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simultaneous hijacking on 9/11 represent watershed terrorist incidents for a number of reasons: (a) The deaths associated with 9/11 were unprecedented: the human toll was equal to the number of deaths from transnational terrorism from the start of 1988 through the end of 2000 (Sandler, 2003) (b) The losses associated to 9/11 topped $80 billion and caused insurance companies to end automatic coverage of terrorist-induced losses. Since 9/11, many companies have been unable to afford terrorism insurance. (c) 9/11 showed that ordinary objects can be turned into deadly weapons with catastrophic consequences (d) 9/11 underscored the objectives of today¶s fundamentalist terrorist to seek maximum casualties and to induce widespread fear, unlike the predominantly left-wing terrorist campaigns of the 1970s and 1980s that sought to win over a constituency (e) 9/11 mobilized a huge reallocation of resources to homeland security ± since2002, the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) budget has grown by over 60% to $36.3 billion for the fiscal year of 2004« (f) Protective actions taken by rich developed countries have transferred some attacked against these countries¶ interest to poorer countries ± for example, post 9/11 attacks in Egypt, Indonesia, Morocco, Kenya, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey The events of 9/11 heightened anxiety worldwide and resulted in trade offs in terms of trading reduced freedom for greater security; society had not been willing to surrender as much as freedom prior to 9/11. Definition of Terrorism: - Premeditated use of threat to use violence by individuals or subnational groups in order to obtain a political or social objective through the intimidation of a large audience beyond that of the immediate victims. - Two essential ingredients characterize any modern definition of terrorism: the presence or threat, terrorists cannot make a political decision maker respond to their demands - Moreover, in the absence of a political/social motive, a violent act is a crime rather than an act of terrorism - Terrorists broaden their audience beyond their immediate victims by making their actions appear to be random, so that everyone feels anxiety - Terrorist acts are not random but well planned and often well executed attacks where the terrorists account for risks and associated costs as well as possible gains
The perpetrators are individuals or subnational groups but not the state itself.The unlawful use or threatened use of force or violence against individuals or property to coerce or intimidate governments or societies. 2003 . If the latter cost exceeds those of conceding. and audience . support this subnational terrorist group through safe haven. against the anticipated costs of future attacks. or other means. as acts of terrorism . weapons. it this terrorism? We apply the convention to call such actions state terror but not terrorism.If a state or government uses terror tactics against its own citizens.Contrast to definition provided by USDoD and US DoS (a) The threat of violence is included (b) The noncombatant distinction is dropped. the perpetrator. a terrorist bomb aboard a commuter train is mean to cause anxiety in the public at large. religious. because such bombs can be placed in any train or public place . training. From a rational calculus viewpoint. politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents. so that the roadside bombing of a US convoy in Iraq would be terrorism (c) Religious and ideological motives are explicitly identified . By intimidating a target population. political motivation. The data set international terrorism: Attributes of Terrorist Events (ITERATE) includes a terrorist action against peacekeepers. For example. the resulting terrorist act is known as state-sponsored terrorism .5 minimalist ingredients of US DoD and US DoS to their definition ± violence.Audience refers to the group that the terrorist act is intended to intimidate.Terrorism is the act of destroying or injuring civilian lives or the act of destroying or damaging civilian or government property without the expressly . terrorists intend that this population will apply pressure on political decision makers to concede to their demands.Premeditated. 2003 (The victims as ³noncombatants. White. intelligence. however.Is an attack against a passive military target or a peacekeeper a terrorist act? Virtually all definitions consider terrorist attacks against civilians as terrorism.Why do terrorists seek such a wide audience? Terrorist want to circumvent the normal political channels/ procedures and create political change through threats and violence. but not against an occupying army.´ meaning civilians and unarmed or off-duty military personnel . often to achieve political. or ideological objectives . perpetrator.US Department of Defence. victim. Alternative definitions of terrorism .y y Minimalist definition hinges on three additional factors: the victim. and the audience . funding. political decision makers must weigh the expected costs of conceding. States can. including possible counter grievances from other groups. When a state assists a terrorist group the. then a besieged government should rationally give in the demands of the terrorists. usually intended to influence an audience ± US Department of State.
. 2003) . .Terrorist must allocate resources between terrorist attacks and legitimate means for achieving political goals. this by individuals or groups acting independently« in the attempt to effect some political goal (White. intolerance. Ransoms from kidnappings have been used by some terrorist groups as a revenue source to support operations.Domestic Terrorism is a home grown and has consequences for just the host country. actions by the authorities to limit protest may close off legitimate avenues of dissent and push terrorists into engaging in more attacks.Transnational Terrorism when an incident in one country involves perpetrators.y chartered permission of a specific government. the takeover of a building and securing of hostages). and include kidnappings. governments. its institutions.The United Nations has ignored its official definition and taken a more pragmatic approach. 1998) . Ironically. multidisciplinary viewpoint encompassing historical.Distinguishing terrorism from war fare: War targets combatants with weapons that are highly discriminating in order to limit collateral damage on civilians. sociological. Even among attack modes. citizens. (b) Sociological analysis examine norms and social structure within terrorist organizations (c) Psychological studies. including those who use the internet to coordinate attacks . barricade and hostage taking (that is. or citizens of another country. property. and psychological studies: (a) Historical studies identify common features among terrorist campaigns and indicate how the nature of terrorist tactics and campaigns has evolved over time. branding violent acts perpetrated by subnational groups for political purposes as terrorism (2002) . . and policies« the perpetrators. skyjackings. left-wing ideology. institutions. and audience are all from the host country. Hostage missions are logistically complex and risky. religious suppression. or issue-specific goals (c) Some groups have resorted terrorism to establish a fundamentalist-based regime (Hoffman. . researchers have identified internal and external variables associated with the escalation of violence in terrorist events« other psychological studies indicate the personality traits of different types of terrorists. victims. victims.Other Aspects of Terrorism: (a) Many terrorist are motivated by ethno-nationalistic goals to establish a home land for an oppressed ethnic group (b) Some terrorist may also be motivated by nihilism. and the takeover of non-aerial means of transportation. terrorists must weigh expected costs and expected benefits from different actions in order to pick the best combination for their campaigns Political Approach: an advantage of the political science approach has been its eclectic. If an incident begins in one country but terminates in another. social justice. Terrorism targets noncombatants in a relatively indiscriminate manner.Terrorist employ varied modes of attacks to create an atmosphere of fear and vulnerability.
Economics approach also provides for the testing of theories with advanced statistical methods.The application of economic methods to the study of terrorism started with Landes (1978). characterize the interface among terrorists (between hard liners and moderates) or among alternative targets (governments that are taking defensive measures) (iii) GT permits adversaries to issue threats and promises for strategic advantage (ex. actions taken by a government to harden a target should induce the terrorists to shift their attacks to relatively less-guarded venues (called softer-targets) . cannot be analyzed as though one side were passive (ii) Strategic interactions among rational being. who are trying to act according to how they think their counterparts will act and react.y y Economic Approach: it adds theoretical models and empirical analyses that have not been prominent.Economics have applied rational-actor models in which terrorist are portrayed as calculating individuals who optimize some goal subject to constraints. where actions are interdependent and. or a terrorist group¶s pledge to engage in suicide bombings in order to gain concessions (iv) Game theoretic notions of bargaining are applicable to hostage negotiations and terrorist campaign induced negotiations over demands (v) Uncertainty and learning in a strategic environment are relevant to all aspects of terrorism in which the terrorists or the government or both are not completely informed (vi) Game theory concerns the knowledge possessed by the players and allows earlier actions to inform players over time . We must account not only for the potential gains derived from such . A no-negotiation declaration intended to keep terrorists from taking hostages. GT is an appropriate methodology for examining terrorism for a number of reasons: (i) GT captures the strategic interactions between terrorists and targeted governments. . who applied the economics of crime and punishment to the study of hijackings in the United States. If the parameters of these constraints change.Game theory is also applied in the study of terrorism. Political Economy approach: both political and economic factors are important when ascertaining whether governments will cooperate sufficiently when addressing common terrorist threats.Rationality is not judged by objectives or norms of acceptable behavior but by the manner in which an agent responds to environmental and other constraints by responding in a sensible and predictable fashion to changing risks. then a rational actor is expected to respond in a predictable fashion. thus. terrorists are judged as rational . Thus. .
value-added. but also for the proclivity of nations to maintain autonomy over security concerns . analysis of public goods. a central government is empowered to act and direct resources through income. and other taxes to finance security and other measures against terrorism .Solving such interdependent security concerns internationally presents a much different political dilemma than fixing the problem domestically .Another essential factor in evaluating collective actions against terrorism is the tendency for governments to rely on the efforts of other governments when the terrorist threat is truly common The possibility of international organizations and agreements to circumvent this tendency is a political issue that can be better understood using economic methods ±for example.Political factors are particularly relevant when distinguishing between domestic and transnational terrorism in this case of domestic terrorism.cooperation. [focus on policy questions also gives our study a political economy orientation] .
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