;rS trsm;
=unfnKd av; pm;jcif;cH&aom yk*Kd~ vfrsm;ESihf t}uD;tuJrsm;u Adv
k f
csKyfrSL;}uD;oef;a&$xHodk@ Tqnfwnfaqmufa&;ESifh ywfoufI
&yfqikd ;f ay;yg &ef uef@uu
G pf m 0dik ;f 0ef;a&;om;I ay;yd@k c=hJ uonf?
od@k &mwGif jyef=um;csuf wpHw
k &mr# r&&Scd ahJ cs?

qnfwnfaqmufrnfhae&m&Sd wdkif;xGma&;ynm&Sifrsm;

22

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

“olwdk@ajrjyif wdkif;xGmppfaq;wmawG
vkyfae=uw,f? qnfaqmufr,fhae&m
rSm tvkyform; w&mausmfavmufeJ@
w&kwftif*sifeD,mawG awG@ae&w,f?
ukefwifum;awGeJ@ pufawGvJ q,fpD;
avmuf&Sdw,f?”
(awG@qHkar;jref;cef;trSwf-27)
jrpfq&kH dS wefc;kd }uD;anmifyif teD;Y &yfxm;aom
qef;wufwikd ;f xGma&; ukr‘%DrS um;wpD;

qnfaqmufvkyfrnfhae&mY vwfwavm jzpfay:wdk;wufr_rsm;
vuf&SdumvwGif/ w&kwfEdkifiH v#yfppf"gwftm; &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_aumfydka&;&Sif; (pDyDtdkif)
k pf cef;rsm;rS
ESihf at&Sa0gurk %
` D vDrw
d ufw@kd u qnfaqmufrnfah e&m&Sd ‚wd@k . tajcpdu
aeI qnfae&mudk wdik ;f wmjcif; ESihf ajr&Si;f vif;jcif;rsm; vkyaf qmifaeygonf? wefz&J
aus;&GmrS &GmcHtvkyform; (24) a,mufcef@udk pcef;twGuf opfyifrsm; ckwfvSJ&ef/
ajr&Si;f &eftwGuf ac:,lcyhJ gonf? w&kww
f ikd ;f wma&;tzG@J wzG@J ajrae&m wdik ;f &ef ajymif;
a&$@vmcJyh gonf? &GmcHwOD;u ajymjy&mY “olw@kd ajrjyif wdik ;f xGm ppfaq;wmawG vkyaf e
=uw,f?
qnfaqmufrnfhae&m teD;tem;wGif at&Sa0gvf/ pef;wufESifh csef*sif;tzGJ@wdk@.
wdik ;f wma&;tkypf rk sm; csex
f m;&pfaom bdvyfajrazsmpf ufrsm;/ tvHrsm;ESihf qdik ;f bkwrf sm;
udv
k nf; trsm;tjym; awG@&adS e&onf? vrf;r}uD; wav#mufY ausmuferlem aowWm
rsm;udkvnf;awG@&onf?
a'oaejynforl sm;u a=umufvef@ae=uum/ rdrw
d @kd . a&S@a&;twGuf tpDtpOfrsm;udk
jyifqifae=u&onf? e,fajrcH oif;tkyq
f &mwOD;u ajymjy&mY “qnfomaqmufvu
kd f
&ifawmh usaemfw@kd &mG vnf; a&atmuf ðryfr,f-rðryfz;l qdw
k m taotcsm rajymEdik b
f ;l ?
'ga=umifrh @kd tdro
f pfaqmufr,fh tpDtpOf&w
dS mawmifrS tpDtpOf zsuyf pf&awmhr,f?”
(awG@qHkar;jref;cef; trSwf-25)

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

23

vuf0zJ ufraS eI tpOftwdik ;f ?
? jrpfqt
kH eD; wdik ;f xGm rSww
f rf;wifaeolwOD;? qifa*smifbrG f ESihf
*a&mifbrG f t=um;/ qnfwnfaqmufrnfah e&mY qef;wuf wdik ;f xGma&;ukr%
` .
D uGi;f qif;refae*sm
wOD;u tvHpdkufaeyHk? 0g'lbGrf&Sd wdkif;xGmrSwfwrf; jyKxm;aom tvHwck? vrf;ab;wGif &Sdaeaom
ausmufrD;aoG; erlemrsm;?

24

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

tusKd;pD;yGm;t& yg0ifywfoufae-uolrsm;
(etz) ppftpdk;&. tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;
v#ypf pfprG ;f tm; 0ef}uD;Xme (MOEP)
v#yfppfpGrf;tm; 0ef}uD;Xmeudk 0ef}uD;Xme (2) ck cGJI zGJ@
pnf;xm;ygonf? trSwf (1) v#ypf pfprG ;f tm; 0ef}uD;Xme
onf v#yfppf"gwftm; xkwfvkyfa&;twGuf wm0ef&Sd+yD;/
trSwf(2)v#yfppfpGrf;tm; 0ef}uD;Xmeu v#yfppf"gwftm;
jzef@jzL;ay;a&;twGuf wm0ef,&l ygonf? xd@k tjyif T0ef
}uD;Xmeonf (2002) ckEpS /f azaz:0g&v
D wGif a&tm;v#yf
ppfOD;pD;Xme ( Department of Hydroelecric Power-0ef}uD; Adv
k rf LS ;}uD;aZmfrif;
h gonf? TXmeonf tem*wfv#yf
DOHP) udk zG@J pnf;cJy
ppf"gwftm; vdktyfcsufudk jznfhqnf;ay;Edkifa&; twGuf
a&tm;v#yf p pf x k w f vk y f i ef ; rsm; pD r H c suf a &;qG J & ef E S i f h taumif t xnf a z:&ef
wm0ef&o
dS nf?24 T0ef}uD;Xmevufatmuf &Sd Edik if yH ikd f pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef; Xmersm;onf
v#ypf pf"gwt
f m; xkwv
f yk jf cif;/ yd@k vw
$ af y;jcif; ESihf jzef@jzL;ay;jcif;wd@k ukd wm0ef,al qmif
&Gu&f onft
h jyif Tvkyif ef;rsm;twGuf Edik if H jcm;&if;ES;D jr‡KyfEo
HS rl sm;ESihf zufpyfvyk if ef;rsm;
wnfaxmifEikd yf gonf? tifrikd cf ESihf rvdcjrpfrsm;ay:&Sd wnfaqmufa&;vkyif ef;rsm;twGuf
em;vnfrp_ mc|ev
f m$ rsm; vufrw
S af &;xd;k cJo
h rl mS trSw(f 1) v#ypf pfprG ;f tm; 0ef}uD;Xme
jzpfonf? Adv
k rf LS ;}uD;aZmfrif;onf (2006) ckEpS /f arvwGif trSwf (1) v#ypf pf pGr;f tm;
0ef}uD;Xme. 0ef}uD;jzpfvmcJhonf?
ajrmufydkif;wdkif; ppfXmecsKyf
ajrmufyikd ;f wdik ;f ppfXmecsKyf wdik ;f rSL;onf ucsijf ynfe,fEiS hf ppfuikd ;f
wdik ;f wpdww
f ydik ;f wGif ppfqifa&; wm0ef,&l ygonf? jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f
vuf&dS ppfXmecsKyf (13) ck&I
dS wdik ;f rSL; (13) OD; &Syd gonf? olw@kd onf
EdkifiHawmf +idrf;csrf;a&;ESifh zGH@òz;a&;aumifpD tzGJ@0ifrsm;vnf;
jzpfygonf? “olw@kd &@J =oZmt&Sed t
f m%m uawmh &efuek rf mS &Sw
d hJ
ajrmufyikd ;f wdik ;f
k vG&J if/ wEdik if v
H ;kH qdik &f m rl0g' csrw
S w
f hJ udpaP wGukd ausmf
ppfXmecsKyfwdkif;rSL; zG@J pnf;yHu
vGef =oZmra&mufEikd =f ubl;? 'gayr,fh olw@kd xikd &f wJh ppfwikd ;f awGrmS
AdkvfcsKyf tkef;jrifh
awmhææ wdik ;f rSL;awGu =oZmt&Sq
d ;kH yJ? pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef; uefx
&du
k pf mcsKyfupd aP wG/ t&if;tjrpf xkw,
f al &;vkyif ef;awG/ td;k tdrjf cHajrwnf aqmufa&;
vkyfief;awG/ ausmif;/ aps;eJ@ vrf;-wHwm; wnfaqmufa&; vkyfief;awG tm;vHk;rSm
{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

25

olwdk@u qHk;jzwfEdkifw,f? &J/ vHkðcHa&;wyfzGJ@awGeJ@ axmufvSrf;a&;awGuvnf; olwdk@
acgi;f rndr‡ &hf if bmrSvyk yf ikd cf iG hf r&S=d ubl;?”[k wOD;u azmfjyygonf?25
w&kwfEdkifiH v#yfppf"gwftm; &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_
aumfydka&;&Sif; (CPI)
w&kwEf ikd if H v#ypf pf"gwt
f m; &if;ES;D jr‡KyfErHS _
aumfyakd &;&Si;f (CPI) ud/k jrefrmhtvif;
owif;pmu jrpfqHk&Sd qnf(7) ckwnf
aqmufa&; vkyfief;rsm;ESifh ywfoufI
azmfjycJh&mwGif v#yfppfpGrf;tm;0ef}uD;
Xme. vkyfief;vkyfazmfudkifzuftjzpf
vnf;aumif;/ “jrpfqakH 'o a&tm;v#yf
ppfaq;a&;tzGJ@udk vd_ufvd_ufvSJvSJóuqdkae=uyHk
ppfvyk if ef;pDrcH surf sm;”. pDrcH suf refae
*smtjzpfvnf;aumif; az: jycJhygonf? csef*sif; 'DZdkif;Xme (atmufwGif =unfhyg) ESifh
twly;l wGI
J jrpf0rS ;f a'owckv;kH udk v$r;f ðcHonfh r[mpDru
H ed ;f ESihf jrpfqEkH iS hf csaD AGa&tm;
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f m;ay; puf&w
kH nfaqmufa&;twGuf yHpk x
H w
k f 'DZikd ;f a&;qGaJ &;vkyif ef;rsm;
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w&kwEf ikd if H v#ypf pf"gwt
f m; &if;ES;D jr‡KyfErHS a_ umfyakd &;&Si;f (CPI) onf ,cif w&kwEf ikd if /H
Edik if aH wmf v#ypf pfprG ;f tm;aumfyakd &;&Si;f (State Power Corporation of China--SP)
. pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;Xme tydik ;f rSaeI cGaJ xmifxm;jcif; jzpfygonf? rSwyf w
kH ifxm;aom
t&if;tES;D tjzpf tar&duefa':vm (1² 57) bDvsH &S+d yD/ (CPI) onf Edik if aH wmfaumifp.
D
todtrSwfðycsuft& prf;oyf tpdk;& &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_ vkyfief;jzpf+yD;/ EdkifiHawmfydkif OD;ydkif
aumfydka&;&Sif;w&yf jzpfvmcJhygonf? ‚onf w&kwfjynf. t}uD;qHk; v#yfppfxkwf
vkyfa&;vkyfief;}uD;wck jzpfygonf?26
(2007) ckEpS f tapmydik ;f Y w&kwEf ikd if H v#ypf pf"gwt
f m; &if;ES;D jr‡KyfErHS a_ umfyakd &;&Si;f (CPI)
awmifydkif;XmecGJonf “jrefrma&tm;v#yfppf pDrHcsufrsm;. t&ma&mufr_udk pdwfyg0if
pm;r_ jyoaomtm;jzifh” jrefrma&tm;qdkif&m XmecGJ (Myanmar Hydro Division)
wckudk wnfaxmifcJhonf? (CPI) OuUXonf (2007) ckESpf/ azaz:0g&Dv twGif;u
XmecG&J ;kH od@k omG ;a&muf+yD;/ “wdik ;f jynf. pufrw
_ ;kd wufa&; r[mAsL[mESiu
hf u
kd n
f aD om”
jrefrmEdik if &H dS pDrcH surf sm; t&Sed jf r‡iw
hf ;kd wufjzpfay:apa&;twGuf nGe=f um;csurf sm;ay;cJyh g
27
onf?

26

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

w&kwEf ikd if H awmifyikd ;f v#ypf pf"gwt
f m;uGe&f uf (China Southern Power Grid)
(2007) ckEpS /f arv(21)&ufae@wiG f (CPI)onf “tifrikd cf / rvdcESihf {&m0wDjrpf0rS ;f rsm;&Sd
a&tm;v#ypf pf pDrcH surf sm; yl;wGt
J aumiftxnfaz:a&;ESihf ywfoufI yl;aygi;f aqmif
&Gufa&; oabmwlnDcsuf w&yfudk w&kwfEdkifiH awmifydkif;v#yfppf"gwftm;uGef&uf
aumfyakd &;&Si;f (China Southern Power Grid Corporation)ESihf vufrw
S af &;xd;k cJyh gonf?
Tod@k jzifh TpDrcH surf sm;wGif ‚ukr%
` ED pS cf o
k nf r[mAsL[majrmuf vkyif ef;vkyzf ufrsm;
jzpfvmcJha=umif; tcsufjyvdkufjcif;yif jzpfygonf?28
w&kwEf ikd if H awmifyikd ;f v#ypf pf"gwt
f m;uGe&f uf (CSG) onf/ w&kwjf ynf. awmifyikd ;f
jynfe,f (5) ckrS aumfyakd &;&Si;f rsm;udk aygi;f pkv#uf (2000)ckEpS /f 'DZifbmvwGif wnf
axmifcahJ om tpd;k &ydik u
f rk %
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D ckjzpfygonf? vuf&t
dS m;jzifh Tukr%
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(CSG)onf w&kwE
f ikd if .
H awmifyikd ;f v#ypf pf"gwt
f m; uGe&f ufEiS hf ywfoufaom &if;ES;D
jr‡KyfErHS /_ wnfaqmufrE_ iS hf pDrt
H yk cf sKyfrw
_ @kd uo
kd mru v#ypf pf"gwt
f m; yd@k vw
$ jf cif;/ jzef@a0
jcif;rsm;udkyg wm0ef,l&onf? ‚onf r[mrJacgifa'o v#yfppf"gwftm; aumfydka&;
&Si;f wGif Edik if aH wmfaumifpu
D cef@tyfwm0efay;xm;onfh tvkyt
f r_aqmiftzG@J 0ifvnf;
jzpfonft
h jyif r[mrJacgiaf 'o v#ypf pf"gwt
f m;aumfyakd &;&Si;f . vkyif ef;udk wufwuf
29
ºuºu wGe;f aqmfay;v#u&f o
dS nf?
Photo: CPI publication

&if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHolrsm;
w&kwfEdkifiH v#yfppf"gwftm; &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_
aumfyakd &;&Si;f (CPI)onf ‚. Edik if &H yfjcm;
&if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_wGif b¾maiGaxmufyHhjcif;/
ñu&H Edik af om ar#mv
f ifrh xm;onfh tE &W m,f
qHk;&_H;r_rsm;udk pDrHtkyfcsKyfjcif;wdk@ESifh ywf
w&kwfEdkifiH v#yfppf"gwftm; &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_ aumfydka&; oufI b%f}uD;rsm;ESifh aumfydka&;&Sif;t
&Sif; (CPI) u 2007 ckESpf/ rwfvwGif usif;yaom rsm;udk oGm;a&mufawG@qHk+yD; t}uHOm%f
jynfy&Sd a&tm;v#yfppfpDrHcsufrsm;Y &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_zdwf rsm;awmif;cHcy
hJ gonf? Tod@k aom aqG;aEG;
ac:a&;aqG;aEG;yGJwck
wdkifyifcH tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;wGif w&kwfEdkifiH
yd@k uek -f oGi;f ukef b%f (China Exim Bank)/ w&kwEf ikd if H yd@k uek f tmrcH aumfyakd &;&Si;f
(China Export Credit Insurance Corporation)/ w&kwE
f ikd if H pufrE_ iS hf ul;oef;a&mif;
0,fa&;b%f (Industrial and Commercial Bank of China)/ w&kwEf ikd if H aqmufvyk f
a&;b%f (The Construction Bank of China)/ umvf,eG f aumfyakd &;&Si;f ESihf &if;ES;D jr‡yEf rHS _
{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

27

b%f (Calyon Corporate and Investment Bank) (rlv jyifopfyikd )f ESihf at&Sa0gvf
ukr%
` w
D @kd jzpfygonf?
,leef puf,EW,m; oGi;f uke/f xkwu
f ek f ukr%
R` D (Yunan Machinery Equipment Import
& Export Company) (YMEC)

,leef puf,E ,
W m;oGi;f uke/f xkwu
f ek f ukr%
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H xdyw
f ef;
puf,E W,m;ESifh v#yfppfypPnf; ydk@ukefvkyfief; (100) wGif wcktygt0if jzpfygonf?
ukr%
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f ,
G rf _ yrm% onf tar&duefa':vm oef;aygi;f (700) ausmf
&SdcJhygonf? (YMEC)onf jrefrm/ AD,uferfESifh tar&duef jynfaxmifpkwdk@Y a&tm;
v#yfppfpuf&Hkaygif; (24) &Hkudk wm0efcHwnfaqmufay;aeygonf?30
,leefae@pOf owif;pm (Yunnan Daily News). azmfjycsut
f & (YMEC) ESihf jrefrm
v#ypf pfprG ;f tm; 0ef}uD;Xmewd@k onf (2006) ckEpS /f Ed0k ifbm (30) &ufae@wiG f ulrif;òr@Y
tifrdkifcjrpf0Srf; zGH@òz;a&; yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_twGuf em;vnfr_ pmc|efv$mw&yfudk
vufrSwfa&;xdk;cJhygonf?31 em;vnfr_ pmc|efv$myg ta=umif;t&mrsm;udk trsm;od
atmifxw
k jf yefa=ujimjcif; rðyojzif/h w&kwEf ikd if H v#ypf pf"gwt
f m; &if;ES;D jr‡KyfErHS a_ umfyakd &;
&Sif; (CPI) ESifh qufqH&mY (YMEC). tcef;u¾ rnfodk@&Sdrnfudk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;
rod&yg? (atmufwGif azmfjyxm;onfudk =unfhyg?)
cse*f si;f (wdik ;f wma&;/ pDru
H ed ;f a&;qGaJ &;/ 'DZikd ;f a&;qGaJ &;ESihf okawoeðya&;)Xme Cha-ngjiang
Institute of Surve-ying, Planning, Design and Research) (CISPDR)

csef*sif; (wdkif;wma&;/ pDrH udef;a&;qGJa&;/ 'DZdkif;a&;qGJ a&;ESifh okawoeðya&;Xme/
twdkaumuftm;jzifh csef *sif;'DZdkif;tzGJ@ ) onf “t}uD; pm;ESifh{&mr”a&odkavSmif
a&;vkyfief;rsm;ESifh a&tm; v#yfppfpDrHcsufrsm;ESifh ywf oufI tif*sifeD,mu|rf;
usifr_qdkif&m wdkif;wmr_rsm;/ pDrHudef;a&;qGJjcif;/ 'DZdkif;a&; qGJjcif;/ okawoeðyjcif;/ t
wkdifyifcHt}uHðyjcif;/ }uD;=uyf ay;jcif;wdk@udk aqmif&Guf onf? Tvkyfief;rsm;ESifh
ywfoufI TtzGJ@onf w&kwfEdkifiHwGif t}uD;qHk;jzpfonf? csef*sif;'DZdkif;tzGJ@onf
w&kwfEdkifiH. ausmf=um;aom ausmuf(3)vHk; jrpfusOf;qnf wnf aqmufa&;udk
wm0ef , l a qmif & G u f c J h o nf o mru bJ v d k u f Z f (Belize)/ tD o d , d k ; yD ; ,m;/ ql ' ef /
udkvHbD,m/ oD&dv uFm/ *DeD,m/ zD*sD/ uGef*dk/ tDuGmwdk&D ,,f*DeDESifh tmz*ef
epPwefEdkifiHrsm;wGif pDrHcsufrsm; vkyfaqmifaeygonf?

28

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

Photo: CPI publication

csef*sif; wdkif;wma&;tzGJ@rS
vuf a tmuf c H t zG J @ wzG J @
onf {&m0wDjrpfqq
kH nfae
&mod@k oGm;a&mufcahJ om (5)
v=umc&D;udk r=umao;rD
uyif +yD;qH;k cJyh gonf? pufjzifh
ajrazgufjcif;/ a&avSmifuef
ppfaq;jcif;ESifh ZvaA'wdkif
wmjcif ; rsm; aqmif & G u f c J h
onf?32
tcsKd@aom aqmif;yg;rsm;u
cse*f si;f wdik ;f wma&;tzG@J uo
hJ ykd if
tvm;wlvkyfief;rsKd;vkyfudkif
aom ul r if ; 'D Z d k i f ; tzG J @

(Kunming Design Institute) . yg0ifywfoufr_t

a=umif;udkvnf; az: jy=u
onf?

pwDAifavm

Photos of CISPDR’s field work in Kachin State

at&Sa0gvf ukr%
` v
D rD w
d uf (Asia World Co., Ltd)
at&Sa0gvf ukr%
` v
D rD w
d ufonf jrefrmEdik if &H dS t}uD;qH;k pD;yGm;a&;
vkyfief;pk}uD;wckjzpf+yD;/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;aygif;pHkudk us,fus,f
jyef@jyef@vkyfudkifaeonf? emrnfysufpm&if;0if bdrf;bk&ifa[mif;
avmfppf[efu (1992) ckESpfwGif wnfaxmifcJhaom Tukr`%D
onf ,cifòr@awmfa[mif;&efukefY XmecsKyf&Hk;zGifhxm;&Sdonf?

jynfwiG ;f Y at&Sa0gvo
f nf ukeo
f ,
G v
f yk if ef;/ tajccHtaqmuftOD tdr,
f m&if;ED;S jr‡Kyf
ESHr_vkyfief;/ ukefypPnf; xkwfvkyfa&;/ axmufyHha&;vkyfief;ESifh ya&m*sufpmcsKyfvkyfief;
rsm;udk vkyu
f ikd o
f nf? at&Sa0gvo
f nf aqmufvyk af &;uefx&du
k pf mcsKyfcsKyfqjkd cif;/ ypPn;f
ESihf pufu&d,maxmufyjhH cif; uJo
h @kd aom tpd;k &vkyif ef;rsm;wGiv
f nf; yg0ifvyk u
f ikd o
f nf?
33
EdkifiHwumvkyfief;rsm;udkrl t"dutm;jzifh zufpyfvkyfief;taejzifh vkyfudkifonf?
{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

29

avmavmq,fY avmfppf[efonf ukr%
` .
D OuUXjzpfonf? ol.om; jzpfol xGe;f jrifEh ikd f
(ac:) pwDAifavmonf refae*sif;'g&dkufwmjzpfonf? pwDAifavmonf bdef;ukeful;
&mrSmyg0ifywfoufonf[k ouFmruif; jzpfc&H r_a=umif/h (1996) ckEpS w
f iG f tar&duef
jynfaxmifpo
k @kd oGm;a&muf&ef ADZmydwyf ifccH &hJ onf? Tod@k emrnfysurf a_ =umifh at&S
a0gvfukr`%Dtaejzifh jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif; aqmif&Gufaeaom pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;
xdcdkufepfemr_r&Sdonfhtjyif/ vuf&Sd tm%m&Sif tpdk;&atmufwGif rñuHpzl;atmifjrif
r_rsm;&aeonf?
(1995) ckEpS w
f iG f pwDAifavmu/ vkyaf z:udik zf ufwOD; jzpfol puFmylEikd if o
H l pDpv
D ,
D m
iuf (Cecilia Ng)ESihf vufxyfco
hJ nf? jrefrmEdik if &H dS puFmyl &if;ES;D jr‡KyfErHS r_ sm;. w0uf
ausmaf usmo
f nf at&Sa0gv.
f tpkpyfyg0ifrj_ zifh 0ifa&mufco
hJ nf[k cef@reS ;f &onf? pwD
Aifavmonf puFmylvyk if ef;&Sirf sm; todik ;f t0dik ;f xJwiG f v_y&f mS ;aeqJ&adS e+yD;/ ol@zcif.
yifv,f&yfjcm;&Sd vkyif ef;rsm;udk at&Sa0gv.
f yifv,f&yfjcm;&Sd ukr%
` cD rJG sm;jzifh pDrt
H yk cf sKyf
ay;v#u&f o
dS nf? 34
Photo: tab

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%D . wd u saom tcef ; u¾ud k
xkwfaz:a=ujimxm;cJhjcif;r&Sdacs?
odk@&mwGif olwdk@. vkyfaqmifcsuf
rsm;wGif jrefrmAdkvfcsKyfrsm;ESifhw
&kwf ukr`%Dwdk@t=um;tquft
oG,fvkyfay;jcif;/ vrf;azgufvkyf
jcif;ESifhypPnf;u&d,mrsm;axmuf
qnfwnfaqmufrnfhae&m&Sd at&Sa0gvf ukr`%D
tajcpdkufpcef;
yHhjcif;wdk@yg0ifvdrfhrnf[k ucsifzGH@òzd;
wk;d wufa&;uGe&f uftzG@J (KD NG)u
,lqonf? at&Sa0gvo
f nf a& avSmifuef}uD; a&rjznfrh D umvwGiyf if opfuo
hJ @kd aom
t&if ; tjrpf r sm;xk w f , l j cif ; rS a eI tusKd ; tjrwf & Ed k i f z G , f & S d a eygonf ?
a&rv$r;f rDwiG o
f wWKESihf tjcm;ausmuf jruf&wemrsm; wl;az:&eftwGuf a&avSmifuef
wnfaqmufrnfh ae&mrsm;wGif prf;oyf ppfaq;r_rsm; vkyfaeonf[k ,lq&a=umif;
a'ocH&Gmom;rsm;u ajymjycJhygonf? at&S a0gvfonf opfvkyfief; cGifhðycsuf
trsm;tjym; &xm;+yD;jzpf&m/ a&rv$r;f rDwiG yf if a& avSmifuef wnfaqmufrnfah e&mod@k
0ifa&mufopfckwfEdkifzG,f&Sdaeygonf?

30

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

pef;wuf enf;ynmukr`%DvDrdwuf (Suntac

Technologies Co. Ltd.)

pef ; wuf enf ; ynmuk r ` % D v D r d w uf o nf
(1999) ck E S p f w G i f wnf a xmif c J h a om pef ;
wuf ukr`%Dpk . vufcGJ ukr`%Dwckjzpf+yD;/
&efuek òf r@wiG f tajcpdu
k o
f nf? pef;wuf onf
trsK;d om;ajrwdik ;f tcsut
f vufrsm; ðypka&;
(National Spatial Database Development)

jrpf}uD;em;òr@&Sd qef;wufukr`%D&Hk;cef;

wm0ef,x
l m;&+yD;/ vrf;yef;qufo,
G f a&;ESiyhf wfoufaom tif*sif eD,mavhvmr_rsm;/
ta0;ajy;vrf;ESihf rD;&xm;vrf;wnfaqmufa&;/ qnfajrmif;wm wrHEiS hf oufqikd af om
avh v mr_ r sm;ud k aqmif & G u f a y;ygonf ? 35 pef ; wuf o nf (etz) ppf t pd k ; &
0ef}uD;Xmersm;ESifh wdkuf&dkuftquf toG,f&Sdonfhtjyif rl;,pfaq;0g;ukef ul;r_wGif
yg 0ifywfoufjcif;/ w&m;r0ifopfcw
k jf cif;wd@k a=umifh raumif;emrnfausmf aZmaeaom
at&Sa0gvf ukr`%DvDrdwuf/ xl;ukr`%Dwdk@uJhodk@aom ukr`%Drsm;twGuf vkyfiefrsm;
vnf; aqmif&Gufay;aeonf? EdkifiHwume,fy,fwGif pef;wufonf tjiif; yGm;zG,f
` D
oHviG jf rpfqnf wnfaqmufa&;udpw
P iG f yg0ifywfoufaeaom xdik ;f Edik if rH S (MDX) ukr%
ESiv
hf nf;aumif;/ jrefrmEdik if YH t}uD;qH;k owWKrdik ;f wl;az: a&;vkyif ef;}uD;wckjzpfonfh uae
'gukr`%D/ tdkifAif[dk owWKwl;az:a&;vkyfief; (Ivanhoe Mining) wdk@ ESifhvnf;aumif;
aygif;zGJ@vkyfudkifv#uf&Sdygonf?
w&kwEf ikd if H v#ypf pf"gwt
f m; &if;ES;D jr‡KyfErHS a_ umfyakd &;&Si;f (CPI) rSxw
k af 0aom pmapmifw
apmif. az: jyxm;csuft& pef;wufenf;ynm ukr`%Donf qnfae&m wdkif;wma&;
ajryHrk sm;twGuf ajrtaetxm;jy aumif;uif"gwyf rkH sm; &du
k &f efwm0ef,al y;&ygonf?
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f ESihf pufwifbmvwGif ,leef puf,E ,
W m; oGi;f uke/f xkwu
f ek f
ukr`%D (YMEC) xHrS puf,E W,mrsm;udk qnfaqmufrnfh ae&modk@o,f,l+yD;v#if
wdkif;wmr_rsm; vkyfaqmifcJhygonf?
uefqikd ;f v#ypf pf"gwt
f m; ukr%
` pD k (Kansai Electric Power Co, Inc.) (KEPCO)
uefqikd ;f v#ypf pf"gwt
f m; ukr%
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H iG f t}uD;qH;k &if;ES;D jr‡KyfEx
HS m;aom
36
v#yf ppf"gwt
f m; ukr%
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H iG f a&tm;v#ypf pfpuf&rkH sm;
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f
wGif;Y jrpfqHkpDrHcsufjzpfEdkifzG,f &Sd-r&Sd avhvmwdkif;xGma&;twGuf wm0ef,lcJhygonf?
(2002) ckESpftwGif;Y uefqdkif;ukr`%Donf wefz&J&GmwGif rdk;av0\ Xmei,fwckudk
wnfaqmufcJhygonf? ("gwfyHkudk =unfhyg?)
{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

31

{&m0wD jrpfqq
kH nf pDrcH suaf =umifh a&v$r;f cH&rnfah e&mrsm;

Marazup

N’jangyang
Chibwe

Tang Hpre

Sailaw

Myitkyina

32

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

tydik ;f (3)? {&m0wDjrpfqq
kH nfa-umifh jzpfvmEdik af om &du
k cf wfr+ qd;k usKd;rsm;
qnftxufyikd ;f ?
? a&zH;k v$r;f jcif;ESihf t"rRa&$@ajymif;&r_rsm;
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a&avSmifuef}uD;. tjrifq
h ;kH a&csed rf w
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f uf edrahf omae&mrsm;rS vlxrk eS o
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33

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34

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35

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36

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37

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38

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40

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G cf =hJ u&aomae&monfvnf; aemifrsK;d qufrsm;pGmwdik f
qHk;&_H;oGm;apawmhrnfjzpfonf?
“ucsiv
f rl sK;d awG[m 'DprD cH suf jyef&yk o
f rd ;f ay;zd@k (etz) ppftpd;k &eJ@ w&kwf ukr%
` aD wG/
jrefrmukr%
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hf a&; qdo
k ifw
h ,f? 'Dvakd wmif;qdzk @kd wm0efvnf;&Sw
d ,f? 'Dvkd
rvkyEf ikd =f uzl;qdv
k #ijf zifh {&mrordik ;f aºu;wifawmhrmS aocsmw,f? bmjzpfv@kd vq
J akd wmh
jrpfqakH 'oqdw
k m ucsiv
f rl sK;d awG&@J ordik ;f a=umif;/ *k%o
f u
d mQ eJ@ qufpyfaevd@k yJjzpf
w,f?” (awG@qHak r;jref;jcif;/ trSwf 30)

a&jrKyfoGm;rnfh wefzJaus;&Gm&Sd &dk;&m,Ofaus;r_ taqmuftODwck
{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

41

ig;zrf;ol wHigtrsm;pku ydu
k cf sjcif;udk 2 rsK;d toH;k jyKavh&o
dS nf? avSay:rS ydu
k af r#mjcif;ESihf tjcm;w
enf;rSm ydu
k u
f kd tao 24 em&D wae@vH;k axmifxm;+yD; wae@v#if 2-3 }udrf ppfaq;jcif;rsK;d jzpfonf?

42

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

toufarG;0rf;ausmif;r+b0rsm; ysufp;D -u&jcif;?
“qnfrsm;wnfaqmufjcif;a=umifh jrpfatmufajca'orsm;wGif wHigvkyfief;
xGuu
f ek rf sm; odoo
d momav#meh nf;us qif;oGm;a=umif;udk urBmw0Sr;f vH;k &Sd
jzpf&yfrsm;t&od&cdS &hJ ygonf?” 38
qnfrsm;wnfaqmufjcif;a=umifh jrpfatmufyikd ;f a'orsm;wGif qd;k usK;d rsm;udk uDvrkd w
D m
&mESichf saD om tuGmta0;txd/ jrpfa=umif;wav#muf. jyifya'orsm;txd oufa&muf
cHpm;&apEdik yf gonf? qnfwnfaqmuf +yD;+yD;csi;f / cHpm;&rnfh qd;k usK;d rsm;udk jrpfatmuf
ajca'orsm;wGif awG@ñuH=u&rnf jzpf+yD;/ tcsdefESifhtr# qdk;usKd;rsm;u ydkIwdk;yGm;vm
Edkifygonf?
ig;rsm; ajymif;a&$@tajccsonfh vrf;
a=umif;udk ydwfqdk@apaoma=umifh/
ig;rsm;rSm jrpftnmod@k wufI om;
aygufjcif;rðyEdkif=uawmhyg? Ttcg
jrpfatmufajca'o&Sd wHigvkyfief;
rsm;wGif qdk;&GmpGmxdcdkufr_&Sdvmap
ygonf? qnfrsm;a=umifh rlv&S&d if;pGJ
ig;rsKd ; uG J r sm;vnf ; av#mh e nf ; us
qif;vmapygonf? Oyrmtm;jzif-h
ta&S@awmiftm&S jrpfrsm; qdkif&m
uG e f & uf t zG J @ (Southeast Asia
k & xdik ;f
Rivers Network). tqdt
EdkifiHtpdk;&u EdkifiH.ta&S@ajrmuf
ydkif;a'owGif yufrkef;qnf wnf
aqmufcJh+yD;aemuf TjrpftwGif;&Sd
ig;trsK;d (100) teuf (50) cef@rmS
aysmufuG,foGm;cJh=u+yD;/ usef&Sdae
aom ig;rsK;d pdwrf sm;. ta&twGuf
rSmvnf; usqif;vmygonf? a&jrpf
a=umif; ajymif;vJoGm;jcif;a=umifh
,cifuod&x
dS m;aom a'oqdik &f m
todokwrsm;rSmvnf; toHk;r0if

jrpfatmufajcjrpfa=umif;wav#mufESifh jrpf
a=umif;ESifh eD;pyf&ma'orsm;wGif aexdkif=u
aom vlr_todkif;t0dkif;rsm;wGif qnf}uD;rsm;
wnfaqmufjcif;a=umifh jzpfay:&aom qd;k usK;d
rsm;udk odoo
d mom ñuHawG@&Edik yf gonf? txl;
ojzifh jrpf.a&pD;qif;r_rsm; ajymif;vJomG ;+yD;/ a&
v$r;f EH;k wifaom vGijf yifrsm;udk ajymif;vJomG ;ap
Edik yf gonf? Tod@k jzpfonfEiS t
hf r# jrpfa&uscsed f
wGif pdu
k yf sK;d a&;/ wHigvyk if ef;/ tdraf rG;wd&p>mefarG;
jrLa&;vkyif ef;/ EH;k wifajrEkviG jf yifrsm;wGif opf
awmxGuyf pPn;f rsm; &SmazGpm;aomuf aexdik f
=uaomolrsm;. oufarG;0rf;ausmif;vkyfief;
rsm;onfvnf; rsm;pGmqd;k usK;d oufa&mufEikd yf g
onf? qnfwnfaqmufvu
dk jf cif;ESihf obm0t&
a&wufrr_ sm; av#meh nf;usqif;vmonfEiS t
hf
r#jrpfatmufajc a'oaevlxrk sm;. pD;yGm;a&;
udk xdcu
kd v
f mEdik yf gonf? od@k jzpfonfEiS t
hf r# rdrd
wd@k wwfu|r;f xm;onfh oufarG;0rf;ausmif;qdik f
&m u|rf;usifr_rsm;rSm tvkyfrjzpfEdkifawmhbJ
aemufq;kH ajymif;a&$@tajccsjcif;/ òr@jya'orsm;Y
usyrf;vkyif ef;rsm;wGif tvkyv
f yk I
f aiG&mS &jcif;
ESihf qif;&JraJG wr_rsm; jzpfvmapEdik yf gonf? (urBmh
qnfrsm;qdik &f m aumfr&Si)f
{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

43

jzpf&ygonf? Oyrm-urfabm'D;,m; Edik if w
H iG jf rpftxufyikd ;f Y ,mvDa&wHceG f wmwrH
aqmufvu
kd +f yD;aemuf/,cifuaEG&moDwiG f ig;zrf;onfyh pPn;f rsm;udo
k ;kH Ir&=uawmhyg?39
wHigvkyfief;onf jrpfqHka'o&Sd vlxkrsm;. ta&;ygaom toufarG;0rf;a=umif; vkyf
ief;wck jzpfovdk/ 0rf;a&;twGuf t[m&vnf; jzpfygonf? ig;zrf;&moDrSm atmuf
wdb
k mvrS arvjzpf+yD;/ rdom;pk0rf;pmtwGut
f jzpfaomfvnf;aumif;/ aps;wGif a&mif;
cs&eftwGufaomfvnf;aumif; ig;zrf;=ujcif;jzpfygonf? ajcmufaoG@&moDwGif jrpf}uD;
em;rS ajymif;a&$@vm=uaom ig;zrf;olrsm;onf jrpftnmod@k wufI ig;zrf;=u+yD; jrpf}uD;
em;aps;ESihf jrpfq&kH dS azmufonfrsm;xH a&mif;cs=uygonf? rd;k &moDusa&mufvmaomtcg
wHig;rsm;onf olwdk@ydkufrsm;udkodrf;xm;vdkuf=u+yD;? ae&if; &yf&GmjyefI v,f,mvkyf
ief;cGirf sm;wGif jyefvyk u
f ikd =f uygonf? Ttcsed o
f nf ig;om;aygu&f moD tpyifjzpfonf?
a'ocH wHigwOD;u ajymjy&mwGif “uqkeef @J 0gacgiv
f =um;rSm b,forl S ig;rzrf;=ubl;?
'DtcsdefrSm ig;awGu oaE<aqmif=u+yD; om;O=uvdk@yJ?” (awG@qHkar;jref;cef; trSwf16) ig;tajrmuftrsm;xaom &moD ({+yDvESihf arv=um;wGi)f wae@v#if ig;zrf;orm;
wOD;onf ig; 50 uDv*kd &rftxd zrf;I&&Sw
d wf=u+yD;/ tjcm;tcsed rf sm;wGif ig;&enf;wwf
ygonf? ,ae@umvrsm;wGif ig;trsm;qH;k &aom &moDwiG f uDvkd (30) rS (40) t=um;
&&Sdwwfygonf?
jrpfatmufydkif;&Sd ajrEkEHk;wif pdkufcif;rsm; ysufpD;apjcif;?
“rd;k &moDrmS a&wufvmw,f? a&v$r;f oGm;w,f? a&awGu obm0t& ajrEk/
ajr=oZmawGukd o,fvm=uw,f? tJonfawmh a&v$r;f cH&wJah jruGuef @J a&v$r;f
rcH&wJh ajruGut
f =um;rSm oD;ESt
H xGuEf e_ ;f u odyu
f mG w,f? a&v$r;f cHxm;&wJh
ajruGurf mS qd&k if "gwaf jr=oZmawG oH;k zd@k rvdb
k ;l ? bmjzpfv@kd vJqakd wmh obm0
t& a&v$r;f wmeJ@ EH;k ajrEkawGu wifaewmud;k ?” (awG@qHak r;jref;cef; trSw-f
6/ 17/ 19)
qnfwmwrHrsm;u jrpfrsm;o,faqmifvmaom te,ftESprf sm;udk wm;qD;xm;vdu
k yf g
onf? od@k twGuaf =umifh jrpfatmufyikd ;f od@k ra&muf&EdS ikd af wmhyg? Tte,ftESprf sm;onf
yHrk eS t
f m;jzifh jrpfatmufyikd ;f a'o&Sd a&v$r;f aewwfaom ajrEkviG jf yifrsm;ESihf jrpf0u|e;f
ay:a'orsm;wGif oD;ESHtxGufaumif;ap&ef ajr=oZmtjzpf jznfhqD;ay;=uygonf? xdk@
tjyif a&aetyifrsm;ESihf ig;rsm;twGuv
f nf; t[m&"gwjf zpfapygonf? qnfrsm;wnf
aqmufvu
dk jf cif;a=umifh obm0t& a&v$r;f rd;k wwfonfh yHpk u
H ykd supf ;D oGm;ap+yD;/ EH;k wif
a'orsm;ESihf jrpfatmufajc&Sd EH;k wifviG jf yifrsm;od@k obm0t& a&ESihf ajrqD"gwrf sm;jznfh
wif;ay;r_udk [ef@wm;vdkufonfhES,f &Sdapygonf? Todk@jzifh {&m0wDjrpfa=umif; w

44

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

av#mufwGif pdkufysKd;a&;txGufE_ef;udk xdcdkufapEdkifygonf? jrefrmEdkifiH. jrpf0u|ef;ay:
a'oonf jrefrmhqeftxGuf. (60) µ udk xkwfvkyfay;aeaom a'ovnf;jzpf&m
rsm;pGm qdk;usKd;oufa&mufr_ &SdvmapEdkifygonf?
jrpfurf;yg; wdkufpm;r_rsm;jzpfay:apjcif;?
}uD;rm;aom a&tm;v#yfppfxkwfvkyfief;
rsm;a=umifh yHkrSefr[kwfaom a&pD;qif;r_
rsm;jzpfay:ap+yD;/ TtwGufa=umifh jrpf
a=umif;&Sdjrpfurf;yg;wdkufpm;r_rsm; jzpfay:
apEdik yf gonf? a&avSmifxm;onfh qnfrS
a&xkwfv$wfvdkufonfhtcg qnfonf
qmavmifaeonfhES,f jzpfvmygonf?
wmwrHtaemufwGif te,fxdkifaeaom
te,ftESpfrsm;udkjyefvnf jznfhqD;Edkif&ef
twGuf jrpfurf;yg;rsm;udk wdkufpm;r_rsm;
jzpfap+yD; TtwGufa=umifh urf;yg;wdkuf
pm;r_rsm; ydkIjzpfapygonf?
qDqef;qnf pDrHcsufa=umifh urfabm'D;,m;EdkifiHwGif

xdkif;EdkifiH&Sd rJacgifjrpf0Srf;wav#mufwGif jrpfurf;rsm; wdkufpm;òyuscHae&yHk ("gwfyHk- NGO Foaexdik =f uol aus;&Gmom;rsm;onf r=um rum on Cambodia )
ao;rDu jrpfurf;yg;&Sd olwdk@. pdkufcif;rsm; qHk;&_H;onfudkñuHcJh&ygonf? ta=umif;rSm
jrpftxufydkif;&Sd w&kwfEdkifiHwGif qnfrsm;wnf aqmufcJhjcif;a=umifh jzpfay:vmaom
tusK;d qufyifjzpfygonf?40 jrpfurf;yg;rsm; &kww
f &uf wdu
k pf m;òyusjcif;onf tE &W m,f
wck jzpfouJhodk@/ aus;&Gmaevlxkrsm;rSm ‚wdk@. tdrfrsm;udk ukef;wGif;ydkif;odk@ ydkI
ajymif;a&$@=u&onfh tajctaejzpfay:apygonf? jrpfqt
kH eD;wGif trsm;aom vlxrk sm;rSm
rd;k &moDwiG f pyg;pdu
k yf sK;d =u+yD;/ aEG&moDwiG f [if;oD;[if;&Guf pdu
k yf sK;d =uygonf? trsK;d orD;
rsm;onf ajrqDºuG,0f vSaom jrpfurf;a'oudk toH;k csI [if;oD;[if;&Gurf sK;d pHk pdu
k yf sK;d
=u+yD;/ 0ifaiGtyd&k ap&efEiS hf rdom;pkpm;&eftwGuf rScD akd e=u&ygonf? tu,fI Tjrpf
urf;yg;rsm;om wdu
k pf m;òyuscyhJ gu TajrqDºu,f0vSaom ajrrsm;wGio
f w
l @kd rcDS akd exdik f
=u&onfh tcGifhta&;vnf; qHk;&_H;oGm;&zG,f&Sdygonf?

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

45

ucsifjynfe,f&Sd 0ga&SmifqnfrSm 2006 ckESpf/ arvwGif qnfusKd;aygufcJhonf? qnfa&}uD;r_a=umifh
qnfwckvHk; òyusysufpD;cJh&onf?

tdENd,ESifh ,la&;&Sm;wdkufrsm;rS ajrv$mjywfa=umrsm;onf ppfudkif;iv#ifjywfa&G@a=umwGif qHkawG@=uonf?
Tae&mrSm jrpfqHkqnfwnfaqmufrnfh ae&mESifh uDvdkrDwm 100 r#yif ra0;acs?

46

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

vHkðcHa&;twGuf ylyef&r_rsm;
ucsijf ynfe,f&dS vlxrk sm;onf qnfusK;d I 'kuaQ &muf=u&yHu
k kd ud,
k af wG@ tawG@tñuH
&Sdxm;cJh=u+yD; jzpfygonf? jrpf}uD;em;òr@. ajrmufbuf 10 rdkif tuGmwGif&Sdaom
}udrcf &rfa&umwmrSm (2006) ckEpS /f Zlvikd v
f wGif &ufrsm;pGm rd;k onf;xefpmG &GmoGe;f +yD;
aemuf qnfusKd;aygufcJhygonf? a&umwmusKd;aygufr_a=umifh }udrfc&rfaus;&Gmudk a&
v$rf;cJh+yD;/ vl 5-OD; aoqHk;cJh&ygonf? 0ga&Smifqnfonfvnf; 2006 ckESpf/ arvwGif
usK;d ayguyf supf ;D cJyh gonf? od@k aomfvnf; Tqnf usK;d ayguo
f nfh owif;rsm;udk owif;
rD'D,mrsm;wGif azmfjyjcif;r&SdbJ/ ppftpdk;&u owif;rxkwfjyef&ef wif;usyfpGmwm;jrpf
xm;cJyh gonf? urBm. tqd;k &Gm;qH;k qnfusK;d aygurf r_ mS w&kwEf ikd if H tv,fyikd ;f &Sd [Deef
c&dik w
f iG f 1975 ckEpS u
f jzpfymG ;cJyh gonf? T uyfab;'kuQ jzpfymG ;r_EpS af ygi;f (20)ausmf
ausmv
f eG v
f maomtcgrS owif;tao;pdwrf sm; xGuaf y:vmcJ&h m/ vlaygi;f (230˜000)
r# Tjzpf&yfa=umifh toufq;kH &_;H cJ&h ygonf? 41

ajriv#irf sm; tEW&m,f

xdk@tjyif iv#if}uD;rsm;. jyif;tm;/
wnf a e&mES i f h xl ; jcm;csuf r sm;ud k
vdkufI iv#ifrsm;a=umifh qnfrsm;Y
tufa=umif;rsm;udk jzpfay:apEdkif+yD;/
wpfcgw&Hqnfòyus usKd;aygufonf
txdjzpfapEdkifygonf? urBmvHk;qdkif
&m iv#iaf =umifjh zpfaom tE &W m,f
rsm; avhvmtuJjzwfa&; tpDtpOf

(Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program). tcsuftvuf

rsm;t& jref r mEd k i f i H o nf iv#if
tE W&m,f jrifhaomtajctaerS t
vGefw&mjrifhrm;pGm wnf&Sdaeaom
a'otwG i f ; wG i f usa&muf a e+yD ; /
ajrmufyikd ;f ucsijf ynfe,fEiS hf ppfuikd ;f
wdkif;twGif;wGif worwfwnf; jrifh
rm;pGm &Sad ecJyh gonf?43 {&m0wD jrpfqkH
qnfonf jrefrmEdkifiHudk jzwfoGm;
aom ,la&;&Sm;ajrjywfvm$ ESihf tdE,
dN

ta&;ay: tajctaersm;
[Deef uyfab;'kut
Q jyif/ 1993 ckEpS w
f iG f jzpfymG ;aom
usif [ d k i f c &d k i f (Qinghai province) &S d a*gif [ l ; qnf
(Gouhou dam) usK;d aygur
f w
_ iG v
f nf; vlaygi;f (1˜200)
cef@ toufq;kH &_;H cJ&h ygao;onf? xdt
k csed rf pS I w&kwf
Edik if .
H a&t&if;tjrpfqikd &f m 0ef}uD;Xmeonf qnfrsm;
vHðk cHrq
_ ikd &f m vrf;!$ecf surf sm;ESihf pnf;rsO;f Oya'rsm; cs
rSwv
f mcJyh gonf? txl;ojzifh 1998 ckEpS w
f iG f jyXmef;
aom a&}uD;r_xed ;f csKyfjcif;qdik &f m Oya't& uef@owf
xm;aom twdik ;f twmwck. txuf&o
dS nfh qnfwck
csif;pDtwGuf ta&;ay: jyifqifr_rsm; pDrHxm;&Sd&efvdk
tyfygonf? TtpDtpOfwiG f ta&;ay:tajctaejzpf
ygu qufoG,f&rnfholrsm;pm&if;ESifh ta&;ay: pDrH
aqmif&u
G &f rnfh vkyif ef;rsm;yg0ifygonf?42 jrpfqkH qnf
pDrcH sut
f wGuf tvm;wl ta&;ay: pDrx
H m;csuf rsK;d udk
vlod&Sif=um; xkwfjyefa=ujimxm;jcif; r&Sdao;yg?
od@k aomfvnf; jrefrmEdik if t
H wGi;f vkyif ef;rsm;aqmif&u
G f
ae=uaom w&kwfEdkifiHydkif ukr`%Drsm;taejzifhvnf;/
w&kwEf ikd if H Oya'rsm;twdik ;f vdu
k ef maqmif&u
G &f ef jy
Xmef;xm;jcif; r&Sdyg?
{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

47

ajrjywfv$mawG@qHk&m iv#iftuf a=umif;rS uDvdkrDwm 100 atmuf av#mhenf;aom
a'otwGif; usa&mufaeygonf? ppfa=umif; ajrv$mjywfa=umif;wGif wdkif;wmr_t&
jyif;tm;tqifh (M 7.0- 8.0) tqifh&Sdaom iv#ifrsm;udkvnf; awG@ñuHcJh&zl;ygonf?
xd@k tjyif qnf}uD;rsm;wnfaqmufra_ =umifv
h nf; iv#irf sm;jzpfymG ;ap&ef ydrk w
kd eG ;f tm;ay;
ouJo
h @kd jzpfapEdik yf gao;onf? qnfrsm;a=umifh iv#ijf zpfay:&r_rsm; (Reservoir-induced
Seismicity or RIS) udkvnf; awG@&SdcJh=u&+yD;/ tydkwdk;vmaom a&zdtm;rsm;a=umifh
qnfatmufajc&Sd ajrtufa=umif; i,frsm;wGif zdtm;ydkwdk;vmap jcif;jzpfay:&jcif;
jzpfygonf?44
qnfwnfaqmufrnfh a'owGif aexdik =f uonfh vlxrk sm;twGuf vHðk cHa&;pDraH qmif&u
G f
ay;Edik rf _ tpDtpOfrsm;rSm yGihf vif;jrifomr_ r&So
d nfh tm;av#mpf mG / pd;k &dryf yl efz,
G f tajc
l OD;u ajymonfrmS - “tu,fI w&kwaf wG
taersm; jzpfvmapygonf? a'ocHjynfow
om qnfvmaqmufr,fqdk&ifawmh usaemfawmh vHkðcHtE W&m,fuif;vdrfhr,fvdk@rxif
bl;? usaemfawmh jrpf}uD;em;òr@rmS tdr0f ,fz@kd jyifxm;+yD;+yD? 'gayr,fh tckawmh rajymif;
ao;bl;? bmjzpfreS ;f odwmr[kwb
f ;l ?” (awG@qakH r;jref;cef; trSw-f 29)

48

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

a&}uD;òyusoGm;+yD;aemuf }udrfc&rfqnfrS u|if;usef&pfaom tysuftpD;rsm;

jzpf&yf avhvmcsu?f ? }urd cf &rfqnf

}udrcf &rf§ }udrcf &rfc qnfonf ,ae@umvtxd ucsijf ynfe,ftwGi;f ppftpd;k &u
wnfaqmufcJhaom t}uD;qHk; qnfwck jzpf+yD;/ jrpf}uD;em;òr@. ajrmufbuf 10rdkiftuGmwGif wnf&Sdygonf? Ed_if;,SOftcsuft& }uD;rm;aomqnf trsKd;tpm;wGif
ryg0ifb/J ruf*g0yf (2² 5) r#om xkwaf y;Edik yf gonf? 1993 ckEpS w
f iG f qnfwnfaqmuf
+yD;pD;cJh+yD;/ 2006 ckESpf/ ZlvdkifvwGif qnfusKd;aygufcJhr_a=umifh vlodrsm;aom qnfwck
jzpfygonf? qnfusK;d aygu&f mrS a&v$r;f aoma=umifh vl 5-OD; toufq;kH &_;H cJ&h ygonf?
(awG@qHkar;jref;cef; trSwf-1)
t"rRvkyftm;cdkif;apjcif;/ tvSLaiG aumufcHjcif;ESifh toufqHk;&_H;&r_rsm;
qnfwnfaqmufrnfhae&m &Sif;vif;jcif;udk (1982) ckESpfuyif pwifcJh+yD;/ tca=u;aiG
ray;bJ vkyt
f m;cdik ;f apr_rsm;wGif vlaygi;f axmifEiS chf sI
D vkyu
f ikd af y;cJ=h u&ygonf? vlrsm;
udk aus;&Gmtkyfpkrsm;tvdkuf pkaqmif;+yD;/ tvSnfhus t"rRvkyftm;ay;apygonf? &Gm
om;rsm;onf opfyifrsm;ckw&f jcif;/ vrf;rsm;azmufvyk af y;&jcif;ESihf aqmufvyk af &;vkyf
ief;rsm;wGif ulnDaqmif&Gufjcif;rsm; vkyfay;=u&ygonf? awG@qHkar;jref;r_rsm;t&
wvv#if vkyt
f m;ay;&rnfo
h l (500) r# Tae&mod@k vma&mufI t"rRvyk t
f m;ay;cJ&h
a=umif;od&Sd&ygonf?
{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

49

“tJ'rD mS oGm;+yD; tvkyv
f yk af y;=u&wJo
h al wGu/ olw@kd rdom;pk v,fawGjcHawGukd
rvkyEf ikd =f ubl;? tJonfawmh rdom;pkwckv;kH xdcu
kd &f w,f? usyw
f nf;=u&w,f?
vkyt
f m;ay;oGm;=u&wJh olwkid ;f uvnf; ud,
k &hf u
d mQ ud,
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f o
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tvum;vkyt
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h jyif ud,
k yhf pPn;f u&d,mawGvnf; ud,
k ,
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&w,f? tu,fI rdom;pkawGu vkyt
f m;ay;r,fo
h l rv$wEf ikd zf ;l qd&k if tJonf
tpm; usyf (3˜000) ay;=u&w,f? tJonf tcsed u
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r[kwf&ifvnf; ydkufqHtpm;ay;=u&w,f?
ppfwyfu &GmtkyfpkwckrSm aumfrDwDwckzGJ@cdkif;+yD;awmh qnfwnfaqmufa&;t
wGuq
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kd hJ oifwef;awG/ rdom;pkawG
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usaemhukd odyaf 'goxGu=f uw,f? a'ocHvx
l ak wGu qnfwnfaqmuf+yD;wJt
h cg
v#ypf pfr;D &r,fv@kd xifxm;=uw,f? wu,fawmh jzpfrvmbl;? wcg qnfusK;d
oGm;&jyefw,f? qnfwnfaqmufa&;eJ@ ywfoufv@kd a'ocHvx
l ak wGu tawmf
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a'ocH c&pf,mefoif;tkyq
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vif;&mwGif opfyif}uD;rsm; ckwv
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rnfhae&monf awmxlaoma=umifh &Gmom; 7-OD; iSufzsm;a&m*gjzifh toufqHk;&_H;&
onf[k od&&dS ygonf? qnfwnfaqmufa&;umvwGif ta&twGuf rodEikd af om aus;
&Gmvlxkrsm;rSm zsm;emjcif;/ '%f&m&jcif;rsm; ñuHawG@cJh=u&ygonf? tvkyform;rsm;.
use;f rma&;twGuf apmifah &Smufay;r_ r&So
d nft
h jyif ppftpd;k &xHrv
S nf; zsm;em'%f&m&
ygu usef;rma&;apmifha&Smufr_ r&&SdcJh=uyg?
uwdysufjcif;?
“}udrfc&rfqnfaqmufwkef;u usaemfwdk@ jyif;jyif;xefxefvkyftm;ay;cJh=u&
w,f? +yD;vmawmh v#ypf pfr;D vnf;r&bl;? yxrydik ;f rSm tpd;k &u a'ocHjynfol
awGudk pnf;&Hk;wkef;u qnfwnfaqmuf+yD;wJhtcg &vmwJhv#yfppfudk ausmif;
awGtwGuo
f ;kH r,f? +yD;rS ppfwyftwGu/f +yD;awmh csyaf usmif; bk&m;&Scd ;kd ausmif;
awGtwGuf oH;k r,f/ pwkwt
ˆ aeeJ@rS tpd;k &&H;k awGtwGuef @J &yf&mG vlxak wGt

50

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

wGuf oH;k r,f/ ajymcJ=h uw,f? +yD;awmh vrf;rD;awGvnf; vif;vmr,fajymw,f?
aemufq;kH awmh olw@kd ajymwJt
h wdik ;f wckrS jzpfrvm=ubl;?” (awG@qHak r;jref;cef;
trSwf-26)
qnfwnfaqmufr_ +yD;pD;aomtcg v#ypf pfr;D udk tvSnu
hf spepfjzifh axmufyahH y;ygonf?
aus;&Gmrsm;rSm av;&ufrS w}udrrf ;D &ygonf? od@k aomfvnf; (etz) ppftpd;k &. ppfwyf
rsm;ESifh &Hk;rsm;rSm tcsdefjynfhrD;&+yD;/ tcrJhv#yfppfrD;oHk; pGJ&jcif;jzpfygonf? aus;&Gmom;
wOD;u ajymjyonfrSm &Gmrsm;onf rdk;umvwGif v#yfppfrD;&aomfvnf;/ aEGtcgwGif
v#ypf pfr;D r&&S[
d q
k ykd gonf? tjcm;&Gmom;wOD;u ajym&mwGif “aEG&moDa&mufvmwdik ;f
ausmif;om;awGu qnfrmS tca=u;aiGr&bJ vkyt
f m;ay;=u&w,f? aemufq;kH v#ypf pf
rD;&vmwJt
h cgvnf;usa&m/ olw@kd bmtusK;d tjrwfrS rcHpm;=u&bl;? ausmif;pmzwfz@kd /
tdrpf mvkyzf @kd za,mif;wdik rf ;D udyk J quftm;ud;k ae=u&w,f?” (awG@qHak r;jref;cef; trSw-f
27)
qnfusKd;aygufjcif;?
(2006) ckEpS /f Zlvikd v
f eHeuf (2;00)em&Dtcsed w
f iG f &ufowWywf 5 ywf=um rd;k onf;
xefpGm &GmoGef;vm+yD;aemuf qnfusKd;aygufygawmhonf?
t&Sed t
f [kejf yif;pGmjzifh xd;k qif;vmaom a&vH;k u teD;&Sd a&tm;v#ypf pf puf&w
kH ckv;kH udk
wdu
k pf m;xd;k csomG ;cJo
h nf? TtwGuaf =umifh vl 5-OD; toufq;kH &_;H cJ&h onf? }udrcf &rf
c aus;&G m ES i f h jrpf } uD ; em;òr@ud k quf o G , f a omt"d u wH w m;rS m vnf ; a&pD ; jzif h
arsmygomG ;cJo
h nf? od@k aomfvnf; xl;qef;pGmyif aus;&Gmaevlxrk sm;teufrS rnfow
l OD;
wa,mufr# toufqHk;&_H;jcif; r&SdcJhyg? a&tm;a=umifh awmifESpfvHk;=um;wGif&Sdaom
ae&mwckvHk;udk a&wdkufpm;xdk;cs oGm;aoma=umifh a&tm;v#yfppfpuf&Hkudk jzpfap/
qnfujkd zpfap jyefvnfðyjyif wnfaqmufEikd jf cif; r&Sad wmhyg? 45
a'ocHjynfolwOD;. ajymjycsuft& a&wdkufpm;r_wGif tdrf 5 vHk;arsmygoGm;cJhygonf?
tjcm;tdrrf sm;rSmvnf; txl;qd;k &Gm;pGm ysupf ;D cJ&h +yD; jyefvnfwnfaqmuf=u&ygonf?
tdrfydkif&Sifrsm;u olwkd@tdrfrsm;udk jyefvnfðyjyif&ef rwwfEdkifaoma=umifh usef&Gmom;
rsm;u 0dkif;0ef;ulnD=u&ygonf? “&dkrefuufovpf bk&m;ausmif;/ ucsif bufywpf
bk&m;ausmif;/ &yf&Gm tzGJ@awGeJ@ woD;yk*~v pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;&SifawGu usaemfwdk@udk
vmul=uw,f? t&ifu wcgrS 'Dvrkd sK;d a&}uD;wm rñuHc&hJ zl;bl;? 'Dwcg ñuH&wm usaemf
wdk@twGuf odyfcufcJygw,f?”[k &Gmom;wOD;u ajymjyygonf? (awG@qHkar;jref;cef;
trSw-f 22)
{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

51

aemufxyf ysufpD;qHk;&_H;&aom zGH@òz;a&;pDrHcsufwck
a'oqdkif&m zGH@òz;a&;vkyfief;rsm;rSm rnfr#atmifjrifa=umif; (etz) ppftpdk;&u tjrJ
wrf;0g'jzef@ ºum;0gavh&Sdygonf? odk@aomfvnf; vufawG@wGif a'ocHjynfolvlxkrsm;
twGuf tusKd;jzpfxGef;apr_ r&Sd=uyg? }udrfc&rfqnfonf ‚zGH@òz;a&; pDrHcsufrsm; r
atmifjrif&yHk. Oyrmaumif;wck jzpfygonf? jynfolvlxkrsm;rSm olwdk@.vkyftm;ESifh
tcsed u
f kd tv[\qH;k &_;H cJ=h u&+yD;/ olw@kd . b0udv
k nf; aemufq;kH wGif xdcu
kd ef pfemapcJh
ygonf? xdk@tjyif TpDrHcsufrsm;rS xGufay:vmaom v#yfppfrD;udkvnf; cHpm;EdkifcGifh
r&SdcJh=uyg?
a&v$rf;rdk;r_'%fñuHI epfem&zG,f&Sdjcif;?
urBmay:&Sd qnf}uD;rsm;. tusKd;tjypf oufa&mufEdkifr_ twdkif;twmudk us,fus,f
jyef@jyef@avhvmcJ=h u+yD;aemuf urBmq
h nfrsm;qdik &f maumfr&Siu
f qnfrsm;a=umifh jynfol
vlxkrsm;wGif a&v$rf;rdk;r_'%f ydkIñuH&zG,f&Sdonfudk awG@&SdcJh=uygonf? a&wmwrHrsm;
onf a&v$r;f rd;k r_'%f ti,fpm;tcsK@d ukd umuG,af y;Edik af omfvnf;/ a&v$r;f rd;k r_ }uD;rm;
pGmjzpfay:vmygu qnfrsm;a=umifh ysupf ;D qH;k &_;H &r_ ydI
k }uD;rm;apEdik yf gonf? a&v$r;f rd;k r_
}uD;rm;pGm jzpfay:vmygu qnfrsm;u xdak &vH;k rsm;udk xde;f odr;f xm;Edik pf rG ;f r&S=d uawmh
yg? a&v#+H yD;aemuf ydI
k qd;k &Gm;jyif;xefaom a&v$r;f rd;k r_rsm;jzpfay:apygonf? jrpfqq
kH nf
wnfaqmuf&mwGifvnf; TudpPonf pdk;&drfzG,ftcsufjzpfygonf? ta=umif;rSm T
ae&monf jrpf}uD;em;òr@txufzuf uDvrkd w
D m (40) cef@ tuGmta0;wGio
f m wnf&adS e
aoma=umifhjzpfygonf? r=umao;rDESpfrsm;twGif; xdka'ow0dkufwGif a&v$rf;rdk;r_
tE &W m,fu wESpw
f jcm; ydI
k qd;k &Gm;jyif;xefvmaecJyh gonf? ta=umif;rSm Ta'ow
0du
k w
f iG f a&$w;l azmfae=uaoma=umifh jrpfurf;yg;rsm;udk ysupf ;D ap+yD;/ a&a=umif; ajymif;vJ
aponft
h jyif/ a&}uD;r_ukd obm0t& wm;qD;Edik af om opfawmrsm;vnf; ðyef;wD;vm
aeaoma=umifh jzpfygonf? (2004) ckEpS /f Zlvikd v
f wGif jrpf}uD;em;òr@a&v$r;f cJ+h yD;/ vlaygi;f
(19˜000) ausmf a&v$r;f r_'%fccH =hJ u&ygonf? a'o&Sd &yf&mG tzG@J tpnf;rsm;ESihf bk&m;&Scd ;kd
ausmif;rsm;/ bmoma&;toif;rsm;u zsm;emolrsm;ESifh tdk;tdrfrJh jzpf&olrsm;udk ulnD
u,fq,fay;a&;twGuf &kef;uefóu;yrf;cJh=u&ygonf?46
&kww
f &uf a&wufvmonfEiS hf ñuH&Edik jf cif;?
a&umwmrS a&v#Husonfjzpfap/ qnfusKd;aygufonfjzpfap &kwfw&ufa&v$rf;r_
jzpfapEdkifygonf? xdkodk@ r[kwfygbJ vnf; a&tm;v#yfppfxkwfaom puf&Hkrsm;wGif
csd e f c gr[k w f b J &k w f w &uf wmwrH r S a&pG e f @ xk w f o nf h tjzpf r sKd ; &S d E d k i f y g onf ?
jrpftxufyikd ;f &Sd qnfukd pDrt
H yk cf sKyfaeolu v#ypf pf"gwt
f m;ay;puf vdt
k yfra_ &yrm%

52

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

tajctaeud k v d k u f I a&pG e f @ xk w f & ef qH k ; jzwf c suf c sygonf ? (Tod k @
a&pGe@f xw
k &f efq;kH jzwfcsucf sorl sm;rSm jrpftxufyikd ;f w&kwEf ikd if &H dS tm%mydik rf sm;vnf;
jzpfEikd yf gonf?) a&pGe@f xw
k v
f u
kd o
f nft
h cg a&tjrifh csucf si;f wufvm+yD;/ jrpfta=uydik ;f &Sd
vlxk rsm;rSm óuwifowday;r_ r&SdbJ a&tE W&m,fESifh ñuH&Edkifygonf? vltrsm;tzdk@
‚wd@k .avSrsm;/ ig;zrf;u&d,m rsm; qH;k &_;H =u&+yD;/ &kww
f &uf a&jrifw
h ufvmr_a=umifh
47
tcsK@d rmS a&epfaoqH;k =u&ygonf?
rSwfom;zG,f&m qnfrsm;a=umifhjzpfaom a&v$rf;rdk;r_rsm;
tDwvD/ 1963 ckEpS /f atmufwb
kd mv? ? urBmt
h jrifq
h ;kH qnf}uD;wckjzpfonfh
Adik t
f eG @f a&avSmifwrH (Vaiont Dam) onf wnfaqmuf+yD;pD;I a&pwifjznfo
h nf
ESifh wòyifeuf iv#ifrsm;v_yfvmapygonf? ajrwkefv_yfr_a=umifh a&avSmifwrH
twGif;odk@ ajrom;òyusr_rsm; jzpfay:vmap+yD;/ ajròyr_a=umifh vd_if;vHk;}uD;rsm;
jzpfay:vm+yD; qnfwrH tay: rDwm 200 ausmjf rifah om vdi_ ;f vH;k rsm; v$r;f rd;k cJh
onf? ESprf cd ef@t=umwGif avmif*g&;kH òr@ (Longarone) vnf; wòr@v;kH a&v$r;f rd;k cH
&+yD; vlaygi;f 2˜000 ausmrf # toufq;kH &_;H cJ&h onf?
ygupPwef/ 1992 ckEpS /f pufwifbmv?
? ref*vmqnf (Mangla Dam) .
a&xdef;armif;ESifolrsm;u óuwifowday;jcif; r&SdbJ a&v$JwHcg;aygufrsm;udk
zGichf sco
hJ nf? rsujf rifoufaorsm;. tajymt& a&tjrifeh &H H 7 rDwmr# jrifah om
a&eH&H}uD;u &GmESifhqnfteD;&Sd ppfwyfpcef;qDodk@òyqif;vmcJh+yD;/ vl 500ausmf
toufqHk;&_H;apcJhonf?
uae'g/ 1996 ckEpS /f Zlvikd v
f ?
? uG;D bufa'o/ qef*al e;jrpf0rS ;f vGijf yifwiG f
a&v$r;f rd;k r_a=umifh vl 7 OD; toufq;kH &_;H cJ&h +yD;/ vlaygi;f (16˜000) cef@ukd u,f
q,fae&mcsxm;&aom tajctae jzpfay:apcJo
h nf? uae'g a':vm (1 '\r
5) bDv,
D rH # ysupf ;D qH;k &_;H cJ&h aom a&v$r;f rd;k r_onf uae'gEikd if H ordik ;f wGit
f }uD;
us,q
f ;kH aom jzpf&yfjzpfonf? tpd;k &u zG@J pnf;ay;onfh aumfr&Si.
f avhvmawG@
&Sdcsuft& ravsmfuefaom pDpOfaqmif&Gufcsufrsm;ESifh qnfwmwrHrsm; usKd;
aygufcJhr_a=umifh a&v$rf;rdk;r_udk ydkrdkqdk;&Gm;apcJhonf[k azmfjycJhonf?
Edu
k *f s;D &D;,m;/ 1999 ckEpS /f pufwifbm§atmufwb
kd mv?
? ude*f s/D
*sufbm/ &Sd&d&dkqnfrsm;. a&xdef;pDrHcef@cGJolrsm;u a&wHcg;rsm;udk zGifhvdkuf=u
aoma=umifh Edik *f gEiS hf um'kemjrpf0rS ;f a'orsm;wGif qd;k &Gm;jyif;xefonfh a&v$r;f rd;k
{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

53

r_rsm; jzpfay:vmcJ&h onf? tpD&ifcpH mrsm;t& vlwpfaxmifcef@ toufq;kH &_;H cJ&h
+yD;/ vl (3)odef;ausmf xdcdkufepfemcJh&onf?
w&kwfEdkifiH/ 2004 ckESpf/ arv?
? rdk;jyif;xefpGm&GmoGef;r_a=umifh
a[Gbikd ;f jynfe,f/ usi*f se;f jrpf (Qingjiang River) ay:wGif wnfaqmufaeaom
'gavmif;wef (Dalongtan Dam) ,m,DqnfusK;d aygu+f yD;/ vl 18 OD;touf qH;k &_;H
cJh&ygonf?
b&mZD;Edik if /H 2004 ckEpS /f ZGev
f ?
? y&mbmjynfe,f&dS 2-ESpo
f m; umrm
qnfusK;d aygu+f yD; tmvm*dt
k m *&efa'; (Alagoa Grande) òr@ rlvef*òl r@ (Mulungu)
rsm; a&v$r;f rd;k cHc&hJ ygonf? vl 5-OD; toufq;kH &_;H &+yD;/ rdom;pk (800) eD;yg;r#
tdk;tdrfrJhjzpfcJh&ygonf?
ygupPwef/ 2005 ckEpS /f azaz:0g&v
D ?
? rd;k jyif;xefpmG &GmoGe;f +yD;aemuf
qnf (5) ck usK;d aygucf yhJ gonf? t}uD;qH;k jzpfonfh 35-rDwmjrifah om &Sm'Daum
qnfvnf; usKd;aygufcJh+yD;/ vl 80 toufqHk;&_H;cJh&ygonf? vltajrmuftrsm;
'%f&m&&Sdum rdom;pkaygif; (4˜000) ausmf tdk;tdrfrJhjzpfcJh&ygonf? &Sm'Daum
qnfukd wnfaqmufxm;onfrmS ESpEf pS rf #yif &Sad o;onfh qnftopfjzpfygonf?
tdE,
dN / 2005 ckEpS /f {+yDv?
? ruf'&m y&ma'hjynfe,f&/dS emrm'gjrpfay:wGif
wnfaqmufxm;onfh qnf a=umifh a&v$r;f rd;k r_ jzpfay:apcJ+h yD; tenf;qH;k vl
62-OD; toufq;kH &_;H cJ&h ygonf? xdt
k csed w
f iG f jrpfurf;yg;Y 0wfjyKqkawmif;aeol
[dELN bmom0ifrsm;ESihf pnfum;aeaom tcsed jf zpfygonf? jrpf. txufbuf&dS
uDvrkd w
D m 100 cef@ tuGmta0;&Sd tif'&D m qm*gqnf. a&wHcg;rsm;udk óuwif
owday;r_r&SdbJ zGifhcsvdkuf+yD;aemufydkif; Todk@0rf;enf; a=uuGJzG,ftjzpfqdk;jzpf
vm&jcif;jzpfygonf?
Before the Deluge: Coping with Floods in a Chainging Climate, International
Rivers Network, 2007. pmtkyr
f S xkwEf w
_ af zmfjyygonf?

obm0ywf0ef;usif ysufpD;qHk;&_H;r_rsm;
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wpif;”tygt0ifjzpfonf[k azmfjycJyh gonf? txl;ojzifh ‚.pD;qif;r_yrm%/ t&Snf
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k ifonfh ZD0rsK;d uGrJ sm;
49
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54

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

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ausmufz&mESifh jrpfeDjrpfrsm;)
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onf? us,fjyef@vSaoma&pD;
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i,frsm;ESihf Tjrpfa=umif;udk rSD
cdk&Sifoefae=u&aom jynfol
vl x k r sm;twG u f v nf ; t
oufaoG;a=umozG,fyifjzpfyg
onf?50

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_ ay: wpHk
w&mtusK;d oufa&mufr&_ adS pEdik af om tajccHtaqmuf
tODwnfaqmufr_vkyfief;rsKd;jzpfygonf? qnfrsm;wnf
aqmufra_ =umifh jrpftxufyikd ;f &Sd jrpfa=umif;wav#muf
a'orsm;udk a&v$r;f rd;k Edik +f yD;/ &moDtvdu
k f a&pD;qif;aer_/
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kd nf; ajymif;vJapEdik f
ygonf? xd@k tjyif qnfrsm;wnfaqmufra_ =umifh ig;rsm;a&$@
ajymif;aexdik rf _ vrf;a=umif;rsm;udk [ef@wm;r_jzpfap+yD;/
om;aygu&f ma'orsm;od@k a&$@ajymif;r_ukd xdcu
kd af pygonf?
æqnfwnfaqmufro
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aexdik rf u
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Oyrmtm;jzifh vlrsm;ajymif;a&$@r_ jzpfap+yD;/ xdo
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tajccs&jcif;a=umifh obm0t&if;tjrpfrsm;tay:xyfI
zdp;D r_rsm; jzpfay:apygonf?”48

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jcif;jzifh Ttajctaeudk qef@usiI
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onf? qnfujcm;xm;vdkufaom jrpf.txufESifhatmuf ZD0rsKd;uGJrsm;udk oD;oef@ydkif;
jcm;onfhES,f&Sdap+yD;/ rsKd;&dk;ADZ xdef;odrf; &Sifoefr_pepfudk jzpfapaom ZD0owW0grsm;
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kd af oma&rsmwGif te,f tESpyf g0ifre_ nf;+yD;/ "gwo
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51
rsm;jrpfa&wGifjzpfvmapygonf?
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dN jrefrma'oESifh awmif w&kwf tv,fydkif;a'o=um; txl;tav;xm;&rnfhae&mwGif
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aom a'owck jzpfygonf? Ta'oESpcf w
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{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

55

a'orSm ta&;}uD;a'o (8) ckteuf/ wcktjzpf owfrSwfxm;cJh+yD; ZD0&kuQ rsKd;EG,f
(7˜000) ausmf wnf&adS eaom a'ojzpfygonf?
Tod@k urBm}uD;. a*[aA'pepft& ta&;ygaoma'orsm;tjzpf owfrw
S cf x
H m;&onfh
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k o
f ek o
f pfawma'otwGi;f Yvnf; usa&mufaeygonf? Tae&monf obm0
twGuf urBmo
h m;&dik ;f wd&p>mefrsm; xde;f odr;f apmifah &Smufa&; &efyakH iGtzG@J }uD; (World
d ;f odr;f &ef todtrSwðf yxm;
Wild Wide Fund for Nature--WWF) . apmifah &Smufxe
aom a*[pepft& ta&;ygaom a'o (200) teufrS wcktygt0ifvnf; jzpfygonf?
xl;jcm;axGjym;aom ZD0rsK;d uGrJ sm;wnf&adS er_ a=umifh ,ckuo
hJ @kd owfrw
S x
f m;jcif;vnf;
53
jzpfygonf? Ta*[pepft& ta&;ygaom yx0Da'owGif/ a'orsm; pkqHk=uonfh
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&kuo
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awmifwef;rsm;ESihf awmifuek ;f rsm;a=umifh a&aiG@rsm;xde;f odr;f xm;onfh us,jf yef@vaS om
vGijf yifukd zefw;D ay;xm;ygonf? Ta'owGi;f aygrsm;vSaom om;&J wd&p>mefjzpfonfh
usm;rsm;uvnf; Ta'o. xl;jcm;r_udk jznfhqD;wefzdk;jrifhapygonf?
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rsm;wGif tjcm;Edik if rH sm;xuf ydrk ºkd u,f0pGmxde;f odr;f xm;Edik af om Edik if jH zpfygonf?54 a'o
aygufiSufrsKd;uGJrsm;onf {&m0wDjrpfa=umif;wav#mufwGif usufpm;=u+yD;/ (2002)
ckEpS f pm&if;t& {&m0wDjrpf0rS ;f a'owGif iSurf sm;usupf m;aexdik &f m ae&m (4) ck&adS eyg
onf?55 {&m0wDjrpf tv,fyikd ;f a'oonf wdbufEiS hf [dr0E mW ajrmufyikd ;f tjcm;a'o
rsm;rS a&$@ajymif;aexdik =f uaom a&aysmif u
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wGuaf jymif;vJomG ;jcif;twGuf iSurf sm;tajccsrw
_ iG v
f nf; xdcu
kd af jymif;vJrr_ sm; jzpfay:
vmapvdrfhrnf jzpfygonf? xdk@tjyif urBm.tjcm;aom a'orsm;wGif&SmazrawG@Edkif
onfh iSufrsKd;rsm;aysmuf uG,fqdwfokOf;&rnfh tajctaevnf; jzpfapEdkifygonf?
Tod@k om;aumifrsm;aysmufu,
G o
f mG ;&jcif;onf a&$@ajymif;tajccsr_ yHpk yH su,
f iG ;f oGm;
apjcif;/ a&. t&nftaoG; usqif;oGm;jcif;/ a&. jrpfa=umif; pD;qif;r_ obm0ajymif;
vJomG ;jcif;wd@k a=umifh jzpfay:Edik yf gonf? {&m0wD jrpfqq
kH nf wnfaqmufa&;ESihf tifrikd cf
jrpfay:wGif wnfaqmufrnfh tqdðk yxm;aom tjcm;aomqnfrsm;a=umifh ,ck umv
uwnf;u rsKd;wkef;vkeD;yg;jzpfaeaom/ txl;&Sm;yg;ae+yDjzpfonfh {&m0wDvif;ydkifrsm;

56

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

(Irrawaddy dolphins) udv
k nf; tE &W m,f&adS pEdik yf gonf? jrpftxufyikd ;f wGif qnfwnf

aqmufra_ =umifh jzpfay:vmEdik af om jy'g;"gwrf sm; ZD0owWrsm;wGif pkyo
kH yd o
f nf;vmjcif;
a=umifhvnf; ydkIqdk;&Gm;apEdkifygonf? (jy'g;tenfrsm;pkyHkaeaom a&avSmifwrHrsm;æ
æ tcef;udk =unfhyg?) jy'g;qdyfoifhr_ jy\emrSm jzpfvmEdkifzG,f&Sdonfh }uD;av;aom
jy\emwck jzpfygonf? urBmo
h bm00ef;usif xde;f odr;f a&;or*~ (World Conservation
k & a&arSmyf ifrsm; ydwq
f @kd xx
l v
J mjcif;/ tajccsaexdik af om ZD0owWrsm;
Union). tqdt
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wGi;f taqmuftOD}uD;rsm; txl;ojzifq
h nfrsm; aqmufvyk jf cif;a=umif/h a&umwmrsm;
ESihf a&wHwikd ;f rsm; aqmufvyk jf cif;a=umifjh zpfapygonf? a&wGi;f aqmufvyk rf v
_ yk if ef;rsm;
a=umifh obm0ywf0ef;usif xdcu
kd yf supf ;D apr_rmS odoo
d momjzpf+yD;/ twdik ;f tqt&
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&Sad p+yD;/ jrpfa&jzifh &Sio
f efa&;twGuf rScD akd e=u&aom ZD0 owW0grsm;/ tyifrsm;aysmuf
uG,fum/ obm0ywf0ef;usif axGjym;wnf&Sdr_vnf; qkwf,kwfusqif;vmapEdkifyg
onf? od@k aomfvnf; TudprP sm;tay: od&edS m;vnfr_ odyf r&S=d ubJEiS /hf qd;k usK;d rsm;tay:
tav;xm;r_ r&S=d ubJEiS /hf jrpfae vif;ydik u
f o
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kd o
f wW0grsm;tay: oufa&muf
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rsm;udk quf vufaqmif&Gufae=uygonf?”56

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

57

w&kwEf ikd if .
H obm0ywf0ef;usif umuG,x
f ed ;f odr;f apmifah &Smufa&; Oya'rsm;t&
qnf w nf a qmuf a &;vk y f i ef ; rsm; twG u f obm0ywf 0 ef ; usif xd c d k u f a pr_
kd af pr_
tuJjzwfcsuf (Environmental Impact Assessment) ESihf vlra_ &;t& xdcu
tuJjzwfcsuf (Social Impact Assessment) vkyfaqmif&ef vdktyfygonf?
Oya't&udk pDrcH su.
f jyefvnf ppfaq;oH;k oyfrE_ iS hf oifah v#m-f roifah v#mf qH;k jzwf
csucf sEikd &f eftwGuf aqmif&u
G =f u&ygonf? pDrcH sujf yifqif a&;qGaJ epOfumvrSmyif
TuJo
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kd rf q
_ ikd &f m tuJjzwfcsurf sm;udk aqmif&u
G =f u
&+yD;/ T&v'frsm;udk pDrHcsuf jyifqifa&;qGJ&mY xnfhoGif; pOf;pm;toHk;cs=u&yg
onf? 57
jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd wnfqJOya'rsm;t& Todk@ ywf0ef;usifESifh vlr_a&; xdcdkufr_qdkif&m
tuJjzwfcsufrsm;udk aqmif&Guf&ef xnfhoGif; jyXmef;xm;onfudk rawG@&Sd&yg?
(2006) ck E S p f / atmuf w d k b mvwG i f (etz) ppf t pd k ; &u a&t&if ; tjrpf E S i f h
jrpfacsmif;rsm; xdef;odrf;r_Oya'udk jyXmef;cJhaomfvnf; txufazmfjyygtcsufrsm;
ryg0if y g? TOya'wG i f pD r H c suf r sm; twG u f tu,f I jrpf a =umif ; rsm;
ajymif;vJapjcif;/ a& t&nftaoG;usqif;apjcif;ESifh a,bk,stm;jzifh obm0
ywf 0 ef ; usif xd c k d u f y suf p D ; r_ &S d a pEd k i f y gu/ o,f , l y d k @ aqmif a &;0ef } uD ; Xme.
cGifhðycsuf&,l&ef vdktyfonf[kazmfjyaom tcsKd@tydk'frsm; &Sdygonf? jrefrmEdkifiH
a&t&if;tjrpfESifh jrpfacsmif;rsm; xdef;odrf;a&; !$ef=um;r_OD;pD;Xmeuvnf; jrpf
acsmif ; rsm;. ywf 0 ef ; usif rysuf p D ; apa&;twG u f =unf h & _ = uwf r wf & ef
wm0ef & S d y gonf ? od k @ aomf v nf ; TOya't& cG i f h ð ycsuf & ,l & ef t wG u f
aqmif&u
G &f rnfh oifah v#maf om vkyif ef;pOftqifrh sm;udk tao;pdwaf zmfjyxm;jcif;
rawG@& bJ/ qdk;usKd;rsm; jzpfay:vmapEdkifaomudpP&yfrsm; wm;qD;umuG,fa&;ESifh
ywfoufI wdusaom Oya'pnf;rsOf;rsm;/ vkyfief;pOfrsm; jyXmef;xkwfjyefxm;jcif;
rawG @ &yg? xd k @ tjyif jref r mEd k i f i H w G i f v$ r f ; ðcH j yXmef ; r_ & S d a om obm0ywf 0 ef ;
usix
f ed ;f odr;f r_qikd &f m Oya' r&Sad o;yg? 58
,ae@txd {&m0wD j rpf q H k q nf wnf a qmuf r nf h u d p P E S i f h ywf o uf I
jzpfay:vmEdik o
f nfh obm0ywf0ef;usiq
f ikd &f m &du
k cf wfrr_ sm;tay: tuJjzwfcsuu
f kd
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aqmif&u
G x
f m;&Sjd cif; vH;k 0r&S[
d yk if oHo,yGm;p&m tajctae &Sad eygonf?

58

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

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urBmay:wGif jrpfwiG ;f ae vif;ydik rf sK;d pdwf (4) rsK;d cef@om &So
d nft
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ydik if g; }uD;rsm;(Orcaella brevirostris) onf wrsK;d tygt0ifjzpfonf? ‚wd@k onf
urBm@jrpf}uD; (3)pif; jzpfonfh tif'ekd ;D &Sm;Edik if rH S r[mcrfjrpf/ avmEdik if aH wmifyikd ;f /
uarBm'D;,m;/ AD,uferfEikd if w
H @kd ukd jzwfoef;pD;qif;oGm;aom rJacgijf rpfEiS /hf jrefrm
Edik if .
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f m &Sm;&Sm;yg;yg; awG@=u&onf? vif;ydik if g;}uD;rsm;onf
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onf?
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xl;jcm;csu&f o
dS nf? jrefrmEdik if YH wHigw@kd onf avSeu
H kd avSmw
f ufjzifah cguI
f vif;
ydkifrsm;udkac:avh&Sdonf? vif;ydkifwdk@u ig;rsm;udktkyfzGJ@+yD; ydkufxJodk@armif;ydk@ay;
wwf=uonf? &vmaomig;udk vif;ydik w
f @kd tm;vnf; wHigw@kd u r#a0ay;=u&onf?
Trwl xl;jcm;aom taygi;f taz:zG@J ra_ =umifh odyyH` nm&Siw
f @kd tzd@k vlEiS w
hf &d p>mefw@kd
. qufqaH &;udk avhvm&ef xl;xl;jcm;jcm; tcGit
hf vrf;w&yf &&Sad ponf?
od@k &mwGif urBmo
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k rf sm;udk tvGe&f mS ;yg; xde;f odr;f apmifah &Smuftyfaom
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rif;uGe;f t=um; (qnfwnfaqmufrnfh ae&mrS uDvrkd w
D m 330 cef@om uGma0;
onfah e&m)wGif (72) uDvrkd w
D m us,0f ef;aom vif;ydik rf sm; umuG,af pmifah &Smuf
a&;ZHek ,fajrwckukd owfrw
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h nf? od@k aomfvnf; vif;ydik rf sm; umuG,f
apmifah &Smufa&;ZHEk iS hf ywfoufI trsm;jynfoo
l &d EdS ikd af tmif rnfr#twdik ;f twm
txd a=ujimvkyfaqmifay;aea=umif; aumif;pGmrod&Sd&acs?

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

59

use;f rma&;qdik &f m tEW&m,frsm;
rpD ; bJ +id r f a eaoma&wG i f a&m*go,f
aqmifEikd o
f nfh tif;qufrsm; ydrk akd yguzf mG ;
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udkqnfjzifhwm;vdkufaoma=umifh/ a&+idrf
aeaom uefozG,f jzpfvmayrnf? xdt
k
cg tif;qufrsm;/ yufusdrsm;ESifh tjcm;
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rsm;/ ydk;r$m;rsm;vnf; ydkrdkaygufzGm;vmap
Edkifonfh tE W&m,f&Sdygonf? uyfyg;oH
ucsifjynfe,f&Sd uav;rsm;onf urBmay:wGif tqdk; aumif r sm;a=umif h j zpf o nf h (schisto&Gm;tnHhzsif;qHk;aom usef;rma&; apmifha&Smufr_pepf somiasis) [kac:aom aoG;xJwGif oef
atmufwGif aexdkifae=u&onf?
aumif w G , f a oma&m*gud k qnf w nf
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aumifrsm;onf a&m*grsK;d pHu
k jkd zpfapEdik +f yD;/ rv_y&f mS ;Edik jf cif;/ ºuufom;rsm;tm;aysmo
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jcif;/ ud,
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f mG ;jcif;/ uifqma&m*grsm;txd
jzpfapEdkifygonf? &Spfpwdk qdkrDa,;ppf (schistosomiasis) a&m*gpGJuyfcH&olrsm;onf
tjcm;a&m*grsm;vnf; xyfrHul;pufcH&ap&ef vG,fulygonf?60 Ta&m*gtjyif urBmh
qnfrsm;qdik &f m aumfr&Si.
f rSww
f rf;ðyxm;csurf sm;t& “a&avSmifwrHrsm;ESihf a&ay;
a&;pDrHcsufrsm;onf iSufzsm;a&m*gzl;ajymaom a'orsm;wGif aqmif&Gufavh&Sdaom
a=umif/h iSuzf sm;a&m*g jzpfymG ;r_EiS hf ul;pufys@H ymG ;rI ydrk sm;vmaponf”[kvnf; azmfjy
xm;ygonf?
jy'g; tenfrsm;pkyHkaeaom a&avSmifwrHrsm;a=umifh jrpfatmufydkif;a'oaevlxkrsm;
xHodk@ tqdyfoifhapEdkifonf?
a&rsm;onf a&avSmifwrHxw
J iG f +idraf eonfEiS t
hf r# ykwo
f ;kd vmaom ZD0&kyºf uif;rsm;udk
pm;oH;k &Sio
f efae=uaom bufw;D &D;,m;rsm;u a&xJwiG &f adS eaom jy'g;"gwf (rmusL&D)
rsm;udk rDoikd ;f vf rmusL&D"gwf (methylmercury) tjzpfo@kd ajymif;vJypfygonf? T"gwf
rSm vlwdk@. A[dktm&Hka=umpepfudk tqdyftawmufjzpfapaom "gwfwrsKd;jzpfygonf?

60

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

TrDoikd ;f vf rmusL&D"gwrf sm;udk tpm;taomufuiG ;f qufrsm;rSwqifh v$aJ jymif;a&muf
&SI
d vlw@kd xH a&mufvm=u+yD;/ vlw@kd wiG f pkyv
kH mapEdik yf gonf?61 taru rDoikd ;f vfrmusL&D
"gwyf gaom ig;rsm;/ tcGyH gaom c&k/ ykpeG /f *%ef;rsm; pm;rdygu om;tdrw
f iG f rDoikd ;f vf
rmusL&D"gwx
f ad wG@Eikd +f yD;/ uav;. OD;a%SmufEiS hf tm&Hak =umpepfz@HG òz;r_ukd xdcu
kd af pEdik yf g
onf? uav;. odpdwfqifjcifr_ (cognitive thinking)/ rSwfOm%fpl;pdkufr_ (memory
attention)/ bmompum; ajymqdkr_/ tEkpdwfvkyfief;rsm;ESifh tjriftm&Hk (fine motor
kd af pygonf?62 odyyH` nm&Sirf sm;u a&avSmifwrHrsm;
and visual spatial skills) wd@k ukd xdcu
twGif;&Sd ig;rsm;wGifvnf;aumif;/ qnfwnfaqmuf&ma'o jrpfatmufydkif;aevlxk
rsm;. aoG;a=umrsm;twGi;f jy'g;pkyv
kH mr_ taetxm;udv
k nf; txl;owdxm;vm=uyg
63
onf?
tm&S yHk&dyf

ESifh ucsifvlrsKd;w&yfvHk; zGH@òz;r_qdkif&m vlr_tzGJ@tpnf;
(Pan Kachin Development Society) rS xkwaf 0cJah om “rnfonfw
h efz;kd ay;&-ay;&
(At What Price)”[laom tpD&ifcHpmwGif azmfjyxm;csuft& {&m0wDjrpfzsm;ydkif;
jzpfaom/ rvdcESifh tifrdkifcjrpfrsm;onf 1999 ckESpfrSpwifI ucsifjynfe,ftwGif;
t"dua&$wl;azmf&SmazG=u&m ae&mrsm; jzpfae=uygonf?64 Ta&$wl;azmfxkwfvkyf&m
ae&mrsm;onf qnfwnf aqmufrnfah e&m. jrpfnmydik ;f jzpf+yD;/ a&wGijf y'g;"gwyf g0ifr_
E_e;f jrifah e+yD; jzpfae+yD[k ,lqEdik zf ,
G &f ydS gonf? 2003 ckEpS w
f iG f ppfaq;prf;oyfcsut
f &
{&m0wDjrpfa=umif;wav#muftwGi;f aexdik af om ig;trsK;d (22)rsK;d wGif jy'g;"gwyf g0ifr_
E_e;f trSeyf if jrifrh m;aea=umif;awG@&&dS ygonf?65 Ta'otwGi;f jrifrh m;pGmyg0ifaeaom
jy'g;"gwrf sm;onf wmwrH. aemufausmwGif pkyakH e=urnfjzpf+yD;/ azmfjycJo
h nft
h wdik ;f
aemufyikd ;f wGif rDoikd ;f vf rmusL&Dtjzpf ajymif;vJomG ;rnf jzpfygonf? qnfrS a&xkwf
v$wfonfhtcg jrpfatmufydkif;wGif aexdkif=uolrsm;onf jy'g;qdyfoifhaeaom a&ESifh
ig;rsm;udk xdawG@=u&awmhrnf jzpfonf? Tqdk;usKd;udk jrpf}uD;em;òr@atmufbuf 28
rdik t
f wGi;f aexdik =f uaom vlO;D a&aygi;f (140000) udk xdcu
kd zf ,
G f &Sad eygonf? xdrk #ru
{&m0wDjrpfa=umwav#muf aexdkif=uaom oef;aygif;rsm;pGm jrefrmEdkifiHom;rsm;&Sdae
=uygao;onf? xd@k tjyif ig;rsm;udk zrf;pm;=uonfh iSurf sm;ESihf tjcm;Ed@k wu
kd o
f wW0grsm;
onfvnf; tvm;wl tqdyfoifhcH&zG,f&Sdaeygonf?
(Images Asia)

qnfwnfaqmufrnfhae&mwGif usef;rma&;xdcdkufcHpm;&Edkifonfh tajctaeESifh a&$@
ajymif;vlxkrsm;t=um; jzpfvmEdkifaom usef;rma&;tusKd;qufrsm;
qnfwnfaqmufrnfah e&mESihf eD;pyf&m aus;&Gm/ vlaer_ todu
k t
f 0ef;rsm;wGif use;f rm
a&;jy\emrsm; rsm;vmEdkif+yD;/ txl;ojzifh tdyfcsftdkifADG§attdkif'Dtufpfa&m*gul;puf
{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

61

ysH@yGm;vmr_ jzpfay:vmEdkifaomqdk;usKd;rSm urBmw0Srf;vHk;&Sd qnfrsm;wGif ñuHawG@ae&
aom jy\emyifjzpfygonf?66 a&$@ajymif;tajccs&jcif;a=umifh vltrsm;&kwfcsnf; b0
ysu=f u&+yD;/ use;f rma&;t&vnf; ydI
k xdcu
kd ef pfemzG,f tajctaeudñk uHapygonf? urBmh
qnfrsm;qdik &f maumfr&Si.
f rSww
f rf;ðycsurf sm;t& “jyefvnftajccsaexdik &f ef ajymif;
a&$@cH&aomvlxkrsm;xJwGif aomufoHk;a&&&Sdr_jy\em/ usef;rma&;apmifha&Smufay;r_/
&kyyf wf0ef;usit
f opf/ vlrt
_ odik ;f t0dik ;f todpw
d Ef iS hf tom;usap&eftwGuf &ke;f uef&
aomjy\emrsm;ñuHawG@=u&+yD;/ use;f rma&;tajctaetay:oufa&mufr&_ adS pygonf?”
jrefrmEdkifiH. òyuGJaeaom usef;rma&;apmifha&Smufay;r_ pepf
urBmhusef;rma&;tzGJ@ (WHO) u jrefrmEd kif iH . usef ;rma&;apmif ha&Smufr_pepf udk
urBmay:wGif tcsKd@wJhtqdk;&Gm;qHk; EdkifiHwcktjzpf owfrSwfazmfjycJhygonf? ukvor*~
uav;rsm;qd k i f & m &ef y H k a iG t zG J @ (UNICEF) u azmf j ycJ h & mwG i f jref r mtpd k ; &u
EdkifiHom;wpfOD;csif;twGuf usef;rma&;apmifha&Smufr_vkyfief;rsm;wGif toHk;p&dwfrSm
tar&duef a':vm 0 ² 40 om&Sd+yD;/ xdkif;EdkifiHwGif (61) a':vm &Sdaeygonf?
ud,
k cf t
H m;usa&m*g (HIV/AIDS) wdu
k zf suaf &; udpw
P iG f vl 52 oef;twGuf wESpv
f #if
67
rjzpfpavmuf tar&duefa':vm (137000)om&&Sdygonf? jrefrmEdkifiH. csKd@wJhòyuGJ
aeaom use;f rma&;apmifah &Smufrp_ epfukd =unfyh gu/ qnfwnfaqmufrnft
h wGuf ydrk kd
jzpfay:vmrnfh a&m*gb,rsm;a=umifh vlrt
_ zG@J tpnf;wckv;kH . use;f rma&;udk xdcu
kd af p
awmhrnfrSm aocsmonfhtcsufyif jzpfaeygonf?

rvdcjrpfESifh tifrdkifcjrpfurf;yg;rsm;wGif a&$wGif;wl;ae=u&mrS xGufvmaom tqdyfoifhypPnf;rsm;onf a&um
wmtwGif; pkyHkvm&ef ta=umif;&Sdaeonf? a&umwmrS xyfrHpGef@xkwfaom a&rsm;a=umifh jrpfatmufajc&Sd
vlxkrsm; xdcdkufepfem&ayrnf?

62

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

ppftiftm;wd;k cs@J csxm;jcif;?

(1992) ckESpfrS (2006) ckESpftwGif;/ ucsifjynfe,ftwGif; wyfpGJtajccsxm;aom
ajcv#ifwyf&if;rsm;ta&twGufrSm (26) &if;rS (41)&if;txd wdk;wufrsm;jym;vmcJhyg
onf? tajrmuf}uD;wyfpcef;rsm;rSmvnf; (3) ckrS (7) cktxd wdk;wufvmcJhygonf?
xd@k tjyif jynfe,ftwGi;f wGif ppfpcef;ae&mcsxm;r_rsm;onfvnf; ae&mtES@H tjym;wGif
ydkIwdk;csJ@ jzef@usufcsxm;vmcJhygonf?68
qnfrsm;tygt0if/ t}uD;pm; wnfaqmufa&;pDrHcsufrsm;. vHkðcHa&;twGuf ppfom;
rsm; ydrk w
kd ;kd cs@J csxm;jcif;onf ppftpd;k & tkycf sKyfaeaom jrefrmEdik if t
H ES@H tjym;Y jzpfymG ;ae
cJyh gonf? Oyrmtm;jzif-h u&ifejD ynfe,ftwGi;f &Sd avmyDwa&tm;v#ypf pf pDru
H ed ;f wGif
vnf; tvm;wl wnfaqmufa&;umvESihf aemufyikd ;f umvrsm;wGif jrefrmppftpd;k &.
wyf&if;rsm; ydkrdkwdk;csJ@ csxm;vmcJhonfudk ñuHcJh=u&ygonf? Todk@ ppfwyfrsm;wdk;csJ@ cs
xm;vmr_a=umifh a'ocHjynfov
l x
l rk sm;tay: wd;k IzdEydS rf r_ sm;/ zdp;D r_rsm;jzpfap+yD;/ t"rR
aiGaumufcjH cif;/ ajr,mrsm; odr;f ,ljcif;/ ppfwyftwGuf t"rRvyk t
f m;cdik ;f apjcif; ponfh
vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufr_rsm;vnf; jzpfay:cJhygonf? xdk@tjyif ppfwyfrsm; wdk;csJ@csxm;
vmr_a=umifh trsK;d orD;rsm;wGif txl;ojzifh ydI
k xdcu
kd ef pfemzG,/f rawmfrw&m;ðycH&zG,f
tajctaeñuH&Edik af =umif; rSww
f rf;rsm;t& awG@&cdS =hJ u&ygonf? (trsK;d orD;rsm;twGuf
txl;xdcdkufepfemapEdkifonfh tE W&m,frsm;tcef;udk=unfhyg?)
(2006) ckEpS /f pufwifbmvwGif ajcjrefwyf&if; trSwf (29) rS ppfom;tiftm; (500)
cef@ukd jrpf}uD;em;awmifbuf&dS av;uke;f rS òr@ajrmufbuf&dS yvmeod@k ajymif;a&$@tajc
pdu
k af pcJyh gonf? yvmeae&mrSm {&m0wDjrpfqq
kH nf wnfaqmufrnfah e&mrS uDvrkd w
D m
(20)cef@om uGma0;aomae&mjzpfygonf? wyfpcef;csrnfhae&mESifh eD;aomae&mrsm;
&Sdtdrfajc (50)cef@udk ajrmufydkif;wdkif; ppfXmecsKyfwdkif;rSL;. trdef@jzifh t"rRa&$@ajymif;
apcJyh gonf? ajymif;a&$@=u&onfh tdraf xmifprk sm;rSm rnfonfah v#maf =u;aiGr# r&&S=d uo
uJhodk@/ rnfonfhae&modk@ ajymif;a&$@=u&rSef;vnf;rodyg?
aus;&Gmom;rsm;. owif;ay;ydk@csuft& ,cktcg/ at;&Sm;a0gvfukr`%D. pDrHcsuft
aumiftxnfazmfrnfh pcef;twGuf jcHae&mowfrw
S /f jcHpnf;&d;k umxm;+yD jzpf+yD;/ xdpk
cef;*dwfaygufwGif vufeufudkif tapmifhrsm;vnf; csxm;a=umif; ajymjy=uygonf?
TpDrcH suf qufvufaqmif&u
G o
f nfEiS t
hf r# Tqnfwnfaqmufa&; pDrcH su.
f vHðk cHa&;
twGuf jrefrmppfwyfrS ppfom;rsm;ESifh tpm;xdk; toHk;ðy-rðyudk twdtusrajymEdkif
ao;yg?
{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

63

tajcrJh ajymif;a&$@=u&jcif;ESihf vdiu
f jJG ym;r_tay: tusK;d oufa&mufapr_

tajcrJh a&$@ajymif;r_a=umifh jzpf&aom/ vlr_tzGJ@tpnf;udk taxGaxGtm;jzifh
qif;&Jusyfwnf;apjcif;/ vlr_a&;t& upifhuvsm;jzpf&jcif;/ udk,fpdwf'kuQrsm;
ESihf use;f rma&;qdik &f m qd;k usK;d oufa&mufrr_ sm;onf txl;ojzifh trsK;d orD;rsm;
tay: ydkIqdk;&Gm;pGm xdcdkufr_ &Sdapygonf? (urBmhqnfrsm;qdkif&m aumfr&Sif?
pm-115)
qnfprD cH surf sm;a=umifh ae&majymif;a&$@&r_EiS hf jyefvnftajccs=u&r_w@kd a=umifh
jzpf&aom qd;k usK;d rsm;oufa&muf&mwGif trsK;d om;rsm;ESihf trsK;d orD;rsm;tay:
xdcdkufapyHkjcif; rwl=uyg? ae&majymif;a&$@=u&jcif;a=umifh &Sdaeaom vlr_
tzG@J tpnf;ESihf rdom;pkrsm;. aqGrsK;d todu
k t
f ðrHukd òyuGaJ pygonf? trsK;d orD;
rsm;onf obm0t& trsK;d om;rsm;xuf a&G@vsm;oGm;vmaexdik rf _ enf;yg;jcif;
a=umifhvnf;aumif;/ rdom;pkrsm;/ aus;&Gmrsm;/ vlr_todkuftðrHrsm; òyuGJ
=u&jcif;a=umifhvnf;aumif;/ trsKd;orD;rsm;wGif ydkIxdcdkufepfemr_ jzpf=u&yg
onf? tu,fI jyefvnftajccsaexdik f &yguvnf;/ a,mufsm;rsm;rSm ydI
k v_yf
&Sm;oGm;vmwwfonfh obm0&Sjd cif;a=umifh òr@rsm;wGif 0ifaiGaumif;aom t
vky&f &ef/ od@k r[kwf tpm;xd;k tvky&f &ef ydI
k vG,u
f yl gonf? Edi_ ;f ,SOcf sut
f &
71
trsKd;orD;rsm;twGuf tvkyf&&ef ydkIcufcJygonf?

64

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

urBmhqnfrsm;qdkif&m aumfr&SiftwGuf avhvmcsufpmwrf;wGif/ rm;uyfpf
udv
k cf supf wm (Marcus Colchester) u ajymif;a&$@tajccs+yD;aemuf jzpf&yHu
k kd
atmufygtwdkif; azmfjyxm;cJhygonf?
“tajctae wpHkvHk;t& 0ifaiGav#mhyg;oGm;+yD;/ tpm;taomuf&SmazG&jcif;
onfvnf; ydkrdkcufcJvmygonf? xif;avmifpmrsm;vnf;&Sm&ef cufcJvmyg
hf r# olw@kd
onf? trsK;d orD;rsm;onfvnf; awmawmifrsm;ESihf a0;vmonfEiS t
uke=f urf;ypPn;f rsm; r&Edik o
f nft
h wGu/f &d;k &mjzpfonfh ,ufuef;,ufjcif;/ jcif;
awmif;,ufjcif;vkyfief;rsm; vnf; qufvufvkyfudkif&ef cufcJvmygonf?
æ æajr,mudk twlwuG ydik q
f ikd =f uaom trsK;d om;ESihf trsK;d orD;rsm;udk av#mf
a=u;aiGrsm;ay;&mY twlwuG &oif=h uaomfvnf;/ tdraf xmifO;D pD;jzpfol trsK;d
om;uom av#maf =u;aiGukd &&Sad vh&ydS gonf? tcsK@d trsK;d orD;rsm;u ajymjy=u
&mwGif olw@kd . cifyeG ;f rsm; pGe@f ypfomG ;onfuv
kd nf; ñuHawG@=u&+yD;/ xdak iGa=u;udk
,lI tjcm;trsK;d orD;ESihf tdr,
f mxlaxmif=uonfvnf; &Syd gonf? ‚wd@k tae
jzifh u,forl hJ 'kuaQ &muf=u&onfh tajctae ñuH=u&ygonf? tcsK@d aom jzpf&yf
rsm;wGif/ Oyrm-rkqdk;r wckvyfuJhodk@ aom trsKd;orD;rsm;u tdrfaxmifudk
OD;pD;=uaomfvnf; av#mfa=u;ay;&ef c|if;csefxm;onfrsKd;ñuH&ygonf?” 72
ajymif;a&$@tajccs&r_rsm;wGif trsK;d orD;rsm;onf trsK;d om;rsm;xuf ydI
k xdcu
kd f
epfem=u&a=umif; urBmb
h %f uvnf; todtrSwðf yxm;ygonf? ta=umif;rSm
trsK;d orD;rsm;rSm olw@kd aetdr/f od@k r[kwf teD;tem;wGif ti,fpm; pD;yGm;a&;
vkyif ef;rsm;udk tajcðyI 0ifaiG&mS =u&aoma=umifjh zpfygonf? xd@k tjyif aus;
vufa'oae trsKd;orD;rsm;rSm rr#rw ydkIxdcdkufepfemcHpm;=u&zG,f t
a=umif;&Syd gonf? tb,fa=umifq
h akd omf olw@kd onf vltrsm; ydik q
f ikd =f uonfh
(opfawm/ pm;usuaf jr paom) &yf&mG trsm;ydik f &if;jrpfrsm;tay: ydI
k rScSD akd e=u
&aoma=umifjh zpfygonf? Oyrmtm;jzif-h v,fajrtrsm;pkukd a,mufsm;rsm;u
ydik q
f ikd =f u+yD;/ tcsK@d aom O,smOfrsm;rS rnfoyl ikd q
f ikd o
f nf[k owfrw
S x
f m;jcif;
73
r&Sdaomajrrsm;wGif &Sdaewwf=uygonf?

trsK;d orD;rsm;twGuf txl;xdcu
kd ef pfemapEdik o
f nfh tEW&m,frsm;

jrefrmppfom;rsm;u usL;vGefEdkifonfh vdifr_qdkif&mt=urf;zuf apmfum;r_rsm;
jrefrmppfwyfz@JG 0ifrsm;u wdik ;f &if;om;a'orsm;wGif trsK;d orD;rsm;tay: rk'rd ;f usi/hf vdirf _
qdkif&mt& t=urf;zuf=uaom jzpf&yfrsm;udk tpD&ifcHpmtrsm;tjym;Y rSwfwrf;wif
{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

65

azmfjyxm;=u+yD;jzpfygonf?69 jrefrm ppfwyfzGJ@0iftrsm;u usL;vGefaom rk'drf;r_rsm;rSm
pHkprf;ppfaq;jcif;r&Sdovdk/ jypfr_usL;vGefoludkvnf; wpHkw&m tjypfay;jcif; r&Sdyg? T
tvm;wl jzpf&yfrsm;rSm u&ifeDjynfe,fwGif avmyDwa&tm;v#yfppfpuf&Hk vHðk cHa&;t
wGuf apmifh=uyf&aom ppfom;rsm;wGifvnf; jzpfay:usL;vGefcJh=uygonf?
(2007) ckESpf/ azaz:0g&DvwGif touf(14 rS 16) ESpftwGif;&Sd ausmif;ol (4) OD;udk
ucsijf ynfe,fajrmufyikd ;f / ylwmtd&k dS ppfwyft&m&Sd (3) OD;ESihf ppfom; (4)OD;wd@k u tkypf k
jzifh rk'drf;ðyusifhcJh=uygonf? Trdefuav;rsm;udk jynfhwefqmvkyfr_ESifh zrf;qD;xm;cJh+yD;/
EdkifiHwumu &_H@csjypfwifr_rsm; jzpfay:vmonfhtcgrSom jyefv$wfay;cJhygonf?70 Trk
'dr;f r_usL;vGeo
f rl sm;tay: ta&;,ltjypfay;cJjh cif; &S-d r&Su
d kd tao;pdwf rod&&dS yg? Tod@k
aom tjypf&o
dS nfh w&m;cHrsm;udk ta&;,ltjypfray;bJxm;onfh tajctaeESihf tpd;k &
udk,fYu trsKd;orD;rsm;tay: t=urf;zufr_rsm; cGifhðyusL;vGefapaom tajctaewGif
{&m0wDjrpfqHkqnf wnfaqmufa&;pDrHcsufae&mwGif/ ppfwyfrsm; ydkIwdk;csJ@csxm;rnf/
ppfom;rsm; ydI
k wd;k rsm;vmaprnfh taetxm;a=umifh ydI
k txl;pd;k &drzf ,
G f jzpfapygonf?
vdifazsmfajza&;vkyfief; }uD;xGm;vmapEdkifjcif;?
ucsizf @HG òzd;wk;d wufa&;uGe&f uftzG@J (KDNG) u tao;pdwf rSww
f rf;ðycJah om [l;aumif;
csKid 0hf rS ;f a'o&Sd a&$rikd ;f wl;azmf=uonfh a&$wiG ;f rsm;wGif ,m,Dtajccsvmonfh vkyo
f m;
rsm; rsm;jym;vmjcif;/ xdkvkyfom;rsm;onfvnf; jzpfovdktaetxm;wGif aexdkif=u&
jcif;tjyif/ trsK;d orD;rsm;taejzifh vkycf vpmenf;onft
h jyif/ tvkyt
f cGit
hf vrf;vnf;
&Sm;yg;onfhtwGufa=umifh Ta'orsm;Y vdifazsmfajza&;vkyfief; }uD;xGm;vmaeyHkudk
azmfjycJyh gonf? jrpfqq
kH nf wnfaqmufa&;uJo
h @kd aom pDrcH su}f uD;rsm; wnfaqmuf=u
rnfah e&mwGiv
f nf;/ Tod@k tajctae rqd;k v#iaf omfrS tvm;wl vlra_ &;tajctaersm;
jzpfay:vmEdik yf gonf? vdiaf zsmaf jza&;vkyif ef;rsm;wGif tvkyv
f yk af e=u&aom rde;f rysKrd sm;/
t"rRjynfhwefqmtjzpf cdkif;apcH=u&olrsm;rSm t=urf;zufr_rsm;ESifh a&m*gul;pufr_rsm;
vnf; cH=u&zG,&f adS eygonf? xd@k tjyif Tod@k aom trsK;d orD;rsm;udk vlrt
_ odik ;f rS z,f
usOfcH=u&aoma=umifh pdwfydkif;qdkif&m cHpm;epfem&r_rsm;vnf;&Sdygonf? ? pDrHcsuft
aumiftxnfazmfrnfhae&mwGif udk,fcHtm;usa&m*g (tdyfcsftdkifADG§attdkif'Dtufpf)
vnf; ydrk u
kd ;l pufys@H ymG ;vmzG,f &Sad eygonf? vlxt
k rsm;twGuf use;f rma&;apmifah &Smufr_
pepf txl;edru
hf saeaomtaetxm;wGif tjcm;vl@tzG@J tpnf; w&yfv;kH od@k ydrk u
kd ;l puf
ysH@yGm;EdkifonfhtE W&m,ftwGufvnf; pdk;&drfzG,fjzpfygonf?

66

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

Our Homeland (Kachin Song)
The most pleasant and glorious homeland of ours,
The site where Mali hka and Nmai hka join together
It is surrounded by snow mountainous and green forest hills,
The mist and the cloud encompass this location
Here, beautiful flowers are blossoming
Rivers and streams flow eternally
Birds and cuckoos fly around,
Cool and pleasant is our homeland
Welcome every one, just for a visit
Unforgettable Kachin culture which can never be satisfied to observe,
Awesome scenic views and natural sights , precious jade and wildlife abound
All kinds of fruits and crops are abundant
As long as the Irrawaddy (Mali hka) river flows
The love of the ethnic Kachin will never cease

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

67

ti,fpm;a&tm;v#ypf pf xkwv
f yk if ef;rsm; (Small hydro power--SHP)
onf ydrk akd umif;rGeaf om tjcm; a&G;cs,pf &m enf;vrf; jzpfonf?

ti,fpm; a&tm;v#ypf pfxw
k v
f yk if ef;rsm;udk acsmif;i,frsm;/ tvwfpm;
ESihf t}uD;pm;jrpfrsm;rS a&udu
k ,
hJ I
l aqmif&u
G Ef ikd yf gonf? Tenf;onf
obm0ywf0ef;usif rysufpD;apaom pGrf;tifxkwf,lEdkifonfh enf;yif
jzpfygonf? ti,fpm;
a&tm;v#yf p pf x k w f
vk y f i ef ; rsm; (Small

hydro power--SHP)

[k q d k & mY rsm;aom
tm;jzifh pGr;f tif (10)
rD * g0yf xuf e nf ; I
xkwaf y; Edik af om pepf
rsK;d jzpfygonf? qd;k usK;d
tenf;i,fr#om jzpf
Inversin, A. R. Micro-Hydropower Sourcebook
ap+yD ; / a0;vH a cgif o D
aom a'orsm;wGif pGr;f tif axmufyahH y;&eftwGuf toH;k ðyEdik yf gonf?
Tti,fpm;a&tm;v#ypf pfxw
k f vkyif ef;rsm;wGif a&udk ajrmif; od@k r[kwf
ydkufjzifhoG,f,lI wmbdkiftwGif;odk@ ay;ydk@jcif; jzpfonf? xdktcg puf
armif;wH&Sd a&cGufudk &dkufap+yD;/ wmbdkifpufudk vnfapygonf? Todk@
vnfaeaomarmif;wHudk rD;tm;xkwfay;rnfh *sifea&wmESifh qufoG,f
xm;ay;jcif;tm;jzifh a&G@&Sm;r_rS v#yfppfpGrf;tiftjzpfodk@ ajymif;,ljcif;
jzpfygonf?76 Tvkyfief;rsm;wGif qnf}uD;rsm;/ a&umwm}uD;rsm; rvdk
tyfonft
h wGuaf =umif/h vltrsm;ajymif;a&$@&ap&ef/ opfawmrsm; a&jrKyf
ysufpD;ap&ef tajctaevnf;r&Sdapyg?
jrefrmEdik if EH iS hf ucsijf ynfe,f&dS vlxrk sm;onf olw@kd vt
kd yf=uaom v#ypf pf
pGrf;tif&&Sdap&eftwGuf/ ti,fpm;a&tm; v#yfppf xkwf,la&;vkyfief;
rsm;udk oifhav#mf&menf;vrf;rsm;jzifh aqmif&Gufae=u+yD; jzpfygonf?
trSefqdk&v#if w&kwf EdkifiHonf ti,fpm;a&tm;v#yfppfxkwfvkyfief;
(Small hydro power--SHP)wGif OD;aqmifaeonfah e&mu &So
d nf[q
k kd
Edik +f yD;/ (2006) ckEpS f pm&if;rsm;t& ti,fpm;a&tm;v#ypf pfxw
k f puf&kH

68

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

aygif; (43˜ 027) ck &Sdaeygonf?77 “rdrdbmom wnfaqmufEdkifaom/
rdrb
d mom xde;f odr;f pDrEH ikd af om/ rdrb
d mom toH;k ðyEdik af om” ti,fpm;
a&tm;v#ypf pf puf&rkH sm;wnfaqmuf&ef w&kwEf ikd if u
H 1960 ckEpS rf sm;
uyif rl0g'csrw
S cf yhJ gonf? Tod@k A[dk OD;pD;csKyfuikd rf _ rxm;bJ jzef@cx
JG m;
aom pDrcH ef@crJG p_ epfEiS hf a'ocHjynforl sm;udk ‚wd@k bmom pDrx
H ed ;f odr;f Edik f
aom a&tm;v#ypf pfxw
k f vkyif ef;rsm;wGif &if;ES;D jr‡KyfEaHS pjcif;ESihf toH;k ðy
apjcif;udk ydrk jkd r‡iw
hf ifaqmif&u
G o
f ifv
h yS gonf? od@k aomfvnf; jrefrmEdik if &H dS
ppftpd;k &u qnf}uD;rsm;wnfaqmufa&;Yom tm;oefaeum/ w&kwEf ikd f
iHrS ukr%
` rD sm;u Tod@k aqmufvyk af &;twGuf ulnyD yHh ;kd ay;ae=uygonf?

tcef; (4)? tod&&dS jdS zifh oabmwlI tepfemcH-u&jcif;/ od‹k r[kwf tjcm;a&G;cs,fp&m
enf;vrf;rsm; !$ejf ya&G;cs,fapjcif;r&Sb
d J vltrsm;u xdcu
kd ef pfem-u&jcif;?
wefz&Jaus; &GmrS &Gmom;wOD;u ajymjy&mwGif “tpdk;&uawmh usaemfwdk@udk
w&m;0iftoday;wmawG r&Sad o;ygb;l ? at&Sm;a0g (ukr%
` )D uvmawmh &Gmvl
}uD;udk 'Dae&mrSm olw@kd tvkyv
f yk rf ,fqw
kd m today;ygw,f? 'gayr,fh &Gmom;
awGukd bmudpv
P yk rf ,f/ b,ftwGuaf =umifh vkyrf ,fqw
kd m &Si;f jywm r&Syd gb;l ?”
[k ajymygonf? (awG@qHak r;jref;cef; trSw-f 14)
ppftpdk;&onf Tqnfwnfaqmufa&;ESifh ywfoufI a'ocH jynfolvlxkrsm;xHodk@
w&m;0if ta=umif;=um;jcif; r&Sad o;yg? od@k aomfvnf; aus;&Gmvlxrk sm;onf uGi;f qif;
wdik ;f xGma&;tzG@J rsm; oGm;vmaeonfukd jrifawG@ae=u&+yD; qnfwnfaqmufawmhrnfukd
odae=uygonf? *syefavhvmwdik ;f xGma&;tzG@J wcku pm&Gupf mwrf;rsm; usecf +hJ yD;/ ‚wd@k
rSwqifh wefz&Jaus;&GmteD; wnfaqmufrnfh qnfESifh tjcm;tcsuftvufrsm;udk
od&Sd=u&ygonf?
a&v$rf;rnfha'orsm; azmfjyxm;onfh ajryHktygt0ifjzpfaom taxmuftxm;rsm;udk
=unfhI wefz&Jaus;&Gmom;rsm;u ucsifvlrsKd;rsm;. OD;aqmiftzGJ@tpnf;wckxHodk@
“Tqnf aqmufvyk af &; udpt
P ay: wm;qD;Edik &f eftwGuf vdt
k yfaom ta&;,laqmif
&Gurf r_ sm; ðyay;yg&efEiS hf oufqikd &f m tm%mydik rf sm;xH qufvufwifjyay;&ef” (2004)
{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

69

ckESpf/ Zefe0g&DvwGif awmif;qdkcJh=uyg onf? (2007) ckESpf/ arv (12) &ufae@wGif
&yf&mG vl}uD;rsm;ESihf vl&akd o &Si&f akd o vlra_ cgi;f aqmif (12) OD;u yl;aygi;f um Adv
k cf sKyf
rSL;}uD; oef;a&$xH qnfwnfaqmufru
_ pd EP iS hf ywfoufI uef@uu
G af =umif; tdyzf iG ahf y;pm
a&;om;ay;yd@k cJ=h uygonf? (aemufqufww
JG iG f =unfyh g?) od@k aomfvnf; ,ae@tcsed t
f xd
rnfonfhpmudkr# jyef=um;jcif; r&Sdao;yg?
urBmq
h nfrsm;qdik &f m aumfr&Siu
f t=uHðyxm;onfrmS qnfwckwnfaqmuf&eftwGuf
qHk;jzwfcsuf rcsrSwfrDwGif a&/ tpm;tpmESifh avmifpmrnfr#vdktyfrnfudk aocsmpGm
oHk;oyfavhvmxm;&ef vdktyfygonf? tjcm;jzpfEdkifzG,f&Sdaom a&G;cs,fp&mvrf;rsm;
udv
k nf; xnfo
h iG ;f pOf;pm;&rnfjzpf+yD;/ yxrOD;pm;ay; pOf;pm;qH;k jzwfoifah omtcsurf mS
vuf&dS wnf&adS eqJ pepfrsm;udk xda&mufpmG toH;k csEikd &f eftwGuf rnfo@kd w;kd wufatmif
aqmif&GufEdkifrnfudk pOf;pm;&ef vdktyfygonf? Twnfaqmufa&;vkyfief;rsm;a=umifh
tusKd;oufa&mufr_ cHpm;&rnfholrsm;udkvnf; qHk;jzwfcsuf csrSwfonfhae&mwGif yg0if
ywfoufr_ &Sad p&rnfjzpfonf? xd@k tjyif TpDrcH suaf =umifh &&Sv
d mrnfh tusK;d aus;Zl;rsm;
udk yxrOD;qH;k cHpm;=u&rnfo
h rl sm;onf Tvlxrk sm; jzpf=uygonf? tusK;d oufa&muf
cH&zG,&f adS om vlxrk sm;u vufcrH r_ &Sb
d J rnfonfq
h nfurkd # rwnfaqmufoihyf g? Xmae
a'ocHrsm;ESihf wdik ;f &if;om;vlrsK;d pkrsm; &Sad eygu ‚wd@k ukd txl;OD;pm;ay; pOf;pm;&rnf
jzpfygonf?74 w&kwEf ikd if .
H a&t&if;tjrpfOya'wGif pDrcH suu
f kd jyifqifa&;qG&J mESihf jyef
vnfoHk;oyfr_ðy&m tqifhrsm;tm;vHk;wGif vlxkrsm; yg0ifaqmif&GufEdkifcGifh &Sdapa&;t
wGuf wdkufwGef;xm;ygonf?75 aocsmonfrSm jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd {&m0wDjrpfqHkqnf wnf
aqmufa&;vkyfief;rsm;wGif a'ocHjynfolrsm;. yl;aygif;aqmif&GufcGifh &&Sdvmap&ef
ta=umif;r&Sdyg?

70

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

atmufajcrSwpf rk sm;
1

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6

7

8

9

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12

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14

Valley of Darkness:Gold mining and militarization in Burma’s Hugawng Valley,
KDNG,2007
“Myanmar commits to building more hydropower,” Xinhua, May 7, 2007. rD*g0yf (MW)
onf 0yf (watt) woef;ESifhnDr#aom v#yfppf"gwftm; wdkif;wma&;,lepf jzpfonf? Oyrm-uGefjyLwm tvHk;aygif;
(2˜ 000) cef@onf v#ypf pf"gwt
f m; wpf rD*g0yfukd toH;k ðyonf?
http://www.energy.gov.mm/efficiency_conservation_sustainability.htm, Greater
Mekong Subregion Atlas of the Environment, Asian Development Bank, 2004.
"Legal aspects of hydropower projects in Myanmar,” Hydropower and Dams, Issue
One, 2007.
“Goodbyes gas for hydropower,” The Myanmar Times, July 10-16, 2006.
Dams and Development-A new framework for decision-making, The report of the
World Commission on Dams, 2000.
“Dam the consequences – Big, bad dams return to South-East Asia,” The Economist,
June 13, 2007. Taqmif;yg;wGif “qnf}u;D rsm; txl;ojzifh jrefrmEdik if u
H oHviG jf rpfa=umif;wGif wnfaqmufaeaom
qnfrsm; ESifh rJacgifjrpfay:wGif wnfaqmuf&ef t}uHðywifjyxm;aom avmEdkifiH. 'Gefqma[mif; (Don Sahong)
qnfuo
hJ @kd aom {&mrqnf}uD;rsm;udk a'ocHjynforl sm;tay:usa&mufrnfh ab;'kurQ sm;udak omfvnf;aumif;/ jrpfw@kd .
txd tcdu
k f rcHEikd af om a*[pepfrsm; xdcu
kd yf supf ;D r_ukd aomfvnf;aumif; yrmrxm;bJ/ rjzpfraewGe;f xd;k wnfaqmufomG ;
tvm;tvm &Sdaeayonf? urBmhb%f odk@r[kwf tm&SzGH@òz;a&;b%f (at'DbD) wdk@u TpDrHcsufrsm;twGuf b¾maiG
axmufyo
hH nfjzpfap/ raxmufyo
hH nfjzpfap/ wygwt
D m%m&Sit
f pd;k &rsm; tkycf sKyfae=uaom TEdik if EH pS cf u
k v#ypf pf"gwf
tm; txl;qmavmif rufarmaeaom tdrfeD;csif; EdkifiHrsm;/ txl;ojzifh w&kwfEdkifiHESifh yl;aygif;aqmif&Guf&Edkifa=umif;
odae=u&m/ Todk@w&kyfbufvSnfhI vkyfaqmifvm=uvdrfhrnf jzpfonf” [k az: jyxm;ygonf?
“Myanmar’s push for Hydropower,” Energy Tribune, February 23,2007, at
www.energytribune.com/
articles.cfm?aid= 400.
WCMC Biodiversity Series No. 8 Freshwater Biodiversity: a preliminary global
assessment, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 1998. Tod@k zdp;D apaom ta=umif;wckrmS
qnfrsm; jzpfygonf? tpD&ifcpH mY az: jyxm;&mwGif “qnfrsm;onf jrpfa&pD;qif;yHpk epfukd xdcu
kd af ponf? trsm;tm;jzifh
t}uD;tus,fxdcdkufaponfh tjyif/ owW0gwdk@. cdkatmif;&maexdkif&m a'o}uD;rsm;udkvnf; ysufpD;aponf?
om;ayguf&eftwGuf jrpfpepfxJwGif pHkqeful;vl;ae=uaom ig;rsm;tay:wGifvnf; txl;odompGm xdcdkufoufa&muf
aponf?”
Watersheds of Asia and Oceania, As12 Irrawaddy, Water Resources eAtlas, http://
www.iucn.org/themes/wani/eatlas/pdf/as/as 13.pdf. Greater Mekong Subregion
Atlas of the environment, Asian Development Bank, 2004 Tpmapmif.az: jycsut
f & jrpfwiG ;f &Sd
ig;rsm;wGif **F gjrpfwGif;ae xdkif=uaom ig;rsdK;pdwfrsm;yg0ifr_&Sd+yD;/ rJacgifjrpfxJrSm rawG@&aom XmaecH ig;rsdK;pdwftrsm;
TjrpfxrJ mS &Sad e=uonf?
Irrawaddy Watershed, EarthTrends/World Resources Institute, 2002.
“Amblyceps Carinatum, a new species of hillstream catfish from Myanmar(Teleostei:
Amblycipitidae),” Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 2005 53(2): 243-249, December 31,
2005. {&m0wDjrpfrmS awG@&&dS aom tcsK@d ig;clrsm;ESihf ESihf rJacgijf rpfrmS awG@&&dS aom ig;clrsm;onf yHpk cH si;f rwl=ubJ/ wrlx;l jcm;ae
a=umif;/ ta=umif;rSm {&m0wDjrpfonf **F gjrpfEiS hf jrpfpepfcsi;f ydI
k wlaoma=umifjh zpfa=umif;udv
k nf; aqmif;yg;u az: jy
xm;onf? xd@k a=umifh {&m0wDjrpfonf rwljcm;em;aom ZD0 yx0Da'orsm; (biogeographic regions) . qHpk nf;&m
ae&mwck [kqdkEdkifonf?
Irrawaddy Watershed, EarthTrends/ World Resources Institute , 2002.
Greater Mekong Subregion Atlas of the Environment, Asian Development Bank, 2004.
{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

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29

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31
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"Irrawaddy’s bounty is its people’s curse,” in The Nation, January 24, 1997.
http://www. Worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/im/im0116_full.html
T'¾&Dajymqd=k u&mwGif uGv
J rJG _ tcsK@d &ydS gonf? ewfrif;}u;D u vufwzufraS eI a&$cu
G jf zifah vmif;+y;D / tjcm;vufwzufrS
aiGcu
G u
f ikd I
f avmif;csonf[v
k nf; qd=k uygonf? xd@k tjyif jrpfrsm;ESihf ywfoufonfh xl;jcm;csut
f a=umif;rsm;wGiv
f nf;
uGJvGJajymqdkr_ tcsKd@&Sdygonf? Please see The Kachins: Religion and Custom, A. Gilhodes,
1996 and http;//www.pandaw1947.com/irrawaddy_river.htm
Myanmar Hydroproject, Report, China Power Investment Corporation Myanmar
Hydro Division, April 2007.
aemufxyfowif;tcsut
f vufrsm;udk China Southern Power Grid. website pmrsuEf mS www.csg.cn
wGif =unfhEdkifonf//
“West-to-east Power Transmission Program Well Underway in SW China,” People’s
Daily Online, January 10, 2003.
“China to Build Dams in Northern Burma,” The Irrawaddy Business News, February
2007.
China eyes second dam on Thanlwin, The Myanmar Times, Volume 19, No.336, May
14-20, 2007, “China firm to build Myanmar hydro-power plants,” AFP, May5, 2007.
China eyes second dam on Thanlwin, The Myanmar Times, Volume 19, No.336, May
14-20, 2007.
“Hydropower plays a leading role in Myanmar’s power development plans,” International Journal of Hydropower and Dams, Issue Two, 2005.
“Who rules the Ground?” The power of Myanmar’s area commanders,” at http://
www,asiaweek.com/asiaweek/magazine/99/0903/nat_myanmar.html
http://eng.cpicorp.com.cn/channel.do?cmd=show&id=5
Myanmar Hydroproject Report, China Power Investment Corporation Myanmar
Hydro Division, April 2007.
http://eng.cpicorp.com.cn/channel.do?cmd=show&id=5
http://finance.mapsofworld.com/company/c/china-southern-power-grid.html ESifh
www.csg.cn tifwmeuf pmrsuEf mS rsm;rS owif;tcsut
f vufrsm; &,lygonf?
http://www.ymec.com.cn/en/about.htm
www.yndaily.com/html/20051201/news_88_714449.html
http://www,cjw.com.cn/index/civilization/detail/20070530/88736.asp
at&Sa0gvu
f rk %
` o
D nf ysO;f rem; òr@awmfopf (aejynfawmf) . twGi;f ESit
hf jyif taqmuftOD;rsm; aqmufvyk af &; twGuf
tpd;k &ESihf uefx±du
k pf mcsKyf csKyfqx
kd m;aom t"duukr%
` }D uD;wckvnf; jzpfonf//
at&Sa0gvfESifh ywfoufaom tcsuftvufrsm;udk {&m0wDr*~Zif;rS cGefqrf (Hkun Sam) u okawoeðyonf?
“Hanging drug couriers but investing with their suppliers,” in The Nation, October
20, 1997.
http://www.suntactechnologies.com/
htpp://www.japancorp.net/company_show.asp?compid=453
Dammed by Burma’s Generals: The Karenni Experience with Hydropower Development
from Lawpita to the Salween, The Karenni Development Research Group, 2006.
(WCD p. 112)
Down River, The consequences of Vietnam’s Se San River Dams on Life in Cambodia
and their meaning in international law,The NGO Forum on Cambodia
“The Mekong’s Changing Currency,” Montree Chantawong, in Watershed, Vol. 11,
No. 2, November 2005-January 2006.

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f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

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Silenced Rivers, the Ecology and Politics of Large Dams, Patrick McCully, 2001,
p. 117.
w&kwfjynfol@orwEdkifiH/ a&ESifh pGrf;tif t&if;tjrpfrsm;tawG@tñuHwGif qnfrsm;ESifhywfoufaom udpPrsm;udk
urBmhqnfrsm;qkdif&m aumfr&Sifodk@ wifjy&ef Professor R. Fuggle and W.T. Smith, 2000. ðypkaom
w&kwEf ikd if t
H a=umif; wifjycsupf mwrf;rS &,lygonf?
http://asc-india.org/maps/hazard/haz-myanmar.htm, last accessed June 22, 2007.
Silenced Rivers, the Ecology and Politics of Large Dams, Patrick McCully, 2001, p.
113-114.
vHðk cHa&;0efxrf;rsm;ESihf tif*sief ,
D mwOD;rSm a&epfaoqH;k cJ&h ygonf? 'Dru
kd &ufwpf jrefrmhtoH xkwv
f i$ chf su?f (2006 ckEpS /f
Zlvdkif 12) Dam burst kills five in northern Burma’s Kachin State.
jrpf}uD;em;a&}uD;r_owif;udk http://www.kachinstate.com/reporton_myitkyina_flood.html
tifwmeufpmrsuEf mS wGif zwf&E_ ikd yf gonf?
Down River, The consequences of Vietnam’s Se San River Dams on Life in Cambodia
and their meaning in international law, The NGO Forum on Cambodia, 2005, “Death
toll rises in Indian dam tragedy,” 12 April 2005, www.waterpowermagazine.com
From Myanmar: Investment opportunities in biodiversity conservation, Birdlife
international, 2005, citing “Large-scale hydrological changes in tropical Asia:
prospects for riverine biodiversity,” Bioscience 50 (9): 793-806, 2000, and “The
ecology of tropical Asian rivers and streams in relations to biodiversity
conservation,” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31: 239-263, 2000.
“Large-scale hydrological changes in tropical Asia: prospects for riverine
biodiversity,” David Dudgeon, in Bioscience, September 2000.
Greater Mekong Subregion Atlas of the Environment, Asian Development Bank, 2004,
p. 37.
Silenced Rivers, the Ecology and Politics of Large Dams, Patrick McCully, 2001
Tta&;ygaom a'orsm;ta=umif;udk a'guw
f m aemfref ar,m (Dr. Norman Meyers) u yxrOD;qH;k avhvmcJ+h y;D /
1988 ckESpfwGif yHkESdyfazmfjycJh+yD jzpfygonf? Tavhvmr_udk ESpfpOfxyfrHjznfhpGufcJh+yD; aemufqHk;pmtkyfrSm Hotspots
Revisited: Earth’s Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Terrestrial Ecoregions.
[k trnf&ygonf/ ‚udk atmufygtifwmeufpmrsufESmwGif zwf&_Edkifygonf? http://multimedia.con
servation.org/cabs/online_pubs/hotspots2/cover.html
http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/im/im0131_full.html
Myanmar: Investment opportunities in biodiversity conservation, Birdlife
international, 2005
Irrawaddy Watershed, EarthTrends/World Resources Institute, 2002.
Occasional Paper No. 23 Biology and Conservation of Asian River Cetaceans,
accessed at http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/publications/rivercetacean.htm
w&kwfjynfol@orwEdkifiH/ a&ESifh pGrf;tif t&if;tjrpfrsm;tawG@tñuHwGif qnfrsm;ESifhywfoufaom udpPrsm;udk
urBmhqnfrsm;qkdif&m aumfr&Sifodk@ wifjy&ef Professor R. Fuggle and W.T. Smith, 2000. ðypkaom
w&kwEf ikd if t
H a=umif; wifjycsupf mwrf;rS &,lygonf?
“Legal aspects of hydropower projects in Myanmar,” in Hydropower and Dams,
Issue One, 2007.
“Smith, B.D. & Beasely, I. 2004.Orcaella brevirostris (Malampaya Sound
subpopulation). In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
<www.iucnredlist>.org. Downloaded on 21 June 2007.
&Sppf wdq
k rkd aD ,;ppfa&m*gEiS hf ywfoufaom tcsut
f vufrsm;udk Silenced Rivers, the Ecology and Politics
of Large Dams, Patrick McCully, 2001. pmtkyfrS &,lygonf?
WCD, p. 118.
{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

73

62

63
64

65

66

67
68

69

70

71

72

rDemrmwm a&m*grmS *syefEikd if &H dS rDemrmwmòr@wiG f 1956 ckEpS u
f yxrt}urd f pwifawG@&cdS &hJ jcif; jzpfygonf? cspq
f kd aumfyakd &;&Si;f
(Chisso Corporation) . "gwyk pPn;f puf&u
kH puf&x
kH u
G f rDoikd ;f vf rmusL&D"gwyf g0ifaom a&qd;k rsm;ud/k 1932 ckrS
1968 ckEpS t
f xd pGe@f ypfaecJ+h y;D aemuf jzpfay:cJjh cif; jzpfygonf? Tod@k tqdyjf yif;xefvaS om "gwrf sm;onf rDemrmwmurf;ajcESihf
&SD&maEG yifv,fatmf&Sd tcGHygaom c&k/ ykpGefrsm;ESifh ig;rsm;wGif pkyHkaecJh=u+yD;/ a'ocHvlxkrsm;u ‚rsm;udk pm;oHk;um
jy'g;qdyo
f ifch =hJ ujcif; jzpfygonf? (2001) ckEpS /f rwfvtxd vlaygi;f (2˜265) jy'g;qdyo
f ifo
h nfh '%f cHpm;cJ=h u&+y;D / (‚wd@k txJrS
1˜784 OD;rSm toufqHk;&_H;cJh&ygonf?) vlaygif; (10˜ 000) ausmfrSm epfemr_twGuf av#mfa=u;aiG &&SdcJhygonf?
av#mfa=u;aiG&&Sda&;twGuf awmif;qdkr_rsm;/ w&m;pGJqdkr_rsm;rSm ,ae@wdkif qufvuf jzpfay:aeqJ jzpfygonf?
rDemrmwma&m*gudk *syefEdkifiH. pufr_npfnrf;r_rS &&Sdaom a&m*g}uD; (4) rsKd;teuf wrsKd;tjzpf owfrSwfxm;cJhygonf?
a&m*gvuQ%mrsm;rSm ud,
k cf E<m[efcsurf nDbJ xde;f r&jcif;/ vufEiS hf ajcwd@k wiG f xHu
k sijf cif;/ taxGaxG ºuufom; tm;enf;
csKd@wJhjcif;/ rsufaphjrifuGif; usOf;jcif;/ t=um;ESifh pum;ajymEdkifonfh pGrf;&nf csKd@wJhjcif;rsm; jzpfygonf? ydkIjyif;xef pGm
tqdyo
f ifch &H onfh tajctaewGif &l;oGyjf cif;/ avjzwfjcif;/ owdvpf arharsmjcif;ESihf Ta&m*gvuQ%mrsm; ay:+yD;aemuf
&ufowW ywfrsm;twGi;f aoqH;k jcif;wd@k jzpfwwfygonf?
Silenced Rivers, the Ecology and Politics of Large Dams, Patrick McCully, 2001.
At What Price: Gold Mining in Kachin State, Burma, Images Asia and Pan Kachin
Development Society, 2004.
Smith, B.D. & Beasley, I. 2004, Orcaella brevirostris (Malampaya Sound
subpopulation). In: IUCN 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
<www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 June 2007.
Oyrmtm;jzifh awmiftmz&duEdik if &H dS um&DbmqnfwiG f qnfwnfaqmufpOfumvwGif vlprd ;f rsm; 0ifa&mufvmjcif;ESihf
twl òr@jy tjzpfajymif;vmjcif;a=umifh vdiq
f ufqrH a_ =umifh jzpfaom a&m*grsm; wd;k yGm;vmapygonf? r=umao;rDumvwGif
tdycf st
f ikd Af -GD attdik 'f t
D ufpaf &m*g jzpfEe_ ;f jrifv
h m+y;D / txl;ojzifh a'ocHtrsK;d orD;rsm;udk txl;qd;k usK;d oufa&mufapygonf?
vDqo
kd Ekd ikd if /H uke;f jrifah 'o pDrcH suw
f iG v
f nf; a&m*gys@H ymG ;r_Ee_ ;f rSm/ ywf0ef;usiaf 'orsm;xuf ydI
k jrifrh m;aecJyh gonf? Dams
and Development - A new framework for decision-making, The report of the World
Commission on Dams, 2000.
“Aid and sanctions in Burma,” Boston Globe, June 16, 2007.
Valley of Darkness: Gold mining and militarization in Burma’s Hugawng Valley,
KDNG, 2007.
jrefrmppfwyfzGJ@0ifrsm;u trsKd;orD;rsm;tay:wGif/ txl;ojzifh wdkif;&if;om;a'orsm;Y rk'drf;usifh/ vdifr_qdkif&mt&
t=urf;zuf=u aom jzpf&yfrsm;udk tpD&ifcHpmtrsm;tjym;Y rSwfwrf;wif azmfjyxm;=u+yD; jzpfygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh
&Srf;trsKd;orD; v_yf&Sm;r_ uGef&uf tzGJ@ (Shan Women’s Action Network) rS xkwfa0aom License to
Rape: The Burmese Military Regime’s Use of Sexual Violence in the Ongoing War in
Shan State (rk'drf;usifhcGifhvdkifpif? ? &Srf;jynfe,ftwGif; qufvufjzpfyGm;aeaom ppfyGJwGif;Y jrefrmppftpdk;&u
vdifr_qdkif&mt=urf;zufr_rsm;udk qufvufusifhoHk;aejcif;) tpD&ifcHpm/ u&iftrsKd;orD; tpnf;t&Hk; (au'AvsLtdk) rS
xkwfa0aom Shattering Silences (wdwfqdwfaer_udk csKd;zsufvdkufjcif;) tpD&ifcHpm/ rGefjynf vl@tcGifhta&;
azmifa';&Si;f (Human Rights Foundation of Monland) ESihf trsK;d orD;ESihf uav;qdik &f m tcGit
hf a&;pDrcH suf
(Women and Child Rights Project) wd@k yl;aygi;f xkwaf 0aom Catwalk to the Barrack (ppfwef;vsm;od@k
tvSjyvrf;av#muf=u&jcif;) tpD&ifcpH mrsm;wGif awG@&EdS ikd yf gonf? xd@k tjyif csi;f jynf trsK;d orD;tzG@J csKyf (The Women
League of Chinland) rS xkwaf 0aom Unsafe State (rvHðk caH omjynfe,f) tpF&ifcpH mwGiv
f nf; awG@Eikd yf gonf?
tr_ trSwf (MMR 090307.CC.VAW) n‡Of;yrf;ESdyfpufr_rsm; qef@usifa&;qdkif&m urBmhtzGJ@/ EdkifiHwum
twGif;a&;rSL;rsm;tzGJ@. 2007 ckESpf/ rwfv (9) &ufae@wGif wifjycsuf? “Jailing of four minor girls gangraped by members of the military, Case MMR 090307.CC.VAW,” the International
Secretariat of the World Organisation Against Torture, March 9, 2007.
The Impact of Dams and Resettlement on Women’s Lives, Carol Yong,
www.wrm.org.uy/bulletin/79/dams.html
Dams, Indigenous Peoples and Ethnic Minorities, Prepared for the World Commission
on Dams (WCD) by Marcus Colchester - Forest Peoples Programme, November

74

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

73

74

75

76

77

2000. owdðyoifah omtcsurf mS twdwjf zpf&yf tawG@tñurH sm;t& jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f ajymif;a&$@=u&aomolrsm;&&S=d uaom
av#maf =u;aiGrmS rqdpk avmufr#/ tenf;i,fom &&Syd gonf?
The Relocation Component in Connection with the Sardar-Sarovar (Narmada)
Project, World Bank, Washington DC, 1984.
urBmq
h nfrsm;qdik &f m aumfr&Si.
f t=uðH ycsurf sm;udk ydrk o
kd &d v
dS ykd gu atmufyg tifwmeufpmrsuEf mS wGif avhvmEdik yf gonf?
www.dams.org
w&kwfjynfol@orwEdkifiH/ a&ESifh pGrf;tif t&if;tjrpfrsm;tawG@tñuHwGif qnfrsm;ESifhywfoufaom udpPrsm;udk
urBmhqnfrsm;qkdif&m aumfr&Sifodk@ wifjy&ef Professor R. Fuggle and W.T. Smith, 2000. ðypkaom
w&kwEf ikd if t
H a=umif; wifjycsupf mwrf;rS &,lygonf?
“What is small hydro?” from the International Small Hydro Atlas at http://
www.small-hydro.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=welcome.whatis
Development of Small Hydro, G. Baidya, presented at the Himalayan Small
hydropower Summit, October 2006.

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

75

aemufqufwJG 1? awG@qakH r;jref;cJo
h rl sm; pm&if;
pOf
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

76

&ufpGJ
2006 ckESpf/ rwfv
2006 ckESpf/ rwfv
2006 ckESpf/ rwfv
2006 ckESpf/ rwfv
2006 ckESpf/ rwfv
2006 ckESpf/ rwfv
2006 ckESpf/ rwfv
2006 ckESpf/ rwfv
2006 ckESpf/ rwfv
2006 ckESpf/ rwfv
2006 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv
2006 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv
2006 ckESpf/ pufwifbmv
2006 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbm
2006 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbm
2006 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbm
2006 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbm
2006 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbm
2006 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbm
2006 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbm
2006 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbm
2006 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbm
2006 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbm
2006 ckESpf/ atmufwdkbm
2007 ckESpf/ rwfv
2007 ckESpf/ rwfv
2007 ckESpf/ rwfv
2007 ckESpf/ {+yDv
2007 ckESpf/ {+yDv
2007 ckESpf/ ZGefv

usm;§r
usm;
usm;
usm;
usm;
usm;
usm;
r
r
r
r
usm;
usm;
usm;
usm;
usm;
usm;
usm;
usm;
usm;
r
usm;
usm;
usm;
usm;
usm;
r
r
usm;
usm;
usm;

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

touf
35
24
38
60
30
58
64
27
46
39
28
24
26
24
40
27
60
55
60
65
44
40
43
56
58
29
26
40
29
63

tvkyftudkif
bk&m;ausmif;vl}uD;
ul;wdk@avSorm;
wHig
rkqdk;
wHig
v,form;
v,form;
usyrf;aps;a&mif;ol
ti,fpm; rdkif;wGif;wl;orm;
wdkif;&if;aq;q&m
0g;a&mif;ol
wHig
ul;wdk@avSorm;
ae@pm;tvkyform;
bk&m;ausmif;vl}uD;
wHigESifh ul;wdk@avSydk@ol
v,form;ESifh wHig
v,form;ESifh ti,fpm; rdkif;wGif;wl;ol
v,form;
v,form;
aus;&Gmvl}uD;
oif;tkyfq&m
t"rRvkyftm;cdkif;apcH&ol
oif;tkyfq&m
oif;tkyfq&m
v,form;
v,form;
oif;tkyfq&m
oif;tkyfq&m
oif;tkyfq&m

aemufqufwJG 2? qnfa=umifh epfemr_ qd;k usK;d rsm; cHpm;&rnfh
&yf&mG jynforl sm;rS wifjyaom qnf wnfaqmufa&; uef@uu
G o
f nfph m/
2004 ckESpf/ Zefe0g&Dv?
odk@
OuUX/ twGif;a&;rSL;
ucsifjynfol@ twdkifyifcHaumifpD
&SmwmjzL/ jrpf}uD;em;
ucsifjynfe,f?
ta=umif;t&m?

? arvdc-tifrdkifcjrpfqHkwGif qnfwnfaqmufrnfhudpP?

vl}uD;rif;cifAsm;?
txufazmfjyyg ta=umif;udpPESifh ywfoufI wefz&Jaus;&Gmae rdrdwdk@ jynfolrsm;rS rdrdwdk@ vlrsKd;pk
w&yfvHk; xdcdkufepfemapEdkifaomudpPESifh ywfoufI arwWm&yfcH wifjytyfygonf?
ay (500) tjrifh&Sdonfh uGefu&pfjzifh rHI/ ausmufom;jznfh a&avSmifqnfwckudk *syefEdkifiHrS uefqdkif;
ukr`%Du wefz&Jaus;&Gmawmifbuf 3- rdkiftuGmta0;/ rvdc-tifrdkifcjrpfqHkae&mwGif r=umrDwnf
aqmuf&ef &Sdaeygonf? TudpPonf ucsiftrsKd;om;w&yfvHk;udk tEW&m,fusa&mufapEdkifaomudpP
jzpfygonf?
qnfwnfaqmufvdkufjcif;a=umifh rdrdwdk@jynfolrsm;tay: atmufazmfjyyg qdk;usKd;oufa&mufr_rsm; jzpf
ay:vmEdkifonf[k xifjrifrdygonf?
1? aus;&Gmaygif; (20) ausmf/ vlOD;a& (3000) ausmfESifh rdom;pk (500) wdk@. aexdkif&maus;&Gmrsm;
a&v$rf;cH&Edkifjcif;?
2? a&v$rf;cH&r_a=umifh pdkufajrv,f,mrsm; (18˜ 000) pwk&ef;rdkifcef@ ysufpD;qHk;&_H;oGm;Edkifjcif;/
3? a'ocHjynfolrsm;taejzifh toufarG;0rf;ausmif;vkyfief;rsm; qHk;&_H;&um/ b0rvHkðcH jzpfvmEdkifjcif;?
4? ucsifjynfolrsm;. vSyom,maom obm00ef;usifrsm; ysufpD;qHk;&_H;&rnf jzpfjcif;/
5? &mESifhcsDaom wd&dp>mefom;aumifrsm;/ opfrmefyef;rmef trsKd;rsm; qHk;&_H;&Edkifjcif;?
6? rvdESifh tifrdkif 0gvGef;/ rvd-c&ef 0gvGef;ESifh qGrfy&mbGrf }wd*Ha'o&Sd vrf;yef;qufoG,fa&;rsm;
a&v$rf;cH&r_a=umifh jywfawmufoGm;Edkifjcif;?
7? c&dkifaemfESifh c&dkif*rfwdk@. ucsif&mZ0ifvm Zmwdajra'orsm; ajryHkay:rS aysmufuG,foGm;&zG,f
&Sdaejcif;?
8? ucsifjynfe,fajrmufydkif;a'o&Sd c&pf,mefomoemjyKtoif; XmecsKyfvnf; ae&maysmufuG,f&zG,f
&Sdaejcif;?
9? ucsifvlrsKd;rsm;twGuf ordkif;0if/ tav;tjrwfxm;&mae&mrsm; ysufpD;aysmufuG,foGm;&zG,f &Sdae
jcif; ponfwdk@ ñuH&Edkifygonf?
odk@jzpfygI TpmESifhtwl taxmuftxm;rSwfwrf; 2-ckudk qnfwnfaqmufa&;vkyfief;rsm; &yfqdkif;
ap&eftwGuf vdktyfovdk qufvufaqmif&GufEdkifyg&efESifh oufqdkif&mtm%mydkifrsm;xH qufvuf
wifjyEdkif&eftwGuf yl;wGJwifjytyfygonf?
av;pm;pGmjzifhwefz&Jaus;&Gmom;rsm;tm;vHk; pkaygif;vufrSwfa&;xdk;ygonf?
rdwWLudk1? autdkiftdk (KIO) qufqHa&;&Hk;/ jrpf}uD;em;òr@?
2? tJef'Datau (NDAK) tzGJ@ qufqHa&;&Hk;/ jrpf}uD;em;òr@?
3? ucsiftrsKd;om; ,Ofaus;r_Xme/ jrpf}uD;em;òr@?
4? ucsif bufywpftoif;awmf XmecsKyf/ jrpf}uD;em;òr@?
5? jrpf}uD;em;òr@ uufovpftoif;awmf XmecsKyf?
6? ucsifjynfe,f usrf;pmoifausmif; aumvdyf/ aemifeef;/ jrpf}uD;em;òr@?
7? wefz&Jaus;&Gm aumifpD/ vufcHzdkif?

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

77

aemufqufwJG 3? ucsiv
f x
l ak cgi;f aqmifrsm;xHrS uef@uu
G af ompm/

78

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

79

80

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

81

82

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

Villages in the food zone of Irrawaddy Myitsone Dam

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

83

a&v$r;f cH&rnfh aus;&Gmrsm;rS vlO;D a&pm&if;
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47

Village name

an‡mfarSmf
avm0f*rf
Zefaemif;
*s0g,ef
a':rm,ef
*geef,ef
tif'ek ;f ZGyf
tlavmif,ef
atmf&m,ef
ZGy&f m,ef
cgeb
f ,f,ef
rZGyf
tifa':,ef
csaD zG
varmfZyG f (emarmfZyG )f
r*&rf,ef
&Seaf ig
c0rf,ef
rmefa'gif
'Grb
f efZyG f
qeDc;l
ref0ed ;f
qdkifavmf
vdi_ q
f ;D
qa*g0h rl ef
wefz&J
a*Gaxmif
a0&SD
zppfZyG f
aumhocg
remZGyq
f uef
tifqyG Zf yG f
tif*spf
&SDawG,ef
w,ef
rke,
f mZGyf
u&wf,ef
*sed rf m,ef
*smxl,ef
c&mZGyf
vwfZyG f
ra&mrfZyG f
v&ef*g;
tGrfv*Grf
'rfu
f axmif
Zeef
yavmif,ef
TOTAL

84

{&m0wDjrpfukd ydwq
f ‹kd a&umwmwnfaqmufjcif;

Household

Population

21

113

13

58

72

386

18

87

10

57

14

73

15

77

32

179

42

401

8

60

6

51

54

292

11

109

218

1097

17

65

29

138

65

334

69

354

165

847

31

163

18

107

189

897

263

1294

5

25

6

30

173

1406

22

106

4

15

10

57

5

20

7

28

10

30

18

180

18

160

40

150

10

60

6

28

10

45

27

143

37

192

7

29

8

39

68

357

5

20

17

96

6

25

5

25

1904

10505

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