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http://www.2dix.com/view/view.php?urllink=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.auburn.edu %2F~albrimd%2Fchapter6.ppt&searchx=various%20corporate%20strategy http://books.google.com.sg/books? id=Sli7_rbsEgcC&pg=PA73&lpg=PA73&dq=the+products+it+purchases+from+the+in dustry+are+standard+or+undifferentiated&source=bl&ots=wZJXETuq2m&sig=nCuK b5DDGd123cmVadaAtMxy7p4&hl=en&ei=IhIWTYPwNYTqrAfs_e3rCw&sa=X&oi=b ook_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CCcQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=the %20products%20it%20purchases%20from%20the%20industry%20are%20standard %20or%20undifferentiated&f=false http://books.google.com.sg/books?

id=QN0kyeHXtJMC&pg=PA25&lpg=PA25&dq=the+products+it+purchases+from+the +industry+are+standard+or+undifferentiated&source=bl&ots=jnQSuDXAh&sig=E2vM4iiWwYMmy2VxtJDAO7_FbY0&hl=en&ei=IhIWTYPwNYTqrAf s_e3rCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBUQ6AEwAA#v=one page&q=the%20products%20it%20purchases%20from%20the%20industry%20are %20standard%20or%20undifferentiated&f=false

http://books.google.com.sg/books? id=9C3RVivbbX0C&pg=PA185&lpg=PA185&dq=sources+of+cost+reduction+economi es+of+learning&source=bl&ots=ryqaTs8UY&sig=g4P3P1rsVEMJubSxwab_JiQajN4&hl=en&ei=w_YaTbToB8L3rQeC4MmG DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDoQ6AEwBA#v=onepage& q=sources%20of%20cost%20reduction%20economies%20of%20learning&f=false Switching barriers Switching barriers or switching costs are terms used in microeconomics, strategic management, and marketing to describe any impediment to a customer's changing of suppliers.

Backward Integration a strategy for growth in which a company seeks ownership of, or some measure of control over, its suppliers. See Forward Integration; Horizontal Integration.

SYSTEM CONCEPTS - A FOUNDATION

System concepts underlie the field of information systems. Understanding system concepts will help you understand many other concepts in the technology, applications, development, and management of information systems. System concepts help you understand: Technology. That computer networks are systems of information processing components that uses a variety of hardware, software, data and telecommunication technologies. Applications. That electronic business and commerce involves interconnected business information systems. Development. That developing ways to use information technology n business includes designing the basic components of information systems. Management. That managing information technology emphasizes the quality, strategic business value, and security of an organizations information systems. What is a System? Question: What is a system as it applies to the concept of an information system? Answer: Asyst e m is a group of interrelated components working together toward a common goal by accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organized transformation process. A system (sometimes called ad y na mi c system) has three basic interacting components or functions. These include: Input involves capturing and assembling elements that enter the system to be processed. Processing involves transformation processes that convert input into output. Output involves transferring elements that have been produced by a transformation process to their ultimate destination. Feedback and Control: Two additional components of the system concept include feedback and control. A system with feedback and control components is sometimes called ac yb er n eti c system, that is, a self-monitoring, self-regulating system. Feedback is data about the performance of a system. Control involves monitoring and evaluating feedback to determine whether a system is moving toward the achievement of its goals. The control function then makes necessary adjustments to a system's input and

processing components to ensure that it produces proper output.