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Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research

Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences


Vol. 2, No. 2, May 2011

Rome, Italy 2011

Editor in Chief Andrea Carteny Executive Director, MCSER Antonello Biagini Editing Antonello Battaglia Graphic Design Gabriele Natalizia Editorial Managing Igor Baglioni

Copyright 2011 Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences (MJSS), is started in September 2010. The Journal is published three times a year: January, May and September. ISSN print: 2039-9340 ISSN online: 2039-2117

Editor Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research (MCSER) Piazza S. Giovanni in Laterano, 18/B Cap. 00183, Rome, Italy Tel/Fax: 039/0692913868 Email: contact@mcser.org, mjss@mcser.org Website: http://www.mcser.org This Journal is printed with the technology print on demand by Centro Stampa Pioda Imaging Viale Ippocrate, 154 Cap. 00161 Rome, Italy www.pioda.it

Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences

Vol. 2, No. 2, May 2011

ISSN print: 2039-9340 ISSN online: 2039-2117

About the Journal


Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences (MJSS) is a double blind peer-reviewed journal, published three times a year, by Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research. The journal publishes research papers in the fields of Mediterranean and World Culture, Sociology, Philosophy, Linguistics, Education, History, History of Religions, Anthropology, Statistics, Politics, Laws, Psychology and Economics. MJSS is open for the academic world and research institutes, academic and departmental libraries, graduate students and PhD candidates, academic and non-academic researchers and research teams. Specifically, MJSS is positioned as a vehicle for academics and practitioners to share field research. In addition to scientific studies, we will also consider letters to the editor, guest editorials, and book reviews. Our goal is to provide original, relevant, and timely information from diverse sources; to write and publish with absolute integrity; and to serve as effectively as possible the needs of those involved in all social areas. If your research will help us achieve these goals, we would like to hear from you. MJSS provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supporting a greater global exchange of knowledge. All manuscripts are subject to a double blind peer review by the members of the editorial board who are noted experts in the appropriate subject area.

Editor in chief, Andrea Carteny Sapienza University of Rome / University of Teramo, Italy

Editorial Board
Editor in chief, Andrea Carteny Sapienza University of Rome/University of Teramo, Italy Vincent Hoffmann-Martinot, University of Bordeaux, France Dimitri A. Sotiropoulos, University of Athens, Greece Giuseppe Motta, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy Sibylle Heilbrunn, Ruppin Academic Center, Emek-Hefer, Israel Marco Cilento, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy Werner J. Patzelt, University of Dresden Germany Mohamed Ben Aissa, University of Tunis, Tunisia Emanuele Santi, African Development Bank, Tunis, Tunisia Arda Arikan, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey Alessandro Vagnini, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy Godfrey Baldacchino, University of Malta, Malta Kamaruzaman Jusoff, Universiti Putra Malaysia Daniel Pommier Vincelli, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy Gabriele Natalizia, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy Igor Baglioni, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy Tarau Virgiliu Leon, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania Dorina Orzac, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania Marian Zlotea, Sapienza University of Rome / Government Agency, Romania Petar Jordanoski, Sapienza University / University of Skopje Slavko Burzanovic, University of Monte Negro Martina Bitunjac, Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany Aranit Shkurti, CIRPS Sapienza University / EUT University, Albania Francesco Randazzo, University of Perugia, Italy Gulap Shahzada, University of Science and Tecnology, Pakistan Nanjunda D C, Universiy of Mysore, Karnataka, India

TABLES OF CONTENTS
Article The Old Roots of the Italian Health Legislation
Caterina Bassetti, Matteo Gulino, Valentina Gazzaniga, Paola Frati

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The Voting Right of the Immigrants in Greece. -The Case of the Municipality of KorydallosG. Aspridis, M. Petrelli

Aesthetical and Political Aspects of the Relationship between Literature and Ideology in Albania in Dictatorship and in Post-Communism
Bavjola Shatro

33 45 53 59 71 85 93 103 111

The Contradictory Nature of the Ghost in Hamlet


Ismail Salami

Barbary Captivity and the Others Disruptive Resistance in the Movie The Yankee Pasha
Omar Moumni

Convergence of Antecedents on Work Motivation and Work Outcomes


Luu Trong Tuan

Quality of Iranian EFL Learners Argumentative Essays: Cohesive Devices in Focus


Hossein Vahid Dastjerdi, Samira Hayati Samian

The Impact of Relationship Marketing on the Performance of Insurance Organisation


Festus M. Epetimehin

Differences Between Self-Perceived Multiple Intelligences of Urban & Rural Schools Students
Gulap Shahzada, Safdar Rehman Ghazi, Riasat Ali, Umar Ali Khan, Abdullah Khan

How Does Exam Anxiety Affect the Performance of University Students?


Anisa Trifoni, Miranda Shahini

Female Testaments as Social Discourse: A Textual Analysis Under a Critical Discourse Analysis Approach
Mara Isabel Martnez Mira

The Problem of Torture in Italy and its Influence to Potential EU Member States. The Case of Macedonia
Petar Jordanoski

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Cultural Arguments Against Offensive Speech in Malaysia: Debates Between Liberalism and Asian Values on Pornography and Hate Speech
Mohd Azizuddin Mohd Sani

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Monetary Implication of Environmental Disamenities on Housing Investment in Lagos State: The Ojota Scenerio
O.A. Akinjare, V. A. Adelegan, A. Ajayi, S.O. Oyewole

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Factors Behind High Performance


Luu Trong Tuan

159 167 179 195 205 217 233 247 257 279

Do Mature Companies Pay More Dividends? Evidence from Pakistani Stock Market
Talat Afza, Hammad Hassan Mirza

Food Production and Consumption Pattern in Pakistan During 1979-80 to 2009-10


Khaliq Uz Zaman

Analysis of Poverty Indices in Underdeveloped Countries: Nigeria Scenario


Otu Judith. E., Eja Eja. I., Joy Eko. A., Emeka Josephat.O.

An Investigation of the Efficiency in Nigeria Real Estate Agency Practice


Iroham C. O., Oluwunmi A. O., Ayedun C. A., Oloyede S. A.

Millennium Development Goals and the Poverty Question in Nigeria


Akpomuvie Orhioghene Benedict

Predicting Residential Property Values Around Landfill Neighbourhoods in Lagos, Nigeria


O.A. Akinjare, S.A. Oloyede, C.A. Ayedun, M.A. Ajibola

Importance of Accessibility to Reliable Data for Real Estate Practice


Ajibola M. O., Ogungbemi A. O.,

Land Value Determinants and Rental Values of Office Spaces in Ikeja, Nigeria
Oni A. Olawande, Ajayi C. Ayodele

Factors Affecting the Performance of Labour in Nigerian Construction Sites


Fagbenle Olabosipo I., Ogunde Ayodeji O., Owolabi James D.

Book Review Book Review, Giovanna Motta, Baroni in camicia rossa, Passigli, Firenze 2011. ISBN: 978-88-36812-62-2
Antonello Battaglia

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The Old Roots of the Italian Health Legislation


Caterina Bassetti* Matteo Gulino* Valentina Gazzaniga Paola Frati
Sapienza University of Rome, Italy * Principal Authors, Email: caterinabassetti@hotmail.it
Abstract Current Italian Health legislation is a paradigmatic example of a system based on the fundamental principles of the safeguard and right to individual health. This raises the question of its evolution and gradual shaping stemming from very old and deep roots. Such a long process started in the second half of the 19th century, when the newly reunified Kingdom of Italy, born in 1861, started to face the issue of a very obsolete health system. A number of laws sequentially provided the regulation of physician activities and health care for all people in need, regardless of their economic status and without any religious or political belief distinction, and culminate in the Comprehensive Law on Health enacted in 1934. These whole systems of laws have oriented the legislation on health care and organization, becoming a fundamental landmark until the promulgation of the Italian Constitution in 1948. Keywords: Italian health legislation, the Kingdom of Italy, free medical assistance.

1. Introduction On the eve of the 150th anniversary celebration of Italy Unification, a very relevant topic is represented by the issue of the origin and evolution of the health legislative system during the Kingdom of Italy. Indeed, this is a paradigmatic example of how a health system (e.g. the current Italian health system) has evolved and has been gradually shaped stemming from very old and deep roots. Although the normative path of the sanitary assistance and organization that started after the political unification could appear to us obsolete, a more deep analysis shows the innovative aspects of the Kingdom of Italys health laws. In fact, some of the late XIX and early XX century health laws represented the necessary conditions for the future development of the whole Italian health legislation system. Nowadays, the right to health is guaranteed in Italy by the articles 2, 3, 32, 38 and 117 of the Constitution1, where it is conceived as a fundamental right and interest of all the community. However, if this is true for the Italian Constitution established on 1948, how was this issue regulated in earlier years, during the Kingdom of Italy? Until the Unification of the peninsula2, the health assistance for poor

In the WHO Constitutions preamble there is very extended definition of health, conceived as: [] state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity. The enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health in one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social condition. The health of all peoples is fundamental to the attainment of peace and security and is depend upon the fullest co-operation of individuals and States. The achievement of any State in the promotion and protection of health is a value for all. []. Htpp://www.ordinepsicologilazio.it/binary/ordine_psicologi/normative/Costituzione_OMS.1272287163.pdf The unification process will be completed in the 1866 with the liberation of Venice and Veneto as well as of Rome and Lazio in 1870.

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people was considered just a matter of charity. Since 1861, the Italian politicians rather aimed to define a national regulation and organization of this matter, thus representing a transition switch towards modern health systems. 2. The Hygienic and Health Conditions After the Unification Process of the Kingdom of Italy Before analyzing the legislative path started in 1862 with the law dated 3 August n. 753 (the so called Legislation on the Opere Pie), it is useful to outline a brief description of the hygienic and health conditions of the country, right after the unification, in order to have a better understanding of a society that could appear today very far from ours. A key role, during the Risorgimento process and in the post Unitarian period, was represented by an important figure of physician, a doctor named Medico Condotto. This physician was responsible for a town or district communitys assistance and care services and he was financially dependent on the local municipality economic resources3. This historical figure is important at least for two reasons. Firstly the medico condottos job was not only related to the assistance and care of sick people but also to the sanitary and hygienic basic instructions to the community. These doctors in fact seeded the fundament of a social medicine conceived as common care and attention. The latter issue will represent one of the main purposes of the Italian health system even a long time later. Moreover the doctor efforts were concentrated in fighting the superstition and the popular beliefs and in some cases the ignorance of the basic sanitary and hygienic principles. One of the greatest challenges was in fact represented by the lack of a personal hygiene culture. Secondly, medico condottos activity represent today a valuable input for the reconstruction of the socio-sanitary condition in the years following the Unification. This assumption was confirmed by the agriculture survey held in 1878, in which the decision to involve these doctors to get information and suggestions on the hygienic habits of some rural communities4 played a remarkable role. Indeed, the hygienic and health conditions in most of the rural communities were really precarious especially regarding maternity and children status. Mortality during the first year of life was almost one-third higher than the national overall average (about 204 deaths per 1000 born alive). The principal cause of death, both for children and for the entire population, was represented by the spread of infectious diseases. Drinkable water and a waste system were not accessible to 40% and 50% of the population, respectively. Moreover the wet-nurse system contributed a lot to increase the diffusion of infectious diseases. In addition the second half of the 17th century and afterward were characterized by a large number of deaths due to typhus and fever of typhus origins (strictly connected to a bad or poor nutrition,

The doctor was linked to one or more communities that usually signed a contract named di condotta. The subscription of the contract committed the doctor to assist continuously a certain community. In the pre-Unitarian period and in the years following the Unity, this kind of contract was signed for three years without any guarantee to be renewed. The wage was quite low while the assistance competences were constantly rising in terms of quantity and public health surveillance responsibilities. The law n. 5849 enacted on December 2nd, 1888, improved the contract duration aspect, establishing that the doctor and surgeons appointment done by the Municipality gained the stability after three years. After the triennium the Municipality could not fire them, except for a justified reason, after prefects approval and Provincial Council affirmative consultancy. The percentage of the attending doctors was about 50%. This number is quite high considering that there was not payment neither a State incentive for participation.

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extreme misery, migration movements and to a very bad hygienic habits), as well as smallpox, malaria and, later on, cholera. Differently from the previous centuries, these diseases were the so called social epidemics, tightly linked to the socio-economic conditions of social classes which were harshly disadvantaged. Indeed, the questionnaire undersigned by the government (108 questions in total), highlighted the socio-economic conditions, the social habits, the instruction and the education: all categories related to the backwardness of the socio-economic situation of these areas and therefore linked, for a future development, to a coordinate activity of the government. Similar data were observed in the entire peninsula. The general mortality was more than 30% of the population and the childrens mortality was around 25% of the born alive in the first year of life (it is also important to underline that the birth-rate was exceeding 37-38% of the inhabitants). The shortage of drinking water, the lack of an efficient sewer system, the scarce urban cleaning system, the bad paved streets and the rare school buildings completed a picture that strongly suggested the necessity of an effective and coordinate intervention of the government authority (Molfese 2008) 3. The Key Aspects of the Health Legislation in the Kingdom of Italy The data provided by the medici condotti together with their professional considerations and suggestions (solicited by the government members), affected in a very positive way the formulation of the law n. 5849 of 1888, that represented a turning point for the definition of the Italian health policy through the institution of the General health direction. However it is necessary to proceed gradually to recall how this law has been reached. For the very first time, the new-born State took care of this field through the law of August 3rd 1862 n. 753. Until that date in fact the poor people medical assistance was meant to be simply a charity matter, or an activity provided especially by the Catholic Church and by the related institutions, in the fulfillment of their charity mission. It wasnt therefore, the right to assistance and care neither the right to health. The Church competence was extended to the organization and administrative aspects of the medical assistance. In this way the new State, once reached the maturity, understood the necessity of the regulation in this field, for two reasons: i) to regulate, such an important matter which would impact deeply onto the entire national territory, through a legislative function and, ii) at the same time, to define the sphere of competence and the ambit of action of the State and the Church. The law n. 753 of 1862 founded the Opere Pie, Charity Organizations that represented the first institutions devoted to the public assistance of needy people. However this law was restricted to the regulation of the Opere Pie and to establish the freedom of each Institute to manage itself autonomously. It has been necessary to wait until the law n. 2248, Annex C, March 20th, 1865 to have an accurate intervention of the State in order to regulate the public health. This law represented the landmark for the future legislation in the field considering that, until that moment, health assistance was conceived as a private, religious and charity question. The Ministry of the Interior was supported by a Superior Health Council while local prefects and vice-prefects were helped in the development of their functions by Health Provincial Councils and by Health District Councils, according to a decentralization logic. Article 15 (in the section entitled on the assignment of the health councils in general) established that the Health Councils were in charge of the preservation vigilance of the public health and of the respect of the above-mentioned law. These Councils could also suggest to the government actions to be undertaken. The following articles specified that the Council vigilance power was extended to the hospitals, places of imprisonment, public education institutes and health plan that didnt depend on the Military Health Councils. Article 17 established that the councils should control that doctors, surgeons, midwifes, veterinarians and pharmacists would respect the law. Finally, the Ministry of the Interior, the prefects

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and the vice-prefects could call for consultations or even obtaining information, everyone they considered necessary to hear. The General Health Direction was established with the law n. 5849 approved on December 22nd, 1888. This law (replacing the previous one dated 1865), was very important in public health field, since established the specificity of health and the need of an appropriate regulation within the Kingdom of Italy. Article 2 of n. 5849 law established the institution of an High Health Council within the Ministry of the Interior. Furthermore, every province had a Health Provincial Council and each municipality needed to have a health official doctor, corresponding in nature with the appointment of the medico condotto. The health service freely accessible to poor people was a municipality competence and it concerned the medical, the surgical and the obstetrical assistance as well as veterinary assistance, but only in situations and places where necessity would have been ascertained. Hygienic vigilance of the territory was another important municipality duty. After a detailed description of the High Health Council and Health Provincial Council composition and competences5, the law established that in the municipality where there wouldnt reside voluntary doctors or midwifes, health assistance would be carried out by a resident medico condotto surgeon and midwife paid by the municipality. However it is very important to underline that the State had not already an exclusive competence on this field. In fact in the hypothetical situation of the existence of Opere pie or other institutions dedicated to the poor people health and care assistance, the article 14, last paragraph, established that the municipality would be exonerated or only obliged to complete their work. Finally it is worth mentioning the pecuniary penalty for people who would practice illegally the medical profession6. 4. The State Becomes Directly Responsible for the Public Health Care with the Crispis and Giolittis Laws We can properly speak of a first State intervention in the field of the health assistance only after the approval of the so called Crispis law in 1890 (n. 6972/1890). This law, enacted by the Prime Minister Francesco Crispi, established that the Opere pie and other moral institutions would be subjected to that law if their final or partial mission were: i) free health care to poor people; ii) education, instruction and professional training in an art or profession, or in every other way related to moral and economic improvement. This law was also an emblematic example, for entitled public institutions of charity, of the progressive secularization of the State through i) the introduction of the public appointment of the administrative councils, ii) the obligatory prevision of the preventive and consultative inspection of the public charity institutions balance and iii) the imposition to invest their patrimony in bond state and in real estate. This law confirmed that the surveillance on the Public Charities was a duty of the Ministry of the Interior, which guaranteed that these institutions would provide charity assistance toward all people in need, without any religious or political belief distinction. This law did not apply to the Institution that, according to their statute, were taking care of people professing a specific religion, with the exception of emergency cases. Finally, Crispis law established Charity and Assistance Institutions (Enti di Carit e Assistenza, ECA). We have also to recall Giolittis law, enacted by the succeeding Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti

For other details see articles 6,7,8 e 9 of the mentioned law. 6 Other penalties were for violation of rules on ground and food hygiene (title III), beverage and food hygiene (title IV), infectious diseases (title IV), and lastly funeral policy (title V). For the first time, rules were established for juridical requirements for livable houses.

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in February 14th, 1904 (followed by the executive regulation, law n. 615, 1909), regulating the institution of provincial Asylum for the care and cure of insane patients. Although the purpose of this law was more related with the regulation of compulsory admission in psychiatric hospitals rather than with a real medical and social rehabilitation of the insane patients, it was inspired by a regulation and decentralization logic and by the will to assign to the provinces a key role in the assistance and care of patients affected by mental diseases. In particular, the institution of public psychiatric hospitals in each province was oriented by the necessity of keeping sick people close to their relatives. Canosa (1999) defined that law as innovative and progressive, when compared to the political-administrative conception of that particular historical period. Then the Law n. 36 of 1904 established three different situations for the compulsory admission to a psychiatric hospitals: i) when the sick person could be dangerous; ii) in case of public scandal and iii) when a medical verification stated that the insane patient couldnt be assisted and kept in safe in other places but the psychiatric hospital7. Compulsory admission at a psychiatric hospital required a medical certificate and, while the temporary admission was directed by the decision of a magistrate, the definitive admission followed a Courts judgment based on the instance of a public prosecuting attorney and consequent to a report by the psychiatric hospital director8. Finally, it is worth mentioning the fact that, because of this law, all provinces had to establish public and private psychiatric hospitals and to provide the maintenance of poor insane patients. The Ministry of the Interior had the responsibility for public vigilance over the public and private psychiatric hospitals and insane patients. This law was followed by law n. 455 of 1910 establishing, in every province, professional Boards of doctors, surgeons, veterinarians and pharmacists that allow the legality of the professions of enrolled people. Law n. 468 enacted in 1913 stated the rules for authorizing the establishment and working of pharmacies. Competence issues and decentralization process in the health field were further regulated by the legislative decree of December 3rd, 1923 and, finally, by a Comprehensive Law on Health (Testo unico) enacted by the royal decree n.1265 of July 27th, 1934 (including around 400 articles). These whole systems of laws will orient the future legislation on health care and organization in Italy, becoming a fundamental landmark until the promulgation of the Italian Constitution in 1948. 5. Conclusion This work has been focusing at drawing the fundamental aspects of health legislation path in the Kingdom of Italy, tracing a reading key alternative to the closing viewpoint between the health legislation in the Kingdom of Italy and in the Italian Republic. The fundamental concepts of Italian health system and universalistic culture (i.e. health care freely accessible to poor people, decentralization of health competences and the transition from a charity concept to the right to health), found their legislative premises in the post Unitarian legislation. In fact at the time of the Kingdom of Italy period, a big

The article 1 of the law n. 36/1904 established that assistance in a private house could also be demanded, after the authorization of the Court and on the basis of a royal prosecutors request. In this case the person that received the insane people and the doctor in charge were subjected to juridical obligations. The madhouse director could authorize the insane admission in private house on his own responsibility but he had to immediately let know the royal prosecutor and at the public security authority. The release of cured insane people was authorized by a Court Presidents decree after a request made by the madhouse director, by those people mentioned in the first part of the article or by the Provincial Deputation. In the last two hypothesis it was mandatory to hear before the Directors opinion (art. 3)

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secularization process started, with regard not only to economic and administrative issues, but also to the contents of the discipline itself. The 1890 Crispis law established the equality of access to the urgent treatments without any politic or religious discrimination, even for that religious institutions created for the benefits of people believing in a specific worship. Therefore, the legislative process starting from the second half of the 19th century, represents the necessary, though limited, premise for the development of the future health care. Italy identity can be defined only by rebuilding his past and looking at 150 years ago when Italian state and organization structures were shaping. The Kingdom of Italy structured as a complex organization, has gradually regulated the public health following a path that provided an increasing participation of the State in terms of surveillance, regulations and organization. References
Breschi M., & Pozzi L. (2007). Salute, malattia e sopravvivenza in Italia tra 800 e 900, Udine: Forum; Canosa R. (1979). Storia del manicomio dallunit ad oggi, Milano: Feltrinelli; Conti L. (2006). Infermieristica dallunit dItalia al Fascismo. LInfermiere, 1, 12-13; Cosmacini G. (1989). Medicina e sanit in Italia nel ventesimo secolo, dalla spagnola alla 2 guerra mondiale, Bari: Laterza Cosmacini G. (1995). Storia dellassistenza e della sanit in Italia: dalla peste europea alla guerra mondiale, 1348-1918, Roma: Laterza; De Peri F. (1984). Il medico e il folle: istituzione psichiatrica, sapere scientifico e pensiero medico tra Otto e Novecento. In F. D. Peruta, Malattia e Medicina - Storia dItalia - Annali 7 (pp.1059-1140). Torino: Einaudi; Frascani P. (1996). I medici dallunit al fascismo. In M. Malatesta, I Professionisti - Storia dItalia - Annali 10 (pp.147189). Torino: Einaudi; Lupano F., (2007). I medici condotti e linchiesta agraria: la salute materno-infantile nel 1878. Quaderni acp, 14, 131-133; Malatesta M. (1995). Society and the Professions in Italy, 1860-1914. Cambridge University Press, reprint 2002, 1-340; Morana D. (2002). La salute nella costituzione italiana: profili sistematici, Milano: Giuffr; Molfese A. (2008). Storia dellassistenza sanitaria sul territorio prima e dopo lunit dItalia, Roma: Cirm; Parisi M. (2004). Soggetti no profit e compiti di interesse collettivo: brevi riflessioni sul nuovo ruolo degli enti religiosi, OLIR, Osservatorio delle libert ed istituzioni religiose, Settembre 2004 Pogliano C. (1984). Lutopia igienista (1870-1920). In F. D. Peruta, Malattia e Medicina Storia dItalia - Annali 7 ( pp.589-631). Torino: Einaudi; Seren A. (2000). Lassistenza sanitaria nel XX secolo: dalle opere pie alle aziende sanitarie, Firenze: Edizioni It. Comm; Vicarelli G. (1997). Alle radici della politica sanitaria in Italia. Societ e salute da Crispi al fascismo, Bologna: Il Mulino; Laws Law August 3rd, 1862 n. 753 sullamministrazione delle opere pie; Law March 20th, 1865 n. 2248 Annex C sulla sanit pubblica; Law December 22nd, 1888 n. 5849 per la tutela della igiene e della sanit pubblica; Law July 17th, 1890 n.6972 sulle istituzioni pubbliche di beneficenza; Law February 14th, 1904 disposizioni sui manicomi e sugli alienati. Custodia e cura degli alienati,; Law July 10th, 1910 n. 455 che fissa norme per gli ordini dei sanitari; Law May 22nd, 1913 n. 468 recante disposizioni sulla autorizzazione allapertura e allesercizio delle farmacie; Testo unico delle leggi sanitarie enacted with Regio decreto n. 1265, July 27th, 1934; World Health Organization Constitution, promulgated in April 7th, 1948.

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The Voting Right of the Immigrants in Greece - The Case of the Municipality of Korydallos G. Aspridis
Assistant Professor in Business Administration with an emphasis on Human Resources Management at the Department of Project Management, Technological Educational Institution of Larissa.

M. Petrelli
Dr of International Relations of the Department of Political Science and Public Administration University of Athens Scholar of program PENED (Ministry of Development). Abstract Greece from the beginning of the decade 1990 and afterwards has become a country of reception of refugees and economic immigrants, mainly from countries of Eastern and southern-eastern Europe. Such kind of incidents resulted to the fear for the foreigner, the xenophobia towards populations that were considered as underdeveloped due to the arrangements that had prevailed in them after the end of Second World War and their weakness of communication with the remainder world. During the last period a big discussion has arised concerning the subject of citizenship concession among immigrants and their families, specifically in the space of local self-government. Keywords: Immigrants, Municipality of Korydallos, voting right, racism, globalisation

The elections are perhaps the day where reminds us more that we are foreigner, that we do not belong nowhere. Fadel, Passport, vol. 3, Nov 2007

1. Introduction In the modern globalized world the significance of citizenship maintains various aspects, without being completely disconnected with the ideological determination of nationality of the national state. Therefore, we distinguish the importance of the message of the Greek President for the World Day of Refugees (20 June 2008), when Mr Karolos Papoulias, mentioned that the epicentre of narration of each refugee remains the same. You are given birth in a certain part of the world, age in another and you also feel a foreigner in both parts. The refugees, the immigrants and the resettlers are persons that were forced to abandon their homeland and to suffer all kinds of disaster. The anniversal events, such as the World Refugee Day or the nomination of 2001 as International year of mobilisation against racism, racial discriminations and xenophobia, or even movements of impressiveness simply remind us mainly what we have not made and why problems are still unsolved. It is essential to remember our own refugees and take care of the immigrants we receive in our country each year. We exist and we live with other people, who are coming from all over the world.1

1 Webpage

http://www.un.org/en/events/refugeeday (accessed 18/2/2011).

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Greece was sending immigrants until 1980s (Agrafiotis)2, but from the beginning of 1990s and afterwards it became a country which received refugees and economic immigrants, mainly from the countries of Eastern and south-eastern Europe3. Such types of incidents resulted to the consolidation of the fear for the foreigner, xenophobia towards populations that were considered as underdeveloped because of the arrangements that had prevailed in them after the end of 2nd World War and their inability to communicate with the rest of the world (NCSR, 2007). Studying the Greek reality we owe to observe that the efforts of most Greeks for the national completion and materialisation of Big Idea of . Koletti (Clogg, 1984) for the integration of all Greek provinces, that had remained outside of the Greek territory, resulted to the configuration of the national conscience, which led to the elation of nationalism. However, the completion of this effort had as a consequence the creation of conflicts with the neighbouring populations, which at that period shaped also their own national conscience. The process of national completion was marked by a line of conflicts and intensities, as the conflict of residents of old and new countries.4 The article acquires also a particular importance because of the big discussion that has been developed both in the EU and Greece for the immigration phenomenon. The experience of this period showed us that we are excessively optimistic. We are referring to the voting and being elected right for citizens who participate in Greek education, have grown in Greece, feel Greek, but still do not have complete rights. The last month the subject came once again in the surface because the occupation of old building of Law School from 400 immigrants which asking authorisation of permanent eve in Greece. 2. The Social Integration and the Civil Rights of Immigrants in Greece 2.1. The Role of the U.N. and the E.U
On World Refugee Day, let us reaffirm the im portance of solidarity and burden-sharing by the international community. Refugees have been deprived of their homes, but they must not be deprived of their futures. Ban Ki-moon, Message for World Refugee Day 2010

According to the mythology as first Greek immigrant - refugee that visited America is considered Odysseus who reached in the bay of Mexico where colony of Ancient Greeks, was found. The first historical recorded immigrant in America was Theodoros or Dorotheos, who took part in expeditionary mission of Spanish in America. The first Greek that visited Australia was Damianos Gkikas, as convict in 1802. The first immigrant was a seaman named John Peters in 1838. The importance of immigration of Greeks is attributed eloquently also in the Theatre of Shades, the famous Karagkiozis. It is characteristic that exists recorded representation titled Karagkiozis in Kastiggari, in that are described the adventures of hero in the island of Kastiggari in USA. 3 The metics (33.000 metics at 431 B.C. - year of beginning of Peloponnesian war) in Ancient Athens, had limited or not at all political rights, which they could acquire them only in special cases at which they offered important services in the city and could not become equal citizens. With that way the system protected itself while the foreigner could not participate in the decisions of Municipality or claim some type of political power. From them the Community program Equal took its name which objective is the confrontation of phenomena of racism and xenophobia but also the creation of conditions for the configuration of multicultural society. 4 No one can forget the way with which received the old residents of Greece, the refugees from Asia Minor in the decade of 1920.

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The social integration (Kaplani, 2006)5 means the process of incorporation with which a society allows in its members to be holders of positions and role carriers, also the process with which the individual accepts the positions and the roles that are attributed to him in the frame of social organisation, while the term incorporation is used with the meaning of conjunction of parts and their fitting in a system, social integration and the socialization of these individuals (Vasileiou et all, 2000). In article 7 of the Ecumenical Statement of Human Rights of U.N. it is reported that all are equal towards the law and have right in the protection of law, without any discrimination. The International Agreement on Individual and Political Rights (N.Y. 16/12/1966) mentioned that Each country which is a member of the present convention, undertakes to respect and to ensure the rights of all individuals and subjects under its sovereignty, without any discrimination, such as race, colour, language, religion, political or any other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other situation (article 2.1.). Greece has not signed the Convention of United Nations on the Protection of rights of Immigrant Workers and Members of their Families neither has it submitted statement of Article of 14th Convention of United Nations on the obliteration of racial discriminations, which allows the examination of individual reports from the Committee on the Obliteration of Racial Discriminations.6 The 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees is the key legal document in defining who is a refugee, their rights and the legal obligations of states. The 1967 Protocol removed geographical and temporal restrictions from the Convention.7 The effort for the confrontation of xenophobia and racism puzzles henceforth all states of developed Europe and for this reason a special report exists in the Treaty on the Establishment of Constitution in Europe, which is reported in article III - 257, 3 that the Unions overwhelming effort in order to ensure high level of safety with the establishment of measures and fighting of racism and xenophobia. So it was an effort for the consolidation of the basic individual and political rights of immigrants in Europe (equality against the law, human rights, respect of human dignity and democratic freedom and other). In the Unified Attribution of the Treaty on the EU and the Treaty on the Operation of EU (2008/C 115/01) issues of citizenship and prohibition of discriminations are reported in the articles 18 - 25. More concretely, article 20 fixes that the citizens of Union have the right of voting and being elected in the elections of the European Parliament and in the municipal elections in the member state of their residence having the same terms with the citizens of the state of their residence. Article 22 fixes that the citizens of EU have the right of voting and being elected in the municipal and Community elections in

5 According to a French definition integration means a concrete process that allows the active attendance in the national community of different elements and influences, in a frame of equal rights of also obligations. For Greeks the term integration describes the possession of language of country of reception or the demand for the acquisition of Greek citizenship. This term should include also the means that our society uses, in local but also national level and should not constitute the clue that the immigrant has accepted the rules of Greek society. But also it is not presented as the final stage of the economic and cultural evolution of immigrant in the Greek society. 6 http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/55/76 (accessed 18/2/2011). 55/76. See also (a) 15th anniversary of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and World Refugee Day, (b) Centre of European Constitutional Right, Legal, institutional and administrative dimensions of arrangement of entry and status of immigrants in Greece. Challenges and prospects of improvement - Study of compatibility the Greek and European Institutional frame, Athens 2004 and (c) 55/76, 15 th anniversary of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees and World Refugee Day. 7 See the webpage http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49da0e466.html (accessed 18/2/2011).

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the member of state of their residence, under the same terms with the citizens of the state8. In the Chart of Fundamental Rights of European Union [(official newspaper No C364 the 18/12/2000, p. 0001 - 0022) from the web page europa.eu.int] reports for the protection of rights of immigrants can be found. More specifically (Chapter II Freedom and chapter III - Equality) the article 18 for the Right of asylum refers to the right of asylum, article 19 Protection in the event of removal, deportation and publication protects foreigners in the event of removal, deportation and publication. Article 21 Prohibition of discriminations, among others, prohibits any discrimination owing to colour, nationality origin or social origin, genetic characteristics, language, religion, attribute of member of national minority and other factors. From the beginning of 1980s the EU aimed to shape a Common Immigration Policy, even if the European Committee has not yet undertaken completed initiative for the confrontation of this phenomenon, because the particularities that each country has (Varvitsiotis). 9 The Common Immigratory Policy aims to combine strict restrictions in the distribution of work in the exterior borders of EU with the almost free distribution in the Community space of legal citizens of third countries. In this effort Treaty of Sengen, was incorporated in the Community, agreement of Dublin (1990) is applied more effectively which forecasts the observation of human rights for foreigners, independent from their legal situation. Also, the collaboration of many bodies of EU was achieved with big number of NGOs which activated in all countries. Last but not least, a various program with regard to the immigrants has been organised which will help them to return to their homelands10. The Council of Europe adopted on 5/2/1992 the Convention on the attendance of foreigners in the public life in local level. Convention which Greece did not sign and it is not willing to do so in the close future.11 The European Parliament (March 2000) adopted a resolution in which formulates the wish for reasons of respect of fundamental democratic values of EU, to adapt the member states as soon as possible their legislation, so that the is right of voting and being elected in the municipal and European elections extended will be expanded in the all non-community citizens that have permanent stay in their ground for interval of more than a five-year period (article 19). On July 2006 the European Parliament mentioned that the Committee to proceed in legal revision of the existing provisions with regard to the attribute of European citizen in the various member states, as well as the proceeding that follow todays member states concerning the right for the long time residing immigrants to vote in the local and municipal elections.

8 The treaty on the Establishment of Constitution of Europe in article I-5, paragraph 1, reported that the Union respects the equality of member states according to the Constitution as well as their national identity that is found in accordance with their fundamental political and constitutional structure, in which the regional and local self-government is included. 9 In the city of Portlaoise of Ireland an immigrant from Nigeria Rotimi Antempari was elected mayor in a city that the number of immigrants does not exceed the 4% of residents. In Denmark citizens of third countries that reside in the country legally for three years have the voting right in the municipal elections. Equivalent right, after five years of legal stay, acquire the citizens of third countries in Holland. In Sweden and in Finland the voting right allocate all that are found legally in the country. 10 The program Aineias, from the hero of Troy, is inter-country with Albania and its objective is to convince Albanians to return in their country and it deters their escape in other countries. 11 In the beginnings 2003 the European Parliament adopted resolution (which is based on the report of Sbimpel) with which calls certain member states to sign and ratify the European Convention on the attendance of foreigners in the public life in local level. We distinguish a selectivity in the way of acceptance but also application of common policies of EU in Greece, according to the Centre of European Constitutional Right.

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2.2. Greece The basic reflection of Greek community is the way of integration and incorporation of immigrants in a society. Especially in a conservative society like Greece. From a sociological point of view, the nation is defined as the independent social and political community that its activity is developed in a specified space and with the national borders to determine the space into where its members are unbreakable connected with each other. That connection is based on certain common symbols, such as language, origin, religious convictions, cultural traditions and other. National conscience is shaped and forms the basic factor for the completion of social cohesion. The national conscience contributes to the shaping of patriotism, which is the configuration of powerful sentimental bonds that determine the national identity of a total, its values and its ideals (Mardas, 1998). Even if it is reduced, patriotism in the antiquity, has accepted political, cultural and social effects that shaped a new conscience in the residents of a region, which undermined the significance of patriotism (Almpanis, 1998). By using the term nationalism, Greeks mean at the same time the refusal and the exclusion of foreigner and the no acceptance of diversity. With that way the term of we is shaped, which is opposite to the term of others, in other words they are found in continuous conflict and segregation, so differences are shaped between the native lands and the foreigners as much as between the teams of foreigners (Baylis and Smith).12 A very important step, is the participation of immigrants in the local social networks, such as municipal institutions, cultural associations and applications of strategy that will offer immigrants the possibility of contributing in the local societies and in their administration equally, aiming at the encouragement of attendance in their entirety activities of local society (Aspridis, 2006). The Greek Constitution faces the population as an entity and it concerns those who have right of vote, even if they are economic immigrants or their descendants, that have acquired the Greek citizenship. Article 5, 2 reports that all persons living within the Greek territory shall enjoy full protection of their life, honour and liberty irrespective of nationality, race or language and of religious or political beliefs (Sakkelaropoulos, 1999 : 29 31). Exceptions shall be permitted only in cases provided by international law. The extradition of aliens prosecuted for their action as freedom-fighters shall be prohibited. Besides, some political parties that show particular interest for the economic immigrants, which live for many years in Greece and in particular it has been proposed to acquire, as a first stage, right of vote in the elections of local government (Albanis, 1998). The extension of the right of vote in the referendum that concerns some social question but no in one that concerns question of national safety (of course in Greece referenda are not held for no reason). Afterwards it will be forecasted the extension of right of vote in local elections too and specifically for those who reside in Greece for big periods of time and in particular in a certain Municipality or Community. And if it is not established for the immigrants of first generation it owes to be established for the immigrants one and a half or second generation, that is to say for that children that came very small in Greece or been born in our country and they know their country only from narrations of their parents or they consider it as a place of tourist destination. These children grow in Greece and become participants of Greek education. Unfortunately the Greek legislator, from 1975 up today, could not or he did not want to forecast the development and the needs of modern multicultural society

12 Some examples of nationalistic ideology is the depreciatory characterizations that are attributed in big teams of populations, as black or coloured, the undisciplined and incompetent black, with which the chromatic variant of certain citizens is declared. Even the destruction in the N. Orleans (October 2005) was not only class but also racial, from the moment that most affected were poor blacks.

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(Aspridis, 2006). The Law 3386/2005 Entry, stay and social integration of nationals of third countries in the Greek Territory, (Official Journal of the Hellenic Republic 212[A]-23/8/2005) tries to cover the gaps of residency of immigrants in Greece. This Law regulates subjects that concern residency, work, insurance, legalisation and other subjects of the immigrants. The disadvantage is that these provisions contribute in the creation of complex bureaucratic structures that many times discourages the immigrants to collaborate with the authorities, so that they prefer to stay illegal13. It owes to create favourable regulations for those who remain in the country for big intervals and create families, that constitute their first stage of legalisation and finally to shape the suitable policy for the children of economic immigrants, that is to say for the second generation of immigrants (Aspridis, 2006).14 3. Statistical Elements for the Immigrants in Greece In Greece more than 1.000.000 immigrants are residing, the majority of whom are in a productive age. According to official elements (2001) 761.813 recorded immigrants, men and women, reside officially in Greece. They are coming from various countries of the world and mainly from the Balkans, countries of the former real socialism and finally Africa and Asia, as well as Greeks that were repatriated by America, Australia and elsewhere. According to the elements of the Greek National Statistics for the second quarter of 2007, 580.709 legal immigrants from all around the world are found in Greece. More than half of them are from Albania and immigrants that emanate from the countries of former Socialist group follow. According to the same source in Greece 304.169 immigrants are working. Based on sources of the UN at the end of the first 20 years of the 21st century in Greece it is likely to have between 3 and 3,5 million immigrants in a total of 14 million residents (http://www.statistics.gr/portal/ page/portal/ESYE). The results of a research of the National Centre for Social Research do not cause particular surprise, presenting Greeks as one of the most xenophobic and racist populations in the EU. Moreover, roughly 53% of the Greek population considers that when the foreigners commit any offence, independent with the weight (fault or felony), evacuation is necessary. Also, 22,1% argue that the economic immigrants take our jobs, while the 78,6% of Greeks assume that the foreigners contribute in the reduction of wage and daily labour cost. Xenophobia of Greeks is also proved by the fact that they believe (59,5% ) it seems useful citizens which emanate from poorer countries of EU should enter the country. Feelings of racism and xenophobia are also clear from the fact that Greek citizens believe that economic immigrants and foreigners in general, deteriorate the national economy, even if it is sure that they support a lot of sectors that Greeks do not have as a first choice to deal with, such as agriculture

has created the Ombudsman of immigrant, refugee and fellow countryman that aims to protect and to advise the immigrants that reside in Greece. 14 L. 2910/2001 Entry and eve of foreigners in the Greek Territory. Possession of Greek citizenship with counting of citizens and other provisions (Official Journal of the Hellenic Republic 91[A]-2/5/2001), Law 3284/2004 For ratification of Code of Greek Citizenship (Official Journal of the Hellenic Republic 217[A]-10/11/2004) and the P.D. 150/2006 Adaptation of Greek legislation in Directive 2003/109/EC of 25 November 2003, relative with the status of nationals of third countries which is for a long time residing (Official Journal of the Hellenic Republic 160[A]-31/7/2006) mentioned that for acquiring by the foreigner the status of a long time residing he should reside in Greece, legally and ceaseless, for the five years right before the date of submission of relative application allocates sufficient annual income, complete insurance of illness, sufficient knowledge of Greek and the Greek history and the culture.

13 It

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and auxiliary domestic work15. In another research, that was conducted for Equals program purposes, 70% of Greeks believe that foreigners are the crowd to blame for the increase of criminality (hence it is reasonably the 28% that declares that it has faced safety problems), 69% consider that the immigrants are accountable for the increase of unemployment and 75% believe that children of immigrants should go to the same schools with the native citizens - even if that 55% consider that special classes should operate. Moreover, from the various nationalities, firstly they prefer the Citizens of EU member states, secondly the LatinAmericans, thirdly the Serbs while the smaller sympathy is shown to the Albanians, Rumanians, Bulgarian and the citizens of USA. According to a research of the European Committee (Special Eurobarometre 2008 Discrimination in the European Union 2008, period 20/2/2008 - 11/3/2008 - for Greece) discrimination that is based on the origin have the greatest percentage amongst the residents of EU, even if they have been decreased relatively in EU level (from 64% which was been the Community average percentage, it receded in 62%). Percentages differ between the member states of EU. As a paradigm, Dutch, French, Italians, Swedes and Greeks are considered as the most racists while in the antipode Lithuanians, Latvians and Poles are found. In general Europeans feel relatively comfortable with the fact that certain foreigners are neighbours. Greeks exceed the average of EU, since 76% of them declare themselves racists and xenophobic. In the same research, 15% declared they became receptors of racist discrimination during the last period. While questioning the way of confronting immigrants and national minorities we come to the conclusion that they are more often than in EU. 4. Positions of Greek Political Parties and N.G.Os. i. NEW DEMOCRACY : It is proposing the shaping of a constituted migration policy and mainly in subjects that concern work and safety of immigrants. It has formulated proposals that concern the right of vote of Greek immigrants in other countries but not the right of vote of immigrants that reside permanently in Greece. The ex Minister of Interior Mr Pr. Pavlopoulos, declared in August 2006 in his interview at the radio station SKAI that the Greek Constitution does not allow adoption of complete political rights to non Greeks. But it allows, even if they are immigrants, the right to emanate from countries that do not belong in the EU, the concession of right regarding the municipal and prefectoral elections. We hope on this because now we dont have to anticipate in next municipal and prefectoral elections (2010) would be in position to grant the rights that belong to them (Manousakis, 2005). Even if in the recent Revision of Constitution the governing party did not even propose the consolidation of political rights, partly to, the immigrants.16 PANHELLENIC SOCIALIST MOVEMENT (PA.SO.K.) : It proposes the enactment of voting right and being elected in the local elections (even in the European elections) for the foreigners that have supplemented five years of legal stay in Greece. PA.SO.K. considers that the space of local self-government is an exceptionally important space for the integration of immigrants. Integration that concerns safety, the attendance in social,

ii.

15

This research was realised by the National Centre of Social Research and it was realised between 29/1/2003 15/3/2004. 16 See the webpage http://www.nd.gr (accessed 19/2/2011).

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educational and economic life and other. For this reason they believe that immigrants should have complete rights in the trade unions of working organisations. PA.SO.K. realised also the first step for the complete incorporation of immigrants in Greece, when it granted to them the right of vote in recent party internal processes (2007) and the possibility of participating in the bodies of the party or even in the national Networks (as are the Networks of Immigrants, Rom, Resettler from N. Epirus and European Citizens). With this policy it tries to incorporate the immigrants in the local societies17. The axiomatic Opposition proposes the creation of committees for the immigrants in the Local Selfgovernment and the participation of the immigrants in the Municipal elections, even if they have not yet acquired the Greek citizenship. To have the possibility of electing in order to select their advisers and to be elected in the Municipal Council. Finally, PA.SO.K. proposed also the creation of ministry of Immigration with specialised personnel that will practice the central policy for immigration. Opposite voices in the interior of the Movement support that the right of vote should be recognized, with terms and conditions. In his proposal for the Revision of the constitution PA.SO.K. proposed the forecast of clause on legal residence that will provide equal rights with the aborigines (article 5, paragraph 20) (Chatzioannidou, 2005).18 iii. COMMUNIST PARTY OF GREECE (K.K.E.) : It proposes the defence and the enlargement of democratic rights of immigrants and political refugees. It considers that the initial incorporation will be achieved via the organisation of immigrants in the trade unions and afterwards they should acquire equal rights and freedoms with the aborigines. It accuses the remainder parties that contribute to the guidance of immigrants and to the lack of concession of policy rights in them. K.K.E. in the recent revision of Constitution proposed, (article 5, paragraph 2) among others, the institutional consolidation of equal rights for those who reside in Greece, without political, religious, national, racial, linguistic, cultural and social discrimination. Claiming the guarantee of equal rights for those who are found in our country and guarantee of participation of immigrants in the local elections. While to an annex of the same article it asked the constitutional consolidation of a right of foreigners seeking political asylum in our country.19 COALITION RADICAL LEFT (SYRIZA) : Proposes the complete benefit of social and political rights to refugees and to immigrants (independent legalisation from the actuarial conditions, the publication of testimonial birth in the children of immigrants and the integration of immigrants in the organised trade-union movement) the right of voting and being elected in the local elections for all the immigrants. Also, it proposes the complete legalisation of immigrants. SY.RIZ.A. and in the frame of revision of Constitution asks the reinforcement of the individual and social rights, the recognition of young persons that

iv.

17

According to Mrs M. Koppa, member of Political Council of PA.SO.K. and the webpage http://www.pasok.gr/portal (accessed 19/2/2011). 18 See newspaper Eleftherotypia, Proposal for voting the immigrants in municipal elections, 16/11/2005 http://www.enet.gr/ (accessed 17/2/2011). 19 See newspaper Rizospastis, Equal rights and special help in the immigrants, 16/9/2005, webpage http://www1.rizospastis.gr/ (accessed 18/2/2011).

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have given birth the new conditions and the guarantee for effective application20. v. POPULAR ORTHODOX ALARM (LAOS) : It does not have proposals that would concern political rights of immigrants, because of the existing fear for locomotion of its voters to the left parties (as it happened as an example in Belgium). On the contrary it proposes measures for the confrontation of immigration. Concerning the proposals of LAOS. it seems to be enough to report a part of the speech of a member of Central Committee of LAOS., 4/3/2006, (www.metopo.gr) in which he reports Due to the fact that in the democracy impasses do not exist, ballots give the answer in the multicultural fixations of LAOS in the elections of local self-government. The election of patriots in the public schools - prefectural councils will allow the resistance in anything that undermines the cohesion of Greek society and will restore politics in the public dialogue, placing to the citizen political choices.21 ECOGREEN PARTY : It asks the concession of Greek citizenship to the children of immigrants that have been born in Greece and at the same time is granted the double citizenship22 in all who reside in our country for years and to have the right of voting and being elected in all levels.23 NGOs : B. Chronopoulos, a representative of the Greek-Albanian NGO Sokratis, mentioned the attendance of immigrants in the local elections will not degrade no national or other cleanliness, will not constitute danger for our country, will not create problems of anyone of texture in the percentage the 10% (on the total of Greek population) are included also the children of immigrants that live in our country above one decade or have been born in Greece and have not travelled despite minimal times in the homeland of their parents. They do not say that these persons could already for years have acquired the attributes of a Greek citizen.24 Greece is the only country internationally in which the immigrants do not have political rights while they do not participate nor in the National Committee of Integration (Botopoulos, 2007).25

vi.

vii.

to newspaper Eleftherotypia, Vote for the immigrants, 22/4/2005, webpage http://www.enet.gr/ (accessed 18/2/2011). 21 See the webpage http://www.laos.gr/ (accessed 19/2/2011). 22 At the present moment dominates the right of blood and no the right of place on the concession of citizenship. 23 See the webpage http://www.ecogreens-gr.org/cms (accessed 19/2/2011). 24 See the newspaper Eleytherotypia Immigrants are exclude of the local elections Racism behind the voting curtains, 15/10/2006, webpage http://www.iospress.gr/ios2006/ios20061015.htm (accessed 19/2/2011). 25 The benefits of voting right without existing also the equivalents economic and social obligations place serious question of democracy and they change the political balances. In the frame of events for the European Year of Equal Occasions for All (2007) was published report on the subject Right of immigrants and proposals of immigratory policy, in which existed a lot of proposals for subjects as the process of entry of - expense from the country, the hospital and medicopharmaceutical care, the education and the employment of immigrants. Regarding the institutional interventions simply exists a report - wish for the direct signature or ratification of conditions that is reported in the citizenship and other.

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Table 1: Political parties towards to the immigrants NEW DEMOCRACY There is no process. PA.SO.K. Widening legalisation conditions. K.K.E. Legalisation of the immigrants that are in Greece. Equal rights of Greeks and Immigrants, social security for everyone, fight with non-insured work. Equal rights for all immigrants and their children without certain regulation. SY.RIZ.A. Continuous process of legalisation aiming to their integration. Detachment of permit stay from the certain number of revenue stamps, unlimited possibility of change of aim of permit stay. Greek citizenship to the children of the immigrants that are given birth in Greece or they have completed 3 years education in any level of the Greek education system.

Legalisation

of

Social & working rights

Only the long stay residence. All the others are hostages of the employers since their stay permit is depending on revenue stamps. 5 years stay permit for the children that they were born here, they have completed their necessary education, if their parents stay legally in Greece (900 fee).

Protection of the social and working rights, stop of the non-claimed work and the tax evader of the employers. Issuing of citizenship in all children they are given birth and grow in Greece and automatic acquisition after the expiry of three-year period for the all rests that are students in our country. Teaching of the mother tong of the main countries of their origin. Right of electing and being elected for those that have already completed 5 years of legal stay.

Second generation, immigrants' children who were born or brought up in Greece

Teaching of mother tong

Participation right in local elections

It does not exist apart from very few inter-cultural schools. It does not exist.

Teaching of their mother language and their history. Widening of democratic rights without any particular comment on that subject.

Teaching of mother tong in public schools.

Voting right for municipal and regional elections to all the immigrants that have completed 5 years of legal stay.

Source: Newspaper Eleftherotypia (22/4/2005)

5. The Case of Municipality of Korydallos The municipality of Korydallos 26 belongs geographically and administratively in the Prefecture of

26 Korydallos is a Municipality that it is presented so much in their prehistoric years as in the Greek mythology. In the antiquity it was one from the 100 Municipalities of Attica that Kleisthenis set up and belonged in Ippothoontida race. The Municipality was known from Stravona. The history of Municipality is lost for one interval until is reported again by the scholar and clergyman Theofilos Korydalleys (1563 - 1646). Two hundred years later it constitutes the centre of one of big property that belonged in Emmanouil Koutsikaris. In 1923 the region takes again the name that it had in the antiquity and in 1928 are developed the first settlements from 2.500 residents. In 1946 is recognized as Municipality. See

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Piraeus. It has an extent of 4.324 acres with a population of 70.710 residents (inventory 2001). The first elected Mayor was Hippocrates Odampasogloy [1951 1954]. From the dues of the decade 1970 and the beginning of 1980, big building orgasms acquired and formed a modern city. The irony up until today has the dreary privilege to entertain the prison. According to the available elements 27 in the Municipality of Korydallos reside about 4.500 immigrants. From them 58.15% are men and 41.85 are women. 52% of those are married, 44% bachelors, 3% divorced and 1% are widowed. With regard to education level, we observe that 4% roughly are holders of academic degree or even postgraduate titles. 38,5% are graduates of secondary education and finally 21,5% are of first degree education while 3,5% declared illiterate. With regard to their ages most belong in the most productive ages of 25 - 50 years. More concretely, until 25 years are 31,2% , 25 - 35 30,5% and 35 - 50 28,7% . From 50 and over the 9% of them are roughly immigrants. In their overwhelming majority the immigrants emanate from Albania, 52,6% and remainder from the countries of former Eastern Bloc and several from Asiatic countries. According religion in their overwhelming majority they are Christian (Orthodox, Catholics, Evangelists etc), roughly 38% , 17% Muslim women and the remainder percentage belong to various religious sects (Buddhist, Sikh, Atheists etc). Finally, according profession, 21% declare unemployed, 11% are builders, 10,8% workers and the remainder percentage are occupied in various professions (as tailors, domestic, waiters etc). 5.1. The Policy of Municipality of Korydallos for the Immigrants The importance that the legislator gives to the social incorporation of immigrants is also proved by the specific report of the Municipal Code28, where in article 75 mentioned that the planning and application of programs or attendance in programs and action for the integration of Gypsies, resettle fellow countrymen, immigrants and refugees in social, economic and cultural life of local society constitute competence of Local authority of first degree. Therefore, the importance of local self-government is stressed out in the incorporation of immigrants, in the arrangement of their residency, but also in all relative processes that should be realised. In this frame, the creation of Centres of Service of Foreigners in the Municipalities (in the municipal apartments) and in the Communities of country is also proposed, aiming at the promotion of their social integration. In the event of weakness of operation from the Municipalities, competences that they can undertake in the Centres of Service of Citizens and the Offices of Foreigners of Municipalities. The Municipalities support the legal frame in which they are moved in, by Laws 2910/1991 and 3386/2005. In 2006 the Mayor announced the creation of the Council of Immigrants, which will have a consultative character and will propose in the Municipal council subjects that occupy the immigrants in the Municipality. After the Municipal elections of 2006, the new administration of Municipality, under the Mayor Mr

the webpage http://www.korydallos.gr/ (accessed 19/2/2011). 27 We would like to thank the Mayor of Korydallos mr St. Kasimatis for the polite concession of available elements for the economic immigrants in the Municipality. 28 L. 3463/2006 Ratification of Code of Municipalities and Communities, (Official Journal of the Hellenic Republic 114A'8/6/2006). The article 84 Local Councils of Prevention Breaching, mentioned that with decision of the Municipality Council will function Local Councils of Breaching Prevention aiming at the recording and the study of infringing behaviour in local level, so that is consolidated the safety of residents and is created climate of confidence. Finally, article 214 Attendance in the Local Affairs mentioned that the municipal and Community authorities ensure the right of access of all citizens and residents, without discrimination, in the use of services that provides, independent nationality, religion, sex, language, racial or social team in which they belong.

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Stavros Kasimatis, tried to upgrade the Office of Immigrants, aiming at a new policy of integration of foreigners, that is to say the arrangement of their stay, their work and the acquisition of substantives right. With that way he will avoid the marginalisation of foreigners and immigrants (L. 3443/2006). Most of them that will vote for him will be voting for the first time, not only in Greece but also in their life. Candidates can place those who wish to be elected in the Administrative Council nine members and the results of these elections are ratified by the Municipal Council. The chairman of Council of Immigrants will have the right to participate in the Municipal Council, without right of vote, representing the Council. He will deposit its opinions and proposals for subjects that concern the immigrants. Members cannot become those who possess the attribute of a mayor or other rank in to Municipality. Objective of institution is the encouragement of attendance of immigrants in the publics of Municipality. Elected in this body it constitutes a contact between municipal beginnings and immigrants, they recommend the platform via which the municipal beginnings can promote in the local society problems of immigrants. They are the ambassadors of local community of immigrants in Greek society and finally they will encourage the friends and the acquaintances to participate actively in local events in progress. In that way immigrants will be given the possibility of expressing themselves institutional, by formulating and exchanging opinions for their demands and finally by contributing in the growth of local society. Right of attendance in the process of voting and being elected claim those who are registered in the situations of immigrants of Municipalities and Communities (after relative application). It has already been realised in the first meeting of representatives of Municipality and representatives of immigrants, in which a line of problems were discussed, concerning the way of organisation and operation of the Council. From a line of cultural events of Lark, with the festival of National Communities sent and sends a message. That, this is to say, art and culture are powerful institutions of social incorporation, because they elect cultural diversity and decrease social exclusion. It is characteristic that the festival was dedicated in the world of diversity and cultural coexistence and included a line of events in the area of theatre, dance, music, photography and graffiti. Korydallos also existed as one of the first Local authorities with resolution of Municipal Council supported the campaign No to racism from the crib. All these events and the activities of Municipality, aim in the smooth integration of immigrants in the local society and in the creation of climate of dialogue, acceptance and confidence appeared through the periodical publication of Municipality Dimoskopio. 6. Conclusions The Fourth Department of the Council of State judged L. 3838/2010 anti-constitutional while at the same time it pronounced that the right of voting and being elected in the prefectoral and municipal elections have only Greek citizens, that is to say the right voting and being elected are held only in the Greek citizens and cannot extend itself also in not having this attribute, without revision of relative provision of Constitution. L. 3838/2010 imports a new way of possession of Greek nationality : Counting of citizens becomes with base purely formal conditions (time of legal stay of applicant foreigner or his family, study in Greek school on certain time, non-existence of condemnation for certain serious penal offences), without individualised crisis about the subscription of essential condition of bond to Greek nation applicant counting of citizens of foreigner, that is to say on behalf of voluntary acceptance of values that is contracted to the Greek consciousness.29

29 In

Belgium, voting right in national level has been granted, provided that they have acquired citizenship and have lived in the country for two or three years.

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Media should also contribute substantially in this effort. Until now they cover subjects on immigrants when overpower has taken place a police sweep or phenomena of criminality from the point of view of immigrants or immigration. Unfortunately they do not cover the essential problems of immigrants. A very small part of them air the subjects that concern the complete distribution of political and social rights, xenophobia and racism. Minorities occupied the media only in cases when the political heads visited minoritary regions or teams of population that emanate from countries except the EU. Result of all these are the SME of denying contribution to dialogue and in the deposit of proposals that will specifically concern the improvement of life of immigrants and concerning individually their rights. Unfortunately, most newspapers cover subjects that concern immigration, the internationalisation of immigration, the economy, labour rights, racism and xenophobia and cover subjects that concern political rights of these persons. It is characteristic that they occasionally forget they are reported in events and dates that concern the immigrants (exception are newspapers of outside the parliament Left). Also, one of the most important magazines that is activated in the space of immigrants is also Passport, which is published under the supervision of Greek-Albanian Contact of Friendship Sokratis (Aspridis, 2006). Press does not deal particularly with the subject of policy rights and this is reasonable because even for the same immigrants the basic problem is their reception and their integration in Greek society. Afterwards press has dealt with annotation and criticism of L. 3386/2005, the attitude of parties towards this (before and afterwards his voting), the charge of bureaucratic processes and discomfort that the immigrants have suffered at their stay in our country (special reports exist for the role of Advocate of Citizen). This is stressed also by weakness of immigrants to have access, as journalists, in Greek newspapers. Finally, internet has a particular growth and is used mostly for interpersonal communication including search and exchange of information. The effort of confrontation of phenomenon of xenophobia and racism will be also promoted with the effort of the media that its role is exceptionally important. They will contribute so much in the information of immigrants with regard to life in the EU, within the information of citizens of EU which regard morals, customs of countries of origin of immigrants. In that way they will contribute to the improvement of comprehension, ignorance, in the confrontation of biases, the non tolerance and other. In conclusion, as much as Europe does, Greece should manage intelligently the capital of immigrants and take advantage of immigration in order to avoid demographic shrinkage, rescue their actuarial systems and create a more competitive economy, an open and pluralist society, tolerant to plethora of difference. References
Albanis E. (1998), Globalisation, Trohalia, Athens [in Greek]. Agrafiotis Th., Immigration, racism and Modern Greek theatre of shades, from web page of internet, http://www.inpatra.gr/kedek/theory.pdf. (accessed 18/2/2011). Aspridis G. (2006), Approaches in the organisation and the operation of the State, Aitolia, Athens [in Greek]. Babiniotis G. (1998), Dictionary of New Greek Language, Centre of lexicology, Athens [in Greek]. Baylis J. and Smith St. (2005), The globalization of world politics, Oxford University Press, London. Botopoulos (2007), from his statement in meeting of Korydallos municipality with subject Local society in the season of immigration - Challenges and prospects. Centre of European Constitutional Law (2004) Legal, institutional and administrative dimensions of arrangement of entry and eve of immigrants in Greece. Challenges and prospects of improvement - Study of compatibility the Greek and European Institutional frame, Athens [in Greek]. Chatzioannidou E. (2005), The vote of immigrants cause of frictions in the interior of PA.SO.K., newspaper Kathimerini,

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12/11/2005. Clogg R. (1984), Short history of Greece, Kardamitsas, Athens. Earnest D. (2003), Voting rights for resident aliens, The G. Washington University, USA. European Commission Special Eurobarometer 296 - Discrimination in the EU: Perceptions, Experiences and Attitudes, Fieldwork February March 2008. Gerontopoulos A. (2002), Refuges immigrants and phenoma of racism and xenophobia, Liberal Accent, vol. 11, Athens, [in Greek]. Huntington S.P. (1996), The clash of civilizations and the remaking of world order, Simon & Schuster, N.Y. Kaplani G. (2006), The creation of common spaces, communication and meetings between to the indigenous population with the immigrants, in the frames of local society, in G. Papadimitriou (ed.), Local self-government and immigration, Athens. Kotzias N. (2004), The energetic democratic state - National state and globalisation, Kastaniotis, Athens [in Greek]. Linardos Rilmon P. and Kapsalia A. (2005), Immigratory policy and right of immigrants, Labour Institute of the Greek General Confederation of Labour, Athens [in Greek]. Mardas G. (1998), The modern social state, Ant. Sakkoulas, Athens - Komotini. Mediterranean Observatory of Immigration, Panteios University (2004), Statistical data for the immigrants in Greece: Analytic study on the available elements and proposals for the conformity with standards the EU, Athens [in Greek]. Mpotsaris Ch. (2002), Economic and social repercussions of globalisation, in Liberal Accent, vol. 11, pp. 86 94 [in Greek]. National Centre for Social Research (ed.) (1998), Macedonia and Balkans Xenophobia and development, Alexandria, Athens [in Greek]. National Centre for Social Research (ed.) (2007), Politics, Society, Citizens, Athens [in Greek]. Papadimitriou G. (2001), The Chart of Fundamental Rights, station in the institutional maturation of European Union, Papazisis, Athens [in Greek]. Papadimitriou Z. (1997), Racism and European culture, in Greek Journal of Political Science, vol. 10 [in Greek]. Pavlopoulos P. (2008), Statement on the report of Inter-parties Committee On the follow-up of Committee of Immigration. Varvitsiotis I. (2006), The migratory policy of Europe, Athens [in Greek]. Vasileiou Th. and Stamatakis N. (2000), Dictionary of sciences of people, Gutenberg, Athens [in Greek]. Vogel D. and Triantafyllidou A. (2005), Civic activation of immigrant An introduction to conceptual and theoretical issues, Politis Working Paper N. 1, http://www.uni-oldenburg.de/politis-europe/webpublications. Laws 2910/2001 Entry and eve of foreigners in the Greek Territory. Possession of Greek citizenship with counting of citizens and other provisions, Official Journal of the Hellenic Republic 91A/2-5-2001. Council Regulation N. 343/2003 (18/2/2003), Establishing the criteria and mechanisms for determing the Member State responsible for examining an asylum application lodged in one of the Member States by a third-country. 3284/2004 Ratification of Code of Greek Citizenship, Official Journal of the Hellenic Republic 217A/10-11-2004. 3463/2006 Ratification of Code of Municipalities and Communities, Official Journal of the Hellenic Republic 114A/8-62006. P.D. 150/2006 Adaptation of Greek legislation in Directive 2003/109/EC of 25 November 2003, relative with the status of nationals of third countries which is for a long time residing, Official Journal of the Hellenic Republic 160A/31-72006. 3386/2005 Entry, stay and social integration of nationals of third countries in the Greek Territory, Official Journal of the Hellenic Republic 212A-23/8/2005. 3443/2006 Local Youth Councils and other provisions, Official Journal of the Hellenic Republic 41A-27/2/2006. Presidential Order 150/2006 Adaptation of Greek legislation in Directive 2003/109/EC of 25 November 2003, relative with the status of nationals of third countries which reside for long time. Discrimination in the EU : Perceptions, Experiences and Attitudes, Fieldwork February March 2008. Ministry of Interior (2009), European fund for the integration of third country nationals, Athens. L. 3838/2010 Modern provisions on the Greek Citizenship and the political attendance of fellow countrymen and legally

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residing immigrants and other regulations, Official Journal of the Hellenic Republic 49A/24-3-2010. 15th session Resolution adopted by the General Assembly, [on the report of the Third Committee (A/55/597)]. 15th anniversary of the Office of the United Nations, High Commissioner for Refugees and World Refugee Day. Websites http://eng.inegsee.gr/european_programs.html http://www.ypes.gr/en/ http://www.inpatra.gr/kedek/theory.pdf http://www.migrant.gr http://www.unhcr.org/pages/49da0e466.html http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/55/76 http://www.diavatirio.net http://www.coe.int http://www.ompop.gr http://www. echr.coe.int http://europa.eu.int http://www.syriza.gr/ http://www.laos.gr/index.asp http://www.ecogreens-gr.org/cms/ http://www.korydallos.gr/ http://www.statistics.gr/portal/page/portal/ESYE http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/eurostat/home/ http://www.protothema.gr/greece/article/?aid=103629 http://www.iospress.gr/ios2006/ios20061015.htm http://www.enet.gr/ http://www1.rizospastis.gr/

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Aesthetical and Political Aspects of the Relationship Between Literature and Ideology in Albania in Dictatorship and in Post-Communism
Bavjola Shatro Msc.
University Aleksandr Moisiu Durrs Albania E-mail: baviola.2005@gmail.com
Abstract This paper focuses on the relationship between literature and ideology in a former communist country, namely in Albania. The relationship between literature and ideology in Albania resulted in both aesthetical and political consequences, during communism and also in post-communism. In the aesthetical point of view this relationship damaged the previous literary tradition in Albania, it created a limited linguistic model in all literary genres, and it formed a false concept of Realism to the readers and an unlikely perception of the social reality itself. This relationship between literature and ideology caused the denigration of the dissenting authors and their expulsion from the literary history even though they were representatives in the Albanian literature. In the social and political point of view it strongly supported the war of classes through imprisonments, internal exile of the writers and their families, and even the execution of the writers that were considered enemies of the Party and people. Even presently in post-communist Albania there are still opened debates on the political persecutions of the writers based only on their ideological disagreement with the regime, but also about the other side of the issue, which is the possible connection between writers and the State Apparatuses where they might have served during dictatorship. These phenomena will be analyzed basing on methodological lines that are mainly culturologic ones. Keywords: Ideology, Literature, Aesthetics, Socialist realism, Dictatorship.

1. Introduction Even though the beginning of `90s was the end of the Communist rule in Albania yet today, 20 years after the fall of communism, the sharp political sensibilities in this country make it hard to study and objectively analyze almost any aspect of political, social and cultural life during 50 years of communist regime. One of these aspects refers to the relationship between literature and communist ideology. This relationship during the communist period led to four main consequences that strengthened the war of classes and the control of the state over literature and the society as whole. These consequences are: (a) the persecution of the writers who opposed the regime and Socialist Realism, which was the only literary method allowed by the state; (b) the denigration and even disappearance of the literary work of dissenting writers that have been unknown to the public until the `90 as their literary work was confiscated by the Secret Service and the names of the writers were never mentioned in any literary studies by the Albanian academics; (c) the tragic damage to the Albanian literary tradition; and (d) the role of several Albanian writers in the State Apparatuses and especially the possible collaboration with the Secret Service, which is an issue that currently represents a strong interest for the public opinion and academics in Albania but also is a delicate argument connected to the opening of the Files of the Secret Service of the communist regime. These four consequences in which displayed the relationship between literature and ideology in

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communist Albania encompass a mixing of aesthetical principles and political ones. This mixing seems to describe the very nature of Albanian literature, Literary Studies and Cultural Studies under the ideology of the communist dictatorship in Albania. The fundamental role of ideology in literature during communism is an indisputable fact that was openly and continuously expressed by the system itself through its representatives in literary and political circles. One of the key representatives of Social Realism in Albanian literature and Literary Studies Dhimitr Shuteriqi speaking about the punishment of three dissenting writers Mark Ndoja, Mehmet Myftiu and Kasm Trebeshina stated publicly in one of the sessions of the Writers Association of Albania in 1954 that literature in Albania followed unquestioningly the very objectives of the Party and State (Hoxha, 2008). Today it is possible to articulate several points about the relationship between literature and ideology during communism in Albania and also to create the necessary space for studies in the field of Sociology of literature that in Albania is seen with skepticism because of the political sensibilities. The same benefit could be also for comparative study in the field of Critical Theories and Cultural Studies as long as Albania was only one of the communist countries of Eastern Europe even though the crimes and extremism of the communist regime here and particularly against dissenting writers, artists, scientists and intellectuals compared to the number of the population of Albania (about 3.1 million at that time) were far worse than in other communist countries (Marko, 1991). 2. Aesthetical Aspects and Consequences of the Imposing of Ideology over Literature Literature is a crucial component of culture and it is both an aesthetical and a social fact. Even though this statement applies also to non-communist societies since the social and political contexts influence the literary product and literature has a certain impact in the society, this statement is especially significant for communist societies. In general, literature and the history of modern literary theory is also part of the political and ideological history of our time (Eagleton, 169), but in communist societies as the Albanian society in the second half of the 20th century the pressure of ideology and politics over literature and Literary Studies was extremely strong and transformed literature into a genuine medium of the state propaganda (Hoxha, 2008). Therefore, I strongly believe that the integration of Literary Theory with Critical Theories and the focus on the Sociology of Literature as incidence with a double orientation: the occurrence of the social element over literature and also the event of the literary fact over the social one (Pagliano, 2004) is a key factor in understanding both the literary scene in former communist countries and particularly in Albania, as well as the mechanism of power and the political and social context. As we focus in the communist period of Albania the four consequences in which displayed the relationship between literature and ideology involve the role of censorship, political and cultural dissent, the distortion of social consciousness and of literary tradition, and the politicization of literature through the Socialist Realist method as well as their consequences in Albanias postcommunist literature and society. In communist Albania, literature, arts, and the very perspective of the reality were seen through the vague spectrum of ideology, which even became a geoculture of the contemporaneous system of life. Ideology displayed through literature starting in the elementary classes in school and this was the first phase of the Albanian experiment of communism that led to the distortion of consciousness and depersonalization of people (Vyshka, 2006). Thus, for the case of Albania applied what Alexander Zinoviev declared referring to the Communist Russia, that Russians do not live, but carry out epochmaking experiments (Crouch and Porter, 1984). In support to this statement remember that Albert

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Einstein also called communism a human experiment (Leci, 2006). Literary works, which were taught in Albanian schools, were selected according to one principle alone: they had to be faithful to the Socialist Realist scheme and to serve directly to the political orientations of the Party of Labor of Albania proving in such a way also the excessive indoctrination of the system of education in all levels (Kraja, 2002). Therefore the literary product was one of the basic mediums to perform the human experiment of communism, which consisted in one clearly stated purpose: to shape the consciousness of people in order to create the new communist man. The way literature was to contribute in obtaining such a result was through the application of the literary method of Socialist Realism. This is also one of the main aspects of the relationship between literature and ideology during communism in Albania. This method was proclaimed to be the only literary method officially allowed. The principles of this method were not aesthetical but rather political. The heart of the Communist aesthetics was the social engagement and the foremost principles of Socialist Realism are the positive hero, the Marxist perspective on the world, the proletarian content of art in order to be relevant to the workers class, the partisan view, which means that it was intended to be supportive of the aims of the State and the Party etc. None of these principles describe the literary process or the literary work but the ideological role that literature was meant to have in the society. This method led the Albanian literature to the formation of a linguistic format that not only reflected the pressure of ideology over literature and the poverty of literary discourse but also legitimized the official naming, to use Bourdieus (Bourdieu, 1994) language, in all fields of art. There was no worse damage done by the Socialist Realism than the obliteration of language and the construction of a new discursive code that drastically excluded any other code. Freedom starts exactly from language and after acquiring freedom, language guaranties ones freedom. This very dimension of freedom was neglected to Albanians. maintains the well-known Albanian writer of the avant-garde of the `90, Agron Tufa (Tufa, 2010). One of the most paradoxical components of Socialist Realism is exactly the realist element in its title. This component is the most inconsistent one, since this method succeeded in destroying the very sense of realism and the aesthetic sensibility of the readers. Socialist Realism and Communism in Albania had indeed unrealistic regard not only about literature but even about history aiming to understand, interpret and even create the history in relation to their own self instead of projecting the self regarding history. This is a common feature of dictatorships that in literature and in Albanian society left very deep traces. One of the worst traces is that individuals were transformed into subjects to whom was illusively given the free choice while the alternative was Socialist Realism/Communism or persecution. In such a case human identity was the first to suffer the consequences and in Literary Studies and Humanities in post-communist Albania there has been introduced the term homo-neo albanicus in order to name the new communist man that ideology and state propaganda were meant to create (Vyshka, 2006) through the pressure used on the Albanian literature in the first place. In the Socialist Realism method there was only one almost literary principle: the Positive Hero and this hero was the incarnation of the new man of communism. Hence, who or what was the positive hero? He was a completely alienated individual reflected in the broken spectrum of Socialist Realism. In the words of Fyodor Gladkov, a positive hero was a person who, because of the enormous love for life, recognized his own strength and knew how to externalize it in the reality; his personality was determined by his critical relationships to the objects, to the people and to himself. He was educated by the proletariat and by the Party. He was modest, honest and his everyday deeds were heroism, creative research, war, and victory.

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His personal goals were those of the community and of social usefulness. His relationships to labor and the work sector were relations to his own self (quoted in Tufa, 2010) Socialist Realism has largely contributed also to the fact that in Albanian literature, literary and nonliterary components are so mixed that there is a continuous controversy between historical fact and literary fact. The result of this controversy was the deformed aesthetics of literature and art in general. Literature written in 50 years of communist regime is the very proof of it. Probably the only crucial exception is the literary work of Ismail Kadar1. His work created the elegant enigma as French critics call it referring to the message and style proceedings of Kadar (Kuuku, 2005). But Kadar and part of the literary work of few authors such as Petro Marko, Fatos Arapi etc. are good examples that stress even more the fact that Socialist Realism and the political context that generated it are inseparable from the censorship as a strong institution in totalitarianism. Almost every one of the most important Albanian writes of that period had at least one literary work prohibited by the censorship and suffered a form of punishment for the deviance from the Socialist Realist method (Elsie, 2001). Censorship in Albania reached unprecedented levels even compared to the censorship in communist Russia since in Albania dissenting writers were most of the time punished even before they openly expressed their disagreement with Socialist Realism as a literary format and with the political establishment (Tufa, 2010a). The writer and researcher Agron Tufa maintains that because of this extremist nature of censorship and surveillance over writers and intellectuals it would not be correct to speak about mere dissidents in a political sense in the Albanian literature (and science) such as Solzhenitsyn, Herbert, Kundera etc. for the respective countries but of opponents of Socialist Realism and of the regime (Tufa, 2010a). As the Albanian reality and literature was atypical than probably the criteria that would help to understand and analyze it better should be suitable to it and therefore differ from the standard ones. This is most likely the best way to approach Albanian dissidence as well. The only document that openly confirms as a dissident act in Albania (including literature, science and intellectuals in general) is the Pro memoria of the writer Kasm Trebeshina sent to the Albanian dictator Enver Hoxha in October 3, 1953 and that precedes even the Letter of Solzhenitsyn to the Soviet Leaders. While Solzhenitsyn, in his letter, clearly discussed the heavy burden of ideology on the nation, an ideology that was dead and never a science (Solzhenitsyn 1974), Trebeshina openly called the states ideology as the cause of ruin of the Albanian nation in every aspect of literature, art, science and social life and openly named the communist regime as knee-deep in blood and crime (Elsie, 2001). There has been opened a debate among Albanian intellectuals and literary critics on the authenticity of this letter (Bejko 2007) but there has not been found yet in the archives any documented prove to contradict its authenticity. This open letter of Kasm Trbeshina results to be the first act of dissidence in the communist countries in Eastern Europe in the second half of the 20th century, but in Albania it is also the only one because there is no other document to prove the open political dissidence of writers, or intellectuals under the extreme pressure of communist rule. As a result of this charged context and extreme measures of control and censorship Albanian literature was forced to focus on topics far from any dissident approach such as the partisan war

1 This novelist is well-known as the winner of Man Booker Prize in 2005 and of the Prince of Asturias Award in 2009. He has been regularly short-listed for the Nobel Prize in Literature and is well known for his parables, symbolic language and allegory on totalitarianism. His novels are translated in more than 35 languages and have had more than 637 reprints all over the world (Kuuku, 2005).

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and the construction of socialism and could not express the universal human dilemmas, which were considered by censorship as revisionist and decadent influence. Albanian literature was transformed in great part of it into a flat and one-dimensional entity where thoughts and content were under surveillance more than anything else. Language and thought were now unilateral. T. W. Adorno said that real thoughts are those that cannot grasp even their own meaning (Steiner, 1998) but in Socialist Realism there was one meaning alone and one thought alone, which would serve to the state ideology. The consequence of this ideological and political pressure over literature had a direct impact both in the quality of the literature written in that time and in the damage caused to the literary tradition of Albania. The expressive image of Albanian literature that was being shaped in the 1930s with the flourishing of modernism, symbolism, hermetism etc. (Mullaj, 168) was demolished. This fact was overt in the quality of literary discourse, topics, style, conceptual and aesthetical proceeding and was also obvious in the realm of Literary Studies and in translation. Before the communist takeover, writers and authors such as, Baudelaire, Dostoyevsky, Durkheim, Freud, Nietzsche, Bergson, Max Webber etc. or a number of Albanian modernist authors such as Poradeci, Kuteli, Koliqi etc. to name a few, were normally translated and published in literary and social periodicals; but after 1945, the Albanian literary periodicals were a conglomerate of works selected according the criteria of Socialist Realism and written by Soviet and Albanian writers that gladly and generously applied the principles of the theorists of Socialist Realism in communist Russia Lunacharsky and Zhdanov. The strong pressure of ideology was imposed also regarding the translations of the classics of the world literature. These translations were accompanied by instructions for the readers where critics had to explain the conceptual limitations of distinguished authors of world literature, such as Dickens, Tolstoy, and Balzac etc. that did not counterpart with the ideological line of the Party. While Flaubert, Dostoyevsky, Wilde, Baudelaire and hundreds of eminent writers of the world literature were not allowed to be translated or read by the population in the original language. The introductions mentioned above were obligatory for every edition or reprint of the classics that the censorship allowed to translate and are part of each publication of the most famous Editing House in Albania Naim Frashri, whose books are easy to find even today as they are in the National Library of Albania, in Tirana. But did Socialist Realism have its representatives in Albanian literature as it happened in other literatures, for example in communist Russia or in other communist countries? Yes, Socialist Realism did have its own representatives in Albanian literature. They were writers whose names say quite a little today to the aesthetic principles and selection of the literary art and heredity in the Albanian culture, for example: Fatmir Gjata, Shevqet Musaraj, Aleks aci, Andrea Varfi etc. They were authors of the declarative model in poetry or prose and their work was mainly an anthem for the regime and socialist life. However, for these very reasons their work helps to understand the influence that ideology and politics can have on literature and how literature on the other hand may became a successful medium of propaganda. On the other hand, the first writers to be punished by the regime but who expressed a motivating concept of literary art and criticism in their first works even though persecuted or even executed by the regime were Sejfulla Malshova, Kasm Trebeshina, Arshi Pipa, Musine Kokalari, Mark Ndoja, Trifon Xhagjika, Genc Leka, Vilson Blloshmi etc. In such a complex merging of literature and politics, Socialist Realism damaged the Albanian literature, caused a deviation of its natural course and violently divided it into five streams in which this literature unnaturally existed for almost 50 years during the 20th century. The academic Agron Tufa summarizes these streams as follows (Tufa,2010 ): (1) The literature of the exile (Ernest Koliqi, Martin Camaj, Arshi Pipa, Bilal Xhaferri etc.); (2) The literature that was officially unaccepted by the official

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critics and state (Gjergj Fishta, Faik Konica, Vinens Prenushi, Anton Harapi and particularly the Franciscans and Jesuit literary tradition); (3) The literature that was neglected or at least ignored, as a literary fact (Mitrush Kuteli, Lasgush Poradeci, Petro Marko, Mustafa Greblleshi etc); (4) The literature developed in the Communist prisons (Ethem Haxhiademi, Ndoc Nikaj, Astrit Delvina, etc.) [I do not consider this a stream on its own because their literary topic can hardly be considered a classifying criteria]; and (5) Literature of Socialist Realism itself (Dhimitr Shuteriqi, Fatmir Gjata, Aleks ai, Dritro Agolli, etc.). Another aspect of the reality of literature under communist ideology was the complete distortion of methodological aspects of literary study. There was no argument nor an interdisciplinary approach of Literary Studies and humanities in general with sociology, philosophy, history, psychology and other disciplines whose contribution in Literary Theories has been well-known since the beginning of the 20th century. On the other hand the names of the poets and writers that rejected Socialist Realism werent usually named in any of the university or scholar texts. In particular cases they were mentioned to prove their decadence as it happened with the literary works of Fishta, Koliqi, Konica etc. The authors that rejected Social Realism and Communism and that escaped at the beginning of communist rule in Albania, and lived abroad were condemned in absence and were not allowed to ever return in Albania. Their names and works were erased from the fundamental texts such as The History of Albanian Literature that was published in the 1983 by the Academy of Science of Albania. Such authors were Mustafa Kruja eminent albanologist and linguist with main contribution in Albanian language and Historical Studies in the `30-`40; Ernest Koliqi poet and founder of the Institute for Albanologic Studies in the `30; Mehdi Frashri founder of the National Front Party; Branko Merxhani well-known publicist in the `40; Faik Konica former Ambassador of Albania in the USA in the 1930s and founder of literary criticism in the Albanian literature etc. The political orientation of these authors was the cause of their deletion from the Albanian literary heredity for 50 years. Another harmful limitation in the methodological aspect was that the only methods allowed to study and interpret literary work and arts in general was the one defined as historical-cultural approach. However it was not applied in its totality counting Cultural Studies, Critical Theory etc. because its outcome was already formatted and had to focus on the revolutionary development of the society and the ideological education of the masses. Methods such as structuralism, phenomenology, hermeneutics, post-structuralism, semiotics etc. were forbidden in the academic environment. The History of Albanian Literature published in Tirana in the `80s by the Academy of Science is a living proof of this fact. 3. Political Persecutions and Literature The political persecutions in communist Albania that were exercised over writers, artists, intellectuals, scientists, common citizens, foreign citizens living in Albania etc, had different forms and particularly the tortures inflicted to the victims were considered by Amnesty International as extreme violation of human rights (Amnesty International, 1984) and even genocide. The nature of torture under communism whose subject have been many Albanian writers has been reported and described in horrifying details by the survived writers and intellectuals of the communist prisons (Titani, 2006) The forms of punishment suffered by the writers who were opponents to the regime or to Socialist Realism included lack of the right to publish, internal exile of the writers and their families and lack of the right to professional career in any field, as a key point of the war of classes, imprisonment, and execution. Most of the executions that were done either with or without trial of a considerable number of Albanian writers happened in two main periods. One is the period 1944-1954. A report of the

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Secretary General of the UN states that during that period the general number of the people who were imprisoned and sent to the labor camps by the regime only for ideological and political reasons was 80.000 people. 10.000 of them died (Leci, 2005). In this period were imprisoned and executed the authors that had a contribution in the literary process of the `30 which is well-known in the Albanian literature for its maximal achievements (Elsie, 2001) and the literary tradition was violently interrupted. Some of the writers who suffered the forms of persecution in this period for ideological reasons and for the nonconformist nature of their literary work are: the archbishop and poet Vinens Prenushi (18651949) who died under torture; the dramatist Ndre Zadeja (1891- 1945); the translator and poet Lazr Shantoja (1892-1945); Father Bernardin Palaj the scholar who studied the Albanian Legendary Epos (1884-1947); the translator of the masterpieces form the ancient Greek literature Gjon Shllaku (19071946); the first Albanian Cardinal of the Catholic Church Mikel Koliqi (1911-1997), the translator of Dantes Inferno Mark Ndoja,(1912-1972); the predecessor of the Albanian modern novel and one of the international soldiers in the War of Spain Petro Marko (1913- 1991); the poet and translator Sejfulla Malshova who was internally exiled until his death (1900- 1971); the translator of the works of Ismail Kadare in French Jusuf Vrioni (1916-2002) who was imprisoned and completely marginalized from the artistic and intellectual circles of the country etc. (Bejko, 2007). The second period of an extensive campaign of persecutions was in the `70. It was a campaign against revisionist elements that lead to prison poets and writers such as Visar Zhiti (1952), Bashkim Shehu (1955), Frederik Rreshpja (1941-2005) etc. Ramiz Alia, the ideologist of this new Cultural Revolution in Albania that synchronized with the Chinese Cultural Revolution, proclaimed in public in 1965 the new cultural policy, which defined the role of literature and arts in the simple fact of making the population of Albania immune to the bourgeoisie and revisionist influences whenever they would come from (Elsie, 2001). The years `70 were the extreme implementation of this new policy by imprisoning most of the young writers, scholars and artists of that generation. This reaction of the state against dissenting writers persisted until the end of communism. Even two years before the fall of the regime there was a public execution of a poet for ideological reasons such as Havzi Nela (1934-1988). Another important aspect and argument regarding the relationship between literature and ideology during communism in Albania, is connected to the fact that there were Albanian writers who collaborated with the Secret Service in order to survey the developing of Albanian literature and the activity of the writers (Hoxha, 2008). The argument goes that very few of the writers that were integrated in the network of Secret Service as collaborators have publicly admitted this fact in the post-communist era. There were Albanian writers or critics who collaborated with the regime through the literary expertise of the literary works of dissenting or surveyed writers, through letters of recommendations, referee process (Jubica, 2007) etc. Therefore, the argument about the relationship between literature and ideology opened in Albania in 1995 and than again in 2005 without concluding until the present days as it now focuses in the debate about the opening of the Files of the Secret Service that are related to writers and artists during communism (Bejko, 2007). Even though the opening of the Secret Files has not been authorized yet and it is a non-literary issue in essence, it has an overt impact on literature as well as in all social and political life of the country. The public opinion, the Association of the Political Persecuted People of Albania, experts in politics and sociology and also specialists of literature have openly act in response that the material contained in those files would help to explain many unclear issues regarding different phenomena literary phenomena and political ones in the Albanian society under dictatorship. That part of the interested parties politicians, intellectuals, former executives in the previous regime etc who oppose the opening of Files maintain that this is not the

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proper moment for the opening of these Files because part of the current politicians of Albania might have been involved in the activity of the Secret Service and this would cause a social chaos and further trauma to the victims of communism. According to them this process should take much more time. Meanwhile, another option is the opening of files in a selective way and gradually that would start with writers and artists (Kadar, 2006). However, remains the fact that Albania is the last former communist country in Eastern Europe that after 20 years of the fall of communism hasnt opened the files yet. I believe that this process is inevitable and must start even though it should not take place in a politically and emotionally charged climate, neither through the implementation of laws that are voted in the Albanian Parliament without the participation of the opposition or in the presence of other interested parties as it happened with law nr. 10034, date 22.12.2008: On the Integrity of the Figure of Executives in State Administration2. In October 20103 there has been formed by order of the Council of Ministers of Albania the National Board that will lead the Institute for the Study of the Crimes and Consequences of Communism. The project of this law (Nr. 10 242) started in February 25, 2010 but the voting on the members of the Board of the Institute took place in winter 2010. This Institute will focus on the study of Literature, History and social reality during communism and will publish series of Memoirs of the persecuted writes, scientists, and intellectuals, series of the censured works of these personalities, and also monographic studies by the Albanian or foreign academics on this period and about writers or other intellectuals that suffered the several forms of punishment under communism for their ideas and works. But still this doesnt give the guaranties on the opening of the files even though it is a basic responsibility and goal of this institute. Some of the documents that are now in the State archive and that have been analyzed so far has given certain information about the panorama of the Albanian literature and part of social and political life were writers have had an overt role during communism. Even though this is still a small part of the information that is needed to study in an empiric way the relationship between literature and ideology, it has been useful to encourage the research in this field and also the awareness of such an important issue for Albanian culture and politics in post-communism and in the future. The information that was found, analyzed and commented so far has been made public in books, journals, newspapers and literary reviews in Albania such as Fjala, Aleph, Mehr Licht, Ars etc. Therefore the relationship between literature and ideology has opened also an ethical debate about this other side of the role of writers in the functioning of the totalitarian rule and of ideology over literature during the communist period in Albania. This is one of the reasons why the opening of the Files of the Secret Service during communism is considered by many academics and intellectuals as a crucial step toward a better understanding of the literary process, on the social and political past and future of the country and as a sign of emancipation of the Albanian society in post-communism. 4. Post-Communism and Literature After the `90 the survived authors of the communist labor camps wrote literary works that in the Albanian studies are sometimes called the Literature from the prisons because their main topic is the reality of the communist prisons and the dissolution of human identity under violence. However, I consider it difficult and unnatural to define this as a literary stream of its own. The well known authors of

2 On 3 On

line source: http://www.lajmifundit.com line source: http://www.sot.com.al

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this literary product are Father Zef Pllumi, Visar Zhiti, Maks Velo, Fatos Lubonja, Uran Kalakulla, Pjetr Arbnori, etc. Their literary work represents a particular content that distinguishes it form the other streams of literature that have developed in these 20 years after the fall of communism. In the aesthetical aspect Albanian literature in post-communism developed in another stream that proved to be an impressive attempt to introduce a new type of poetry and another conception of the individual and society. This is the generation of the `90 who was the first to introduce to the Albanian literature a poetry that deliberately destroyed basic linguistic structures aiming to free language from the format imposed by the previous communist ideology and interrupt any possible conceptual and aesthetical connection to the literature of Socialist Realism. These poets, such as Rudian Zekthi, Gentian ooli, Agron Tufa, Rudi Erebara, Ilir Belliu, and Ervin Hatibi didnt perform an ideological critique to the literature of Socialist Realism but changed drastically the content of poetry and its linguistic conception and proceedings (Marku, 129-130). However, in post communist Albania the literary process has still suffered the impact of communist ideology and this has happened in different ways; first of all through the mere fact that several authors such as Kasm Trebeshina, the best case in point (Bejko, 2007) maybe have been politically rehabilitated but on the aesthetical point of view their literary work still represents an open debate. The previous approach to most of the literary work of the writers who were persecuted during communism I believe is more a moral support rather than the assessment of the aesthetical values of those literary works. The eagerness to correct the crimes of the previous regime has guided literary critics to this mistake that has a high cost for Literary Studies, and for the History of Literature in a former communist country such as Albania. Other writers such as Arshi Pipa4 are still almost unknown to the public. His contribution in literary criticism is important but still he is not integrated in the academic texts of literature, critical theories etc. because his studies have not been translated yet from English and Italian as they were written in original in these languages and the author is still surrounded by silence. Again political issues and non-literary interests stand on the way of literature and Literary Studies. In such a context Literary Theory in Albania has found itself within a gap because of this lack of equilibrium between the political and aesthetical rehabilitation that would distinguish the social role of a writer as an intellectual and the value of the writer for the aesthetical achievements in literature. Even though the situation seems to change gradually the heredity of the forced relationship between literature and ideology during communism has left deep traces in the Albanian literature and since literature has a direct influence on the people as a medium of propaganda, the relationship between literature and ideology left a strong outline also in the Albanian society. These facts represent open debates and unsolved issues in more than one field in the present Albanian reality but that are a fundamental field of interest for the sociology of literature and for Critical Theories in the Albanian literature and culture presently. 5. Conclusions In communist Albania the aesthetic principles of literary art were intentionally distorted in order to serve to the political ideology of the communist state. The result of such a strategy was a considerable

4 Arshi Pipa was a literary critic, poet and translator who was imprisoned in the late `40 by the communist regime. After prison he escaped and lived abroad. He continued his academic career in the USA in Berkley University, Columbia Univesity, Adelphi University etc.

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aesthetical damage to the Albanian literature and the interruption of the literary tradition of the `30. On the other hand communism and Social Realism influenced the nature and methodology of Literary Studies, Critical Studies and Humanities in general, as well as the aesthetic quality of the literary product. The principles of Socialist Realism were political rather than aesthetical and formed a distorted concept of realism in literature and a false perception of the social reality of Albania to the readers. The pressure of ideology and politics over literature through the State Apparatuses and the censorship became a crucial component of communist rule since it led the masses towards the formation of a political consciousness whose result was the creation of the new communist man and the general acceptance of the communist power. In every epoch literature and Literary Studies are connected to an ideology (Eagleton, 2003) but the communist dictatorship in Albania allowed one ideology alone and one literary method alone that would serve to its political power. Therefore the relationship that was imposed between literature and ideology caused also political and social consequences because it served directly to the war of classes. It resulted in imprisonments internal exile and executions of many writers, the neglect of the right to high education and university studies, and also of administrative job positions and professional career for the members of the families of these writers and of all the political prisoners. Compared to the population of Albania (about 3.1 million at the time) these punishments are the worst in all communist countries of Europe. The post-communist period has brought to the light new facts about the relationship between Albanian writers and the Secret Service of the communist state. As writers, translators, editors, intellectuals, scientists etc, were under continuous surveillance by the Secret Service, investigative and informative Files were formed for each of the suspected dissenters. These Files contain important information and further research in this field represents a fact of extreme importance for Literary Studies in Albania, for Comparative and Critical Studies, for the Sociology of literature etc, but it is also a fact with ethical and social impact in the Albanian society as a former communist society. Therefore, in a former communist country such as Albania, that had such a complex political and cultural context the aesthetical principles where mixed violently with the political and ideological ones causing the formation of a literary model and a general social conception of art and reality that did never answer to the real facts and had consequences in the Albanian society in dictatorship and in postcommunism. Studying this relationship between literature and ideology in Albania during communism I believe that helps for a comparative study in this field with other former communist countries. Literary works are both what a culture produces as well as what reproduces the ideology. Therefore studying them in the context of Albanian society can lead us to understand better the connections between literature, politics and society in this very important epoch of the 20th century such as communism whose interest for the propaganda and the manipulation of the masses through literature and arts lead to the formation and function of a very strong State Apparatuses and ideological structure.

This article is a revised version of a paper presented in the International Conference on Science and Society that was held in Madrid in fall 2010

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References
Althusser, Louis. (1984). Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses (Notes towards an Investigation), Essays on Ideology. London: Redwood Books. Amnesty International. 1984. (2008). Burgosja politike n Shqipri dhe ligji. Tiran: Botim i Qendrs Shqiptare t Traums dhe Torturs. N.8. pp.5-53. Bejko, Sadik. (2007). Disident t rrem. Tiran: Shtpia Botuese 55. Bourdieu, Pierre. (1994). Raisons practiques: Sur la thorie de laction. Paris: Seul. Crouch, Martin, and Robert Porter. 1984. Understanding Soviet Politics through Literature. London: George Allen & Unwin. Eagleton, Terry. (2003). Literary Theory. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Elsie, Robert. (2001). Historia e letrsis shqiptare. Pej (Kosovo): Dukagjini. Graziella, Pagliano. (2003). Profilo di sociologia di letteratura. Roma: Carroci Editore. Jubica, Irhan, 2007. Shkrimtart i kan prgatitur vet dosjet e tyre; Loja me dosjet, ose letrsia n kurthet e politiks. Tiran. [On line] Available: http://www.albasoul.com/). Kadare, Ismail. (2006). Hapja e dosjeve dhe Enver Hoxha. Tiran. [On line] Available: http://forumi.parajsa.com/politikashqiptare/kadare-hapja-e-dosjeve-dhe-enver-hoxha) Kuuku, Bashkim. (2005). Kadare n gjuht e bots. Tiran: Onufri. Leci, Elmas. (2005). Eksperimenti socializmi enverist depersonalizimi i shqiptarve, Requiem pr njeriun e ri komunist. Qendra Shqiptare e Traums dhe e Torturs. Tiran. Hoxha, elo. (2009). Periudha e kurtizanve dhe e bunkerve letrar. Tiran: Revista Fjala, N.2. pp.9-20. Marko, Petro. (2009). Intervist me vetveten. Tiran: Revista Fjala, N. 2. pp. 47-75. Marku, Mark. (2004). Avanguarda e nntdhjets. Tiran, Albania: Arbria. Mullaj, Anila. (2004). Disa prurje simboliste n gjuhn shqipe. Tiran, Albania: Arbria Solzhenitsyn, Alexander. (1974). Letter to the Soviet Leaders. New York: Harper & Row Publishers. Steiner, Georg. (1998). After Babel. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Titani, Gjergj. (2005). Depersonalizimi i njeriut t moralshm, t virtytshm, synim i dhuns s hetuesis e regjimit diktatorial. Tiran: Botim i Qendrs Shqiptare t Traums dhe Torturs. N.6. pp. 59-70. Tufa, Agron. (2010). (a) Letrsia n diktaturn komuniste, Tiran: Gazeta Start, 21.03-2010 [On line] Available: http://www.gazetastart.com). Tufa, Agron. (2010). (b) Disidenca estetike e Kadares. Tiran. Gazeta Start, 30.03.2010 [On line] Available: http://www.gazetastart.com). Vyshka, Gentian. 2005. Depersonalizimi i njeriut n komunizm: Fenomen sociologjik apo dimension psikologjik? Tiran: Botim i Qendrs Shqiptare t Traums dhe Torturs. N.6. pp. 23-37.

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The Contradictory Nature of the Ghost in Hamlet


Ismail Salami
University of Malaya, Malaysia E-mail: salami46@gmail.com
Abstract The present study shows how Shakespeare seeks to manipulate the reader's response in Hamlet by using contradictions and ambiguities and how the reader eventually reconstructs a palpable world in the impalpable world of the text. These contradictions compel the reader to participate in the composition of the text and make him keep changing his own approach to the work with the result that the more he reads the play, the deeper he finds himself entrenched in contradictions. As he fails to grasp the logic of events, the reader relates his own world to the text instead of relating the events to his world and recreates his own world. Therefore, he can easily detach himself from the text and let his imagination run loose as the play proves too vague for him to comprehend. Eventually, the reality achieved by the reader in the course of reading the play is only the reality, which dwells in the innermost recesses of his mind. Keywords: Shakespeare; Hamlet; reader response; Wolfgang Iser; contradiction; manipulation

Hamlet is replete with contradictions and ambiguities. In different parts of the play, the reader is offered multifarious choices to make and to build his responses in terms of these choices. There lies a signifying force in the gaps, discontinuities, contradictions, and ambiguities of a text which drives the reader to reshape and reconstruct the events and choose his own strategy of reading from among the strategies offered by the author. These ambiguities, misunderstandings, indeterminacy, or obscurity can usually be cleared up by questions from the recipient, who can then latch onto the speaker's intention and so enable the utterance to give rise to the action intended (Iser 1980, p. 58). Contradictions induce the reader to collaborate in the composition of the text, turning his imagination into a crucible. Shakespeare consciously manipulates the readers mind in an effort to mould it like his own. The reader gradually becomes Hamlet, thinks like Hamlet and feels like him. In brief, the reader becomes immersed in the character of Hamlet only to find himself reflected in him. Shakespeare invites the reader to fashion his own text. He gives ostensible hints as to how Hamlet should be decoded, while at the same time he contradicts himself. These contradictions compel the reader to keep changing his own approach to the work with the result that the more he reads the play, the deeper he finds himself entrenched in contradictions and ambiguities. Thus pinioned by the contradictory clues in the text, the reader feels urged to delve in his own imagination, reassemble the work that the author initially structured, and produce different responses to and interpretations of the text. On the other hand, the reader brings his own baggage of knowledge and preconceptions to the text which may stand in contradiction with what he finds in the text. As Iser (1978) has said, Part of the baggage that the reader brings to the text includes the repertoire of familiar literary patterns and recurrent literary themes and allusions to familiar social and historical contexts that, however, inevitably conflict with certain textual elements that defamiliarise what the reader thought he recognized, leading to a distrust of the expectations aroused and a reconsideration of seemingly straightforward discrepancies that are unwilling to accommodate themselves to these patterns. Consequently, the meanings he arrives at actually spring from his understanding of his own perceptions spurred by the interplay of the text and his imagination. In reading Hamlet, the readers imagination is fully engaged, resulting in a plethora of individual cognitive responses, which may be as

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contradictory as the play itself. In this respect, Hamlet is to be considered a unique work of literature in which Shakespeare seeks to arrest the mind of the audience but instead lets it run wild to reconstruct a palpable world in the impalpable world of the text. In fact, the reader makes sense of the text provisionally. Consequently, the reality achieved by the reader in the course of reading the play is only the reality stimulated by the text but extrapolated from the innermost recesses of his mind. The contradictory depiction of the Ghost which in reality sets the wheels of the tragedy into motion can be seen as part of Shakespeares grand strategy to manipulate the imagination of the reader. Indeed the Ghost in Hamlet is as equally puzzling a character as Hamlet in the play. A lot of critical subtlety has been expended on determining the mysterious nature of the Ghost with the result that it has proved to be ambiguous to every critical eye. We first come to know a silent Ghost who turns a deaf ear to Horatios enthusiastic requests: Speak to me speak to me... O Speak (1.1.129&132&135). Does the Ghost condescend to answer a commoner? In fact, the Ghosts refusal to speak piques the curiosity of the reader as to what knowledge it intends to impart although Horatio in earlier lines says, This bodes some strange eruption to our state (1.1.69). Furthermore, the Ghosts evasion of verbal communication adds even more to the appalling quality of what it is to reveal. In his encounter with Hamlet, the Ghost first beckons and then with courteous action wafts him on. These very specific gestures are not accidental but are part of Shakespeares strategy of engaging the workings of the readers imagination in this case by substituting movement for oratory (qtd. in Kinny 2002, p. 78). The impregnated silence of the Ghost is then translated into forcible attention in its early words: Mark me! (1.5.94). It would be facile to suggest that these two words only function as the Ghosts opening speech. Quite deliberately, the Bard casts the Ghost in full armour to convey a foreboding sign of a disaster looming over the land. The armour and the martial appearance of the Ghost make indirect reference to some military conflict. It is only a few lines earlier that Horatio established narrative links between past and present events telling the story of the armour: Old Hamlet wore the armour when he defeated old Fortinbras in single combat which terminated with the cession of piece of land to Denmark. The reader cannot help wondering: Does this armour forebode some plans by young Fortinbras to attack Denmark and regain the lost land? Isn't it strange that the play should start with the Ghost wearing this particular armour? Whatever the connection is, it somehow fails to have the desired impact. Why should it be so? At this point, the Ghost proves to be a harbinger of some impending tragic event in the readers mind. The reader is then alerted by the Ghosts revelation to real evil lurking in the society. His attention is therefore directed to Claudius who we learn from the Ghost in his interview with Hamlet had poured the juice of cursed hebenon in the porches of the ghosts ears, killed him and usurped his throne. So, something is rotten in the State of Denmark (1.4.90) and Hamlet has been called upon to right the wrong. Beginning with the words I am thy fathers spirit (1.5.9), the Ghost recreates a link between Hamlet and the memory of a father he has lost. The use of the words day and night, to walk the night and to fast in fires is an indication of repeated death and rebirth and a device engineered by the Bard to create a sense of sympathy in the reader. The effect of the Ghosts discourse with Hamlet is so powerful that few readers will find themselves capable of seeing the Ghost as a goblin damned. Instead, they see a soul in torment asking for the eradication of evil personified in the character of Claudius. For some critics, the Ghost however emerges as a saved Christian soul temporarily suffering the fires of purgatory (Devlin 1964, p. 50). Conversely, the reader barely finds a saved Christian soul for it is, as it says, confined to fast in fires, Till the foul crimes done in my days of nature, Are burnt and purged away (1.5.11-12). It is still in the process of purgation and his description of the purgatory surely indicates the degree of his sinfulness. Besides, he asks for revenge, which is an unchristian act unless we alter our

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perspective on that issue. The ungodliness of the act becomes known when the Ghost demands that Hamlet use any inconceivable means to exact revenge with no fear of compunction: But, howsoever thou pursuest this act,/Taint not thy mind, nor let thy soul contrive/Against thy mother aught (1.5.85-87). If revenge is to be exacted on Claudius, why does the Ghost enjoin Hamlet not to contemplate taking revenge on his mother who may have had a hand in killing him? Is she not equally guilty? What the reader fails to understand is why the Ghost should think Hamlet may consider taking revenge on his mother. The admiration the Old Hamlet used to have for Gertrude must have been replaced by hate for she has betrayed him as we later learn she had committed adultery when Senior Hamlet was still alive. Therefore, the Ghosts ostensibly undying love for the queen cannot possibly account for his request. By what the Ghost narrates, the reader finds himself in relation to a king who has been bereft of his throne, a father bereft of his son, a husband bereft of his wife and more importantly, a man bereft of his right to live. All these qualities amount to a strengthened degree of sympathy for the Ghost and hatred for Claudius. Perceptibly, the reader cannot help but notice the contrast between a Ghost who first appears in full armour and one who is now reduced to a helpless avenger. So far, the Bard has set the stage for a large-scale tragedy of revenge. If we see Hamlet set within the fabric of Christian belief, we will encounter some contradiction in the play. The abode of the Ghost is widely believed to be a Catholic purgatory where the souls burn in fire to have their sins cleansed. Among such critics is Dover Wilson who says that the Ghost is the linchpin of Hamlet; remove it and the play falls to pieces and that he comes from purgatory and is the only nonprotestant in the play (Wilson 1951, pp. 52-53). True enough, the Ghost is of paramount importance in the play because he sets the plot in motion. Yet, his claim that he is the only non-protestant in the play is partly true because Claudius has been shown in his reasoning to be a non-protestant and Horatio is apparently a Roman stoic. As for Hamlet, he is just as plainly a Protestant. Besides, an attentive reader can notice the dichotomy of heaven and hell, with no room for purgatory, as espoused by Hamlet as part of the Protestant belief in relation to the Ghost: Be thou a spirit of health, or goblin damned, Bring with thee airs from heaven or blasts from hell, Be thy intents wicked or charitable, Thou com'st in such a questionable shape That I will speak to thee. (1.4.40-44) A spirit of health is one, which comes from heaven with charitable intentions, and goblin damned is one, which comes from Hell with wicked intentions. For Hamlet, there is nothing in between e.g. purgatory. On the other hand, if the Ghost is taken to be a Catholic, why is Hamlet who so adores him turns out to be a Protestant? On the other hand, if we assume with Wilson that the Ghost is a catholic, why does he fly in the face of the very principles on which Christianity is built e.g. the injunction to revenge? The idea that the Ghost comes from purgatory is also enunciated by the Ghost itself: I am thy father's spirit Doomed for a certain time to walk the night, And for the day confined to fast in fires, Till the foul crimes done in my days of nature Are burnt and purged away. (1.5.9-13) He declares that the cause of his punishment is that he died unshriven:

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Cut off even in the blossoms of my sin, Unhousel'd, disappointed, unanel'd, No reck'ning made, but sent to my account With all my imperfections on my head: Oh horrible, oh horrible, most horrible! (1.5.76-80) In an adroit way, the Bard later elucidates that the Ghost may have been the devil, and subverts the imagination of the reader. The spirit that I have seen May be the devil: and the devil hath power To assume a pleasing shape. (2.2.553-555) He further suggests that the Ghost may have been the product of Hamlets imagination. Yea, and perhaps Out of my weakness and my melancholy, As he is very potent with such spirits, Abuses me to damn me. (2.2.600-604) Thus, the imagination of the reader is subverted and liberated again to form another mental image of the truth of the drama and replace it with the one he has already articulated in his mind. In other words, the readers world keeps forming and reforming because of the hiatuses in the text. As Wolfgang Iser has pointed out, Hiatuses in the flow of sentences (where sequences that are anticipatory or retrospective cannot be established) do not lead to frustration but rather provide points of perplexity, unexpected twists and turns that are essential to the literary experience. It is at moments like these that the reader's freedom is greatest to exercise his own "faculty for establishing connections for filling in gaps left by the text itself" (Iser 1980, p. 279). Initially, the Bard suspends disbelief in the existence of the Ghost. When the reader believes the existence of the Ghost, his belief is again shaken off into disbelief or doubt. To bring about this effect, Shakespeare draws on contradictions, thereby providing a wider scope for imagination. The readers mind thus becomes a crucible to be receptive to varying responses and interpretations. While reading Hamlet, the reader faces various questions and the answers that he arrives at are so contradictory that one answer only adds to more perplexity of mind. Indeed, Hamlet is, notoriously, the one which most persistently challenges the structural and semantic patterns we elicit from it (McAlindon 1991, p. 102). The parts when put together barely constitute a logical entirety, a fact which justifies the varying though contradictory responses in different readers. When confronted with a question, the reader finds his own answer irrespective of its logical relation to the text of the play. Indeed, the text, as Iser says, becomes an arena for the full engagement of the readers imagination. Our response to literature determines our interpretation of it, and therefore an inevitable polysemy beyond the realm of the text. The multivalent possibilities of interpreting the Ghost can only account for our response moulded by our perceptions of the world. What allows for such varying possibilities is the unleashing of the readers imagination by aid of structural and philosophical contradictions. In general, the Ghost may be seen in the light of three different approaches: the Ghost as an evil force, the Ghost as a messenger of good will and the Ghost as the figment of Hamlets imagination.

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1. The Ghost as an Evil Force There is wide speculation that the Ghost is an evil force driving the hero to bloodshed in an unchristian fashion. Paradoxically, the Ghost can be seen as equally good or evil in the light of Christian belief. Hamlets reference to the Ghost as The spirit that I have seen/May be the devil (3.1.551-552) led the celebrated critic G. Wilson Knight (2001) to induce that it was the devil who took Hamlet on the path of bloodshed and destruction. He argues that the Ghost is conceived throughout the play as a portent - not kind but sinister. He views Hamlet as being possessed by a demon who plays havoc on himself and others: Not till it has slain all, is the demon that grips Hamlet satisfied... It was the devil of the knowledge of death, which possesses Hamlet and drives him from misery and pain to increasing bitterness, cynicism, murder, and madness. He has truly bought converse with his fathers spirit at the price of enduring and spreading Hell on earth (42). Similarly, Eleanor Prosser vehemently embarked on substantiating her view that the Ghost was a malignant force, the devil. According to Prosser (1967), "Both Protestants and Catholics agreed that a soul could not return from heaven or hell. By banishing purgatory, the Reformation thus eliminated the possibility that the soul of the dead return to earth" (102). She adds that since a Ghost cannot be a human soul, it could be only a good or an evil spirit, an angel or a devil (102-103). Her conclusion is, the Ghost is probably malignant. When Horatio, Prosser argues, invokes the Ghost to speak (122 & 128), it is forced to leave when Heaven is invoked (98 & 119). It seems just as plausible that the Ghost, being so majestical, resents being charged by a mere commoner or that it takes offence because told that it usurps the fair and warlike form of buried Denmark (Honigmann 2002, p. 74). It is also equally plausible that Horatio is not the recipient of the message the Ghost needs to convey. After all, Hamlet is the only character in the play who is capable of communicating with the Ghost although the Ghost is only visible to a few others. This is a widely held belief. Others also share this view that the Ghost is startled at the name of Heaven or that it started like a guilty thing Upon a fearful summons (1.1.148149). Such a response could be evoked from any reader and I believe Shakespeare was well aware of such a possible response. So in order to give more credibility to his Ghost and avert such a response from his audience/reader, he made Hamlet say, There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio,/Than are dreamt of in your philosophy (2.1.174-5). Here, the Bard consciously controls his audiences/readers response. The idea that he inspires is that the reader should believe in the existence of the Ghost and that it can return to the earth. Although we come to believe that a Ghost is real and that it can return to earth, Shakespeare, later in the play, contradicts himself when Hamlet says, The undiscover'd country from whose bourn/No traveller returns (3.1.79-80). Was Shakespeare aware of such a contradiction? Indeed he was. The degree of certainty we achieved as to the existence of the Ghost is now relegated to the category of uncertainty and doubt. The reader who by now has come to believe what he has been told about the Ghost comes to question the real nature of the Ghost. This technique of usurping and liberating the readers imagination is effectively utilized only to evoke one response after another. Thus rendering himself an unreliable source of reference, Shakespeare provides a much greater scope for imagination. Now that the reader finds himself at a loss to trust the text or the author, he uses his imagination to the fullest to create a palpable world in the impalpable world of the text. 2. The Ghost as the Figment of Hamlets Imagination To view the Ghost as the figment of Hamlets imagination has some force as it may be vaguely inferred

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from Hamlets words: The spirit that I have seen May be the devil: and the devil hath power To assume a pleasing shape; yea, and perhaps Out of my weakness and my melancholy, As he is very potent with such spirits, Abuses me to damn me: (2.2.600-605) The tendency to psychoanalyze the Ghost began in the twentieth century and the first critic to make such a claim was W.W. Greg (1917) who contended that the Ghost was the product of Hamlets imagination: Further, we have seen that it is impossible to regard the narrative of the Ghost as a genuine revelation, but that, on the contrary, it bears internal evidence of being but a figment of Hamlet's brain, and, moreover, that this hypothesis resolves most of the difficulties that have been thought inherent in the play. It is tempting to advance a step further, and to argue that Shakespeare not only constructed his play on the basis of an hallucination on the part of his hero, but that he intended the Ghost to be an illusion throughout. (419) The Ghost of Hamlets father has actually appeared twice and the sentinels who have to their horror seen the Ghost stalk away have asked Horatio to speak to the Ghost for they believe he is capable of speaking to the Ghost because he is a learned man: Thou art a scholar, speak to it Horatio (1.1.50). Shakespeare takes labour in inculcating the notion that the reader will have to believe the existence of the Ghost upon the testimony and approval of Horatio. In other words, Horatio serves as a witness of events and as an intermediary between the writer and the reader. A fact generally ignored by the reader/audience is that the Ghost is visible to the sentinels, Horatio and Hamlet while he is invisible to others in the play. There is no clear justification for this contradiction unless we assume that the world is made of contradictions and so is the play. At all events, Hamlet is not the only one to see it. Indeed, three other trustworthy witnesses attest to its reality even before Hamlet encounters it. 3. The Ghost as Messenger of Good Will To a casual reader, the Ghost may appear only as a king who has been deprived of his throne and wife and who has come back to earth to demand revenge. However, on a larger scale, we should focus on the long conversation of the Ghost with Hamlet and find out for ourselves what may have remained blur and obscure to others. An active reader would be quick to discern the religious overtones in the Ghosts speech. 'Tis given out that, sleeping in my orchard, A serpent stung me; so the whole ear of Denmark Is by a forged process of my death Rankly abused: but know, thou noble youth, The serpent that did sting thy father's life Now wears his crown. (1.5.35-40)

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In these lines, which constitute the focal point of the Ghosts discourse, the reader is encouraged to form a mental image of what has really happened by combining and analyzing the components in the Ghosts message. An active reader will interpret the orchard as the garden of paradise where man was tempted by the devil that appeared in the shape of a serpent. The biblical image is further strengthened in the mind of the reader in the lines that follow: Thus was I, sleeping, by a brother's hand/Of life, of crown, of queen, at once dispatch'd (1.5.74-75). The sin of fratricide is the first fruit of the Fall, which is to be interpreted as a murder, the slaying or making mortal of man by the serpent and the forbidden fruit as the poison. Given the lucid biblical allusion, we tend to see Senior Hamlet as the archetypal Adam who has been robbed by the devil (Claudius) of his birthright (Lings 1966, p. 30) and view the Ghosts injunction to revenge as the only one way to regain what is lost. In the light of this interpretation, we may say that Hamlet is assigned a divine mission, which is to redeem the lost honour of Adam represented by Great Hamlet. In terms of this assumption, therefore, we can be confident that the Ghost is not a devil but rather a messenger who has been sent to deliver a horrid report of things past. There is another point which is to be taken into serious consideration. The Ghost is omniscient: he reveals two crucial actions that occurred before the play begins - Claudius poisoned him and Gertrude committed adultery with Claudius. However, Hamlets father was poisoned while he was sleeping, and the adultery must have been concealed from him while he was alive, so how then did he find out about them? We may say that we are in the presence of a convention that grants full knowledge to the Ghost. Yet, I believe Shakespeare made his Ghost omniscient because he intended to give him a prophet-like presence in order to provide the reader with an otherworldly atmosphere and create a larger scope for the imagination. This can be inferred from Hamlets O my prophetic soul! speech. Therefore, it is quite nave to think that the Ghost calls on Hamlet to take revenge on his murderer in order to satisfy his egoistic aspirations. The ambiguous nature of the ghost evokes ambiguous responses in the readers. Thus, contradictory responses ensue. By using contradictions, Shakespeare affords the reader the greatest altitude to exercise his own faculty for establishing connections for filling in the gaps left in the text. The gaps or the unwritten parts stimulate the readers creative participation by suggesting certain outlines that the reader can shade in and animate. Whatever response is evoked in reading the text is surely the product of the convergence of the reader and the text. However, the number of responses evoked from the text is in direct proportion to the number of the gaps and contradictions in the text. The more gaps and contradictions there are, the more responses there will be. Yet, there is a danger of misreading the text in the presence of copious contradictions. In Hamlet, contradictions are legion. So imagination runs wild and at times travels beyond the realm of the text. Once Eliot (1950) wrote, And probably more people have thought Hamlet a work of art because they found it interesting, than have found it interesting because it is a work of art. It is the "Mona Lisa" of literature. Readers have found Hamlet interesting because they have found it a reflection of their thoughts, a mirror of their desires. As Hazlitt (2008) once wrote on Hamlet, Hamlet is a name: his speeches and sayings but the idle coinage of the poet's brain. What then, are they not real? They are as real as our own thoughts. Their reality is in the reader's mind. It is we who are Hamlet (p. 70). Iser (1978) argues that the participation of the reader could not be stimulated if everything were laid out in front of him. This means that the formulated text must shade off, through allusions and suggestions, into a text that is unformulated though nonetheless intended. Only in this way can the readers imagination

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be given the scope it needs; the written text furnishes it with indications which enable it to conjure up what the text does not reveal. Aesthetically speaking, Hamlet is a great work of literature because it has engaged and continues to engage the imagination of the reader as s/he realizes how to connect his world to the world of the text and create a palpable world in the world of the text.

References
Devlin, C. (1964). Hamlet's Divinity, and Other Essays. Carbondale, Ill. : Southern Illinois University Press. Eliot, T. S. (1997). The Sacred Wood and Major Early Essays (Dover Books on Literature and Drama). New York: Dover Publications. Hazlitt, W. (2008). Hazlitt on English Literature: An Introduction to the Appreciation of Literature. Albany New York: Bibliolife. Greg, W. W. (1917). Hamlet's Hallucination. The Modern Language Review, 12(4), 393-421. Honigmann, E. A. (2002). Shakespeare: Seven Tragedies Revisited: The Dramatist's Manipulation of Response (2 ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Iser, W. (1978). The Implied Reader: Patterns of Communication in Prose Fiction from Bunyan to Beckett. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Iser, W. (1980). The Act of Reading: A Theory of Aesthetic Response (New Ed ed.). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Kinney, A. F. (2002). Hamlet: New Critical Essays. New York: Routledge. Knight, G. W. (2001). The Wheel of Fire (Routledge Classics) (Routledge Classics) (2 ed.). New York: Routledge. Lings, M. (1966). Shakespeare in the Light of Sacred Art. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd. Prosser, E. (1967). Hamlet and Revenge (2nd ed.). Stanford, California: Stanford Univ Pr. Wilson, J. D. (1951). What Happens in Hamlet. Cambridge: Cambridge At The University Press.

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Barbary Captivity and the Others Disruptive Resistance in the Movie The Yankee Pasha
Omar Moumni
Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah University Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences Dhar el-Mehraz- Fez E-mail:: omarmoumni1@hotmail.com
Abstract In this paper I examine the movie The Yankee Pasha within the frame work of orientalist trend to know the implications behind such productions and hence study the relationship between the east and the west through American cinematic productions. In this paper I argue that despite the orientalizing discourse produced by the movie about the Moorish other, the west fails to achieve its imagined perfection and fails to cherish its superiority over the other. That other paradoxically becomes a sign of a subversive destruction that puzzles the zeal of the west to continue its rhetorical building of the western empire and gives the other more space to act and react and hence resist such produced body of knowledge. Keywords: Barbary Captivity; Colonial Discourse; Resistance; Orientalism; Film Studies.

1. Introduction The movie the Yankee Pasha is a movie directed by Joseph Pevney and produced in 1954. It is a movie that is Based on a novel by Edison (THE VIKINGS) Marshall and it deals with the issue of piracy in North Africa as well as the diplomatic relations between Morocco and the United States of America and hence between the east and the west. It is a movie of adventure and romance and this is revealed in the quest and struggle of the hero Jason Starbuck to achieve his dream and marry his love Roxana (Rhonda Fleming) who has been kidnapped by Barbary pirates and forced to become the slave of a janissary warlord. The movie the yankee pasha misrepresents the other at many levels. The Moors in the movie appear as barbarous cruel creatures that have a great zeal in kidnapping innocent westerners and in committing massacres. However, this misrepresentation remains week because of the complex and ambivalent nature of the colonial discourse which destabilizes the balance of power between the east and the west, complicates their relationship and hence gives the other more freedom to establish itself as a power that stands against the western theorization The methodology I use to analyze the movie imbibes from the spirit of the postcolonial approach to analyze the drawn division between east and west as between light and dark. In such cinematic productions I tend to understand the way such Movies are complex and seem to fix the identity of the other and reveal their homogeneity with a terrifying ease. By analyzing such movie I explain the way the gap created between the east and the west is widened through illustrating deeply engrained and widely spread stereotypes. In this work I argue that by focusing on myriad thrilling captivity stories that last as a source of imagination and discursive productions that promote western imperial ambitions, the movies affect the western popular imagination through constructing the unruffled images of ruthless barbarians. In fact, nothing exists outside ideology and no practice exists outside discourse and hence outside ideology. 53

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2. Misrepresenting the Moorish other and the Landscape The movie starts its misrepresentation by focusing on captivity scenes that show the cruelty and barbarity of the Moors in capturing innocent westerners, killing them and enslaving them. The movie reveals in a biased way how the Moors kill Roxana's father and how she goes into a plight of protecting herself against the lustful moors who want to harass and rape her. It displays a great deal of inferiority about the "other and weakens their position as opposed to the western superiority that is reflected in the hero Jason as well as in Roxana who spurns Omar-edines desires. Jason takes into his responsibility rescuing his love Roxana who becomes a female slave and overthrowing the backward savages. The movie Shows Roxana as brave and courageous, she is defiant and rejects the lustful moors. No one is able to tame her down or to oblige her in doing something that she refuses. She is powerful as her nation and even her master Omar-edine is astonished and could not obliges her to be his real slave and makes her abide by his orders. She says to him: Ill call no one my master, Im not a slave. So, Roxana is behaving as a free powerful woman in an oriental land. She does not only refuse to be his slave but rather refuses his orders and hence puts him in shaky background where the master is unable to exercise his power. So, even if the "other" is just acting the role of the master in the movie, he is not able to perform it. She makes him feel that he is inferior to her and that he is the uncivilized "other" and by doing that she reverses the balance of power and shows some "resistance" and makes him inferior. In fact, his representation is of no difference from the moors. He is that barbarous savage who kidnaps innocent women and makes them suffer. Roxana and despite her plight produces knowledge about the "other" and gives herself a position of strength to distance herself from the other and to fix the "other" to an inferior position and as Sara Mills mentions: There is a great difference between the representations and discursive structures circulating about countries which were considered civilized and those which were not (1997: 51). So, we realize that there is a difference between the representation of the other and the discourse that is produced about that "other". From the movie we understand that the colonial discourse draws a line that distinguishes between a civilized and uncivilized country and this is clearly revealed in the movie where Barbary is depicted as the land of exotic, as the land of savages and despotism as opposed to the United States that is depicted as a land of civilization, prosperity and development. So, this idea of drawing distinction is the core of orientalism that Edward Said talked about for such a long time and as Khalid Bekkaoui says: Thus, the orient exists in western discourse as an invention, a creation, a representation, hence, a misrepresentation. A central idea in said is that orientalism is underlined by a basic distinction between them and us, east and west, a division which according to said goes to Greek thought (1998: 16). From this quote we realize that the western discourse about the orient is a kind of invention that is made to inferiorize the other and fix their image to a passive, barbarous and backward image. Therefore, Roxana glorifies her nation by distinguishing herself as a civilized woman from the new world. Jason also represents himself as superior and civilized. This is clear when he produces knowledge about the "other" and also when he struggles as a white French man against the barbaric moors during his trip to Barbary as well as when he becomes a lord in the palace and where he faces and challenges Omaredine.

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The white self in the movie is in a position of power and hegemony. However, the moors are misrepresented as lustful and barbarous. The movie offers us a journey into the royal harem where the moors are seen as lascivious creatures. This is revealed when Jason is offered the white slave. It is also revealed through the slave market where we find Jason looking for Roxana. So, it is clear that the movie is carrying and perpetuating the same colonial discourse about the "other". All those fantasies and stereotypes remain omnipresent in this visual text and it is clear that the technique of distance is a kind of subordination to the "other" and as Lisa Lowe mentions: Studies of the colonialist discourse have suggested that a coherent and dominant European colonial identity is represented and justified in terms of the subordination of the non-European cultural and racial difference (1991: 22). From this quote we realize how the colonial discourse is inserted in the visual medium of media and how it is dangerous in affecting people's mind and behavior. So, the white self insert their identity in the colonial discourse and try to inferiorize the other to keep a distinction between "them" and "us". This is clear in the movie in the way both heroes Roxana and Jason uplift themselves in a superior position while we follow the two in their struggle against the "other" and their quest for freedom from the Moorish captors. The movie produces knowledge about the "other" and focuses on the "other" as inhuman. It focuses on how the moors treat women and how they judge them and from the movie it is clear that the representation is in fact a misrepresentation in the sense that they treat women as sex object, as inhuman. This is revealed in various scenes in the movie where women are depicted as lascivious and also in a scene in particular where Omar-edine is bargaining with the merchant about Roxana. At that moment, he whispers in his ears about her age and the merchant says that she is young and that he can proves it and orders Roxana to open her mouth as if she is an animal. So, this scene misrepresents the "other", its culture and its religion as well and reduces them to inhuman or at least to barbaric savages. In addition to that the movie shows that the moors are no more than cruel creatures that do massacres and this is revealed in the movie as soon as Jason starts his journey of research about Roxana. So, while he is with the American consul he notices an execution of an innocent moor who is thrown from the top of a building by the Moorish guards. This example is just one of many other instances that give a general overview about the moors, their culture and their "Islamic" faith and it is clear from the movie that it aims at perpetuating the same colonial discourse about the other as barbaric and as savages to keep the same power, patriarchy over the "other" and hence keep them under control and surveillance. So, this scene of execution would fix the "other" to the image drawn by the westerners and would perpetuate this general stereotype about the other as uncivilized barbarous "creatures". Another image that generalizes the stereotypes about the moors and which create tension in the religious discourse is the fact that the movie shows the Moroccan sultan as someone who considers all Americans or what he calls unbelievers his subjects and his slaves. This implies that the Moroccan sultan is not different from the rest of the moors; he is a lustful tyrant king who views white western females as his subjects while he considers men as his slaves. The sultan says that "there are no free Christians in Morocco" and this sentence would exclude any place for tolerance or coexistence. So, it is clear that the western discourse goes beyond the misrepresentation of the "other" to appropriate them and make them inferior in comparison to the civilized western selfhood to create tensions between religions. It is a discourse that aims at inferiorizing religion as well as its believers to stress that Christianity is the true faith and also to say that the westerners in general and Christians in particular are peaceful and tolerant.

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3. Oriental Fantasies and the Western Way to Moorish Liberation The movie focuses deeply on quarrels between women in the harem and their jealousy which misrepresents the Moorish women. This is clearly revealed in the movie when Lilith (Van Doren) an Arab maiden who is offered to Jason by the sultan fights Jason's lover Roxana when she becomes his "slave" too. This image would misrepresent the Moorish women as violent lascivious women. Her lust in the movie is also revealed when she tries to impose herself on Jason but Jason as a civilized westerner rejects her and spurns her "desires". So, the Moorish women are misrepresented as lustful creatures while the westerners are presented as chaste and faithful to their religion and nation. Roxana revolts against the lustful moors unlike Lilith the Arab slave who is lascivious and tries to gratify her desires at the expanse of misrepresenting her country and nation. Another important idea that circulates in the movie is viewed in the westerner as a savior from the oppression and the tyranny of the barbaric ruler. This is clear when Jason rescues the sultan from the powerful Omar-edine and hence rescues the Moors from his oppression and his injustice. So, the western discourse always presents the westerner as a hero who comes to save and liberate the "other" from backwardness, oppression and barbarity to enlighten them, civilize them and establish a kind of equality between people. This discourse is perpetuated in the movie and theorizes about the "other". So, the west tries to fix the orient to a theatrical field of knowledge to produce knowledge about it and to reduce it to the inferior "other". Jason plays the role of the savior of both Roxana the victim of the barbaric Omar-edine and the sultan who is weak and who is afraid from Omar-eddine's power whose ambition to nab the throne is threatening. The ending of the movie also misrepresents Morocco as a land of the exotic and as a mysterious place. At the end of the movie Roxana embraces Jason saying "Morocco is a strange and mysterious country where women are the slaves of men". This saying is very significant in the sense that it emphasizes and stresses the difference between Morocco and the United States and hence between the east and the west. It is said at the ending with the purpose of focusing this difference and hence stressing on the inferiority of the "other". 4. The Complexity and the Ambivalent Nature of the Colonial Discourse I think that the movie and despite the colonial discourse that it transmits and despite the fixity that it draws about the "other" as inferior and barbarous, it paradoxically produces a counter orientalist discourse that constitutes a break within the movie itself and which weakens the colonialist discourse and reveals the complex and the ambivalent nature of the colonial discourse. In the beginning of the movie and while Jason discuses with storekeeper Elias Derby the condition of their race we find that he is seduced by Roxana who sent for him her mistress to make a date with him. This scene reveals that Roxana is lascivious and lustful. So, by her behavior she puts herself at the same level with the Moorish women. I think that this scene deconstructs all the stereotypes about the Moorish women as lustful and lascivious creatures. In fact, Roxana who is lascivious and who appears in many scenes kissing her lover Jason is the one who follows him after rejecting him and she is the one who surrenders to his lust and desires. So, I think that the colonial discourse of the movie fails to fix this stereotype about the Moors and paradoxically shows the westerners as lustful and lascivious which reflects in a way the defection of the western selfhood in the movie the yankee pahsa. Another sign that reflects a counter orientalist discourse is revealed in the movie when Jason went to the storekeeper to sell furs. So, this scene deconstructs the stereotypes about the moors as

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barbarous and savages. It rather focuses on the west as the source of savagery through the character Jason who kills animals and exploits them for the sake of his benefit. So, Jason is a cruel and barbaric, he shows his desire for fighting and destroying his enemies and that is revealed in the movie when he challenges Omar-edine and also at the end of the movie where he holds a great zeal in killing the "other". So, he is not that civilized that the movie tries to construct in our mind but rather a savage who is blood thirsty and who is interested only in achieving his goals despite the means. Another instance that draws us to his savagery and backwardness is clearly shown when Bailey passes near the finish line Jason utters an Indian war whoop which irritates Bailey's horse and hence makes Baiely loses the race. When they finish the race Bailey said that he is a savage like an "Indian". So, this appellation confirms that Jason is not that civilized man but rather a savage. Here the movie paradoxically reflects the heterogeneity of the colonial discourse, its complexity and ambivalent nature. So, despite the images of glory, power, and superiority that are associated with Jason, the movie paradoxically focuses on him as a savage. So, this hero who represents the west is called a savage which reveals another face of the westerners as savages and barbarous creatures. They are not that civilized people that the movie stresses on but rather uncivilized people that try to fix the "other" and hence gain power at the expanse of the "other's" misrepresentation. Another feature that constitutes a fissure in the colonial discourse is the cultural contamination that touches both western heroes Jason and Roxana. In the beginning of the movie Jason imitates the Orientals to disguise himself as a Moroccan and to start his mission of research about his love Roxana. Jason feels at ease in the Moorish clothes and starts learning and uttering some Arabic words. The process of his learning Arabic develops and he becomes more fascinated with this alluring culture. So, despite what the movie shows about his rejection of slaves Jason finds a great pleasure in living inside the luxurious palace and in enjoying an opulent life. He starts smoking like the moors and starts giving orders and enjoys accompanying Moroccan lords. He becomes uncertain of his attitudes and behavior and he feels more relaxed and at ease in enjoying his life. So, the colonial discourse is broken and instead of boosting the western power and hegemony over the "other" it enhances a counter orientalist discourse that fuses the two cultures and hence gives the Moorish culture its due as an alluring culture and as a core of civilization. In her turn, Roxana is culturally contaminated. Despite the distance that she draws between her and the "other" and hence between the east and the west we feel that she is alienated with the Moorish culture. First she sympathizes with the European slaves and with the moors that are tortured by the regime. So, Roxana forgets about her superiority and sympathizes with the natives and as Khalid Bekkaoui says: Colonialist ideology is upset by the fact that the female narrator uses self parody, foregrounds her femininity, mocks her scientific abilities and often gives vent to her fear. In addition to that, the female narrator consistently criticizes the colonizer and expresses her sympathy for the Africans and, at times, she even identifies with them in what looks like a "going native" attitude (1998: 45). As this quote may imply, we realize that the female in the colonial discourse shakes the building of empire by her attitudes towards the natives. So, despite the fact the she is not the colonizer but rather a "captive" Roxana sympathizes with the natives because of the oppression of their sultan and by doing that she deconstructs the stereotypes about the "other" as inferior and suggests that the moors are good human beings that should be treated equally to westerners. So, it is clear that the western female captives always create heterogeneity within the colonial discourse and hence support the moors and put them in a good position. In addition to that, Roxana feels more culturally contaminated when she is clothed in the finest Arabian clothes. She feels herself

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as a "sultana" and starts giving orders and rejecting the moor Omar-edine feeling that she is more superior to anyone. At the end of the movie and when Roxana is embracing her lover Jason he says that "in America men are slaves of women" and this shows the backwardness of the west. So, if the Moorish women are slaves of men in Morocco, men in the United States are slaves of women. So, both cultures are equal and no one is superior to the other. Both of them are similar in away or in another and both of them tend to be superior at the expense of the other. What shows Roxanas cultural contamination is her wish to serve her lover as a slave and this is clearly revealed when she becomes his slave after his win over Omar-eddine and also when she says at the end of the movie:" if my master prefers I'll always be a slave". This sentence reveals her inner thought and her desire to be a slave. It is clear that when she lives in the Arab harem and tastes the Arab culture she becomes fascinated with it and appreciates the way women live and the luxurious opulent life they enjoy. She is affected by this alluring culture and wants to perpetuate it in the United States. This shows that the Arab culture is not what the movie tries to convey but rather a rich, diverse and fascinating culture. 5. Conclusion The movie paradoxically shows that not only the moors that are enslaving people but also the Americans and this is revealed in the servant of Roxana who is a slave from African origins. So, if the moors captured innocent people and enslaved them Americans did that before. Before Roxana leaves the United States she does not take her slave with her but rather leaves her with her father. Indeed, her slave is a prototype of many African slaves who are captured and enslaved by Americans. Thus, it is clear that the movie transmits a western colonialist discourse that aims at misrepresenting the "other" and fixing the orient to the land of the exotic and mystery where "savages" live and where westerners fall victims of the barbarous, cruel other. The movie goes beyond the scope of misrepresentation to reach the shore of religious discourse where Islam is considered as a fake faith and its believer as savages. However, the movie and while it is promoting an orientalist discourse it diverges and transmits a counter orientalist discourse which reveals the heterogeneity of the colonial discourse as well as its complex and ambivalent nature. References
Bekkaoui, Khalid. Signs of spectacular resistance. Casablanca: Najah el Jadida, 1998. Bernstein Matthew, Gaylyn Studlar. Visions of the east: Orientalism in film. London: I.B. Tauris publishers, 1997. Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture. London: Routlege, 1994. Lowe, Lisa. Critical terrains: French and British orientalism. Ithaca: Cornel University Press, 1991. Mills, Sara. Discourse. London: Routledge, 1997 Said, Edward. Covering Islam: how the media and the experts determine how we see the rest of the world. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1981. ________ Culture and imperialism. New York: vintage, 1993. _________The World the Text and the Critic. London: Paperback, 1991. _________Orientalism. London: Routledge and Keyan paul, 1978. Spur, David. The rhetoric of empire: Colonial Discourse in Journalism, Travel writing, and Imperial administration. Durham: Duke University press, 1993.

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Convergence of Antecedents on Work Motivation and Work Outcomes


Luu Trong Tuan
National University of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Abstract Numerous factors present in the contemporary organizational environment influence both content and process of motivation. From reviewing theories of work motivation, this paper seeks to construct an integrative motivation antecedents model that integrates the emergence of motivating behavior in work environment, identifies the right antecedents of the desired motivation, and then guides management on loading them into sources from where motivation will emerge. This paper, furthermore, illustrates the dynamic linkages in this model through a case research. Keywords: work motivation; work outcome; motivation antecedents

1.

Introduction

As a living entity, the organization is constantly evolving and changing its characteristics; thus, a dynamic perspective is required to understand human motivation at work. This dynamic nature sets the guidelines for rediscovering, adapting, or updating the theory and practice of motivation. The question now becomes: How does one inspire employees with their work and their employer's goals considering the dynamics of motivation in a work environment? A number of factors present in the contemporary organizational environment affect both content and process of motivation. It becomes vital for managers to decide how to motivate their employees only after considering these factors as they apply to their organizational environment and, preferably, after making some adaptations specific to each department, section, and employee. From reviewing theories of work motivation, this paper seeks to develop an integrative motivation antecedents model that integrates the emergence of motivating behavior in work environment, identifies the right antecedents of the desired motivation, and then guides management on loading them into sources from where motivation will emerge. This paper, furthermore, illustrates the dynamic links in the model through a case study. 2. Review on Theories of Work Motivation

Much has been written about motivation in the workplace during recent decades. These theories may be grouped into two categories, each of which pursues one perspective. The first holds that as long as an individual's job contains sufficient content variables such as skill variety and challenge, an outcome of high motivation and subsequent job satisfaction will result. The other process perspective contends that these outcomes depend not only on content variables, but also on how workers evaluate the pros and cons of undertaking a job. This perspective is embodied in expectancy theory and focuses on the worker's perceived relationship between effort, reward and performance and the impact of this relationship on motivation (McShane and Travaglione 2003). Kanfer (1992) reclassifies both content and process theories into distal and proximal categories. Theories falling into the distal category are figuratively distant from the workplace (personality, environmental conditions impacting on

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psychologically-based motives and cognitive choice). The proximal category encompasses constructs alleged to have a direct impact on work performance such as Locke's (1968) goal-setting theory. Hackman and Oldham's (1975) Job Characteristics Model (JCM) is based on the way workers perceive specific dimensions of their jobs. These variables are conceptualised as discrete core job dimensions interpreted in Table 1.
Table 1. Core job dimensions

Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Job feedback

Degree to which jobs require a variety of different activities in carrying out work involving using several different skills and talents of employees Degree to which jobs require completion of whole and identifiable piece of work, i.e. doing a job from start to finish with a visible outcome Degree to which jobs have substantial impact in lives or work of others, i.e. whether in the immediate organisation or in the external environment Degree to which jobs provide substantial freedom, independence and discretion to employees in scheduling work and in determining procedures to be used Degree to which carrying out work activities results in employees obtaining direct and clear information about their performance effectiveness

Source: Adapted from Hackman and Oldham's (1975)

If jobs contain sufficient amounts of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, job feedback, agent feedback and dealing with others then three cognitive states are aroused. These are known as experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility and knowledge of results. The cognitive responses then affect an outcome state of internal work motivation. However, these authors qualify this relationship by proposing that internal work motivation also depends on growth need strength (GNS). The moderator GNS influences the above relationships and is conceptualised as the propensity of someone responding favourably (or not) to undertaking jobs which are challenging and offer a chance to learn and grow. Other studies using Hackman and Oldham's construct as a basis, report that additional variables such as work context (Ferris and Gilmore 1984), locus of control (Lim and Teo 1998), affinity for informal group formation (Lee-Ross 1999) and so on are also indispensable moderators. Thus, the inherent flexibility of the JCM permits the incorporation of alternative research specific variables. The variables and relationships are displayed in Figure 1. Hackman and Oldham's theory of motivation is concerned with internal work motivation (IWM) whereby a self-perpetuating cycle of motivation is established within the worker. That is, the more effort expended on a job rich in related content variables results in an increasingly motivational job. Their notion has found some support from Fried and Ferris (1987), Anderson (1984) and Roedel and Nystrom (1988), who found significant relationships between model-specified variables and other outcomes.

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Figure 1. The job characteristics model showing core job dimensions, critical psychological states and affective outcomes moderated by growth need strength

Hackman and Oldham also contend that jobs each have their own motivating potential. Using a formula based on job-related content variables it is possible to calculate this motivating potential index as shown below (Hackman and Oldham, 1975):

Range =1 (lowest) to 343 (highest)

The formula shows that jobs with a low MPS will likely fail to motivate incumbents well unless workers have a low need for GNS. That is, where they prefer jobs which do not offer personal challenge or allow an opportunity to learn and grow on the job. In the last decade we witness a shift an individual approach towards a multi-level approach of work motivation on the group, and organizational level. In his Annual review chapter of Organizational Behavior (OB), OReilly (1991) pointed that Annual Review authors in 1982, 1984, 1985, and 1987 called for more attention to cross-level research studies that incorporate both individual and group or organizational-level variables. At the present decade, while the micro side of OB seems to be in a dormant period, attention and interest have shifted substantially to the macro side. The subsequent Annual Review of Organizational Behavior by Mowday and Sutton (1993) shifts towards a more macrolevel under the title of Linking Individuals and Groups to Organizational Contexts (p.195). Moreover, the 1995 Annual Review of Organizational Behavior (Wilpert 1995) focuses on more molar and pervasive aspects of organizational characteristics, antecedents and consequences of practices, as well as structures, and processes in and of organizations.

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A significant change has occurred since Cappelli and Sherer (1991) wrote their influential chapter in which they warned that unless OB incorporates contextual factors to explain organizational behavior, and unless it succeeds in bridging the micro-macro relationships, OB is likely to miss the chance to establish any independent identity (p. 97). Interest in the multi-level of analysis has led to three new developments: First, an emphasis on the meso-level of analysis (Cappelli and Sherer 1991; Rousseau and House 1994). The meso level, or the organizational level is perceived to be the bridge between micro-level individual behavior and the macro-level of societal, cultural, and economic factors (Cappeli and Sherer 1991). A meso approach refers to an integration of micro and macro theory in the study of processes specific to organizations which by their very nature are a synthesis of psychological and socioeconomic processes. Meso research occurs in an organizational context where processes of two or more levels are investigated simultaneously (Rousseau and House 1994: 15). Second, a hierarchical approach which examines organizations within national cultures, and individuals within organizations has recently been developed (Earley 1994; Earley and Brittain 1992; Hofstede, Bond and Luk 1993; Hofstede, Neuijen, Ohavy, and Sanders 1990; Klein, Dansereau and Hall 1994). Models of this type examine both within and between group variance. The meaning of a personal attribute is determined by its deviation from the mean group. Third, micro-level concepts such as goals, self-efficacy, affect, and learning are transferred to the group and organizational level-group goals, group efficacy, group affect, and organizational learning (Crocker, Luhtanen and Blaine 1994; Erez and Katz 1995; Senge 1994; Weingart 1992; Weldon, Jehn, and Pradham 1991; Weldon and Weingart 1993.) In parallel to the effect of individual goals on individual performance, group goals were found to have a significant effect on group performance (Weingart 1992; Weldon, Jehn, and Pradham 1991). Collective efficacy, in parallel to self-efficacy, is the belief in ones group capabilities to mobilize the motivation, cognitive resources and course of action needed to meet given situational demands. Collective-efficacy becomes meaningful and separate from self-efficacy in groups with a high degree of interdependence among the group members. In highly interdependent tasks collective-efficacy has a stronger effect on performance than self-efficacy. In contrast, self-efficacy has a stronger effect on the performance of low interdependent tasks (Erez and Katz 1995). 3. Antecedents on Work Motivation and Work Outcomes

Every organization has some sources from where employee motivation sprouts. It may depend on how management loads these sources with the factors that energize, direct, and maintain appropriate work behavior in them. These are not what we have earlier known as contents of motivation, which are mostly a simple and general compilation of employee needs. In contrast to aiming at the fulfillment of employees' cognitive needs, these factors connect with their psyches. They jolt up their psyches, buoying creativity in their minds and releasing energy in their bodies. Because the presence of these factors will cause motivation in employees, we call them the antecedents of motivation. Their successful connection with the employees will excite and energize them rather than create or recognize a needdeficit and then fulfill it, or simply fulfill a preexisting need. If the right antecedents connect with the employees, i.e. if employees find them exciting, they get motivated. In the alternative, they do not. There are three broad classifications of these antecedents based on the source from where they emerge: 1. Job antecedents.

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2. 3.

Outcomes antecedents. Organizational system antecedents.

3.1 Job Antecedents Hackman and Oldham (1980) argued that the most effective means of motivating individuals is through the optimal design of jobs. The authors proposed that the means for increasing internal work motivation is to design jobs that will (1) provide variety, involve completion of a whole, and have a positive impact on the lives of others; (2) afford considerable freedom and discretion to the employee (what action theorists refer to as decision latitude); and (3) provide meaningful performance feedback. The authors further explain that individual differences in the strength of growth needs moderate the degree to which these job characteristics have a positive impact on job performance. Self-determination theory concurs that these job characteristics will tend to promote autonomous motivation, and research is consistent with this view (Gagn, Sencal, and Koestner 1997). Thus, the most important job antecedent is its job attractiveness ability to attract and retain employees in terms of job variety and significance. While designing a job, management can include factors that will glue the employee's mind and effort into the job. The main purpose of loading this job antecedent is to develop a bond between the job and its doer making the job so inviting and engrossing that its doer would not like to part with it even for a short period of time. Many employers design unique and responsive factors in jobs to recruit, retain, and keep employees motivated; while others would build up job autonomy and mobility by letting their employees rediscover and redesign their jobs after their recruitment with the aim of letting them construct the job antecedents important to them, and to some extent, job autonomy and mobility relate to job variety. Job fit with the family requirements is very important to the new employees. A total of 84 percent of them consider a job favorably if it comes with a family-friendly work schedule. Job familyfriendliness, which relates to job mobility, has been a very popular job antecedent and most organizations have successfully motivated their employees with it. Since the 1980s, jobs with this antecedent, even with lower financial rewards, have been preferred by a number of employees (CEO Sound-off 1997). 3.2 Outcomes Antecedents Once jobs have been loaded with the job antecedents discussed above, the question of outcomes from it to its holder follows. It covers all types of extrinsic and intrinsic, real or potential rewards. As it is important from a job motivating perspective to have a job that is well designed, it is as important to so design outcomes from the job that its doer values them. An exciting and inviting job is only one part of the comprehensive motivation system and is not enough by itself to motivate an employee for a long time. If the work system does not have outcomes that motivate, there will be no long-term motivation among employees. For the earlier generations, the underlining outcome from a job began with wages. It later expanded to organizational trust and commitment, and job satisfaction. Akintoye (2000) asserts that money primarily in the form of wages remains the most significant motivational strategy. As far back as 1911, Frederick Taylor and his scientific management associate described money as the most important factor in motivating the industrial workers to achieve greater productivity. Taylor advocated the establishment of incentive wage systems as a means of stimulating workers to higher performance, commitment, and eventually satisfaction. 63

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However, money can become a good antecedent of motivation if bonus plans are so designed that they establish a clear linkage between what management wants and what its employees can do in their jobs that is within their control (Inc Magazine 2001). It should empower employees while at the same time give the organization what it wants. Such monetary motivators should be designed as a barter system or as a transactional system of clear give-and-take. If employees give the company what it wants, the company will give the employees what it promised to them in return. It works exactly as a business a price is paid for what the company gets from its employees. It should look at the areas in which the company is weak, set improvement goals where employees can contribute, compute its potential financial gain and how much of this it can share with its employees, and make its plans public. 3.3 Organizational System Antecedents The third source of work motivation antecedents is the organizational system. For an organization, it includes its work environment, policies and practices, management philosophies, organizational culture, image and the position in its markets and the industry, financial conditions, economic situation as it applies to its products and services, and all other organizational factors that have direct or indirect consequence on workers and work. Like the other two sources in which management loads antecedents of motivation, this source creates a sense of buoyancy that makes workers put their minds and efforts into whatever they do for their organization. With proper organizational system antecedents, an organization can inspire its employees and encourage them to take initiatives go out of their way to improve their performance and contribution in the interest of their employers. On the contrary, an environment that leaves employees with a feeling of helplessness works against their work motivation. To reduce or eliminate this feeling, management has to load the organizational system with the motivation antecedents that do not allow helplessness to last for too long in the organization. In contemporary organizations, managers are busy removing controls in the form of hurdles, obstacles, and barriers to take away the feeling of helplessness from their employees. One antecedent that managers could load all over their organizations to get a positive effect on their employees' motivation is to reduce control exercised on them. While it is true that management has to place controls to guide and monitor activity in an organization, it must also recognize that controls can, and mostly do go against motivation and impede creativity (Amar 1998). Reduced or a lack of controls can free employees and give them a sense of empowerment. In some organizations, management extends the lack of control concept to dress and behavior codes, and to how much money employees can make from their jobs, giving them the ability to adjust their work inputs so they can make as high or as low money as they want, and to reset their monetary goals as frequently as they desire (Hays 1999). The removal of controls becomes especially important when they are such that they hold an employee responsible for something that is not really in his/her control. Employees get highly demotivated in such a work environment an anti-thesis of the empowerment concept. An application of this antecedent comes from customer relationship management (CRM). Djokevich (2002) states that CRM sales and other plans that motivate are those that do not hold employees accountable for what they do not control. Another application of organizational system antecedent draws from the sense of job security an organization offers to its employees. At present, employees see job security in new ways. To them it can come in the form of positive feedback. They are looking for a daily proof that their work matters.

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This is how they create for themselves a sense of security everyday. They deduce that if they are doing a good job, they are secure, if not with this employer, maybe with a new one. Sharing is another important organizational system antecedent of motivation in the work environment. Organizations, since 1980s, gave employees' ability to share work (i.e. work in teams) a special consideration at the time of recruiting, training, and promoting them. To be able to prove the ability to work in teams has been a requisite for employment in many of the top 100 best employers for several years (Martin 1998). The contemporary concept of sharing requires managers to share information, clearly stating what they want so that the employees can set their goals and engage in activities that will help the organization to achieve them. This is how employees feel important, in control, and motivated. They are willing to forgo financial rewards and job security to gain this ability. Based on their experiences with the employees who are coming out of college, managers say that they lack motivation, not because they are lazy, but because they are either not getting the right opportunities or not being asked to use their abilities (CEO Sound-off 1997). If managers give them the opportunities to use their talents, they work really hard. The habit of sharing information initiated by management filters down to the employee hierarchy and it soon becomes a norm for behavior at the firm. Employees become accustomed to sharing. They share knowledge among each other which fires up the motivation to produce and innovate in the organization. Organizations load this antecedent in their organizational system by engaging in data creating and tracking to keep employees involved and motivated. They believe that data tracking not only provides fast insight but also stokes performance. To share their goals with employees, companies post their goals for all employees, thus allowing them to contribute as well. In return, employees post their goals on the company's intranet for all interested employees to see, monitor, and regulate each other's actions. Additionally, to perpetually keep employees involved and motivated, firms update their posted goals in response to the changes in the economy and re-posts them, giving insight to their employees about making changes in their goals if necessary (Hawn 2002). The crux of sharing is to treat employees as de facto partners resulting in an environment that lets them so function in such a way that they can participate in the management of their organization, and share in all the consequences successes, failures, rewards, and punishments. The sense of collaborating spreads in all employees allowing the sharing process to be facilitated in a timeoriented manner. This motivates everyone in the organization and develops a culture, to promulgate which most firms hire outside consultants (Newman 2000). Through the wide spread sharing in organizations, managers can build empathy with, and among their employees, especially in times when they feel guilt, fear, paranoia, or destructive emotions (Emmerich 2001). Empathy unfreezes the preceding feelings all of which are anti-motivation and unleashes the desire and the action in employees to help their organization achieve its goals. In an effort to build lasting bonds with their employees, they engage in deeds that convey their commitment to them. This commitment is conveyed in rewards administered in anticipation of the act, or a priori of the act. These may come in the form of investiture, inauguration, invocation, initiation, and induction, etc. (Amar 2002b). In contrast, rewards administered after the effect called a posteriori rewards are fancy entropies of wages. Their function as motivator is too dubious. The practice of a priori reward as a way to win employee commitment and to motivate one to give one's best to one's organization has been quite common. Management can be quite creative in setting a priori reward. However, they must meet the following two conditions:

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1. 2.

The reward is executed before the employee to whom it is to be bestowed reflects the intended behavior targeted by the reward. It makes its recipient feel important and special because of the exhibition of the rewarding behavior by the management (Amar 2002a, b).

Based on the multidimensional nature of organizational commitment, there is growing support for a three-component model proposed by Meyer and Allen (1991). All three components have implications for the continuing participation of the individual in the organization. The three components are: Affective Commitment: Psychological attachment to organization. Continuance Commitment: Costs associated with leaving the organization. Normative Commitment: Perceived obligation to remain with the organization. Guest (1991) concludes that high organizational commitment is associated with lower turnover and absence, but there is no clear link to performance. It is probably wise not to expect too much from commitment as a means of making a direct and immediate impact on performance. It is not the same as motivation. Commitment is a broader concept and tends to withstand transitory aspects of an employee's job. It is possible to be dissatisfied with a particular feature of a job while retaining a reasonably high level of commitment to the organization as a whole. When creating a commitment strategy, Amstrong (1999) asserts that it is difficult to deny that it is desirable for management to have defined strategic goals and values. And it is equally desirable from management point of view for employees to behave in a way that support those strategies and values. Creating commitment includes communication, education, training programmes, and initiatives to increase involvement and ownership and the development of performance and reward management systems. Studies on commitment have provided strong evidence that affective and normative commitments are positively related and continuance commitment is negatively connected with organizational outcomes such as performance and citizenship behaviour (Hackett, Bycio, and Handsdoff 1994; Shore and Wayne 1993). Based on this finding, it is important for employers to identify employees' commitment pattern and map out strategies for enhancing those that are relevant to organizational goals. Meyer and Allen (1991), in an exploratory and confirmatory analysis of factors that can significantly predict job satisfaction and organizational commitment among blue collar workers, reported that promotion, satisfaction, job characteristics, extrinsic and intrinsic exchange, as well as extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, were related to commitment. 4. Integrative Motivation Antecedents Model

To connect in a structured fashion all employee motivation concepts developed in this paper, an abstraction is shown in the form of a model shown in Figure 2.

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Figure 2. Integrative Motivation Antecedents Model

Job Antecedents Significance Variety Mobility Autonomy Feedback

Outcomes Antecedents Work Motivation Wage & Bonus Organizational Commitment Job Satisfaction

Organizational System Antecedents Autonomy Job Security (through Positive Feedback) Work/Information Sharing Organizational Commitment (= Priori Rewards)

It integrates the emergence of motivating behavior in work environment, identifies the right antecedents of the desired motivation, and then guides management on loading them into sources from where motivation will emerge. Its dynamic links recommend taking regular readings on the updated environmental factors because ignoring dynamics for a long time will leave management with outdated and ineffective motivators of employees. The model recognizes that in any organization there are three areas from where motivation emerges the job, the outcomes from the job, and the organizational system. Managers can load motivation antecedents into these three sources of motivation to keep their employees excited about their work. Owing to the dynamic nature of the motivating behavior, without any let-up, management would need to frequently update and revise motivators it employs in continued excitement of their employees about their work and the organization. The static nature of the available content and process models of motivation are set to fail in the dynamic work environment. 5. Enhancing Employee Motivation: Case of Liven Agrichem (Vietnam)

The golden days of fertilizer chemicals traders in Vietnam have passed since Phu My urea plant the first gas-based urea plant of the capacity of 700,000 tons per annum went on stream in 2004. All fertilizer chemicals traders including Liven Agrichem (Vietnam) have struggled to sustain import volume and market share in Vietnam market at this turning point. The key for the market position sustainability is to enhance employee motivation rather than reminding employees over and over of sales targets and market analysis reports. Integrative motivation antecedents model discussed above has been employed to inject some dose of inspiration into employees whose motivation had scattered in the new difficult market context. In terms of job antecedents, despite the appearance of Phu My urea plant, employees are encouraged to focus on the firms core business trading in urea fertilizer, so the significance of the 67

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staffs current work is sustained; however, the way to perform this core business varies. Employees align their business plans with urea demand of the market, concentrating on urea import into Vietnam when rice paddy crop season comes and on urea export from Vietnam when the crop season goes. Employees are also encouraged to expand sales of non-urea fertilizers such as ammonium sulphate, DAP, and NPK. Even though autonomy to redesign business activity is given to employees, support from top management is always with them, so that they dont feel left alone in this autonomy. On the contrary, employees feel more closely bonded to top management and the firm. This bonding retained talents in our firm not only in Vietnam but also in other branches; meanwhile, there was employee relocation in other fertilizer chemicals firms: the regional manager of Ameropa Vietnam left to join BPC, the sales manager of Yara Vietnam left to join Helm, the director of Yara Vietnam left to join AIM, the sales manager of Helm Vietnam left to join United Agro, etc. The top management sets up a program whereby employees have opportunities to participate in visioning at their own operational levels as far as the vision concerns their responsibilities, in order to motivate them toward successful implementation. Employees feel secure in our firm even in this difficult market context since they find every member from different hierarchy levels forms a solid whole looking and moving forward. The branches actively exchange their market demands and suppliability. It is affective organizational commitment psychological attachments among firm members and normative organizational commitment responsibility for the firm that motivate employees. The other outcome antecedents, especially wage and rewards, appear to give way to organizational commitment antecedent as, in 2009 annual meeting, one country manager refused pay rise and bonus and even requested for salary reduction to cut down on the branch expenditure. Even though part of integrative motivation antecedents model has been applied to our firm in the difficult market context, it works to help enhance not only individual employee motivation but also corporate motivation to sustain the firms market position. References
Akintoye, I.R. (2000). The place of financial management in personnel psychology. A Paper Presented as Part of Personnel Psychology Guest Lecture Series. Department of Guidance and Counselling, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Amar, A.D. (1998). Controls and creativity in organization. The Mid-Atlantic Journal of Business, Vol. 34 pp.97-9. Amar, A.D. (2002a). Managing Knowledge Workers: Unleashing Innovation and Productivity. Quorum Books, Westport, CT. Amar, A.D. (2002b). Reward the psyche to motivate the mind: the formula for higher innovation and productivity from knowledge workers. Knowledge Board, The European KM Community. Retrieved from www.knowledgeboard.com/cgi-bin/item.cgi?id=9571. Anderson, C. H. (1984). Job design: employee satisfaction and performance in retail stores. Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 9-16. Armstrong, M. (1999). Human resources management practice. London: Kogan Page. Cappelli, P., and Sherer, P. D. (1991). The missing role of context in OB: The need for a meso-level approach. In B. Staw and L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol.13, pp. 55-110. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. CEO Sound-off (1997). What entrepreneurs are telling Inc about employee motivation. Inc Magazine, Vol. 105. Crocker, J., Luthanen, R., Blaine, B., and Broadnax, S. (1994). Collective self-efficacy and psychological well-being among whites, blacks, and asian college students. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20: 503-513. Djokevich, P. (2002). Motivational moolah. Bank Marketing, Vol. 34 No.1, pp.34-8. Earley, P. C. (1994). Effects of training on self-efficacy and performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 39: 89-117.

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Earley, P. C., and Brittain, J. (1992). Cross-level analysis of organizations: Social resource management model. In B. Staw & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior, (Vol.15, pp. 357-408). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Emmerich, R. (2001). Motivating employees during tough times. The CPA Journal, Vol. 71 No.10, pp.62. Erez, M., and Katz, T. (1995). Effects of self-and collective-efficacy on team performance of independent and interdependent tasks. A paper presented at the Tenth Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Orlando, FL. May, 1995. Ferris, G. R., and Gilmore, D. C. (1984). The moderating role of work context in job design research: a test of competing models. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp. 885-93. Fried, Y., and Ferris, G. R. (1987). The validity of the job characteristics model: a review and meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 287-322. Gagn, M., Sencal, C., and Koestner, R. (1997). Proximal job characteristics, feelings of empowerment and intrinsic motivation: a multidimensional model. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, 12221240. Guest, E. A. (1991). Human resource management. London: McGraw-Hill. Hackett, R. D., Bycio, P., and Hausadorf, P. A. (1994). Further assessment of Meyer and Allen's 1991 three components model of organizational commitment. Journal of Applied Psychology 79, 340-350. Hackman, J. R., and Oldham, G. R. (1975). Development of the Job Diagnostic Survey. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 60, No. 2, pp.159-70. Hackman, J. R., and Oldham, G. R. (1980). Work redesign. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Hawn, C. (2002). The man who sees around corners. Forbes, pp.72-8. Hays, S. (1999). Generations X and Y and the art of the reward. Workforce, Vol. 78 No.11, pp.44-8. Hofstede, G., Bond, M. H., and Luk, C. L. (1993). Individual perceptions of organizational cultures: A methodological treatment on levels of analysis. Organizational Studies, 14: 483-503. Hofstede, G., Neuijn, B., Ohavy, D. D., and Sanders, G. (1990). Measuring organizational cultures: A qualitative and quantitative study across twenty organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35: 286-316. Inc Magazine (2001). No more Etch a sketch planning: how the smartest strategist in America is preparing for 2002, pp.110-11. Kanfer, R. (1992). Work motivation: new directions in theory and research. International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 7, pp.1-53. Klein, K. J., Dnasereau, F., and Hall, R. J. (1994). Levels issues in theory development, data collection, and analysis. Academy of Management Review, 19: 195-229. Lee-Ross, D. (1999). Seasonal hotel jobs: an occupation and a way of life. International Journal of Tourism Research, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 239-53. Lim, V. K. G., and Teo, T. S. H. (1998). Effects of individual characteristics on police officers work-related attitudes. Journal of Managerial Psychology, Vol. 13, No. 5, pp. 334-42. Locke, E. (1968). Toward a theory of task motivation and incentives. Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance, Vol. 3, No. May, pp.157-89. Martin, J. (1998). So you want to work for the best ? Fortune, Vol. 137 pp.77. McShane, S., and Travaglione, T. (2003). Organizational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim. Sydney: McGraw-Hill. Meyer, J. P., and Allen, N. J. (1991). A three component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human Resource Management Review 1, 61-89. Mowday, R. T., and Sutton, R. I. (1993). Organizational behavior: Linking individuals and groups to organizational contexts. Annual Review of Psychology, 44: 195-229. Newman, V. (2000). Victor Newman asks: Can you embed knowledge-sharing into everyday work? Knowledge Management Review, Vol. 3 No.1, pp.5. OReilly, C. A. III. (1991). Organizational Behavior: Where Weve been, Where Were Going. Annual Review of Psychology, 42: 427-458. Roedel, R. R., and Nystrom, P. C. (1988). Nursing jobs and satisfaction. Nursing Management, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 34-8. Rousseau, D. M., and House R. J. (1994). Meso organizational behavior: Avoiding three fundamental biases. In C. L. Cooper & D. M. Rousseau (Eds.), Trends in Organizational Behavior (Vol. 1, pp. 15-29). John Wiley & Sons. Senge, P. M. (1994). The Fifth Discipline. NY: Currency Doubleday. Shore, L. M., and Wagner, S. J. (1993). Commitment and employees behaviour. Comparison of affective commitment with perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology 78, 774-780.

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Weingart, L. R. (1992). Impact of group goals task component complexity, effort, and planning on group performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 682-693. Weldon, E., Jehn, K. A., and Pradham, P. (1991). Processes that mediate the relationship between a group goal and improved group performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61: 555-569. Weldon, E., and Weingart, L. R. (1993). Group goals and group performance. British Journal of Social Psychology, 32: 307-334. Wilpert, B. (1995). Organizational Behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 46: 59-90.

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Quality of Iranian EFL Learners Argumentative Essays: Cohesive Devices in Focus


Hossein Vahid Dastjerdi* Samira Hayati Samian*
* English Department, University of Isfahan, Iran h_vahid@yahoo.com; Sr.hayati.2006@gmail.com
Abstract The ability to compose a piece of argumentative text is important for EFL and ESL learners. Despite its importance, there is a gap in the literature about how Iranian students write essays in this genre that this study intends to fill. Building upon Halliday and Hasan's (1976) cohesion theory, this study intended to investigate Iranian graduate nonEnglish majors' use of cohesive devices in argumentative essays, and also the relationship between the number of cohesive devices and writing quality. An analysis of forty argumentative essays written by forty Iranian graduate nonEnglish majors showed that the students were familiar with various cohesive devices and used them in their writings. Among the cohesive devices used lexical devices had the largest percentage of the total number of cohesive devices, followed by reference devices and conjunction devices. Furthermore, it was found that there was no significant relationship between the number of cohesive devices used and quality of writing. The findings of the study have some important implications for EFL writing teachers and learners. Key words: Argumentative essays, cohesive features, Iranian EFL learners

1. Introduction Writing is one of the most authentic and interactive ways of transferring thoughts and ideas to others. Halliday (1989) refers to writing as a negotiative and explonatory act, requiring great judgement. The ability to express ones ideas in writing in a second or foreign language coherently and accurately is a major achievement that even many native speakers of English never truly master it (Celce- Murcia, 2001). Learning to write efficiently a text is a long process that requires much practice and sometimes explicit and formal instruction. For students who have not yet acquired all the skills needed to translate their ideas into a coherent text, writing is difficult and effortful. In recent years, researchers have given considerable attention to how EFL and ESL learners actually write and what problems they usually encounter in their writing. Several studies have indicated the problems that L2 writers have while writing (Chen, 2007; Crewe, 1990; Kanno, 1989; Wu, 2006). Learners writing must show some form of cohesion and coherence in their presentation of ideas. At the discourse level, analysis of cohesion provides a useful measure of the effectiveness and quality of written text. Since the publication of Cohesion in English by Halliday and Hasan (1976), many researches have been made in the field of cohesion and coherence in the English texts. Halliday and Hasan describe cohesion as one of the linguistic system's major resources for text construction (p. vii). In fact, cohesion refers to the presence or absence of explicit cues in the text that allow the reader to find relations of meaning within it. It is part of the system of language which has the potentials for meaning enhancement in texts. In Wikborgs (1990) study, it was found that Swedish students often showed cohesion problems in their writing ranging from missing or misleading sentence connection to malfunctioning cohesive devices to too great a distance between the cohesive items in a cohesive chain.

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In addition to having knowledge about the internal features of written texts, familiarity with different genres can affect writing quality of the learners to a large extent. The notion of genre is defined as abstract, socially recognized ways of using language (Hyland, 2003, p. 21) which are purposeful communicative activities employed by members of a particular discourse community (Swales, 1990). Argumentative writing is a fundamental writing style which is required in higher education to compose various writing tasks. The goal of argumentative writing is to convince an audience, and it is done in a situation where there exists a conflict between the beliefs and attitudes of the writer/speaker and the reader/audience (Hinkel, 2002). The purpose of the present study is to investigate cohesive devices used in argumentative essays composed by Iranian graduate non-English majors, and the relationship between the use of cohesive devices and quality of their essays. 2. Theoretical Background Writing plays an important role in our personal and professional lives. Writing, by definition, is an act of communication, a purposeful means of addressing an audience. However, writing is currently viewed in academic circles as more than just a tool for communication. Therefore, the ability to convey meaning proficiently in written texts is a critical skill for academic and professional success. Indeed, college freshmen writing skills are among the best predictors of academic success (Geiser & Studley, 2001), and even outside of academia, writing skills continue to be important and are an important attribute of professional competence (Light 2001). However, many students, particularly those attempting to write in their second language, rate writing activities among the least enjoyable or beneficial for learning English (Barkhuizen, 1998; Spratt, 2001). As such, developing a better understanding of characteristics of good writing is an important objective, both for theoretical and applied reasons. Cohesion and coherence, two important textual elements (Halliday and Hasan, 1976; Halliday, 2000), have long been recognized as important features of good writing. In Halliday and Hasans definition, coherence refers to the elements internal to the text, consisting of cohesion and register: A text is a passage of discourse which is coherent in these two regards: it is coherent with respect to the context of situation, and therefore consistent in register; and it is coherent with respect to itself, and therefore cohesive (p. 23). Cohesion refers to the relations of meaning that exists within a text, in other words, cohesion can be defined as linguistic devices that are used to link one part of a text to another. Halliday and Hasan (1976: 04) mention that cohesion occurs where the interpretation of some elements in the discourse is dependent on that of another. Halliday and Hasan (1976: 04) note that concept of tie makes it possible to analyze a text in terms of its cohesive properties and it gives a systematic account of its patterns and texture. Cohesive ties can manifest in form of reference(i.e., the indication of information from elsewhere such as personals, demonstratives, and comparatives), substitution(i.e., the replacement of one component by another), ellipsis(i.e., the omission of a component), conjunction (i.e., the indication of specific meaning which presupposes present items in the discourse, such as additive, adversative, casual, and temporal)and lexical cohesion(i.e., the repetition of the same or relative lexical items). A number of researchers have investigated the relationship between the use of cohesive devices and the overall quality of writing produced. However, the findings of these studies have been somewhat inconsistent or contradictory. For example, some studies have contended that there is a positive correlation between the number of cohesive devices and good writing (Cox and Tinzmann 1987; Ferris, 1994; Field & Oi, 1992; Hasan 1984; Jin, 2001; Liu & Braine, 2005; Pappas 1985). In contrast, other studies have not shown a significant relationship between the number of cohesive 72

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features used and the quality of writing (Castro, 2004; Jafarpur, 1991; Johnson, 1992; Neuner, 1987; Zhang, 2000). Some researchers also maintain that lexical devices formed the largest percentage of the total number of cohesive devices, followed by references and conjunctions in students' writings (Johns, 1980; Liu & Braine, 2005; Zhang, 2000). In his study, Olateju (2006) investigated the extent to which ESL learners have been able to achieve cohesion in their written texts by examining the cohesive devices used by the students during their continuous writing sessions at school. The data used were drawn from seventy final year students in a secondary school. The elicitation technique was an essay writing exercise in which the students were given two essay questions which would enable them to demonstrate their knowledge of cohesive devices in English. Although the students work showed evidence of the use of some of the cohesive devices identified by Halliday and Hasan (1976 and 1985), some of the few used were wrong which made it difficult for understand the texts. An analysis of the data revealed that the students lacked competence in their use of cohesive devices despite the fact that they had been exposed to intensive teaching of English for six years in the secondary school. Writing in some genres is believed to be more difficult than writing in others. The task of constructing a successful piece of argumentative writing is complex and demanding conceptually and structurally in comparison to composing a piece of narrative. The writing of formal argument places heavy cognitive demands on the writer. The organization of argument is more difficult than the chronological order of narratives. Argumentative compositions by foreign students often deviate characteristically from expected forms. Producing the content of writing is also challenging. Argumentative texts are also considered more difficult to write than narratives because they involve logical and coherent reasoning, which are acquired late in cognitive development (Siegler, 1996). Studies in various countries have reported poorer performance in argumentative writing than in other genres. In the United Kingdom, major assessments of the writing of 11- and 15-year-olds conducted by the National Foundation for Educational Research, found better performance on narrative writing than on persuasive writing for both age groups, though the difference was not great (Gorman et al., 1988). However, the ability to compose a piece of argumentative text is considered important for "academic success and for general life purposes" (Crowhurst, 1990, p. 349) and students need to write dozens of lengthy papers before finishing their college careers. Connor (1990) identifies four dimensions of argumentative texts that are unique to this genre. Superstructure refers to the "organizational plan of any text and ... the linear progression of the text" (p. 74). The second feature is the quality of logical reasoning which is assessed by analyzing the interrelationships of writers' assertions and the associated support or data provided to substantiate those claims. The third feature of good argumentative writing is identified as persuasive appeal, including affective appeal and establishment of writer credibility. Finally, she notes that audience awareness is an important characteristic of successful argumentative writing. The writer must observe an awareness of the reader's perspective by "dealing implicitly or explicitly with possible counterarguments" (p. 76). Using Halliday and Hasan's (1976) analysis of elements in text cohesion, Crowhurst (1981) examined differences in the argumentative prose written by 105 students in sixth, tenth, and twelfth grade. The scale used to examine the students' writing contained 15 types of cohesive ties. Crowhurst found a significant difference among grades for the frequency of four kinds of cohesion: same lexical item, other lexical items, long-distance ties, and long-distance ties in the last three T-units. These differences reveal that the older students were more likely to foreshadow and summarize their arguments, thus producing long-distance ties and the repetition of the same lexical items in summaries. 73

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In addition, the older students, who have larger vocabularies, more frequently used a variety of terms to refer to the same concept. In this study Crowhurst found no significant difference among grade levels in the number of students using the various types of cohesion. Crowhurst notes that the finding of differences in only 4 of the 15 types of cohesion does not reveal very much about the distinctions in argumentative writing ability among the three age groups. In her study, Castro (2004) compared the degree of cohesion and coherence in the essays written by thirty Filipino college freshmen. Though the results of the cohesion analysis indicated no significant difference in the number and types of grammatical or lexical cohesive devices in the low, mid and highly rated essays, the results can be useful for writing teachers who can teach the students the appropriate cohesive markers and emphasize their importance in writing. Using Stephen Toulmins (2003) model of argument, Chen and Cheng (2009) examined the use of English argumentation features in Taiwanese and US college freshmens writings. The findings indicated that Taiwanese student arguments were less extended and complex, and displayed a limited range and quantity of argumentative structure in comparison to American arguments. Yet, both Taiwanese and American students were weak at handling oppositional structures, an essential trait differentiating Chinese and English rhetoric. Equally important, Taiwanese students, when composing Chinese texts were able to construct certain argument features in a way similar to American students. This illustrated that culture may not necessarily account fully for the argument features manifested in Taiwanese writing of English. Other factors, such as L2 language proficiency and developmental factors also played a mediating role in the use of argument structures. McNamara et al (2010) used linguistic indices of cohesion and language sophistication provided by the computational tool Coh-Metrix (Graesser, McNamara, Louwerse, & Cai, 2004) to analyze a corpus of 120 argumentative essays written by college undergraduate and scored by expert raters using a holistic rubric. The essays were scored on a 1-6 scaled SAT rubric and then categorized into two groups: essays judged as low versus high quality. The results indicated that there were no differences between these two groups according to indices of cohesion (e.g., word overlap, causality, connectives). By contrast, indices related to language sophistication (lexical diversity, word frequency, and syntactic complexity) showed significant differences between the groups. Wang and Cho (2010) examined two major academic genres of writing: argumentative and technical writing. Three hundred eighty-four undergraduate student-produced texts were analyzed through a computational tool called Coh-Metrix. The results showed that students used genredependent cohesive devices in a limited way to write research papers. Students' writings were examined in seven dimensions of textual cohesion. For instance, it was found that students' argumentative writing texts tend to have complex syntactic structures (due to overuse of premodifications) that affect the cohesion of texts. Furthermore, students employed impersonal constructions (passive voice) in their technical writing; however, over-indulgence in passive voice may also cause ambiguous meanings. As to the causal cohesion dimension, the results suggested that college students write argumentative writing with more causal cohesion than for their technical writing. On the dimension of connectives, it was found that college students' argumentative texts include significantly more connectives in their argumentative writing than in their technical writing, excepting the use of positive temporal connectives. In addition, it was found that students' technical writing showed significantly higher co-referential cohesion than students' argumentative writing for all measures. At the dimension of density of part of speech, students used personal pronouns are used less in their technical writing than in their argumentative writing. Regarding syntax complexity, students used significantly more modifiers in their technical writing than in their argumentative writing. Finally, students-produced argumentative texts are more difficult to comprehend than their technical writing texts. 74

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Many researchers have explored the relationship between the use of cohesive devices and the quality of the writing produced. However, the results of various studies have been at best inconsistent. In order to shed some light on this area of debate, the present study investigated Iranian non-English major graduates' use of cohesive devices in argumentative writing and the relationship between the number of cohesive devices and quality of their writing. Argumentative writing has been chosen as the focus of the present study since it is important both for academic success and for general life purposes. University students must be able to write argumentative papers in order to join the conversation in the academic community. Despite its importance, there is no accurate picture of how Iranian students compose English argumentative writing and how effective their English argumentation is. Having reviewed previous studies on argumentative writing and cohesive devices, this study was conducted in an EFL context, Iran, to address the following questions: 1. What types of cohesive devices are used by Iranian graduate non-English majors in their argumentative writing? 2. How frequently do Iranian graduate non-English majors use cohesive devices? 3. Is there a significant relationship between the number of cohesive devices used and the quality of writing produced? 3. Methods 3.1. Participants The participants in this study were 40 Iranian EFL graduate non-English major who enrolled in an English Writing course at a private language institute in Isfahan. None of them had any formal instruction about writing before starting this course. The participants came from different departments ranging from Law to Medical sciences to Statistics. All of them had passed a placement test to be at the expected level of proficiency before starting the course. They were taught basic writing skills and different genres and styles. At the end of the course, they were expected to be able to write different types of essays including narrative and argumentative ones among others. The number of male and female participants was equal, 20 female and 20 male. Their age range was 22 to 30. 3.2. Data Collection Procedure At the first session, objectives and requirements of the course were clearly specified for the students. Therefore, the students found out what they should do during the course and what is expected of them at the end of the course. During the term, the students were taught principles of rhetoric and organization, provided with a text of a specific genre for classroom discussion, analysis, and interpretation, were required a writing assignment of that genre, and finally their writings were read and commented by their teacher. In addition, the concepts of cohesion and coherence were explicitly emphasized in each sample throughout the course. Therefore, the students had a clear idea about how they should compose their writing assignments. In the final session, the researcher asked them to write an argumentative essay on the topic, "Drinking a lot of water can help you to become healthier" within 25 minutes. The participants were required to state their viewpoints about this topic and defend it.

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3.3. Data Analysis Procedures and Results Following Liu & Braines study (2005) and Zhangs (2000)s study, the data in this study were analyzed through two procedures: identifying and counting the number of cohesive devices and evaluating the quality of written texts. For the first phase of data analysis, Halliday and Hasan's (1976) cohesion taxonomy was used to examine the kinds of cohesive ties used in argumentative texts. Then, frequency, mean and standard deviation of the cohesive devices in each category were computed using SPSS statistical software package. However, two categories of cohesive devices, substitution and ellipsis, were not analyzed because they are more characteristically found in dialogues (Halliday, 2000, p. 337) and they are seldom used in formal writing (Liu & Braine, 2005, p. 647). For the second and the qualitative phase of the study, the argumentative texts were independently rated by two raters, i.e., the researcher and another English teacher who had at least 4 years of experience teaching composition classes. A holistic rating scale (Educational Testing Service, 2004) ranging from zero to five points was used. Then, the inter rater reliability was calculated to show the consistency of scoring. The inter-rater reliability was .813, which indicated the overall writing scores were consistent and reliable. Then, the relationship between the frequency of the use of cohesive devices and the quality of writing was examined through the use of Pearson Correlation. Forty essays were evaluated by the two raters for the present study. The scores given to each composition by the raters were averaged and the mean was determined as the final score for that piece, and the averaged scores were correlated with the number of cohesive devices used by students to reveal the potential relationship between the numbers of cohesive devices and writing quality. The results are presented in Table-1below:
Table 1. Mean, Standard Deviation, Range, and Other Statistics Related to the Argumentative text Scores Mean 3.26 Standard deviation (SD) 0.6 Standard error (SE) 0.1 Minimum 2.50 Maximum 4.50 Range 2.00 Median 3.12

As shown in Table-1, the mean score of the 40 compositions is 3.26 (out of a maximum score of 5) and the standard deviation is 0.6. Thus, the compositions scored four points or above were considered the best, while those scored three or below were regarded the weakest. The range of distribution of score was narrow. This may indicate that the students in this study are far apart in terms of writing ability, and also it can be concluded that the participants average writing proficiency was at high-intermediate level. 3.3.1. Cohesive Devices Used in Argumentative Text The type and number of cohesive devices used in each argumentative text were analyzed using Halliday and Hasans (1976) cohesive framework as the basis for data analysis. Table 2 illustrates the frequency, mean per essay, standard deviation, and percentages of the different subcategories of cohesive devices identified in the texts. This shows that the students in the present study used a variety of cohesive devices, and they employed some types of devices more frequently than others. From the data it is evident that the participants used lexical devices (52.2% ) more frequently than reference devices (27.6% ) followed by conjunction devices (20.2% ).

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Table 2. Cohesive Devices Used in Essays Type of cohesive devices Frequency Mean per composition Standard deviation Range Percentage based on total Reference devices 1154 28.85 5.95 53 27.6% Conjunction devices 844 21.2 3.84 29 20.2% Total number of cohesive devices 4184 104.7 10.91 68 100%

Lexical devices 2186 54.65 15.97 68 52.2%

These findings concerning the frequency order of different types of cohesive devices are compatible with that of previous research studies (Liu & Brain, 2005; Neuner, 1987; Yvette and Yip, 1992; Zhang, 2000). Following Liu & Braines study (2005), the definite article the was also calculated and integrated into reference devices. Therefore, higher percentage of reference devices used may be due to the inclusion of the definite article. To pinpoint the variety of different subcategories of cohesive devices, a more detailed analysis of them is presented below. 3.3.2. Reference Devices Used in Essays The data displayed in table 3 indicate that among the three sub-categories of reference devices, pronominal devices (51.3% ) occupied the largest percentage of use, followed by the definite article (26.7% ), the comparatives (12% ), and demonstratives (10% ) which had the least percentage of use.
Table 3: Reference Devices Used in Essay Reference devices Frequency Mean per essay Standard deviation Range Percentage Most frequently used cohesive Items Total number of reference devices 1154 28.83 5.95 53 100%

Pronominal devices 593 14.82 5.69 26 51.3% You- we- I your- our

Demonstratives 115 2.87 1.81 11 10% There- that- this

The definite article 309 7.72 3.38 17 26.7% _

Comparative devices 137 3.42 1.86 9 12% M or em uchless- the m ost

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The findings correspond to Liu & Brain (2005), but differ from Neuner (1987) in which the number of demonstratives was slightly higher than the definite article. In terms of the most frequently used pronouns, you was used the most followed by I and we. It might reflect the fact that most of the students were more comfortable at using first and second persons to make their writings more subjective and personal. This observation shows that the students should be taught to use third person pronouns in order to make their argumentative writings more objective and authoritative. Among demonstratives, students used this and that more than these and those. It shows that the students preferred to use singular demonstratives more than plural ones. The following are some of the extracts taken from the students essays: Example 1 What if someone told you, you could lose weight with no effort on your part? What if there was a secret to losing weight that didnt involve our exercise or decrease calorie. Example 2 The secret to much fast weight loss without exercise or diet changes is to drink more water. I think this can also make you more healthier. 3.3.3. Conjunction Devices Used in Essays Table-4 demonstrates the frequency, percentage and standard deviation of the four subcategories of conjunction devices. Among these subcategories, additive devices (51.2% ) had the largest percentage of use, followed by the Causal devices (19.3% ), adversative devices (15.5% ), and temporal devices (14% ). These findings are somewhat different from those of Liu & Brain (2005) in which the number of temporal devices was higher than the adversative devices. In terms of the most frequently used conjunction devices, it is interesting to find that in each category, the students in this study strongly preferred using simple words to longer phrases to connect different parts of their writing together. The cohesive items with the highest frequency among additive devices were and, or, and also. Among adversative devices, the students employed item but and however the most frequently, whereas they rarely used items like on the contrary and on the other hand. In terms of causal devices, the items because, because of, and for had the highest percentage. As to temporal, the students employed first, second, finally, and at the end of more than others to show the order of their reasoning. It might manifest the fact that most of them lacked familiarity with or had difficulty with using other conjunction devices. This observation could inform writing teachers to emphasize complex conjunction devices more in their teaching.
Table 4. Conjunction devices used

Conjunction devices

Additive devices

Adversative devices

Causal devices

Temporal devices

Total number of conjunctive devices

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Frequency Mean per essay Standard deviation Range Percentage Most frequently used cohesive Items

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432 10.8 3.16 13 51.2% And, or, also 131 3.27 1.43 6 15.5% But, however 163 4.07 2.09 9 19.3% Because, because of, for 118 2.95 1.06 4

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844 21.09 3.84 29 100%

14% First, second, finally, at the end

Example 3 Finally, because water is such an important and necessary component of your body, it makes sense that it can play a vital role in your health and body conditions. Example 4 First, water is very useful and helpful for our kidneys, because it can clean them... Second, drinking water leads to less eating and more weight loss. Also it helps to lose our appetite, because we dont feel hungry. 3.3.4 Lexical Devices Used in Essays Among the five sub-categories of lexical devices, repetition (76% ) accounted for the largest percentage of use, followed by synonym (8.7% ), collocation (7.9% ), antonym (4.8% ), and sperordinate (2.6% ), as shown in Table 5. The results are in line with Liu & Brain (2005), Neuner (1987), and Zhang (2000) studies, and indicate that the students had a tendency to use the same vocabulary item to emphasize their ideas and support their argument. It can be due to the fact that the students have a limited knowledge of vocabulary; hence they should repeat them in their writings. As can be seen from Table 5, the most frequently repeated vocabulary items were water, body, drink, and weight which were directly related to the topic of the essay. The followings are some extracts from students essays:
Table 5. Lexical devices use Lexical devices Frequency Mean per essay Standard deviation Range Percentage Most frequently used cohesive items Total number of lexical devices 2186 54.64 15.97 68 100%

Repetition 1663 41.57 9.11 49 76% Water-caloriebody-humandrink

Antonym 104 2.6 0.90 4 4.8% Easy-difficult Useful-harmful Advantagedisadvantage

Synonym 189 4.72 1.86 9 8.7% Get-obtain Exerciseactivity

Superordinate 58 1.45 0.63 3 2.6% Liquid-water Exercisingrunning

Collocation 172 4.3 1.93 11 7.9% Put on weight-lose weight Do exercise

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3.3.5. The Relationship Between the Number of Cohesive Devices and Writing Quality In addition to the general description of the frequency of use of cohesive devices, another major purpose of this study was to investigate relationship between the number of cohesive devices used and the quality of writing produced. To answer research question 3 regarding this point, the numerical essay scores and the number of each cohesive category (i.e., total devices per composition) were correlated by Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient.
Table 6. Correlation between Essays Scores and Cohesive Devices Reference devices Conjunction devices Lexical devices Total number of cohesive devices

Essay scores

Essay scores Reference devices Conjunction devices Lexical devices Total number of cohesive devices

1 -0.306 -0.026 -0.201 -0.306 1 0.710(**) 0.803(**) 0.887(**) 1 0.857(**) 0.710(**) 1 0.686(**)

*p<0.05 **p<0.01

The correlation matrix in Table 6 indicates non-significant and even negative correlations between (1) the essay scores and the number of reference devices (r = - 0.306), (2) the essay scores and the number of conjunction devices (r = -0.026), (3) the essay scores and the number of lexical devices (r =0.201), and (4) the essay scores and the total number of cohesive devices (r = -0.306). It is evident that the number of cohesive devices and writing quality were shown not to be significantly related. The greater use of cohesive devices in writing did not indicate better writing quality. One possible explanation may be that the participants in this study overused cohesive devices and in some cases even misused them in their essays. It seems logical to conclude that their problems with using the cohesive devices had negative effect on their writing quality. Analyzing their essays revealed that most of them didnt know how to use those cohesive devices properly. Some of the participants problems were related to the use of reference devices. For instance, regarding the use of definite article the, it seemed to be some interference from the Persian language. The participants tended to confuse the use of definite and indefinite articles or insert unnecessary ones. In addition, in some cases, they employed double-comparative structures (e.g., the more healthier or the least harmfulest or the more better). Apart from the difficulties with reference devices, the students tended to overuse additive devices (e.g., and, or...) and causal devices (e.g., because, because of...) in their essays. Participants sometimes used such causal devices without any clear cause- effect relationships among parts of sentences. A more salient problem was initial positioning of conjunction devices even

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when it is allowed to place them in non-initial position. That is, most of conjunctive words or phrases appeared at the beginning of sentences. Similar finding was found in Zhangs study (2000). Lexical devices were the most problematic area for the participants in this study, even though they accounted for the highest percentage of cohesive devices identified in argumentative essays. The students used a limited number of lexical items and most of the lexical devices were just repetitions of the same items. Other types of lexical devices were rarely used in the writing essays. Furthermore, analysis of data revealed that the participants had difficulty choosing right words and right collocations (e.g., miss some weight). There may be two sources for the students problems in this regard. One is that limited exposure to authentic materials and related readings. The other one is the interference from mother to second language. 4. Discussion and Conclusions The findings of this study, in general, are consistent with those of previous research studies. In this study, Halliday and Hasans (1976) cohesive framework was used to analyze students use of cohesive devices. To summarize, the results of this study suggest that the participants, Iranian graduate nonEnglish majors, had knowledge of cohesive devices and were capable of employing a variety of them in their argumentative writings. However, some of the cohesive devices employed were wrongly used which made it difficult to comprehend the text. Among the three cohesive devices examined, lexical devices (52.2% ) formed the highest percentage of the total number of cohesive devices used in the argumentative essays, followed by reference devices (27.6% ) and conjunctions (20.2% ). A more detailed analysis of the cohesive devices used in the argumentative essays showed that, in reference devices category, pronominal devices (51.3% ) were the most frequently used while demonstratives (10% ) the least frequently used. This finding corresponds to that of Liu & Brains study (2005), while the percentage of use is a little different. Regarding the use of conjunctions, the qualitative analysis of the essays indicated that the participants of this study preferred using simple conjunctions like and, but, because more frequently than others like nonetheless, on the other hand, furthermore. It may be due to the fact that the students learn the simple ones in early stages of second language learning, hence feel more comfortable using them. It was found that Iranian graduate nonEnglish majors in this study were in general weak in lexical cohesion, though it constituted the highest percentage of total cohesive devices used in the essays. Extensive use of lexical devices was reasonable because this genre requires forming arguments and elaborating ideas to support them which necessitate the effective use of various lexical devices. The students vocabulary repertoire was limited. It can be understood by the fact that a great percentage of the lexical devices was merely repetition of the same lexical items (76% ). In addition, some of the lexical items used, especially the collocations, were misused. This finding is in line with that of Liu & Brains study (2005).To understand any relationship between the frequency of cohesive devices used and the quality of writing, correlation was computed between the numerical essay scores and total number of cohesive devices in essays. The correlation matrix indicated that there was no statistically significant relationship between the essay scores and the number of cohesive devices used in the same essay. This finding is in line with those of the previous research studies (Castro, 2004; Jafarpur, 1991; Johnson, 1992; Karasi, 1994; Neuner, 1987; Zhang, 2000). Therefore, the number of cohesive devices cannot be a differentiating factor between good essays and poor ones. Generally speaking, lack of cohesion in writing is a problem that cannot be ignored. The findings of this study suggest the following implications both for writing teachers and EFL learners. The first one is for the students to improve their lexical knowledge. Acquiring lexical knowledge is 81

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fundamental in learning the four skills of the second or foreign language. Inclusion meaningful vocabulary exercises in writing course syllabuses may address this issue. In addition, new vocabulary items should not be presented in isolation rather in context, since it may help the learners to distinguish the differences between them. Well-organized lexical knowledge can help the learners to compose more lexically cohesive essays. Second, as most of the students in the sample were found to have difficulty employing the cohesive devices accurately and properly, it seems necessary to teach cohesion and cohesive devices explicitly and to provide them with ample examples in English classes. Since in most cases, learners are familiar with different types of cohesive devices; however, they simply do not know how to use them correctly. Third, future research should be done to consider the growth of cohesion knowledge that results from a variety of instructional sources and its time in learners. This is especially important to consider because the time of learning about cohesion needs to be identified in order to develop instructional programs to facilitate such learning. A final word is that although this study did not analyze a large number of essay samples, it may be considered a helpful contribution, particularly in our country, Iran, where few studies have examined cohesion in Iranian EFL learners writings, and especially the relationship between use of cohesive devices and (argumentative) writing quality.

References
Barkhuizen, G.P. (1998). Discovering learners' perceptions of ESL classroom teaching/learning activities in a South African context. TESOL Quarterly, 32(1), 85-108. Castro, C. (2004). Cohesion and the social construction of meaning in the essays of Filipino college students writing in L2 English. Asia Pacific Education Review, 5(2), 215-225. Celce-Murcia, M. (Ed.). (2001). Teaching English as a second or foreign language (3rd edition.). Boston: Heinle & Heinle. Cheng, F., Chen, Y. (2009). Taiwanese argumentation skills: Contrastive rhetoric perspective. Taiwan International ESP Journal 1(1), 23-50. Chen, Y. L., & You, Y. L. (2007). Less experienced EFL writers knowledge and self-awareness of coherence in English writing. Selected Papers from the Sixteenth International Symposium and Book Fair on English Teaching, 335346. Taipei: Crane. Connor, U. (1990). "Linguistic/Rhetorical measures for International persuasive student writing. Research in the Teaching of English, 24, 67-87. Cox, B.E., & Tinzmann, M. (1987) Elementary children's knowledge of exposition. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Reading Conference, St. Petersburg, FL. Crewe, W. J. (1990). The illogic of logical connectives. ELT Journal, 44(4), 316-325. Crowhurst, M. (1981). Cohesion in argumentative prose written by sixth-, tenth- and twelfth- graders. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Los Angeles, California. (ERIC Document Re-production Service No. ED 202 023) Crowhurst, M. (1990). Teaching and learning the writing of persuasive/argumentative discourse. Canadian Journal of Education, 15 (4), 348-359. Educational Testing Service (2004). iBT/Next Generation TOEFL Test: Integrated Writing Rubrics Retrieved June 25, 2008, from http://www.ets.org/Media/Tests/TOEFL/pdf/Writing_Rubrics.pdf Ferris, D. R. (1994). Lexical and syntactic features of ESL writing by students at different levels of L2 proficiency. TESOL Quarterly, 28(2), 414-420. Field, Y., & Oi, Y. L. M. (1992). A comparison of internal conjunctive cohesion in English essay writing of Cantonese speakers and native speakers of English. RELC Journal, 23, 15-28. Geiser, S. & Studley, R. (2001). UC and SAT: Predictive validity and differential impact of the SAT I and SAT II at the

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University of California. Oakland, CA: University of California. Gorman, T.P., White, J., Brooks, C., MacLure, M., & Kispal, A. (1988). A review of language monitoring 1979-83. London: HMSO, Assessment of Performance Unit. Graesser, A.C., McNamara, D.S., Louwerse, M.M., & Cai, Z. (2004). Coh-Metrix: Analysis of text on cohesion and language. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 36, 193202. Halliday, M.A.K., Hasan, R., (1976). Cohesion in English. Longman, London. Halliday, M., and R. Hasan (1985). Language, context, and text: Aspects of language in a social-semiotic perspective. Victoria: Deakin University Press. Halliday, M.A.K.,( 2000). Introduction to Functional Grammar, second ed. Foreign LanguageTeaching and Research Press, Beijing. Hassan, R. (1984). Coherence and cohesive harmony. In J. Flood (Ed.), Understanding reading comprehension (pp. 181219). Newark, DE: InternationaRl eadingA ssociation. Hinkel, E. (2002). Second language writers text. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Hyland, K. (2003). Second language writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Jafarpur, A., (1991). Cohesiveness as a basis for evaluating compositions. System 19, 459465. Jin, W. (2001). A quantitative study of cohesion in Chinese graduate students writing: Variations across genres and proficiency levels. ERIC Document Reproduction Service, No. ED 452 726. Johns, A.M., (1980). Cohesion in written business discourse: some contrasts. The ESP Journal 1, 36 44. Johnson, D.P., (1992). Cohesion and coherence in compositions in Malay and English. RELC Journal 23, 117. Kanno, Y. (1989). The use of connectives in English academic papers written by Japanese students. Psycholinguistics, 2, 41-54. Karasi, M. (1994). Cohesive features in expository essays of Secondary Four (Express) and Secondary Five (Normal) students in Singapore. M.A. dissertation. Nanyang Technological University; National Institute of Education. Light, R. (2001). Making the most of college. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Liu, M., & Braine G. (2005). Cohesive features in argumentative writing produced by Chinese undergraduates. System, 33, 623-636. McNamara, D.S., Louwerse, M.M., McCarthy, P.M., & Graesser, A.C. (2010). Coh-Metrix: Capturing linguistic features of cohesion. Discourse Processes, 47, 292-330. Olateju, M. (2006). Cohesion in ESL Classroom Written Texts. Nordic Journal of African Studies 15(3), 314331. Pappas, C. C. (1985). The cohesive harmony and cohesive density of children's oral and written stories. InJ. D. Benson & W. S. Greaves (Eds.), Systemic perspectives on discourse: Vol. 2. Selected applied from the ninth International Systemic Workshop (pp. 169-186). Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Neuner, J. L. (1987). Cohesive ties and chains in good and poor freshman essays. Research in the Teaching of English, 17, 215-229. Siegler, R. S. (1996). Emerging minds: The process of change in childrens thinking. New York:Oxford University Press. Spratt, M. (2001). The value of finding out what classroom activities students like. RELC Journal, 32, 80-103. Swales, J. M. (1990). Genre analysis: English in academic and research settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Toulmin, S. E. (2003). The uses of argument (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Wang, X., Cho, K. (2010). Computational Linguistic Assessment of Genre Differences Focusing on Text Cohesive Devices of Student Writing: Implications for Library Instruction. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 36(6), 501- 510. Wikborg, E., (1990). Types of coherence breaks in Swedish student writing: misleading paragraph division. In: Connor, U., Johns, A.M. (Eds.), Coherence in Writing: Research and Pedagogical Perspectives. TESOL, Alexandria, VA, pp. 131149. Wu, S. R. (2006). Connectives and topic-fronting devices in academic writing: Taiwanese EFL student writers vs. international writers. 2006 International Conference and Workshop on TEFL and Applied Linguistics, 417-425. Yvette, F., Yip, L., (1992). A comparison of Internet conjunctive cohesion in the English essay writing of Cantonese speakers and native speakers of English. RELC Journal 23, 1528. Zhang, M., (2000). Cohesive features in exploratory writing of undergraduates in two Chinese universities. RELC Journal 31, 6193.

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The Impact of Relationship Marketing on the Performance of Insurance Organisation


Festus M. Epetimehin
Joseph Ayo Babalola University, Ikeji-Arakeji Email: festusworldwide22@yahoo.com 2348037182112, 2348022902455
Abstract Marketing is the life wire of any insurance. Insurance without a good marketing team and strategies is bound to fail. In order to be relevant and be seen as being relevant to their customers, insurance have to innovate new strategies and install the art of technology that will make life easy for customers and themselves. Customer Relationship Management Service is a marketing strategy that ensures the acquisition and retention of most profitable customers using the most effective method. The aim of this paper is to examine if relationship marketing practices as a new philosophy has been rightly adopted in the insurance industry. The study is based on the information gathered and collected from both primary and secondary sources. The sample for the study is made from selected insurance companies and their customers in Lagos Metropolis. Data analysis for the study was done using frequencies, percentage, and Z-score. Findings of the study revealed that relationship marketing practices have been playing a dominant role in improving the performance of insurance and increasing customers satisfaction through service quality. Therefore, the continued existence of any insurance will depend on its ability to maintain good relationship with customers and provision of quality service Keywords: Customer Relationship Management, Marketing Strategy, Insurance

1. Introduction Every organization competing in an industry has a competitive strategy whether explicit or implicit. This strategy may have been originated explicitly or implicitly through a well articulated planning process or it may have been developed implicitly through the activities of the various functional arms of the organization (Achumba, 2000:18). The need for marketing in financial industry cannot be overemphasized. Insurance today is about marketing. The most critical role of marketing in financial institutions is to blend the element of the marketing mix optionally in coherent form in which it can be used to further the realization of the institutions marketing objectives this is in the form of marketing strategy. However, the crave for development and marketing in the financial industry has thrown up a basic problem of insurance companies trying to employ strategies in making their services get to the customers but It appears the insurance continuously use the selling concepts, which focuses on the services rather than the prospects. The effective communication of products or services benefits is also a weak area of marketing management in the financial industry. The end result therefore is the low level of awareness and poor attitude to the purchase of insurance services Marketing as applied to insurance is to identify present and future markets for service; select which markets to serve and identify customers needs within them; setting long and short term goals for the progress of existing and new services and managing the profit, and controlling success in doing so. Achumba (2000:24) posits that the extent of success of an organization to a large extent depends upon how well it formulates its policy and strategy in the light of its changing environment. Nagasimha (2005:37) framed the significance of marketing strategy in his comment business is like war in one respect, if its grand strategy is correct

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any number of tactical errors can be made and yet the enterprises prove successful. Relationship marketing is a strategy to identify and establish; maintain to enhance relationship with customers and other stakeholders, at a profit so that the objectives of all parties involved are met. Relationship marketing is based on the idea that the happier a customer is with a relationship, the greater the likelihood that they will stay with an organization. Further to the above, for an insurance to go beyond its advertised interest in satisfying the customers into building effective relationships, they must know and understand the customer so well that the service fits him and sells itself. Fundamentally, building a relationship is about understanding the customer, so well that selling becomes superfluous. There are sound financial reasons for the growth of popularity of relationship marketing: research has shown that the cost of attracting a new customer is estimated to be five times the cost of keeping a current customer happy (Jackson1985:23). The problem definition of this study is to examine whether the practice of relationship marketing influences performance of insurance organisation. The aim of this paper is to examine if relationship marketing practices as a new philosophy has been rightly adopted in the insurance industry. The study is based on the information gathered and collected from both primary and secondary sources. The sample for the study is made from selected insurance companies and their customers in Lagos Metropolis. Data analysis for the study was done using frequencies, percentage, and Z-score. Findings of the study revealed that relationship marketing practices have been playing a dominant role in improving the performance of insurance and increasing customers satisfaction through service quality. 2 Literature Review The current conceptualization of relationship marketing migrated from organizational behaviour and industrial marketing where interdependence between firms has been the foundation of successful business-to-business alliances. Relationship market has been a major shift in marketing theory and practice. Despite growing volume of literature in support of relationship buildings and espoused stories by its proponents, relationship marketing seem to mean different things to different writers and different practitioner (Duff, 1998:19 and Harker, 1999:12) Depending on the individual, building customer relationship can imply something about independencies or mutual interests, personalized treatment, interpersonal reports, targeted one to one communication, after sales services, customer satisfaction, works of month, or doing something in long term to name a few. Levitt (1997:28) succinctly explained relationship management in the following words: relationship between a seller and a buyer seldom ends when the sales are made. In a great and increasing proportion of transactions, the relationship actually intensifies subsequent to the sales. This becomes critical factors in the buyers choice of the seller next time around. The sale merely consummates the courtship. The marriage begins. How good the marriage is depends on how well the relationship is managed by the seller. Gordon (1996:19) emphasized that relationship marketing entails the following: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Focus on customer retention Quality set by all Oriented product benefits Long time scale High customer service High customer commitment High customer contract

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Garbarins and Johnson (1999:24) view relationship marketing practice as a relationship involvement where the customers use the truth and commitment as the mediator for determining future activities with selling firm. According to them, much organization perceived that the best initial approach toward relationship marketing is investing in compliant handling procedures to demonstrate customers commitment resulting in customer loyalty. Geysken (1998:13) emphasized that the practices of relationship marketing are centered on nothing more than good communications which are simply taken in expanded form beyond the essential description of features and benefits to seeking out a greater understanding of each prospective customer. The resulting objective is to change customer behaviour so that loyalty replaces the threat of detection of ever increasing hurdles of competitive products and service (Roa and Perry, 2002:24). Despite the emergence of relationship marketing as a new marketing idea for many firms and insurance in the western countries, there is no general accepted position about its relevance on the practice of marketing. Authors like Davis (1997:10) argued that it is merely a new tactic added to marketing activities, or a strategic focus shift (li et al, 1997:18), or even a paradigm shift or a view that overturn most previous marketing thinking (Gronros, 1996:16; Sheth and Pravatiya, (1995:7). Plamer (1997:21) further noted that the world of marketing used to be based on relationship before mass marketing made, different but recent advances in information technology may permit a return to a marketing world relationship. Wright, (1996:8) opined that for insurance to go beyond their advertised interest in satisfying the consumer into building effective relationship, they must know and understand the consumer so well that the service fits him and sells itself. Secondly, the insurance must be customer-oriented. Thirdly, corporate government in insurance must appreciate the place of coordinated marketing in the scheme of things. The fourth principle is that of profitability. 3. Conceptual Framework There are four competing concepts under which insurance conduct their relationship activities (Kotler, 2003:14).it includes production concept, product concept, selling concept and the marketing concept; we shall examine them in turn. Production concept: first is the production concept. This holds that clients will favour financial services that are widely available and low in cost. Insurance with this philosophy concentrate on achieving operational efficiency and distribution network, assuming that customers are primarily interested in service availability and low rate. Product concept: this holds that clients will favour high quality financial services insurance which favour this philosophy focus on high quality offering and try to improve them overtime. Selling concept: this argued that customers, if left alone would ordinary patronize insurance services. As such, insurance must undertake aggressive selling and promotion efforts. Characteristically insurance which apply this approach, concentrate on selling what they can offer, rather than offer what they can sell. Marketing concept: this arose to challenge the previous concepts. It holds that the key achieving the insurance goals lie in determining the needs and wants of targets markets and delivering the desire satisfaction more effectively and efficiently than competitors. In essence, the marketing concept is aimed at generating customer satisfaction as the key to satisfying business.

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4. Methodology A population is made up of all conceivable elements, subjects or observations relating to a particular phenomenon of interest to the researcher (Asika, 1991:34). The population of this research study is the licensed commercial insurance companies in operation in Lagos Metropolis of Nigeria therefore the research area portray a true representation of insurance in Nigeria. A convenient sample of ten (30) insurance companies were randomly selected; on the other hand, twenty insurance customers were randomly selected. The researchers administered One hundred and eighty (180) questionnaires to the selected insurance staff and customers, but one hundred and fifty (150) were properly filled and returned representing 83.3% returned rate. The questionnaire used was divided into two sections; the first section is designed to gather information on the demographic characteristics of the respondents, while the second section is designed to tap information relating to the problem of the study. The second part contains structured questions. 4.1 Analysis and Discussion For the purpose of data analysis, simple descriptive analysis and percentages were used. Of the 150 respondents, 100 (66% ) were insurance staff while 50 (33.3% ) of them were insurance customers. Data analysis reveals that over 50% of the respondents are female compared to their male counterpart. In the same vein, 50% unveiled the fact that majority of insurance are strictly new generation insurance. The academic qualification shows that about 50% of the respondents have postgraduate qualification and about 30.6% are B.Sc/HND holders while about 19.4% are holders of Diploma and/ or equivalents. The research study also reveals that about 42.0% of the respondents have spent between 10-14 years in the insurance industry, while 25.7% have spent 5-9 years with their insurance, and about 42.3% have spent about five years and below. Among the customers, 80% have been purchasing insurance products for over 10 years. The researcher used significance level with a probability value setting the boundary between the acceptances and rejecting zones. The researcher used a common value that is 5% , which could also be stated as 95% confidence limit. In Table 1, it is obviously seen that 30% of the respondents unanimously agreed that there is a competition in the marketing of insurance service and that the market is very narrow and prone to difficulties whenever insurance adopted marketing strategies that are poor and inefficient. About 50% of the insurance staff agreed that they adopted relationship marketing philosophy. These were against 5% , 7% and 8% of others respectively.
Table 1. Insurance staff response to questions on marketing strategy philosophies Response option Marketing concept Relationship marketing Selling philosophy Product philosophy Production philosophy Total Source: Researchers Survey, 2010 Frequency 23 40 22 9 6 100 Percentage 23 40 22 9 6 100

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Table 2 shows assessment of nature of competition going among insurance directed to insurance customers . Respondents were asked to rate the nature on a sale of 1 to 3 where 1= very low,2= moderate and 3= very high. The table indicates 56% of respondents were of the view that competition among insurance is very high 34% agreed it is moderate while 10% were of the view that competition among banks are very low.
Table 2. Customer response on nature of competition existing among Insurance. Response option Very high Moderate Very low Total Source: Field Survey, 2010. Frequency 28 17 5 50 Percentage 56 34 10 100

The implication of this is that more aggressive and goal-seeking marketing officer should be employed while relationship marketing strategies are adopted at a minimum cost. Table 3 shows percentage responses concerning each of elements of insurance customer relationship. Respondent were asked to rate the degree of importance of each of the elements that best reflects a good customer relationship of an insurance on a scale of 1 = least important and 5 = Most important. The data indicates that majority of the respondents rated relationship quality-35% as most important, followed by satisfaction (25% ) insurance commitment (10% ), trust (10% ), conflict handling (5% ) and communication (5% ) respectively.
Table 3. Customers response on elements of Customer Relationship of Insurance Response option Insurance commitment Trust Communication Competence Conflict handling Relationship quality Satisfaction Source: Researchers' Survey, 2010. Percentage 10% 10% 5% 10% 5% 35% 25%

This implies that the insurance have maintained a good customer relationship with their customer even in turbulent business environment or during economic recession still put their customers on priority list (i.e. insurance commitment to needs).

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Table 4. Group crosses tabulation and response to question on the impact of relationship marketing on the performance of insurance. Group Insurance Customer Column total Percentage Strongly Agreed 40 30 70 40 Agreed 32 28 60 34.4 Uncertain 8 5 13 7.43 Disagreed 10 5 15 8.57 Strongly Disagreed 10 7 17 9.7 Row Total 100 50 175 100

Source: Researchers' survey 2010 df = (m-1) (n-1) = (5-1) (2-1) = 4

The study revealed that about 40% of respondents strongly agreed that there is positive impact of the performance of insurance in the banking industry. 34% respondents also agreed with the assertion. However.18.27% of the respondents was not in support of the position. The implication here is that since about 74.4% of the respondents interviewed are in support of the favorable impact of relationship marketing on the performance of insurance, it means that relationship marketing has been a great assistance to the insurance and highly relevant to their growth in terms of customer base and continuing existence. The result of Z-test at 5 percent level of significance with 4 degree of freedom is 0.798 while the critical value is 0.15. We therefore, reject the null hypothesis which specified that there is unfavorable impact of relationship marketing on the performance of insurance companies. This indicates performance in the insurance industry is partially dependent on good insurance-customer relationship, and relationship management. 5 Conclusion From the research conducted, it has been observed that relationship marketing has a place in the insurance industry especially in the area of customer satisfaction and retention. This will indirectly impact the performance of the organisation and increase the financial bottom line. Relationship marketing is a concept that has been given international prominence, and forward looking organizations are at one stage or the other implementing several variants of the model with success. There is nothing bad in insurance companies adopting the other variants of marketing like selling, marketing, product and production philosophies, but to really grow their customer base and make good profit they should also adopt the relationship marketing philosophy. It is also observed that there is always a feedback mechanism been used by customers to express their satisfaction or otherwise of the insurance services delivery, the insurance organisation must explore this mechanism through their research and development department. 6 Recommendation Considering some of the problems that confronted the Nigerian insurance prior to the conscious introduction of relationship management, the financial service industry should place adequate attention on reducing customers waiting time during claims... Robust frameworks for developing and nurturing

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new relationship should be designed with a view to reaching their customer. Furthermore, the current reengineering efforts in the financial industry should be sustained and extended to cover all the critical strategic branches of the insurance to ensure global alignment of their services. The result of the Zscore test shows that relationship marketing has positive impact on the performance of insurance. There is therefore the need for insurance to leverage on their strengths in entering into strategic alliances, with a view to improving on performance. It is also observed that there is always a feedback mechanism been used by customers to express their satisfaction or otherwise of the insurance services delivery, the insurance organisation must explore this mechanism through their research and development department. References
Achumba, I, (2000), Strategic Marketing Management in 21st century. U.S.A.: Mac Williams and Capital Publishers Inc. Asika, N. (1991) Research Methodology in the Behavioral Sciences. Nigeria: Longman Publishers Ltd Duff, H.L. (1998), Service Marketing. Englewood cliffs: Prentice-Hall. Garbarins, G. T ant Johnson, S. (1999). Marketing Strategy and Competitive Environment as Determinant of Business performance(online).Available at Http://www.sbaer.ucca.edu. Gordon, O.O. (1985) Relationship Marketing: Perspective on service Marketing. Journal of Marketing Research, Vol.10 No. 16 Pp. 62-70 Greysken, P. (2000): Valuing marketings contribution. European Management Journal, 18 (3), 233-45. Gronroos, C. (1996), Relationship Marketing: Theory and Practice. Florida: Dryden Press. Pp326-333 Harker, M.J. (1999), The Marketing book Bhi Chester John Willey and son Ltd Kotler, P. (2000) Marketing Management: Planning analysis Implementation, and control. New Delhi: Prentice-Hall of India Private Ltd Kotler, P. (2003), Marketing Management. Singapore, Pearson Education Plc Ltd. Levitt, T. (1997), After the sale is over. Harvard business Review, Vol.2 Pp. 87-93. Li, G. et al. (1997), the capabilities of market-driven organizations. Journal of Marketing. 58 (Octomber).Pp 37-52 Morgan, R. and OThunt, j. (1994). Marketing concept and consumer orientation. European journal of marketing, 20 (10), 18-23 Nagasimha, K. (2005), Role of Relationship marketing in competitive strategy. Journal of marketing research 6(2), 1-27 Roa, S. and perry, C. (2002). Thinking about Relationship Marketing. Where are we now journal of relationship marketing. Vol.17 No.7Pp. 598-614 Seebohm, W.J. (1971), Fundamental of marketing. New York: McGrew Hill Company Sheth, C.W. and C.L. Pravatiya (1991), Building customer Relationship and inventory of service producer objective and pratice. Journal of relationship marketing, New York Vol. 19, No.6, Pp. 385-399 Webster, J.O. (2002): Relationship Marketing: A paradigin shift. Journal of marketing research Vol. 1 no 12. Pp 9-99 Wrigth, O. (1996), The changing Dynamics of bank/customer Relationship: Management the confidence crisis. Lagos: FBN Monthly and Economic Report.

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Differences Between Self-Perceived Multiple Intelligences of Urban & Rural Schools Students
Gulap Shahzada* (Principal & Corresponding author) Dr. Safdar Rehman Ghazi* Dr. Riasat Ali* Dr.Umar Ali Khan* Abdullah Khan*
*University of Science and Technology, Bannu, (KPk) Pakistan Tel: +92-0928-621101, E-mail: Gulap_786@yahoo.com
Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between self-perceived multiple intelligences of urban and rural schools students. Measurement of central tendency, mean score, SD for the measurement of selfperceived multiple intelligences and one samplet test was used for mean comparison of urban and rural schools students. Result showed that there is a significant difference between self-perceived verbal/linguistic, logical/mathematical, visual/ spatial and intrapersonal intelligence of urban and rural students and there is no significant difference between self-perceived, musical, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal and naturalistic intelligence of urban and rural students. Keywords: Self-perceived intelligence; multiple intelligences; Urban; Rural;

1. Introduction Intelligence is a fundamental factor and its non presence is very alarming for practical life. Gardner (1983) presented a novel idea of intelligence and speedily it has been applied in school curriculum. Gardner extended the idea of intelligence and took account of areas as special relations, interpersonal knowledge and music besides mathematical and linguistic ability. Intelligence is the ability to tackle problems successfully or to approach to products that are acceptable and esteemed in one or more cultures (Gardner and Hatch, 1989). Undertaking genetic and social research, he formed a list of eight intelligences. This novel idea regarding intelligence is very much different from the conventional concept, which normally considers just two intelligences, linguistics and mathematical. Mans cognitive competence refers to his/her abilities or mental skills often they are termed as intelligences although all mentally sound people have these skills, yet they are not of equal degree in all humans. These proportions vary from person to person (Walters and Gardner, 1999). All human beings do not receive the same intelligence and the distribution is not the same. As health and wealth is distributed exactly according to the same pattern and law, intelligence is distributed among different people. It is a normal distribution which is controlled and done by a specific principle which shows that the majority of people fall in the category of the average intelligent, some in the category of most intelligent and some people fall in the category of very tedious. Many researchers have examined whether a particular caste, race or group of particular society or culture is better in term of intelligence. It has been a burning issue in America since long. The results of earlier researches which consider the whites to be a superior race by intelligence compare to

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the Negroes have been challenged. It has now been accepted that intelligence is not the inheritance of a particular group or race. There can be bright and dull in any race and caste. Cultural group and the environmental factors and influences make the differences in intelligence among different people of the societies (Chauhan, 1991). 2. Theory of Multiple Intelligences Gardner proposed, in his theory of Multiple Intelligences, eight types of intelligences: linguistic, logical/mathematical, visual/spatial, musical, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal and natural intelligence. Gardner proposed eight types of intelligence. He further says that there is a chance of presence of more intelligence which needs to be explored. 2.1 Verbal/Linguistic Intelligence Verbal/linguistics intelligence demands susceptibility to spoken as well as written languages, the potential and capability to use language theory to achieve particular goals. (Gardner, 1999:37). It is the effective use of language (Christion and Kennedy, 1999). This is concerned with written and spoken expression. It is the manipulation of language and communication of words skillfully (Mbuva, 2003). A person having sound verbal/linguistics intelligence background not only listens to but also responds carefully to sounds, rhythm, colour and variety of the spoken words. Similarly, he/she acquires and learns through the practice of listening, reading, writing and discussing. Likewise, his or her listening is strong as he or she understands through, expresses the meaning in a better way, elucidates and can recall what he or she has listened to; more over he/she studies and speaks clearly, explains, explicates or clarifies and brings to mind what he or she/has read, and last but not the least, he or she shows the potential to become proficient in other languages and uses the skills of listening, speaking, writing and reading and thus to convey and explain in order to convince others.(Laughlin, 1999). This kind of intelligence is exhibited by people such as poets, lawyers and authors, writers, speakers. These people are capable of using written as well as spoken words in the most appropriate manners. The world most famous English critic and poet of 20th Century Thomas Eliot is one of the most beautiful examples of Gardner linguistic intelligence. 2.2 Logical/Mathematical Intelligence It requires reasoning whether deductively or inductively. It also uses and identifies intellectual patterns and links. It is relevant to those who enquire into different issues and try to reach at scientific conclusion (Gardner, 1999:42). It is the capability to create sequence in solving a problem to make scientific analysis of a problem, recognize patterns and to use numbers and do mathematical operations easily and to deal with different phenomenon successfully. The person, endowed with high degree of Logical/mathematical intelligence shows expertise while solving logical problems. Similarly, he is fond of complex operations i.e. computer programming and research methods. Even his anticipation and points of view are based on mathematics. Moreover, his interest lies in different professions such as computer technology, law, engineering and chemistry (Laughlin, 1999). Different kinds of people show a high-level of this kind of intelligence. For example, scientists, mathematians, philosophers, logician, computer programmer, accountants. Apart from this, there are

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many instances of such people throughout the ages who showed this kind of logical or mathematical intelligence for example, Abu bakkar siddiq, Socrates, Aristotle, and Einstein. 2.3 Visual/Spatial intelligence It is the potential to produce visual spatial representation of the world and move that representation either mentally or concretely. It promotes the capability to identify and operates the shape of wide space as well as the shape wide none restricted ones (Gardner, 1999: 43). It involves manipulating objects mentally in order to deal with and solve problems successfully. A person who possesses a high degree of visual/spatial intelligence acquires skills through observation, identifies different objects, shapes, colours, scenes and other necessary details and for this purpose he makes use of visual images in calling to mind those information. He also produces solid or visual representation of information. Moreover demonstrates liking for becoming artist, photographer, engineer, architect and designer (Laughlin, 1999). Steersmen, pilots, sculptors, sailors, engineers, painters, and the people concerned with drawing, designing and sailing show a high degree of this kind of intelligence. 2.4 Musical/Rhythmic intelligence It involves the potential to perform, compose or appreciate the pattern of music (Gardner, 1999: 42). It also incorporates or covers susceptibility to pitch of sound or rhythm of sound. In addition, it is also responsive to emotional suggestions to these elements. Any person, blessed with visual/spatial intelligence generally listens to different sounds and gives positive response (White, 1995: 181). He likes and tries to find out favorable time to listen to music or sounds of the environment, replies to music by dancing, collects information regarding music and tries to enhance the ability of singing and play the musical instruments. He often likes to play with sounds, he can also conclude musical phrases in a song and he or she may have a great intention for career such as singer, instrumentalist or sound engineer (Laughlin, 1999). Usually composers, instrumentalists, vocalists and bird singing lovers possess a high level of this intelligence. 2.5 Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence It is the potential to use different organs of the body adroitly to convey ideas and feelings. It is the capability to use different types of equipments, objects and apparatuses competently. Examples of this type of intelligence are body acting, carving, sports, drawing, calligraphy, dancing, medical operations, and scientific laboratory skills. Marta Graham, the outstanding American dancer, choreographer and teacher is one of the highest achievers in the bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence (Gardner, 2001). People with high Bodily/kinesthetic intelligence discover environment through touch and movement, learn well by direct participation and remember what was done rather than what was said, enjoy learning through activities and practical experiences, remains sensitive to physical gestures, exhibits interest in athletics, dancing, acting etc. Pilot, sculptors, sailors, engineers, painters, athletes, dancers, surgeons, builders show high degree of this type of intelligence (Laughlin, 1999).

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2.6 Interpersonal Intelligence It indicates a persons magnitude of understanding other people such as their wishes desires etc. and as a result works efficiently and diligently with other people (Gardner, 1999:43). It is the potential to know ideas, intentions, feeling and motivation of other people and to channelize and use them properly. It is the ability to understand the importance and establishing interrelationship with people. Any individual who is endowed with interpersonal intelligence forms social links and makes use of different ways to communicate to others, discerns and recognizes the feelings, thoughts and behaviors of others, it has an impact on opinions and actions of others, comprehends and imparts effectively, modifies behavior according to different situations, conditions or groups, conveys and shows enthusiasm in socially oriented careers such as politics, administration, guidance, social work and teaching, (Laughlin, 1999). Psychologists, political leaders, teachers and religious leaders show higher degree of this kind of intelligence. Hazrat Muhammad (S.A.W) is the best example of this type of intelligence. 2.7 Intrapersonal Intelligence It demands the ability to comprehend ones own wishes, fears and abilities. Furthermore, it also refines the use of that information which is helpful in supervising or managing ones own life (Gardner, 1999:43). It includes the understanding of own thoughts, imagination, interests, strengths, weaknesses and innermost feelings. People who are intrapersonally intelligent opt for self actualization. Anyone who possesses intrapersonal intelligence is well informed about his limits of actions and finds approaches to give vent to his pent-up feelings, he is very careful about the provocative questions of life such as significance, relation and motive, strives to find out and to comprehend inner experiences of life, gets intuition and perception about the intricacies of self and the conditions of life, attempts for self-actualization (Laughlin, 1999). 2.8 Naturalistic Intelligence According to Gardner (1999), Naturalistic Intelligence is the ability to recognize different things according to their prominent common characteristics and attributes among them. This capability is decisively concerned to the creation of meaningful classification of both living and non-living things. Therefore, categorization tasks of this type would appear to be of highest importance and measure of the naturalistic intelligence. A person with high naturalistic intelligence, Gardner (1999) asserts will be able to recognize and classify objects both living and non living things, skilled in distinguishing among members of species or classes; recognizing the existence of other alike species; and establishing the bonds, among several species, classes or groups. Gardner says that hunters, gardeners, and farmers would show a high degree of this type of intelligence as would artists, and social scientists, who are also skillful in pattern-recognition. He describes that a marketing professional who promotes the small differences between competing products, is applying naturalistic intelligence. Howard Gardner challenged the general concept of intelligence saying that the meaning given to intelligence by our culture is very limited; he suggested in his book the presence of seven fundamental intelligences. In recent times, he has explored the eighth one also, and

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spoke about the existence of the ninth (Gardner, 1999). Gardner, in his theory of multiple intelligences (MI theory), has widened the compass of a persons intelligence beyond the limits of the IQ score. He challenged the validity of ascertaining mans intelligence and said that it is incorrect and unnatural when someone is taken out of his usual and normal learning environment and asked to solve some problems or write answers of some questions sitting lonely which he had never performed such type of task before nor he would like to perform again such tasks. Gardner claimed that intelligence is more the ability to deal with problems successfully and producing products which are of high importance and value in one or many cultures. Gardner came up with the theory for the mind which asserts that, people are different from one another in their intellectual and cognitive abilities, which proves that they have diverse types of intelligences. For instance, an individual can have low musical intelligence but outstanding linguistics intelligence (Eid and Alizh, 2004) and (Sheaere, 2004). It shows that an individual may have all the multiple intelligences or some of them with varying degrees. For example if a student participation is below than average in classroom activities, we cannot label him unintelligent on the basis of his less participation in the classroom. The student may have other intelligences that make possible to surpass people and to be more creative in other areas. The Multiple Intelligence Theory emerged as a revolt against the classical outlook of human intelligence. This novel theory appeared simultaneously when other theories were gaining grounds to expound human intellectual capabilities. It is of the highest significance that we take into consideration and take care of all the diverse human intelligences, and all of the set of intelligences. Human beings are different from one another because they have different set of intelligences and its familiarity will help us tackling the problems (Howard Gardner 1987). Human intelligence Gardner (1983) asserted that only IQ is not human intelligence but it is more than IQ. It contains many distinct capabilities. (Compbell, 2000). Gardner (1983) asserted that there are two, biological and cultural, bases for the multiple intelligences. Neurobiological study reveals that learning is the result of the changes in the synaptic interrelationship among different cells. Main elements of various types of learning are found in specific areas of the brain. Thus various types of learning results in connections between nerve cells and in different areas of the brain. For instance, damage to the Broca's area of the brain will affect a persons ability to talk verbally using appropriate syntax. However, the damage to the brain will not take away the persons understanding of correct grammar and vocabulary. Besides biological structure, Gardner (1983) claims that culture influences a persons development of the intelligences. Different societies give importance to different types of intelligences. The culture provides opportunities to certain abilities to nourish and develop and people become skillful in those areas. Therefore, specific intelligences may be greatly developed in many people of one culture; the same intelligences may not be nourished in the persons of another culture. 3. Role of Environment in Intelligence The unfavorable effects of environmental deprivation and positive favourable affects of environmental enrichment upon the children's cognitive development have been noted in many studies. In a study, Gottfried (1984) concluded that if the children are subjected to certain forms of environmental discouragement earlier in life, their intellectual development gets adversely affected. Similar conclusions were drawn in another study conducted by Sherman and Key (1932) in a poor remote hilly area of U.S.A

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to the effect that lack of language training and schooling accounted for the very poor scores of the children in the standardized intelligence tests. However, when the children were provided with favourable environmental situations in the form of appropriate adopted homes such as better schooling and learning experiences etc., the results were better and encouraging in terms of intellectual development. A well known adoptation study (Schiff et al., 1978) conducted in France is a good example. The researcher has compared in this study the IQ scores of the children who were adopted by parents belonging to higher socio-economic class with those of their siblings who were not adopted. The average score of the adopted children was 111 in comparison to the average score of 95 of their siblings reared by their true parents. The privileged environment may thus be said to be responsible for raising the average lQ score by 16 points. Family environment like education of the parents, economic and social status of the family, nutrition, physical and social surroundings of the home etc. are also found to add significantly to the intellectual growth of the children. Geneticists and environmentalists, to support their respective viewpoints, have put enough experimental evidence forward. According to Chauhan (1991), Pasricha has made a very exciting observation in respect of these experiments. She says that, "It is quite customary for the psychologists wedded to either side namely genetics and environment, to carry out experiments and refer to findings in favour of either of the factors". It has also been found that the results of these experiments can be interpreted either way and can be easily made to support the opposite view. When analyzed in an objective way, it indicated clearly that the two are so closely interwoven that it is impossible to separate the cause of one from that of the other. It is difficult to perform real experiments for the study of the impact of pure heredity or environment on the growth and development of intelligence. 4. Statement of the Problem The problem understudy was to find out the difference between self- perceived multiple intelligences (verbal/linguistic, logical/mathematical, visual/spatial, musical, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, natural) of urban and rural schools students. 5. Objectives of the Study 1. To investigate the differences between self-perceived multiple intelligences of urban and rural schools students. 2. To give recommendations and suggestions in the light of the findings of the study. 6. Research Question 1. Is there any difference between self-perceived multiple intelligences of urban and rural schools students.

7. Research Methodology Review of relevant literature revealed that numerous studies have been conducted in order to explore the relationship of academic achievement with different variables. No specific study was found regarding

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the difference of multiple intelligences of urban and rural schools students in Pakistan. Therefore researcher was keenly interested to conduct study on this topic. The following research methodology was adopted. 8. Population Students enrolled in 1st year, in all government higher secondary schools, session 2010, in district Bannu constituted population of the study. 9. Sample Seven government higher secondary schools four from urban and three from rural were randomly selected through basket random techniques. Keeping in view the strength of the students in sample schools using convenient sample method 382 students from urban and 332 students from rural altogether 714 were selected as total sample of the study. 10. Instrumentation Some psychologists have developed different scales for the measurement of multiple intelligences. Multiple intelligence inventory based on Howard Gardner multiple intelligences theory, developed by Armstrong (1994) was used to measure students perceived multiple intelligences. This inventory contains 40 items five statement for measuring each intelligence. This inventory was translated in Urdu with the help of English and Urdu expert in order to make it easier and understandable to the students in local environment. For the validity and reliability and to remove language ambiguity the multiple intelligence inventory was personally distributed among 50 subjects as a pilot run. The subjects were part of the population but were not included in the selected sample of the study. Data was analyzed through SPSS16. The reliability of forty items at Cronbachs alpha obtained was .784 which is quite reasonable. 11. Data Analysis The collected data was entered in SPSS-16 and was analyzed using appropriate statistical tests. The central tendency and variability of the multiple intelligences of the sampled students was measured using Mean and SD respectively. Independent Samples t- test was used to compare the mean scores of multiple intelligences of the urban and rural schools students

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Mean comparison of Self- perceived multiple intelligences of urban and rural schools students. (Urban students= 382 Rural students=332) Intelligence Verbal/Linguistic Logical/Mathematical Visual/spatial Musical Bodily/kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalistic Variable Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural Urban Rural M 3.36 3.10 3.11 2.94 3.22 3.04 2.12 2.05 3.61 3.60 3.43 3.35 3.46 3.34 3.27 3.24 SD .72 .71 .86 .88 .67 .71 .76 .71 .71 .72 .68 .69 .62 .60 .67 .70 .57 .56 2.74 .00 1.67 .09 .12 .89 1.27 .20 3.47 .00 2.58 .01 t 4.86 p .00

12. Findings of the Study Mean scores and SD of the self-perceived verbal/linguistic intelligence of the urban and rural students M=3.36, M=3.10 and SD=.72, SD= 71 respectively with P value .00 which is less than 0.01 level of significance which means that there is significant difference between the urban and rural students selfperceived verbal/linguistic intelligence in favour of urban students. Mean score of the self-perceive logical/mathematical intelligence of the urban and rural schools students M= 3.11, M= 2.94, and SD=.86, SD= .88 respectively with the P value 0.01 which is equal to 0.01 which means that there is a significant difference between the urban and rural student selfperceived logical/mathematical intelligence in favour of urban students. Mean scores of the self-perceived visual/spatial intelligence of the urban and rural students M= 3.22, M= 3.04 and SD=.67, SD= .71 with the P value .00 which is less than 0.01 which means that there is significant difference between the urban and rural students self-perceived visual/spatial intelligence in favour of urban students. Mean scores of the self-perceived musical intelligence of the urban and rural students M= 2.12, M= 2.05, and SD=.76, SD= .71 respectively with the P value .20 which is greater than 0.01 which means that there is no significant difference between the urban and rural students self-perceived musical intelligence.

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Mean scores of the self-perceived bodily/kinesthetic intelligence of the urban and rural students M= 3.61 and M= 3.60, SD=.71, SD=.72 respectively with the P value .89 which is greater than 0.01 which means that there is no significant difference between the urban and rural students bodily/kinesthetic intelligence. Mean scores of the self-perceived interpersonal intelligence of the urban and rural students M= 3.43, M= 3.35 and SD=.68, SD= .69 respectively with the P value .09 which is greater than 0.01 which means that there is no significant difference between the urban and rural students self-perceived interpersonal intelligence. Mean scores of the self-perceived intrapersonal intelligence of the urban rural students M=3.46, M= 3.34, SD=.68, SD=.69 respectively with the P value .00 which is less than 0.01 which means that there is a significant difference between the urban and rural students self-perceived intrapersonal intelligence in favour of urban students. Mean scores of the self-perceived naturalistic intelligence of the urban and rural students M=3.27, M= 3.24, and SD=.67, SD= .70 respectively with the P value .56 which is greater than 0.01 which means that there is no significant difference between the urban and rural students self-perceived naturalistic intelligence. 13. Conclusions Urban schools students rated themselves higher than the rural schools students in term of verbal/linguistic, logical/mathematical, visual/ spatial and intrapersonal intelligence. Urban and rural students rated themselves equal in term of visual/spatial, interpersonal, musical, bodily/kinesthetic and naturalistic intelligence. 14. Recommendations 1 2 3 4 5 Students should be trained in a way where they may have equal chance for the development of every intelligence. Teacher should plan in a way which can involve as many of the intelligences as possible because every intelligence contributes to the students personality and achievements. Teacher should create strategies to help students gain the knowledge of lesson using many different ways of knowing. Studentscentered approach should be used in teaching because it allows students actively use their varied forms of intelligence. All types of intelligences should be equally celebrated. No intelligence should be ignored because some individuals can do wonders in the field of specific intelligences. References
(Gardner, 1999:37a). Gardner, H. (1999:34): Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York, Basic Books. Gardner, H. (1999:44b). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York: Basic Books Gardner, H. (1999:34c): Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York, Basic Books. Armstrong, T. (1994). Multiple intelligences in the classr oom. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

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Campbell, L. M. (2000): The unspoken dialogue: Beliefs about intelligence, students, and instruction held by a sample of teachers familiar with the theory of multiple intelligences. Ph.D, The Fielding Institute. UMI Dissertations. Retrieved March, 15, 2001, from http://wwwlib.umi.com/dissertations/preview_all/998044 Chauhan, S. S. (1991). Advanced Educational Psychology. Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., U.P., India. p. 221-259. Christison and Kennedy (1999). Multiple Intelligences: Theory and Practice in Adult ESL. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED441350). Eid, and Alizh, Nrmen (2004). Applying The Multiple Intelligence Theory in Teacher Training Programs, Resalt Almulm, (2nd and 3rd) editions, and vol. (42). Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Basic Books Inc, New York. USA. p. 84. Gardner, H. (2001). Creators: Multiple Intelligences. In The Origins of Creativity by K.H. Pfenninger and V.R. Shubik (Editors). Oxford University Press: NY, Gottfried, A. W. (1984). (ed.), Home Environment and Early Cognitive Development, Academic, San Francisco. USA. p. 37. Laughlin, J. (1999): Multiple intelligences. In: Inquiry.4 (2). Virginia community college system. Retrieved, January, 1, 2003from http://www.vccaedu.org/inquiry/inquiry-fall99/i-42-laughlin.html Schiff, M., M. Duyme, A. Dumaret, J. Steward, Tomkiewiezes and Feingold (1978). Intellectual status of working class children adopted early into upper middle class families, Science. 20(5): 1503-1504. Shearer, (2004). Multiple Intelligences Theory after 20 Years. Teachers College Record, 106 (1), 2 16. Sherman, M. and C. B. Key. 1932. The Intelligence of isolated mountain children, Child Development. 3(4): 2 7 9 290. White (1995): Multiple intelligences theory: Creating the thoughtful classroom. In: Fogarty, R.; Bellanca, J.; Hauker, M., (Eds). Multiple intelligences: A collection. Hauker Brownlow Education.

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How Does Exam Anxiety Affect the Performance of University Students?


Anisa Trifoni * Miranda Shahini *
* University Aleksandr Moisiu Durres E-mail: anisatrifoni@yahoo.it; mirashahini@yahoo.com
Abstract The work of assessing students learning is complex. In order to assess their work objectively, teachers and instructors use various methods and instruments, one of which is testing. We are aware that nowadays testing has become an inherent part of the society we live in. Consequently, many important decisions are based on test results. So, it is not surprising that anxiety during tests has become a prominent problem in schools all over the world. The present study focuses primarily on test anxiety and its impact on learning, as well as its causes and effects on students. A test anxiety scale followed by a set of questions was completed by a sample group of undergraduate students of Aleksandr Moisiu University. The results indicated that a considerable number of students were affected, at least at some degree, by test anxiety. From this perspective, the following questions are raised: What causes test anxiety? and What can be done to alleviate this problem? The findings of this empirical study, the review of literature as well as students experiences provide useful suggestions concerning the ways of alleviating test anxiety. Keywords: testing, exam anxiety, students performance

1. Introduction Concerning the notion of assessment, also known as the control of knowledge, it has existed since the period of antiquity. Socrates used questionnaires with consecutive questions with the aim to encourage his students to think critically. The same phenomenon was noticed even in Rome around the V century BC. As a tradition, the control of knowledge in Europe consisted of oral questioning, a phenomenon which began in 1219 in the University of Bologna, where students had to answer verbally to questions made in Latin. Apart from the oral exams, starting from 1792, in Europe were introduced the first written exams with a starting point in the University of Cambridge in England. As we see, exams, especially verbal ones, are used for centuries originally in Europe and later on in America. This indicates that the assessment of students work was and remains a crucial point in teaching. The work of assessing and judging students learning is not easy. In order to come out with an objective assessment of their work, teachers and instructors use numerous methods and instruments, one of which is testing. We are conscious that nowadays testing has become an inherent part of our society. It has become more extensive not only in education but in every sphere of life and many important decisions are specifically based on test results. This view is also supported by Spielberger and Vag (1995), two experts in the field of test anxiety. These researchers point out that achievement test scores, as well as academic performance, are increasingly used in evaluating applicants for jobs and admissions into educational programs. Consequently, examination stress and test anxiety have become pervasive problems in modern society. (p.xiii). This view was held earlier by another well known researcher in the field of test anxiety, Sarason (1959), who commented: We live in a test- conscious, test -giving culture in which the lives of people are in part determined by their test performance. At this point, it is important to emphasize that even though tests are highly valid and

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reliable, one cannot be sure whether the results truly reflect students understanding or their actual true abilities. An important factor that should be taken under consideration is test anxiety. As Cizek and Burg (2006) emphasize, here lies a popular misunderstanding about test anxiety. Test anxiety is not the normal nervousness we experience in testing situation. That feeling of nervousness is the perfectly normal response that nearly everyone experiences when faced with any challenging task. The present study focuses specifically on test anxiety and its impact on students performance and learning. 2. Research Literature Anxiety is a phenomenon that people frequently encounter in their daily life. Anxiety can be described as the tense, unsettling anticipation of a threatening but vague event; a feeling of uneasy suspense (Rachman, 2004). As a result of the nature of anxiety, researchers have provided a classification of this phenomenon into different sub-categories (e.g., language anxiety, speech anxiety, social anxiety,). As was mentioned above, we will concentrate on one of these categories, namely, test anxiety. Test anxiety as a phenomenon has received considerable attention since 1950s. It is considered to be a common educational problem, referring to a situation when students do not feel confident about their abilities, which is reflected especially in their performance and tests results. This view is also supported by a study conducted by Spielberger (1962) with college students, which revealed that while only 8 out of 138 low-anxiety students dropped out of college because of academic failure, twenty six out of 129 high anxious students left for the same reason. According to Zeidner (1998) test anxiety is a set of phenomenological, physiological and behavioral responses that accompany concern about possible negative consequences or failure on an exam or similar evaluative situation. As we see from Zeidners statement, test anxiety is strongly related to failure consequences. This connection can be noticed even in (Sarason and Sarason, 1990) who state that when not in an evaluational situation, or anticipating one, the highly test anxious individual may not worry about possibilities of failure, embarrassment and social rejection. But in evaluational situations these possibilities become active. We should also emphasize the fact that students who suffer from test anxiety do not necessarily lack in intellect or drive. Test anxiety and other deficits related to test anxiety, interfere with academic performance (Everson & Millsap, 1991). In order to understand in what way test anxiety affects students performance it is necessary to take under consideration the study of Liebert & Morris (1967). These researchers analyzed the responses of students to Sarason and Mandlers Questionnaire (TAQ: Sarason & Mandler, 1952). The results indicated that test anxiety consisted of two major components. The first component was emotionality which was related to the physical reactions to test situations, such as nervousness, sweating, constantly looking at the clock, pencil-taping and so on. The second factor was worry, which comprises the psychological or cognitive aspect of test anxiety. Worry relates primarily to cognitive concern(s) about the consequences of failure Liebert &Morris (1967). This is not surprising since a students test anxiety is something that cannot be perceived by a teacher or instructor. What is more, students actual levels of test anxiety cannot be directly measured or examined. The only thing that could be observed is the students manifestation of test anxiety in the form of emotionality responses mentioned earlier. Morris and Liebert study (1970) found that the factor of worry had a stronger negative relationship with performance outcomes than emotionality, in a group of high school students. This suggests that it is the cognitions or thoughts about the evaluative situation that will have the greatest impact upon performance under such conditions.

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A lot of research has been conducted in order to identify in what way test anxiety affects performance, considering the fact that this phenomenon has a variety of sources. According to one review of the research on test anxiety different possibilities have been examined. For example, some studies have identified the root of test anxiety as lying in students poor preparation. Those studies suggest that some students ineffectively organize or process information and they perform poorly on tests because of this. Naveh-Benjamin et al (1987) have found that when compared with less anxious students, highly test-anxious students have difficulties in organizing material to be learned. As several research studies have noted, highly test anxious students have less effective study habits compared to their low anxious counterparts (Culler and Holahan, 1980). This view is also supported by Hembree (1988), who suggests that a lack of effective study skills contributes to poor performance under evaluative conditions, which in turn leads to heightening feelings of anxiety when it comes to performing in subsequent examinations. Support of this research emerged from treatment studies that have concentrated on helping students to improve study skills. The results of these studies suggest that study skills can also help to reduce test anxiety and improve performance. At this point, it is important to mention Zeidners (1998) view of the problem. He is of the opinion that the state of test anxiety cannot be explained away by lack of work or exam performance, for conscientious and highly motivated students also suffer from its debilitating impact. He states that academic performance depends on the information processing routines that directly control learning and comprehension of classroom material, such as focused attention, working memory and long term memory retrieval, processes that may be biased by personality factors such as test anxiety. Other studies have identified the habitual, irrelevant, negative thoughts that some students have during a testing situation as a major cause of anxiety (Mealey & Host, 1992). According to Mealey & Host (1992), there are 3 main categories of test anxious students. They include students who: 1. Do not have adequate study and test-preparation strategies, realize that deficiency, know they are not well prepared for testing situations and are worried. 2. Have adequate strategies in their repertoire and use them but become distracted during tests. 3. Mistakenly believe they have adequate strategies, do poorly on tests and anxiously wonder why. (p. 148) Sarason (1980) believes that learners capacity, task difficulty, the fear of getting bad grades and lack of preparation for a test are the other factors that make learners worried. Similarly, learners with high levels of anxiety have less control of attention. He also suggests that there is considerable evidence that the performance of highly test anxious individuals on complex tasks is deleteriously affected by evaluational stressors. The less complex the task, the weaker this effect is. Concerning task difficulty, Gaudry and Spielberger (1971) seem to share the same view. The results of their study showed that high-anxious subjects performed better than low-anxious subjects on simple tasks but performed more poorly than low-anxious subjects on complex tasks. This fact is supported by a study of Zeidner (1998) who found that test anxiety is more detrimental to demanding tasks. Literature on test anxiety shows that some of the factors that influence students reactions to tests are related to test validity, time limit, test techniques, test format, length, testing environment and clarity of test instructions (Young, 1999). Concerning the importance of test validity we can mention Youngs study (1991) which indicates that students experience anxiety if the test involves content that was not taught in class. Another factor that increases test anxiety and affects performance is time limit. According to Ohata (2005), learners sometimes felt pressured to think that they had to organize their ideas in a short period of time. Another factor that affects negatively students performance is the inappropriate test technique. Young (1991) found that students felt anxious when they had studied for hours for a test and then found in the test question types which they had no experience about. Last of

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all, Ohatas study (2005) revealed that most of the participants in the study admitted that they feared taking tests, because test-taking situations would make them fearful about the negative consequences of getting a bad grade. This result has been found in many studies. Furthermore, research indicates that anxiety affects performance negatively not only at school but at the university level as well. Paul and Eriksen (1964) tested the effect of anxiety by giving a group of first year girl students a traditional examination on their course. The students were aware that the marks of this test would count on their final grade. Immediately after the test they were asked to fill in a test anxiety questionnaire and were given a parallel form of the examination they had previously taken but this time it was emphasized that the marks would not be taken into count towards their grade. When the results were analyzed, it was found that highly anxious students did better on the non-stressful examination whereas low-anxiety students performed better in the traditional condition. Sometimes it is the type of test that leads to test anxiety. Some students become anxious during exams that require them to demonstrate their knowledge in ways in which they do not feel comfortable. For example, some students panic when they find they have to take essay tests. Others become anxious over oral exams. Different types of tests can make students anxious (Van Blerkomp, 2009). Researchers do not share the same opinion on when and how test anxiety interferes with test performance. It interferes either at test time or at study time. Wine (1980) believes that test anxious individuals divide their attention between task relevant activities and preoccupation with worry and self criticism. With less attention available for task-directed efforts their performance is depressed. Apart from these factors, we should mention Hembrees study (1988). He found that the conditions that give rise to differential test anxiety levels include ability, gender and school grade level. Other research has suggested a difference in anxiety responses between males and females (King et al., 2000); with females generally self-reporting higher levels of test anxiety symptoms than males. From this point of view, it would be important to consider the role of gender when interpreting the results from outcome measures of self reported test anxiety. The research on test anxiety in Albania seems to be limited. This is the main reason why we find it necessary to conduct a research with university students. Another reason is related to the fact that this phenomenon affects a considerable number of students and impairs their performance. Considering the fact that test anxiety is a complex and problematic area, it is necessary to determine the problems, and provide recommendations on the ways of reducing it, which would be helpful to both students and teachers. 3. Method 3.1 Subjects The study was conducted at the Faculty of Education, in Aleksandr Moisiu University, Durres. The subjects in the study consisted of 109 students of the following branches: Elementary Education, Experts in the Processes of Formation and English Language. Of the subjects, 38 (34.9 % ) were male and 71 (65.1% ) were female students, with a male-female ratio of 38:71. Their ages ranged from 18 to 26, with an average age of 22. The group consisted of 21 first (19.2% ), 31 (28.4% ) second, 33 (30.2% ) third and 24 (22.1% ) fourth year students. 3.2. Instruments The instrument used to collect descriptive data was a questionnaire that consisted of three parts. The

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first part was intended to collect personal information of the participants, such as their age, gender, and year at university. The second part was a test anxiety scale adapted from Sarasons (1980) Test Anxiety Scale. The third consisted of an open question survey. The test anxiety scale aimed to measure the degree of test anxiety manifested by the subjects. Lastly, to investigate into participants attributions of the causes and effects of test anxiety, three open-ended questions were designed, which read as follows: - In your opinion what causes anxiety during exams? - What is the effect of test anxiety on students? - What can be done to alleviate somehow this phenomenon? The questionnaire was administered to the subjects one week before their final exams. 4. Data Analysis

In order to assess the degree of test anxiety experienced by students, descriptive statistics were used. The results indicate that the participants are affected at least at some degree by test anxiety. In the first graph, the results of the questionaire administered to all of the subjects, are expressed in percentage (% ).

Graph nr.1 As we can see, the analysis of the data indicates that most of the students worry during test taking (2), but especially when they are supposed to take a surprise exam (5). In addition, they do not feel confident and calm before tests (3), whereas after tests the students assume that they could have done better (9). They also admit that they feel anxious before final exams (10). According to the students, emotions affect their performance negatively (11) and sometimes cause to forget what they have learned. During the test, they usually feel pressured by time limits (18) and sometimes believe they will fail. Cizek and Burg (2006) explain their belief in this way: Because tests frequently result in the assignment or a of a grade or score- that is in an evaluation - test anxiety is experienced in testing situations by persons who feel threatened by evaluation. That threat is more likely to be aroused when a test taker perceives that the evaluation of his or her performance is likely to be low. That perception arises because the student believes that his or her knowledge, skill or ability is inadequate to perform successfully on the test. Interestingly, because whatever level of anxiety is aroused in a student often depresses his/her test performance, the test takers perception of the threat of evaluation turn out to be accurate, to a degree. That is anxiety causes a poor evaluation, which confirms the students initial perceptions regarding the (un)likelihood of success which reinforces evaluation as a threatening event. 107

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The students also admit that grades influence both their study and their performance on exams (19), suggesting that good grades make them feel confident. However, the results show that the students feel anxious even when they have studied and are well- prepared for the exam (23). These were some of the aspects on which students expressed their concern. The second graph shows the the results of the questionaire for both male and female students expressed in percentage (% ).

Graph nr.2 As can be clearly noticed in the second graph, for various questions of the questionnaire, there is a certain difference in the answers of male and female subjects, which points out that test anxiety is also associated with the gender of the subjects. The findings are also supported by a study of Everson and Millsap (1991), which showed that females have higher levels of worry as well as higher levels of emotionality compared to males. The graph shows that at least five items are associated significantly with the gender of the subjects. First, female students feel more worried than the males when they know they will take a test (2). Second, the females feel less confident and relaxed than the males when they know they will take a test (3). Third, female students are more worried than male students when they have to study for an exam (13). Fourth, female students are more worried than male students even when they are well-prepared (23). Last, females find their hands trembling before an important examination (24), which reflects a higher level of emotionality compared to male students. Based on the answers compiled from the first question of the survey, it was found that lack of preparation for the tests and inefficient or inappropriate test preparation are some of the reasons that make learners anxious. Low self-confidence, fear of negative evaluation and previous test experiences concluded with failure also make the students feel anxious. Besides, time limitation and stress during test administration also cause anxiety, since many students admit that they are not sure if they can finish the test within the time given. In addition, insufficient or unclear orientation from the lecturers concerning the material that will be covered in the exam causes a considerable amount of anxiety. They also make complaints about inappropriate test techniques or the way the test is designed and the number of items included there. Students also admit that difficult course content and the large amount of information to be covered are other anxiety producing sources. Ultimately, the thought that students may forget what they have learned and as a result fail, makes them feel anxious. Concerning the second question of the survey, the results show that test anxiety mostly causes negative effects. The subjects admit that test anxiety causes difficulty in retrieving from memory the information they have learned and decreases their concentration during the test, as a result of which

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they make more errors. It also prevents students from displaying their real knowledge and abilities in the test and transferring their real performance to test results. In other words, it is an obstacle to efficient study and to an effective use of the knowledge already acquired. Furthermore, test anxiety causes physical problems. Students who have high level of test anxiety confess that they suffer from headache, insomnia, increasing heart pulse and stomach disorder, before and during test administration. They say that test anxiety causes psychological problems as well. Among them we can mention an increased level of nervousness, confusion, uncertainty, tension and negative emotions. The findings indicate that test anxiety makes students interested in tests and their results but not necessarily in the content of the course. Apart from these negative effects, it seems that test anxiety has a positive effect on the learners, since it is not a factor that causes them to study less. The answers to the question What can be done to alleviate somehow this phenomenon? show that the teacher is the one who should play the most important role in reducing test anxiety. The students think that teachers should motivate them and provide more specific orientation concerning the material that will be tested. In other words, subjects point out that the teachers should inform the students on the content of tests and number of the questions before the administration. They also suggest that the teachers should avoid negative comments during tests and should not frequently remind them of the time left. In addition students insist that teachers should give them enough time to complete the test. Another aspect in order to alleviate test anxiety is related to the students. They admit that studying systematically would make them less anxious during exams. According to them, the teachers should be aware of students anxiety and try to understand them. 5. Conclusion and Discussion

The findings of this study are as follows: First, the students are usually affected by test anxiety, before but especially during the administration of the test. Some of them report a high level of test anxiety. The results show that subject variables such as gender are correlated with some aspects of test anxiety: female learners feel more worried and anxious although they prepare more than males. Second, it results that some of the factors that cause test anxiety are related to lack of preparation for the tests and/ or inappropriate test preparation, fear of negative evaluation, bad experiences on previous tests, time limitation and pressure, the number of items included in the test and the difficulty of course content. Third, according to the survey, test anxiety gives rise to physical and psychological problems as well. It affects motivation, concentration and achievement negatively, increases errors during the exam, creates problems recalling the material previously learned and prevents efficient study. Fourth, it results that teachers attitudes are the key factors in reducing test anxiety. Test techniques, specific orientation before the test, information on the content and number of questions, time limitation and pressure are some significant problems about which teachers and instructors should think in order to reduce test anxiety, not to forget the systematic study, which is students responsibility. Based on the findings of the study, some recommendations can be presented: First, teachers should be aware of test validity and reflect content of the course to tests. Second, teachers should inform the students on content, test techniques, number of the items included in the test before the administration as Alcala (2002) suggests that teachers should familiarize students with the exam format, the type of rating system. Third, creating a low-stress environment allows students to concentrate on the test rather than being distracted by test anxiety.

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Fourth, teachers should be aware of students anxiety and should find ways to evaluate students without inducing high levels of anxiety, while still maintaining a positive, effective climate. Another way to decrease test anxiety in testing environment is to give learners the possibility to express their comments. For example, Smith & Rockett (1958) found that if students were asked to write comments on items during multiple choice test the high anxious students did better and the low-anxious worse but in the no comment condition the high anxious students did worse. 6. Limitations of the Study Concerning this aspect, we can say that some limitations can be noted. The study is limited to the students of only one institution, namely the Faculty of Education, in Aleksandr Moisiu University. Secondly, the study is limited to the subject variables such as: age, grade and achievement scores of the students. Lastly, background education is not a variable. As a conclusion, considering the study is limited to test anxiety of Aleksandr Moisiu University students, further research should focus on more analytic issues such as teacher attitudes on test anxiety and feedback before and after the exam. References
Alcala, F. R. (2002). Making oral tests more human and less anxiety generating. Humanising Language Teaching. 4 (4): 1 3. Culler, R. & Holahan.C. (1980). Test anxiety and academic performance: The effects of study-related behaviours Journal of Educational Psychology 72 16-20. Everson, H., & Millsap, R. (1991). Isolating gender differences in test anxiety: A confirmatory factor analysis of the Test Anxiety Inventory. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 51, 243-251. Gaudry, E., & Spielberger, C. (1971). Anxiety and educational achievement. New York: Wiley. Hembree, R. (1988). Correlates, causes, effects, and treatment of test anxiety. Review of Educational Research, 58, 47-77 Liebert, R., & Morris, L. (1967). Cognitive and emotional components of test anxiety: A distinction and some initial data. Psychological Reports, 20, 975-978. Mandler, G., & Sarason, S. B. (1952). A study of anxiety and learning. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 47, 166-173. Naveh-Benjamin. M & McKeachie,W, J & Lin, Y. (1987). Two types of test anxious students: Support for an Informationprocessing model. Journal O Educational Psychology, 79, 131-136 Ohata, K. (2005). Potential Sources of Anxiety for Japanese Learners of English: Preliminary Case Interviews with Five Japanese College Students in the U.S., TESL-EJ, Volume 9, Number 3, 1 21. Rachman, S. (2004). Anxiety (2nd ed). New York: Psychology Press Ltd Sarason, S. B., & Mandler, G. (1952). Some correlates of test anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 810-817. Sarason, I. G. (1984), Stress, anxiety, and cognitive interference: Reactions to Tests. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 929-938. Sarason, I. G., Sarason, B. R. & Pierce, G. R. (1990). Anxiety, cognitive interference, and performance. Journal of Social Behaviour and Personality. 5, 1-18 Spielberger, C. D., & Vagg, P. R. (1995). Test Anxiety: Theory, assessment, and treatment. Washington D. C.: Taylor & Francis. Young, D. J. (1999). Affect in foreign language and second language learning. Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill. Young, D.J. (1991). Creating a low-anxiety classroom environment: what does the language anxiety research suggest? Modern Language Journal, 75/4, 426-437. Zeidner, M. (1998). Test Anxiety: The State of the Art. New York: Plenum Press

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Female Testaments as Social Discourse: A Textual Analysis Under a Critical Discourse Analysis Approach
Mara Isabel Martnez Mira
Associate Professor of Spanish University of Mary Washington mmira@umw.edu
Abstract The following article is an analysis of 33 female wills (from 16t h-20th centuries) found in notarial protocols at the Murcia Regional Archives (Murcia, Spain). Using a Critical Discourse Analysis framework, with special emphasis of Pierre Bourdieus postulates, this article studies how women handle gender, cultural, and power relations, challenge social hierarchies and, at the same time, reproduce them in their attempt to look respectable/honorable, assert their power, redefine themselves and negotiate their public image. Keywords: female wills, social discourse, power relations, public image, creating face.

1. Introduction When attempting to write anything related to the history of women, it is not infrequent that some scholars experience a series of disruptions. Because of the development of specific demographic or socio-cultural, historical events, womens voices have not always been shown to the general public, recorded for future generations, and more importantly, they have not always been given the chance to make their voices heard in a Western society where, since time immemorial, the male authority has prevailed. As Zemon Davis and Farge (1993:1-2) claim, what men said and wrote about [women] did not capture the reality of womens presence. () Woman was not revealed but invented, defined by means of a learned gaze that inevitably robbed her of her substance. () It is not surprising that historians () long neglected the presence of women. Writing history in the masculine gender, they did not allow sexual differences to inflect their narrative. These views confirm one specific fact: throughout the years, almost anything written about women reflects what men think of women rather than womens universe from a womans perspective, and therefore women have seen how their chances to express their views have been significantly restricted, due mainly to male dominance and their negative characterization of women in several scenarios. During the Middle Ages, as specified by Casagrande (1992:77) in her discussion of how the Dominican Humbertus de Romanis and the layman Francesco of Barberino classified women in their respective works, for both writers, however complex a society they portrayed, the female half was identified according to a value-system and a hierarchy set up by the male half.1 This continued during the Renaissance, the Enlightment years,2 and with the 20th century struggles to achieve the equality of

Of course, there are differences in the appreciation and status of women, depending on which social group they belonged to 2 For example, Hufton (1993:15) quotes an excerpt from British essayist Richard Steele offering the following definition of a woman: A woman is a daughter, a sister, a wife and a mother, a mere appendage of the human race (The Tatler, no. 172).

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sexes. Throughout the years and in different countries, women have faced these male-dominated views and have been witnesses of how the latter limited their role in society, and yet, despite the limitations that society might have imposed upon them, women have kept trying to eliminate obstacles, develop their own perspective and eventually be heard. It is the researchers goal to find those voices and study what these women have to say, and with that aim in mind, the purpose of this article is to study and analyze the testaments written by women from the city of Murcia (Spain) from the 16th to the 20th centuries. More specifically, the idea is to use these testaments as a tool to reconstruct and identify female social discourse, how they used it to make themselves heard and, crucially, how they use language to negotiate and redefine social roles, gender, class and cultural practices and, eventually, power relations. It is for this reason that a critical discourse approach to the analysis of these documents (with special emphasis on Bourdieus views on the process behind social change and the maintenance of earlier experiences/traditions) seems to be the most appropriate framework. As specified by van Dijk (2001:352), critical discourse analysis (henceforth CDA) is a type of discourse analytical research that primarily studies the way social power abuse, dominance, and inequality are enacted, reproduced, and resisted by text and talk in the social and political context. If as specified by Fairclough and Wodak (1997: 271-80), discourse (1) addresses social problems, (2) constitutes society and culture, (3) does ideological work, (4) is historical, (5) is interpretative and explanatory, (6) is a form of social action, (7) addresses social problems, (8) functions as a mediator between society and text, and (9) power relations are discursive, this framework seems to provide the most accurate tools to do the type of analysis specified above. From all theoretical perspectives associated to CDA, Bourdieus views, in fact, provide an excellent background to the topics that will be discussed here. In his discussion of symbolic violence i.e. the subtle imposition of systems of meaning that legitimize and thus solidify structures of inequality, (Wacquant 1998:217), Bourdieu considers masculine domination the paradigm of symbolic violence, and it has been present from ancient to our contemporary times, as the following examples will show. For example, according to Roman law, women were considered to have weakness of mind (imbecilitas mentis), flightiness, and general infirmity (infirmitas sexus) (Thomas 1992:144). In King Alfonse X the Wises description of marital duties in the late Middle Ages in his Siete Partidas3 (more specifically, in number four), women are portrayed mainly as mothers, children caretakers, and wives, all within the closed context of their households.4 Alfonse X the Wise specifies rights and duties of both men and women towards each other when they marry, also adding that part of the mans job is to teach and correct her when she does/says something wrong, and whereas men can fulfill their duties, functions and roles in the outer space, women are confined within the house walls.5 In Spain, for example,

3 Seven-part Code.

course, this needs to be taken cautiously, since social and economic differences shaped the impact of these views among women (e.g. the discourse is different in testaments depending on which level of the social scale the woman belonged to; different social stratification conveys different types of discourse, although some commonalities can be found). An exception to this can be found in the case of abbesses, for example, who as part of their duties, held a type of power that regular women did not possess. Another example would be the case of female members of nobility who eventually managed to govern territories. 5 There are some exceptions to this. For example, in one of the documents from Peter I from Castile, which specifies the salaries for workers, there is a distinction between male and female workers, and the document makes reference to the fact that they work outside. Of course, nothing is said about what kind of worker a woman was considered to be, whether she actually went to work somewhere else or whether it was something she might do outside her household in her free time.

4 Of

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womens own decisions to acquire property, work, open bank accounts, etc., lacked legal value and had to be authorized by a male figure (this law was not changed until the May 2nd, 1975 law reform of the Spanish civil code). This particular view could be explained as a result of what Bourdieu defines as habitus, i.e. the (re)production of societal structures and practices that are perpetuated throughout time. As Wacquant explains (1998:220-1), these unconscious schemata are acquired through exposure to particular social conditions and conditionings [and are] shared by people subjected to similar experiences () these dispositions are malleable, but within the limits set by primary (or earlier) experiences. What is very interesting is the relationship between habitus and fields, the latter being arenas of struggle () a battlefield wherein the bases of identity and hierarchy are endlessly disputed over () these dispositions are malleable, but within the limits set by primary (or earlier) experiences. (Wacquant 1998:221). If male domination has been perpetuated as a habitus throughout the centuries, and we view testaments as fields and the venue through which women could potentially make their voiced heard, in spite of their fixed nature and structure, last wills are the perfect tool for women to question hierarchy, social status and power relations, given the fact that, despite the male domination, last wills were the only documents that women were able to write without a males permission, therefore, a chance to be distinct and position themselves in society. As a matter of fact, distinction and its relation to the study of cultural practices is one of the most crucial elements discussed by Bourdieu. According to him, any cultural practice takes its social meaning and ability to express social difference/distance from its location of similar objects and activities, i.e. how it relates to them. He defines the hierarchy of lifestyles as the misrecognized retranslation of the hierarchy of classes, i.e. how members of a particular group reposition themselves according to the crossing of what Bourdieu defines as economic and cultural capital through the negotiation of these two parameters. More specifically, the representations that individuals and groups inevitably engage in their practices [are] part and parcel of their social reality. A class is defined as much by its perceived being as by its being (Bourdieu 1979/1984:564; emphasis mine). We can now turn to the analysis of female wills, how these documents reflect these issues, how these women handled this situation, and what their discourse in these documents shows. The choice of female testaments as our object of study is not arbitrary. Testaments are documents with a very straightforward format and a content full of formulaic language, thus not the type of writing were one might expect any vindicating attitude. In fact, and as specified by Benadusi, male testators [] defined the boundaries of patrilineage and the order of gender hierarchies [] Research on testamentarial practices and other legal texts has clearly pointed to the legal and economic marginalization of women. The legal tradition in conjunction with familial practices excluded women from property rights and inheritance, while placing the responsibility for the preservation and the distribution of wealth on men.6 As a document that might inherently show how womens were constrained in their opportunities to inherit and bestow property, in Benadusis words, the study of the (hidden) content of the language gives as a unique chance to learn about womens fears, attitudes in life, views on society, class, family and gender relations. As a matter of fact, testaments were the one and only documents with legal validity that women were able to produce without a mans permission7. What women reveal in

it is crucial to study these documents and try to determine what women really do when they distribute their belongings. 7 However, as pointed out by Reid (2004:155) in his discussion of womens rights to make a will in Roman times, women were able to make a will but only with the consent of guardians who should not have a direct interest in the will. As he

6Therefore,

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their last wills is valuable information about how their lives were structured in terms of power, moral principles, attitudes towards the afterlife, and how all this shapes social behavior. After all, and as Salter (2007:118) claims, the use of testaments is particularly valuable when reconstructing the lives and attitudes of people who are otherwise lost to history. If there is a topic where this statement fully applies, it is in the study of women and their role in society throughout history. The insights that this analysis can provide to the study of female testaments are numerous. In a society where women were not valued beyond their role as mothers and caretakers, a society which diminished their legal value and presence and limited their performance outside the house walls, women get the chance to be in charge of drafting a document for which they do not need male authorization. With this in mind, our research will specifically focus on the following: (1) Using the relationship between habitus and field and focusing more on the procedure rather than in the implications for the class debate, how do these women negotiate social parameters and practices and represent themselves through the language they use? (2) Do they use language to depict their social roles and challenge them? (3) Based on their language use, and using the terms that Bourdieu chose to define class, are these women more interested in their being or in their perceived being? Specifically, are these last wills a tool to transmit wealth to future generations, reflect the habitus that surrounded them, or did these women have an agenda that shows in the drafting of the document? 2. Analysis of Wills The testaments selected for this presentation have been chosen with a diachronic perspective in mind, also trying to reflect different layers of the sociodemographic scale and seen as social discourse. Although constrained by the lack of specification and description of many of the documents analyzed (e.g. no references to any traditions, their social relations, and the deteriorated state of most of the documents), especially those pertaining to the 16th century, one thing seems to be clear: in the analysis of the thirty-three female testaments used for this article, we have been able to corroborate the same trends pointed out by Benadusi in her study of female servants testaments in Italy. As she specifies, female and male testators exhibited distinctive patterns in their legacies. Women spent more time than their male relatives distributing gifts and dictating itemized lists of their jewels, clothes, household objects, and other personal items. They bestowed their possessions on relatives as well as friends and on sons and brothers as well as daughters, daughters-in-law, and sisters. They rarely forgot to give something to their servants and made donations to charitable and religious institutions, chapels, and hospitals more often than their male kin did. (2004:181). This is indeed the case in almost every document, where the lists of churches or convents to which these women donate some money, together with the charities they support, seem to be endless sometimes. In a similar fashion, the itemized lists of clothing and household items and their beneficiaries are clearly stated, sometimes explaining the reason why that specific person was entitled to them. The other thing that seems very recurrent is that, regardless of the century, and conforming to Bordieus idea of habitus, not much progress seems to be made when it comes to womens cultural attainment throughout the years. In all documents consulted, only two women sign the testament themselves, with the rest either not mentioning this at all or actually specifying that a witness signed for

explains, women had to undergo a process known as capitis diminution in order to seek the protection of a guardian independent of her family [] who might look after her interests and approve the will. (2004:278)

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them since they were illiterate.8 In spite of this, the analysis of the language of these documents allows to uncover the way in which these women negotiated how they portrayed themselves to society, how they used their possessions and belongings to shape their relations to others and, in Bourdieus terms, establish power relations, distance themselves from others in order to exercise power and reproduce some of the power dynamics that, paradoxically, men exercised and used in womens detriment. As mentioned in previous paragraphs, women showed a preference to leave their possessions to the less favored. Their testimonies seem to portray a desire to produce an equitable distribution of what they had. If the woman had several children, everything was equally distributed among them,9 and if one of the children got more inheritance, the woman normally specifies that the reason behind it has to do with the fact that that particular son or daughter took care of her during a long illness, or (s)he allowed her to live with them when she was undergoing a difficult situation and had nowhere else to live. The beneficiaries are those related by blood to the woman writing the testaments and others who are not. Although there is no doubt that, generally speaking, these women were thankful individuals, sensitive to the affections displayed towards them, and willing to reciprocate accordingly, we have to wonder whether these women did not have other reasons to show such affection and behavior. If we think of the idea of the testament as the field in which women battle and struggle to (re)define themselves in spite of the habitus that surrounded their lives, we get very interesting readings out of those words stated in the testaments. In these documents, we see women clearly stating what they own, how charitable they are, and making very obvious what balanced, fair, forgiving and thoughtful individuals they are. Here you have some examples found.10 2.1 Looking Respectful (a) Josefa Guerrero y Ruiz (October 4, 1800): I declare that my only and universal heirs be () Mara Teresa Tuero and Agueda Martnez, my servant, so that what they find, take and inherit be shared and divided equally. (b) Juana Hernndez Jimnez (July 7, 1800): I declare that Salvadora Garca, my niece, owes me some money () I want by my own will to forgive her and release her of that debt and as my duty, I release her and ask her to commend my soul to God. (c) Ana Hernndez (February 25, 1750): I want, and it is my will, that Miguel Torralba, my son () he owes me some maraveds,11 but I definitely forgive him/release him from that debt for all the help that he has provided me and for the love that I have for him. (d) Catalina de Len (November 20, 1607): I name my children as my universal heirs dividing all my

of the testaments include further information about cultural attainment: the woman just states that she is illiterate, without any mention to the fact that she might have been unable to study, or whether she regretted that fact. Womens cultural attainment is minimal, especially within the context of academic achievements. With the exception of very few of them, they did not know how to read or write; in fact, the references in their testaments to the fact that they cannot write are constant, and the ones who do have very rudimentary handwriting. There is no reference to the distribution of books between their heirs. 9 The study of these female wills confirmed the fact that women accepted marriage as a social status for their protection. Only 7% of the women are single, whereas the number of widows who remarry increases to a 12%. Women seem to have a longer life span than men (40% of the women are widows), and 70% of them have children. 10 Emphasis mine in all examples. The translation from the original documents is also mine. 11 Type of currency.

8 None

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possessions equally among them, without having arguments with each other, nor demands/claims [against each other], because they will only rest in heaven if they behave as good brothers and sisters. So besides portraying them as good-willed human beings, very equitable and forgiving, thus reflecting the fairness that comes with the exercise of power (as seen, for example, in the figure of a king), what else does this language do for these women, and most importantly, how does it portray them as? The analysis of these documents seems to support the idea that women used this language in their attempt to create face (Brown and Levinson 1987).12 As mentioned by Huang (1987:71),13 face is a sense of worth that comes from knowing one's status and reflects concern with the congruency between one's performance or appearance and one's real worth. With their choice of words, and the acts they entail (e.g. forgiveness in the previous examples), these women negotiate the most public perception of themselves. Being so naturally and genuinely forgiving portrays these women as respectable, worthy human beings and, most importantly, creates a positive and honorable reputation for them. If men in power are supposed to show this fair, forgiving and equitable behavior, these women make sure they display the same features and, once it is reflected in paper, it becomes a statement with long-lasting duration, thus creating a respectful memory. This is crucial because, as stated by Bourdieu, not only do these women want to be honorable, but their choice of words clearly shows that they also want to look honorable. However, it is in the analysis of the items they bestow on others where we get a clearer picture of who these women are, how they use the testaments to thwart males symbolic violence, in Bourdieus words and, most importantly, to negotiate their position in society and their public image in power-related terms and the exercise of power. As Benadusi points out, female wills become an outlet for voicing publicly and legally womens vision of the social order they lived in (2004:819), i.e. the field, in Bourdieus words, where these women reposition themselves effectively, choose the way to be seen by others, and also a venue to set up that difference mentioned by Bourdieu. In other words, testaments are the vehicles used by these women to show some sort of vindicating attitude, yet perpetuating the habitus implied in social differences and hierarchies, specifically, some of the male attitudes when negotiating power relations in order to define their own. The analysis of the following example will try to clarify that, and will prove how different aspects of life actually overlap in womens presentation of themselves in the documents. 2.2 Repositioning Themselves in Society We begin with the examples in which these women (re)position themselves in society. The detailed inventory lists of what they own and who gets it is a good example of that. As pointed out before, women are more accurate in their inventories than men, and after the Tridentine reform, they were definitely encouraged to make donations to the less favored ones. This definitely creates face, but it also has other more subtle implications. Take the following excerpt from the testament of Teresa de

term face may be defined as the positive social value a person effectively claims for himself by the line other s assume he has taken during a particular contact. Face is an image of self-delineated in terms of approved social attributes. (Goffman 1955:213) Goffman, Erving (1955). On Face-work: An analysis of ritual elements of social interaction. Psychiatry: Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Processes 18(3), 213-231. Reprinted in Goffman (2005, pp. 546). With this notion of face, 13 Huang S. (1987). Two Studies of Prototype Semantics: Xiao 'Filial Piety' and Mei Mianzi 'Loss of Face', Journal of Chinese Linguistics 15: 55-89.

12 The

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Guardiguela (1502): I wish and I demand that 100 mareveds be given to her servant for how she served me, for my peace of mind. This perfectly complies with the values of respectability, charity and honor mentioned before; however, the money she leaves the servants is just a fifth of what she donates to Our Lady of Arrixaca, for example, as specified later in the document. Here we have the case of a woman who is charitable with a servant, but less than with a religious devotion. In fact, and quite paradoxically, religion was one of the outlets where women could find some sort of social promotion and could be seen/considered in the public sphere, so to speak. It could be the case that, in her attempt to create face and participate in the public domain, Teresa de Guardiguela decided to donate more money to a religious devotion to reinforce her image of pious church member, faithful parishioner and, in fact, contributing to support Bourdieus idea that the perceived being is almost as important as the being. There are other examples in some of these testaments showing how important it was for women to belong to religious brotherhoods; these women were fully aware of the privileges and benefits involved in their membership, therefore feeling entitled to claim them as part of their burial procedures. Besides contributing positively to their own respectability, women realized this was a great platform to negotiate their public image and convey the honorability and social status they were looking for (some of the women stated in their testaments that they belonged to two of these groups).14 See the following examples. (a) Justa Hernndez (December 27, 1607): that I be buried wearing the St Francis habit and my body be accompanied by 12 clergymen until we arrive at the church and [I also want] the banner of the Carmen and Concepcin brotherhoods [to be carried]. (b) Mara Marco Mrquez (November 2, 1800): I confess that I belong to the Good Star Brotherhood () and I also belong to other brotherhoods for which I own registration papers. I want that after my death the Main Brother be informed of my death so that all the benefits that I am entitled to be carried out. (c) Juana Hernndez (July 7, 1800): I belong to the Saint Rita brotherhood, and I want that after my death the Main Brother be informed so that all the benefits that I am entitled to be carried out. After reading these fragments, it is clear that women not only want to proclaim their devotion, but they use their testament for an interesting being/pretending game, so to speak. Their detailed voicing of what they own, the number of masses they require for the salvation of their souls and others, and the vehemence with which they claim to be members of those brotherhoods and request that the benefits of such membership be bestowed upon their death only means one thing: they want those things to shape who they are, and the shape the perception of themselves that they want others to have, i.e. again contributing to the creation of face, respectability and honorability. It is time now to focus on these womens legacies and the gifts they give to their heirs. This is a crucial issue, since the reading between the lines in the words that we read in these documents display the subtle ways in which these women position themselves with respect to their heirs, specifically when they make donations to their servants, and make the social distance more evident. In fact, what we read is how these women reproduce class hierarchies in their donations, thus reflecting the habitus. This is not to say that these women perpetuate the century-long tradition of discrimination against the less favored, but what appears evident is that they reflect the society in which they live and the

14 After the Tridentine reform, it is of no surprise that religious devotions played an important role in peoples lives, and these women are no exception. Of course, their participation was very limited, and they did not have a vote; they only have to pay an initial membership, which gave them access to the same privileges than men had when they died.

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hierarchies that it conveys. According to Benadusi (2004:817), mistresses gifts to their servants, [] while certainly revealing compassionate feelings of appreciation and generosity, might have also created a bounded space in which the social status of the employer was reinforced and at the same time the social inequality of the relationship between servants and mistresses was reproduced, thus indirectly and symbolically placing mistresses in a dominating position. This is exactly what we see in these testaments.15 This is even more striking is the case of Mara Navarro Prez, whose last words included the following: It is my will that to Manuela Mateo [] and to Catalina Gonzlez, mother-in-law of the former, both of them who are in my assistance without earning any salary, and I hope will continue until my death [] and I want that to each of them 20 pesos are given and if one of them died, the remaining one should get 40 pesos and [I ask them to] pray for my soul and commend it to God. Here you have the case of a woman who actually states that she has two servants working for her who are not being remunerated. Even more striking, she hopes that these two women continue being at her service without any change to their economic situation. For example, Benadusi (2004:822) claims that it was not unusual for masters to fail to compensate fully their servants for a lifetime of work () That masters and mistresses did not pay their servants regularly is apparent in the last wills of both masters and servants, and here we have an example. However, this woman hopes that, despite this obvious inequality, the two servants keep working for her. It seems that social inequality was very obvious in that time to the point that these two women might be working for their mistress even without being paid for it but at least they got taken care of and were able to eat and live somewhere. Two things need to be pointed out. First, the way in which Mara Navarro negotiates social hierarchies and how she incorporates a discourse of potential subjugation, since her heirs have to fulfill very specific conditions that she states, therefore reaffirming her authority and power over their servants or other people, their language being clear indicators of this. Consider the following examples. (d) Josefa Guerrero Ruiz (October 4, 1800), leaving her maid as one of her heirs, states: she must only have the usufruct of the land during the days of her life, without being able to sell the land at all. (e) Isabel Amador de Lozano (June 16, 1607): I clarify that to this day Adelino Mercader owes me 300 reales16 from an order of silk that I already delivered and for which he had already paid part of it () he still owes me () I order/demand that he pay me. In addition to this, notice how many of the previous examples contain a reference to these women asking their heirs to commend their soul to God after they allot some gifts/possessions to them; if the heirs do not fulfill these womens last will, the heirs eternal salvation might be jeopardized, and quite frequently, women resort to this type of religious subjugation in order to be seen as powerful individuals who can decide the fate of others. Take, for example, the following excerpt. (f) Juana Bautista (Feb 3, 1606): I declare that, together with my husband, we sold a house in the Saint Andrew neighborhood and that the house was part of my dowry () I want masses [for my soul] to be paid with the money from that sale. (Husband is her universal heir). In these examples, not only do women renegotiate their role and ability to exert power, but in a clear role reversal, they subjugate these two men and make them fulfill their last wishes; if they do not, they run the risk of creating negative face and not looking respectable and honorable, as they are supposed to be. Even more interesting, in the case of Juana Bautista, she makes her husband her universal heir,

15 Take,

for example, the words of Teresa de Guardiguela who left 100 maraveds to her servant, but 500 for the religious devotion she supported. In her will, Teresa also mentions that she owns several houses; obviously her social status was higher than other womens, and she does make sure it shows in the way she phrases her last will. 16 Type of currency.

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but she makes him spend the money they got after the selling of their house (a house that was part of her dowry) to pay for masses for her soul. If he does not do it, the husband is not fulfilling her wifes last will, therefore not looking respectable, but it also jeopardizes his own eternal salvation, since the wife simply wants the money to be used for spiritual reasons, which makes her be and look honorable and in tune with the religious atmosphere of the time. With this role reversal by means of which Juana Bautista displays her ability to assert her authority in a public arena, she proves how women are perfectly capable of making decisions and taking control. The patterns these women display in their last wills challenge the idea that women have infirmitas mentis, since it is clear that women, despite their meaningful good intentions and charitable goals, use language to portray themselves as powerful individuals marking their territory who reproduced the discourse of power relations existing in their times. In fact, and as stated by Benadusi (2004:815), these women construct a sense of collective identity that included both the maternal and paternal lines, i.e. shows the authority always attributed to the father figure and equals it to the one exercised by the woman, thus finding new ways to portray and think about themselves. 3. Conclusions The study of female testaments of women from Murcia from the 16th to the 20th century reveals very interesting facts about how their social environment shaped their lives, and also, how they managed to get through it, challenging at, at the same time, reproducing the patters of power relations that surrounded their lives in a society where male interests prevailed. Even in these circumstances, we have noticed how these women show maturity, firmness in their decisions, cohesion and clarity of mind when specifying their belongings and to whom they should go. Regardless of their social status, these testaments portray women as conscientious, fair and balanced individuals that do their best to distribute their possessions equitably among their heirs. Their sense of piety and fairness makes them show more gestures of solidarity towards those who might be disadvantaged within society, and regardless of the century, all women show solid, respectful and loyal feelings towards those who helped them and contributed positively to their lives. This is also the means through which women negotiate social hierarchies and use this to their own advantage, i.e. to serve the purpose of creating positive face and showing publicly that they are powerful and they have gained respect. Language is definitely used to negotiate and redefine power, and in Bourdieus terms, the testament itself is the field where they present themselves as power holders, even when this might include the perpetuation of social distance that, paradoxically, positions them in a dominant role. The study of these documents show women equally interested in their being and in their perceived being, thus focusing with similar intensity in their charitable endeavors as well as in their more worldly intentions. We have seen how by safeguarding the more disadvantaged, women show their take in redefining their relationships and affections and imposing their view on the matter. In spite of the formal constraints of the document, and regardless of their social and cultural status, these testaments became the tool through which these women were able to tell their stories, and to make everyone aware of their fears, aspirations, desires and choices, in Benadusis words (1992:806), that is, define their place within society and redefining social relations. Specifying who gets what and in which amount, revealing their religious preferences and what should be done about them once they die, acknowledging their gratitude towards those who were kind to them and rewarding them for it was probably one of the few ways in which women were able to exercise some sort of authoritarian discourse (i.e. they were able to impose their will) in a context where they were not

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precisely encouraged to do so. Within the limits imposed by the very fixed format of the testaments, these women are able to say this is I, this is what I think, and this is how I want it done. Of course, an interpretation of such level of assertion in the same way that a male would do at that time in history needs to be taken with caution, especially given the amount of testaments analyzed and the need to conduct more research and contextualize it within the appropriate parameters. As specified by Thomas (1992:83), it is misleading [] to write the history of women [just] as a series of advances and retreats on [the equality] front. Equality itself needs to be historicized. [] The problem is to explain how the law shaped relations between men and women and to show how statuses concerning women illustrate their complementary role in a system defined by the rights of men. What the reading of these testaments definitely tells us about the role of women and their position within their society is that women used testaments as a platform to present themselves and be seen as part of the public space, something traditionally reserved for men. References
Benadusi, G. (2004). Investing the riches of the poor: Servant women and their last wills. The American Historical Review, Vol. 109, No. 3, 805-826. Bourdieu, P. (1979/1984). Distinction: A social critique of the judgment of taste. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. Brown, P. and S. Levinson (1987). Politeness: Some universals in language usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Casagrande, C. (1992). The protected woman. In C. Klapisch-Zuber, (ed.), A history of women: Silences of the Middle Ages (pp. 70-104). Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Fairclough, N. L. and Wodak, R. (1997). Critical discourse analysis. In T. A. van Dijk (ed.), Discourse Studies. A Multidisciplinary Introduction, Vol. 2, Discourse as Social Interaction (pp. 258-84). London: Sage. Goffman, Erving (1955). On face-work: An analysis of ritual elements of social interaction. Psychiatry: Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Processes 18(3), 213-231. Reprinted in Goffman (2005, pp. 546). Huang, S. (1987). Two Studies of Prototype Semantics: Xiao 'Filial Piety' and Mei Mianzi 'Loss of Face. Journal of Chinese Linguistics 15: 55-89. Hufton, O. (1993). Women, work, and family. In N. Zemon Davis, and A. Farge (eds.), A history of Women: Renaissance and Enlightment paradoxes (pp. 15-45). Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Reid, C. J. (2004). Power over the body, equality in the family: Rights and domestic relations in Medieval canon law. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. Salter, E. (2007). Six Renaissance men and women: Innovation, biography and cultural creativity in Tudor England. Scott, S. P., R. I. Burns, & Alfonso. (2001). Las siete partidas. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Thomas, Y. (1992). The division of sexes in Roman law. In P. Schmitt Pantel, (ed.), A history of women: From ancient goddesses to Christian saints (pp. 83-138). Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Van Dijk, T. (2001). Critical discourse analysis. In D. Schriffin, D. Tannen and H. Hamilton (eds.), The handbook of discourse analysis (pp. 352-271). Oxford, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Wacquant, L. (1998). Pierre Bourdieu. In R. Stones (ed.), Key sociological thinkers (pp. 215-229). London: Macmillan Press. Zemon Davies, N. and A. Farge (1993). Women as historical actors. In N. Zemon Davis and A. Farge (eds.), A history of Women: Renaissance and Enlightment paradoxes (pp. 1-7). Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

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The Problem of Torture in Italy and its Influence to Potential EU Member States. The Case of Macedonia
Petar Jordanoski
Faculty of Law Iustinianus Primus- Skopje, Macedonia E-mail: petar_jordanoski@yahoo.com
Abstract Human rights, democracy and the rule of law are core values of the EU and are seen as universal and indivisible. Respect for human rights is a prerequisite for countries seeking to join the Union. Therefore, Macedonia as a candidate country is in the process of fulfilling EU standards in the protection of the human rights. However, huge problem emerges when some of the country members of the EU is not respecting and furthermore violates basic human rights of his citizens. As the academic in the country which is supposed to become EU member one day, we have huge problem to explain to the people why they should implement some human right standard, if that is not the case in some prominent EU member country. Referring to common good and higher values is not always enough. In this paper will I focus only on two countries: Macedonia and Italy. The first one due the reason is the country where I am living, state in transition trying to reach the European values or at least claiming so. The second one because is one of the oldest EU member states and its perceived as one of the most important countries in Europe. Moreover its facing with some problem as transition countries do: corruption, freedom of press, fight with mafia, populist leader, illegal immigration and other. I will focus just on the prohibition on torture as one of the most basic and most fundamental human right Keywords: torture, human rights, Italy, Macedonia, double standards

1. Introduction If someone asks a question if there are double standards in the protection of human rights that unfortunately has a very simple answer. Yes, there are. It is fact which is widely acknowledged and according to me it is not going to change dramatically in near future. When talking on this issue I dont refer to the universality of the human rights or to the culture relativism (Frckoski, 2001). The double standards regarding respects of human rights exist even in groups belonging to the same cultural identity. One of the most mentioned topic when discussing the issue of human rights is the problem of double standards. One of the main aim of the establishing the Human Rights Council within UN few years ago was objectivity and non-selectivity in the consideration of human rights issues, and the elimination of double standards and politicization..1. The aim of this paper is to discuss the problem of double standards in respecting of human rights in the process of enlargement of the European Union and the possible solutions to reduce the same. The term double standard refers to a set of principles that allows greater freedom to one person or group than to another or containing different provisions for one group of people than for another, predominantly in the area of human rights, typically without a good reason for having that difference (Collins dictionary 10th edition, 2009). A double standard may take the form of an instance in which certain applications are perceived as acceptable to be used by one group of people, but are considered unacceptable- taboo- when used another group. Double standards also violate the principle

1 For detailed information: Resolution of the General Assembly of the UN for the establishment of the Human Rights Council, 2006

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of justice known as impartiality, which is based on the assumption that the same standards should be applied to all people, without regard to subjective bias or favoritism based on social class, rank, ethnicity, gender, religion, sexual orientation or other distinction (DeVinney, Gemma & Hartman,2000) In this paper I am focusing only on two countries: Macedonia and Italy. The first one due the reason is the country where I am living, state in transition trying to reach the European values or at least claiming so. The second one because is one of the oldest EU member states (since its establishment) and its perceived as one of the most important countries in Europe. Moreover its facing with some problem as transition countries do: corruption, freedom of press, fight with mafia, populist leader, illegal immigration and other (Dinoi, 2010). I prefer not to write about respect the human rights in the so called new EU member states2. The low level of implementation of European human rights standards in those countries is already in centre of attention of many academics, politicians, human rights activists. The whole PhD research could be written on failures in the field of human rights in countries that joined EU club in the last decade. I am not quite sure whether more embarrassing is the treatment of Roma in Slovakia, Romania and Czech republic, or the treat the way the Baltic states are dealing with language minorities in their territories. The status of the minorities in Bulgaria is that worst that even Council of Europes Human Rights Commissioner Mr. Hammarberg had to issue a public letter to the Bulgarian prime minister3. Moreover Bulgaria is ignoring the judgments of the European court of human rights regarding minority human rights issue. However since Hungary leading EU presidency currently, so the winner might be Mr. Orban and the way he is dealing with media and other independent institutions in his country. I am focusing focus just on the prohibition on torture as one of the most basic and most fundamental human rights. The international criminalization of torture is part of a more comprehensive regime in public international law against torture. The three main features of this regime, which in turn elucidate the leitmotif for the interpretation of the torture offence are: (1) the prohibition against torture is so stringent and so sweeping that states are obliged not only to prohibit and punish its commission but also to forestall its occurrence; the prohibition thus also covers potential breaches; (2) the outlawry of torture imposes erga omnes obligations owed towards all other members of the international community and (3) the torture ban has acquired the status of a peremptory norm or ius cogens; therefore, the principles at issue cannot be derogated so that perpetrators may be held criminally responsible notwithstanding national or even international authorization by legislative or judicial bodies to apply torture. (Burchard Christoph, 2008). Moreover there in no state in the world that officially approves torture and admits that the same it is performed by her agents(Roth & Worden, 2005). 2. Human Rights as Precondition for the EU Enlargement Human rights, democracy and the rule of law are core values of the European Union and are seen as universal and indivisible. Embedded in the EUs founding treaty, these principles have been reinforced

2 When mentioning EU new member states I refer to the member states that joined EU in 2004: Poland, Slovakia, Czech republic, Slovenia, Hungary, Estonia, Lithuania, Latvia, Malta, Cyprus and in 2007: Bulgaria and Romania. All of them except Malta and Cyprus have communistic legacy. Many officials from these states disagreed with the use of the term new member states. 3 Mr. Hammarberg had issued a public statement on 7 th October 2010 referring to denying the basic minority rights to the members of the Roma and Macedonian minority and ignoring the judgments of the ECHR by the Bulgarian authorities, available at https://wcd.coe.int/wcd/ViewDoc.jsp?id=1698657

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by the adoption of a Charter of Fundamental Rights4. Respect for human rights is a prerequisite for countries seeking to join the Union and a precondition for countries wishing to forge trade and other agreements with the EU. Since March 2002, the European Commission reports regularly to the Council and the Parliament on progress made by the countries of the Western Balkans region. This report is focusing on progress made by countries preparing for EU membership. Among others the report analyses the situation in the countries in terms of the political criteria for membership, which includes chapter for human rights and protection of minorities as well as another chapter for democracy and rule of law. Progress is measured on the basis of decisions taken, legislation adopted and measures implemented (EC report, 2010). Therefore, Macedonia as a candidate country is in the process of fulfilling EU standards in the protection of the human rights. While the EU actively promotes and defends human rights, both within its borders and in its relations with outside countries, the Union does not seek to usurp its Member State national governments broad powers in this area. However, huge problem emerges when some of the country members of the EU is not respecting and furthermore is violating basic human rights of his citizens. Macedonia as a precondition for joining EU is required to make steps towards meeting the Copenhagen political criteria, which require stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and protection of minorities (EC report, 2010). Protecting fundamental rights and creating a European area of freedom, security and justice are two intrinsically linked tasks, which are actually two sides of the same coin. Moreover, they are two of the key goals of European integration in the years to come. There are several tools available for enshrining these rights. Perhaps the best known of all is the Charter of Fundamental Rights proclaimed by European Union (EU) leaders in December 2000. It stems from the EU Treaty, European Court of Justice case-law, the European Union Member States constitutional traditions and the COEs European Convention on Human Rights5. Human rights standards for as a precondition for joining EU have transformed, or deemed to transform the nature of the relationship between governments and individuals, and made public authorities far more accountable (Nowak, 2005). However, much more needs to be done to improve implementation of standards that exist. There is a little point in elaborating if they are not implemented. If some of the EU member states, standards have been incorporated in domestic law, but their implementation remain aspiration. It seems that this is a problem not only in the so called new member states with communistic legacy and without strong tradition of respect of human rights, but also in the old EU member states. 3. The Absolute Prohibition of Torture In 1874, Victor Hugo famously declared that torture has ceased to exist(McCoy W. Alfred, 2006). Today, 137 years later we can conclude that this great mind was terribly wrong. Although the powers sought for state security are in no way comparable to those of the tyrannical regimes of the past, they are philosophically akin to the authority invoked by Roman emperors to torture suspected traitors, the Inquisitions forcible unmasking of heretics to save all from eternal damnation, and even the totalitarian temptation to eliminate all dissents in the name of Revolution. More is needed to win the minds and

4 For detailed information : Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, and explanation relating to the Chapter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. 5 Idem

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hearts of public and bring this sad history to an end (James Ross, 2005). The right of every person not to be subjected to ill-treatment or torture (physical or mental) is one of the few human rights that are considered absolute. Therefore, it is forbidden to balance it against other rights and values, or suspend or restrict the right, even in the harsh circumstances of the struggle against terrorism (Rejali, 2002). This right now enjoys the highest and most binding status in international law (Sassoli & Bouvier, 1999). The most accepted definition of torture appears in section 1(1) of the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment from 10 December 1984. It reads as follows: For the purposes of this Convention, the term "torture" means any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity. It does not include pain or suffering arising only from, inherent in or incidental to lawful sanctions6. In European convention on human rights there is very small article prohibiting torture No one shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, but there is broad jurisprudence of the European court of human rights regarding the issue. International law imposes an absolute prohibition on torture and on cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment (hereafter cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment is referred to as ill-treatment). Unlike other norms, countries are not allowed to derogate from it or balance it against other rights or values, even in emergency situations. Furthermore, for some time now, there has been broad consensus around the world that the absolute prohibition on torture and ill-treatment is customary law, meaning that it applies with respect to every country, organization, or person, for their acts committed anywhere, without regard to the application of one international convention or another (Erdal & Bakirci, 2006). None of the conventions provide a definition for ill-treatment. Major quasi-judicial bodies, primarily the UN Human Rights Committee, which is responsible for examining complaints of individuals with respect to breach of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, often relate to the two prohibitions as one block, without noting in specific cases whether the act falls into one category or the other. Other bodies, the most prominent being the European Court of Human Rights, make a distinction, although it holds in principle that the two prohibitions are absolute to the same degree. The justification for this distinction according to the court is that the term torture carries with it a special stigma, which should be placed on only the most serious acts. The relevant case law and literature indicate that two major criteria distinguish torture from ill-treatment: the intensity of the suffering, and the purpose underlying the method used (Nowak 2005). Therefore, a method that causes substantial, but not severe suffering, or which causes severe suffering but not to obtain information (for example, the use of excessive force against a person resisting arrest), is defined as ill-treatment and not torture7. Although the idea is

6 The term torture is also defined or mentioned in other international documents such as: European Convention on Human Rights and Freedoms, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights from 1948, the Geneva Conventions from 1949 and the Additional Protocols from 1977; UN International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights from 1966; the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment from 1987; Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court; Optional Protocol for the Prevention of Torture of the UN from 2002 7 In the Greek case (1969) the EComHR gave a definition for each word, thereby introducing a hierarchy out of nowhere. 1) Degrading = tends to humiliate/degrade; 2) Inhuman = infliction of severe pain or suffering 3)Torture = infliction of aggravated pain or suffering for a purpose like extracting information/confession.

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criticized by human rights lawyers, the ad hoc tribunals (ICTY and ICTR) foresee a relative element of aggravation in the definition of torture, as there is a hierarchy of intensity between this crime and other forms of mistreatment. If the conduct charged as torture cannot be proven to be of substantial gravity, i.e. if the severe test is not met, ill-treatment and inhuman and degrading treatment may come into play as lesser included offences (Burchard, 2008). The terrorist attacks that shocked the world on September 11 had a visible impact on the struggle to eliminate torture. Some countries that previously were very careful not to practice or endorse torture have abandoned such practice. Public prosecutors and judges in many countries in the world began to find ways to circumvent the absolute prohibition of torture and the international and domestic legal acts that regulate it. Numerous human rights defenders retreat a step backwards and began discussions whether torture can be justified if its practice means protections of the national security and the only available tool to combat terrorism? (Dershowitz,2002) The question of torture, cruel and degrading treatment has taken on a new urgency, with the abuses in Guantanamo, Abu Ghraib and many other locations. We are being told that torture may in fact be necessary, in some cases, to prevent a future terrorist attacks (Dershowitz,2002). A step back has been made. What are we to make of this radical shift in policy given its discord with fundamental human values? Torture in the name of state security, never fully abandoned, was to return in the first decade of the new millennium with a vengeance. The Landau Commission in Israel offered the legal justification for the use of force in some circumstances. According to the Commission, the defense of necessity, found in Israel legal code was the legal basis for use the of force by the state interrogators The ruling by the Israeli Supreme Court have only modified this attitude, instead of fully abandoning it . (Felner Ietan, 2005) Police officers ignore law prohibitions to beat and break information out of alleged criminals. Moreover, the judges convict on the basis of obviously coerced confessions. Police corruption and police subculture are further factors (Jankulovski,2007). Everyone should be concerned by the fact that rejected judicial torture is not deeply embedded for torture carried out under the guise of state security. The war on terrorism has resurrected the previously unthinkable topic of the legitimacy of the state torture. Absolute prohibition however is easy. Enforcement is hard, and even rules and punishment for infraction are not enough. It is of great importance state officials who are responsible for the torture cases to be brought before the justice, and the procedure to be followed by adequate sanction (Barry, Hirsh and Skiff; 2004). After centuries of abuse, torture has been found to be neither productive nor containable. It rarely provides accurate intelligence. It produces fantasy and misleading information born out of the desperation of the victim. For all the discussion of the "ticking time bomb" and the films of Dirty Harry, there is no reported case where an explosion has been prevented because of the use of torture (Roth & Worden,2005). What its proponents never like to answer is the question of just who would decide who should be tortured.8. And once you add that to the equation you are on a straight line to General Pinochet, Saddam Hussein and all the other repressive regimes. Attempting to define or confine the circumstances under which the suspect can be interrogated or the manner of the humiliation and pain that can be dealt out simply makes the unacceptable into the obscene (Roth & Worden,2005). Torture isn't a matter of niceties. One can argue the circumstances in which it might feel useful or even necessary. It is very important to highlight article 2 of the Convention against torture, which stipulates

8 The

answer, of course, is the "state" (Dershowitz,2002)

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that no exceptional circumstances whatsoever, whether a state of war or a threat of war, internal political instability or any other public emergency, may be invoked as a justification of torture. 4. The Problem of Torture and ill Treatment in Italy Sometimes there is a tension in Italian foreign policy between the belief that respecting and promoting human rights is vital to advancing long-term Italian interests around the world, and the tendency to forget that belief when short-term interests get in the way (NGO Antigone report, 2010). Many reports issued by CoE Committee for prevention of torture, other international and domestic human right organizations stipulated that Italy is standing bad on the issue of the prohibition of the torture. Push back policy, 41 bis treatment, treatment of the migrants, as well as involvement in the secret CIA prison cases are only some of the mayor problems (CPT report, 2009). There are some clear conclusions that Italy is not a good example of a European democracy where the human rights regarding torture and police misconduct cases, are respected and promoted footnote? (Dinoi, 2010). Information that there are severe problems with overcrowding in the prisons, not sufficient heath care system in prisons and lack of prompt and effective interventions of the prison staff in numerous cases of inter-prisoner violence which have resulted with serious injuries and in some cases with death of the prisoners (Dinoi, 2010), are disturbing and required immediate action by the state (CPT report, 2010). Furthermore we have to bear in mind that Italy is the country with high level of prisoners within the European Union (Antigone report, 2010). Special attention caused information published in CPTs report claiming that that certain patients were detained in the psychiatric hospital and institutions for longer than their condition required and that others were held in the hospital even when their placement order had expired. One of the main issues in Italy is that the crime of torture is not prescribed in the Penal Code. Despite Convention obligations and Italian constitutional provisions requiring the criminalization of torture, Italy has failed to adopt all the required legislation. In particular, certain types of physical or mental torture under Article 1 of the Convention may not be covered by the criminal law, partly because of the absence of a specific crime of torture in the Italian penal code (Messineo Francesco, 2009). Moreover CPT, CoE, EU and relevant international and domestic organizations dealing with the torture cases have recommended to Italian in many occasions to amend its Criminal Code and the crime of torture to be introduced. During the UPR session in May 2010, many states required the same. In the respond Italy stated that in the country, torture is punishable under various offences and aggravating circumstances, which trigger a wider application of such crime. Even though this is not typified as one specific offence under the Italian criminal code, both the constitutional and legal framework already punish acts of physical and moral violence against persons subject to restrictions of their personal liberty. Both provide sanctions for all criminal conducts covered by the definition of torture, as set forth in Article 1 of the relevant Convention. (UPR report, 2010). Thus, it is not probable that Italy is going to amend its Criminal code with the crime of torture. The most severe violations of the human rights regarding the torture and ill treatment cases which have occurred recently and caused immediate intervention by the CPT is the push back policy. The Italian Government began implementing its push-back policy in May 2009. This policy is aimed at stemming the flow of migrants, in particular by returning migrants to the countries from which they departed or transited (mostly to Libya, but also to Algeria). It must be seen in the context of the regional problems of the management of maritime borders in the Mediterranean, which have yet to be resolved collectively. (CPT report, 2009)

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Within the Council of Europes member states, the European Court of Human Rights has, through its case law on Article 3 of the European Convention of Human Rights (the ECHR), extended the principle of non refoulement to all persons who may be exposed to a real risk of torture, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment should they be returned to a particular country. The principle of nonrefoulement is enshrined in Article 33 of the 1951 Convention on the Status of Refugees (the 1951 Convention), which states: No Contracting State shall expel or return (refouler) a refugee in any manner whatsoever to the frontiers of territories where his [or her] life or freedom would be threatened on account of his [or her] race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion. In the CPTs view as well as a view of many relevant international organizations dealing with human rights, Italys policy of intercepting migrants at sea and obliging them to return to Libya or other non-European countries, violates the principle of non refoulement, which forms part of Italys obligations under Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights (CPT report, 2010). Italy is bound by the principle of non-refoulement wherever it exercises its jurisdiction, which includes via its personnel and vessels engaged in border protection or rescue at sea, even when operating outside its territory9. As the result of the new policy of the Italian government CPT has urgently visited the country and issued a report strongly criticizing the push-back policy as unacceptable for any European democratic country. The CPT urged the Italian authorities to substantially review forthwith the practice of intercepting migrants at sea, so as to ensure that all persons within Italys jurisdiction including those intercepted at sea outside Italian territorial waters by Italian-controlled vessels, receive the necessary humanitarian and medical care that their condition requires and that they have effective access to procedures and safeguards capable of guaranteeing respect for the principle of non-refoulement. According to CPT the so-called push-back policy, as pursued by the Italian authorities and described in their report, does not meet those requirements. It can be concluded that, in Italy areperformed act of torture, cruel and inhuman treatment. 5. Torture and Police Misconduct in Macedonia "Every accusation, if not substantiated by evidence, is much closer to being a false denunciation than showing actual involvement of the people that are being accused; you should really provide evidence if you accuse someone" - Gordana Jankulovska, Macedonian Minister of Interior, June 2007. This statement of the Minister of Interior refers to a serious accusation made by a citizen of severe violation of his rights by the Police10. If this logic is accepted, citizens will need to prove that the Police has truly inflicted visible bodily injuries on them, that they were victims of torture or that their rights and freedoms were otherwise breached. Unless they succeed in doing this, it is not excluded as an option that the MoI may bring criminal charges against the victims of police abuse for "false denunciation of a criminal offence" or "attack on an official personnel while carrying out security duties",

9 It is true that the States have the sovereign right to protect their borders and to introduce measures controlling migration within their jurisdiction. Further, Article 5 (1) (f) of the European Convention on Human Rights expressly permits "the lawful arrest or detention of a person to prevent his effecting an unauthorized entry into the country or of a person against whom action is being taken with a view to deportation or extradition". However, the exercise of this right must be in accordance with a States other international obligations. 10 Additional problem isince 2006 is the issue of the spectacular arrest. The arrested are brought in the court from the main entrance, with handcuffs after all the medias have been informed. Human right experts are warning that the Police is violating the presumption of innocence (Jordanoski, 2007)

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which actually has happened in practice! (Jordanoski, 2007) As opposed to this, in any democratic country nowadays it is the duty of the Police or of the state agents to provide a reasonable explanation as to how the injuries of the citizens came about. That this is not just isolated cases can be concluded by the reports from the Committee for prevention of torture (CPT), the Ombudsman Institution and international and domestic organizations active in the field of human rights protection. In their reports they indicate the existence of allegations of police misconduct and ill-treatment in the Republic of Macedonia, expressing their concern regarding the lack of proper sanctioning of perpetrators, in cases when it has been confirmed that they have violated someones human rights. In its report for 2009, Amnesty International expresses its concern regarding cases of torture, police misconduct and ill-treatment, as well as the lack of indictments for the persons responsible for such violations. The annual report from the Ombudsman Institution for 2010 claims that in comparison with 2008, there is a 70% increase in the number of complaints filed by citizens, which relates to misconduct and ill-treatment by members of the police, or to mistreatment in prisons and other places of detention. Absence of punishing and solidarity with police officers by covering committed omissions by officials remains the basic reason for non objective, non professional and non quality execution of investigations for over passing official authorizations, according to the Ombudsman report for 2010. This tendency of acting was not only found in the course of work of Internal Control and Professional Standards Sector, but unfortunately, in the work of enforcement bodies, courts and public prosecutions, where it was noted that procedures against police officers, as a rule, are endlessly delayed, while priority is given in taking actions upon reports accusing citizens of attacking officials (Ombudsmans annual report 2010). Monitoring the conditions was performed through visits and like in the previous period, the Ombudsman found worrying conditions both in terms of accommodating facilities and all other aspects such as: treatment of convicted persons, health protection, the overall atmosphere and the relations among convicts, as well as the attitude of the officials towards convicts. At the very beginning of 2010, during a visit the Ombudsman found sub-standard conditions, under any human dignity level, at the Semi-open wing at the Penitentiary Correctional Center Idrizovo, as a result of which he publicly requested from the Ministry of Justice to close this ward immediately and transfer the convicts to other parts of the Prison. (Ombudsmans annual report 2010). The State Department 2010 report reads that notwithstanding the general respect of human rights, the following problems have still been identified: misconduct and ill-treatment by the police especially during arrests, abuse of minorities by the police, especially members of the Roma population, and absence of sanctions for policemen and other persons in charge for law enforcements, when it has been proven that they violated someones human rights. Cases of torture, police misconduct and ill-treatment have been also registered with the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. The main problem is lack of investigation in such cases and impunity of the perpetrators (CPT report). During the last visit of CPT to Macedonia in September and October 2010, president of the CPT gave statement for the media that the situation regarding the cases of torture and inhuman treatment, not only that is not improving, but its worsening11.It is expected the report of the visit to be very critical and the threat of giving a public statement is actual again12.

of Mr. Mauro Palma, president of the CPT, Skopje 1st October 2010, available at: http://www.a1.com.mk/ vesti/default.aspx?VestID=128175 12 Article 10, paragraph 2, of the Convention establishing the CPT reads as follows: If the Party fails to co-operate or refuses to improve the situation in the light of the Committee's recommendations, the Committee may decide, after the

11 Statement

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The report of the European Commission on the progress of the Republic of Macedonia in 2010, stipulates that it is necessary to strengthen the mechanism of investigation of incidents of alleged misconduct and ill-treatment by certain members of the police. The report also claims that the majority of these cases of police misconduct and ill-treatment are happening during arrests and taking in custody or while detaining a person. There is a serious concerns about the effectiveness of the complaints system and there is still no robust independent mechanism for oversight of the law enforcement agencies. Decisions in this area by the European Court of Human Rights, in particular as regards police brutality towards the Roma, were not fully implemented. Inhumane and degrading treatment in psychiatric institutions is a matter of particular concern in the report (EC report, 2010) . Prisons continue to face overcrowding and an inadequate healthcare system which is precondition for ill treatment. Most of the prisons are underfunded and cannot cover their basic maintenance expenses and more over the mechanisms for preventing and combating ill-treatment and corruption in prisons remains weak. The system is not yet sufficiently proactive in detecting these cases and ensuring proper follow-up. The capacity of the prison inspection service is largely insufficient. Training of prison governors on management matters is largely insufficient. Treatment of vulnerable prisoners, including juveniles, continues to be deficient. Conditions in detention cells remain substandard in a significant number of police stations (EC report, 2010). It can be seen from the above that the phenomenon of police abuse continues to be identified as a serious problem of the Macedonian society. However, the highest state authorities, as well as the management officials in the Ministry of Interior and Ministry of Justice , are still lacking a clearly expressed position on the suppression of cases of torture and of police authorization overstepping (CPT report,2008). On the contrary, it can be concluded that the phenomenon of overstepping the police authorization does not occur only in a form of isolated cases that can be labeled as incidents, but it rather has systemic roots in the State and in the police organization (Jankulovski,2007). 6. Conclusions Violations of human rights in torture and police abuse cases in Macedonia show that the attempts to provide protection are not as effective as they ought to be and that a great deal remains to be done to improve the situation on the field (Jordanoski, 2006). I strongly believe that media, politicians, nongovernmental organisations, scholars and local community should be the principal catalyst and sustainable multipliers and could play very important role in overcoming of this problem. The problem as we can see from the text is that there are serious gaps in protection of human rights torture and police misconduct cases in prominent EU member states such as Italy (CPT report, 2009). The populist politicians leading the country will not miss the opportunity to remind the people that there are problems here and there: both overcrowding and corruption in prisons, bad heath system, we are facing the problem of impunity, there are standing bad with push back policy and 41 bis regime. As a person who use to live in both of the counties, I know that the situation in Macedonia is quite worst, but politicians and sometimes media are presenting the issue in different light and from dubious points of view, I would say rather subjective. That why I choose this topic, because is the issue that should be discussed. As the intellectual and NGO representative in the country which is supposed to become EU member one day, we have

Party has had an opportunity to make known its views, by a majority of two-thirds of its members to make a public statement on the matter.

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huge problem to explain to the people why they should implement some human right standard, if that is not the case in some prominent EU member country. It very difficult to talk about Roma rights in Macedonia at the same time Roma citizens of new EU member countries are been expelled from France. It is a fact that there is very real current problem of inequality or imbalance in the way certain countries ignore human rights abuses in some countries, while vigorously tackling such violations elsewhere in the world. The question is whether we can condone such double standards, such dualism without treating the concept of human rights? Double standards, so useful in the short term for gaining military, economic, and covert cooperation with dictators, can come back as a boomerang to big powers to in many ways13. EU ambassador in Macedonia, Mr. Fuere in February 2010 after visiting the biggest prison in Macedonia said that conditions in part of the prison Idrizovo are worst of those in the South Africa prisons in the period of Nelson Mandela, and he was completely right14. Nevertheless, the state officials didnt reply to this statement with an action plan to immediately improve the situation, but with personal disqualification of the EU and its ambassador in Skopje. Cannonade of questions about the living conditions in detection center across Europe followed, pointing out the worst possible examples and cases. At the end ambassador was accused by the government representatives for interfering into the internal issues of the host country and was compared with the Soviet ambassador in Prague in 1970-ties. Unfortunately Macedonia has a weak tradition of respect of the human rights, especially civil and political ones (Stojanovski, 2007). In the last two decade since the independence of the country the respect of human rights, especially the civil and political ones was seen as western value. The state actors and sometimes even the academics and media failed to explain the importance of the essence of the human rights to the people. Human rights and rule of law were presented as attractive because there were seen as rooted in material success and influence. Due the economic crises and institutional of the EU and enlargement doubts in last decade, the ability of the West to impose western concept of human rights, liberalism and democracy to countries without deep tradition of respect of the human rights declines and so does the attractiveness to these values (Huntington, 1996). However, Macedonia should fulfill highest standards of the protection of human rights for the wellbeing of its citizens for their own good and benefit. We should try to build better society based on the rule of law and human rights, instead of bolstering only the negative examples and cases. Models for effective, adequate and timely protection of human rights in cases of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment in Macedonia in a must. Referring to common good and higher values might not be always enough, but its worth to try. I hope that in meanwhile the double standards and politicization in human rights issue will be at least reduced.

Opening Statement of Bill Delahunt Chairman, Subcommittee of International Organizations, Human Rights, and Oversight Hearing on Is There a Human Rights Double Standard? U.S. Policy Toward Equatorial Guinea and Ethiopia May 10, 2007 14 The statement was given by Mr. Fuere on the joint press conference with the Ombudsman regarding the prison condition in Macedonia. The Ombudsman added situation in some parts of the Prison Idrizovo are in such level that it cant be imagined that somebody can live in such conditions without health endanger. Because of that Im recommending serious activities to be taken for enabling humane and dignified lodgings for convicted persons in the prison Idrizovo.

13

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References
Amnesty International- Annual and thematic reports and analysis, available at www.amnesty.org Associazione Antigone, annual and thematic reports, available at: http://www.osservatorioantigone.it/ Barry John, Hirsh Michael and Skiff Michael: "The roots of Terror", Newsweek, 24 May 2004 Burchard Christoph, Torture of the Jurisprudence of the Ad Hoc Tribunals, Journal of International Criminal Justice 6 (2008), page 162, Oxford University Press, 2008 Committee for prevention of torture (CPTs) reports, available at: http://www.cpt.coe.int/en/states.htm Dershowitz Alan: Why Terrorism Works, New Heaven, Yale University Press, 2002 Dinoi Nazarino; Dentro una vita- I 18 anni in regime di 41 bis; Roma 2010 DeVinney, Gemma; and Don Hartman; Electronic Word Sleuthing September 2000, University of Buffalo European Commission; FYR Macedonia progress report 2010, Brussels,9 November 2010, available at: http://ec.europa.eu/enlargement/pdf/key_documents/2010/package/mk_rapport_2010_en.pdf Felner Ietan; Torture and terrorism- Painful lessons from Israel, HRW publication, Geneva 2005 Frckoski D.Ljubomir;- , 2001 . Huntington P. Samuel; The clash of civilizations, Simon& Schuster UK Ltd, London 1996 James Ross; A history of torture, Human Rights Watch, Geneva 2005 Janis M, Kay R, Bradley A: European human rights law, Mi-An Oxford 2002. Jankulovski Zvonimir: Presentation of International Standards for the use of force by persons responsible for applying the law, Skopje 2007 Jordanoski Petar; Annual legal analysis of the Human rights support project 2006, Promodizajn, Skopje 2006. Messineo Francesco, Extraordinary Renditionsand State Obligations to Criminalize and Prosecute Torture in the Light of the Abu Omar Case in Italy; Journal of International Criminal Justice 7 (2009), page 1023-1044; Oxford University Press, 2009 McCoy W. Alfred; A Question of Torture: CIA Interrogation, from the Cold War to the War on Terror (New York, Metropolitan Books, 2006). Nowak Manfred: Human Rights-handbook for parliamentarians - OHCHR, Geneva 2005 Office of the Ombudsman of the Republic of Macedonia - Annual and thematic reports and analysis of the available www.ombudsman.mk/ Rejali Darius, Torture and Democracy, Princetown University Press, 2002. Roth Kenneth and Minky Worden: "Torture: does it make us safer? Is it ever ok? - A human rights perspective ", Human Rights Watch, 2005 Sassoli Marko, Bouvier A. Antonie: How does law protect in war? International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva, 1999 Trpe Stojanovski, Police in a democratic society, "August 2, Stip 1997. The Chapter of the Fundamental rights of the European Union, available at: http://fra.europa.eu/fraWebsite/your_rights/eu-charter/eu-charter_en.htm Ugur Erdal & Hasan Bakirci: Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights-A Practitioner's Handbook, OMCT Handbook Series Vol.1, Geneva 2006 Universal periodical review (UPRs) report, available at: http://www.ishr.ch/upr/664-italy-reviewed-under-the-upr US department of state, state report 2010 available at: http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2010/eur/154437.htm

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Cultural Arguments Against Offensive Speech in Malaysia: Debates Between Liberalism and Asian Values on Pornography and Hate Speech
Mohd Azizuddin Mohd Sani
College of Law, Government and International Studies Universiti Utara Malaysia tel no.: +6049286679; fax no.: +6049286565 email: azizuddin@uum.edu.my
Abstract This article is about analysing two issues of pornography and hate speech in the context of political theory and Malaysian politics. This article examines both issues from liberals arguments and it shows that although liberalism supports the right for free speech, since the 1970s many liberals feel that pornography and hate speech should not be part of free speech doctrine because both are not contributing for the public good in democratic system and they are also detrimental to the society. By using the cultural arguments of Asian values, Malaysia totally rejects these practices because they are not suitable in a cultural and religious conscious Malaysian multiracial society. Although many are sceptic about the use of Asian values for the rejection and the uses of hate speech by people including the government, opposition and NGOs for political gain, in principle, Malaysians are in consensus of rejecting both issues for the good of society. Keywords: Malaysia, pornography, hate speech, liberalism, freedom of speech, Asian values

1. Introduction These two months, November 2007 and January 2008, have shocked the Malaysian public with two high profile events which related to the issues of pornography and hate speech. On the eve of New Year, two DVDs were distributed anonymously in several towns such as Muar and Batu Pahat in Johor showing Dr. Chua Soi Lek, Malaysian Health Minister, having sex with a young woman. On 1 January 2008, Chua admitted that he was the person featured in the sex DVDs. He claimed of no involvement in the filming and producing of the DVDs. However, on 2 January 2008, Chua announced of his resignation from the government including as the Health Minister, Member of Parliament for Labis, and Vice President of Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA) (The Star Online, 2008). Although this was a political scandal, distributing the DVDs to the public and the pornographic content of it were totally against Malaysian laws such as the Printing Presses and Publications Act, Penal Code and Broadcasting Act, and taboo to most of Malaysian society who are strong culturally and religiously against this type of misbehave or immoral practice. Meanwhile one month earlier, Hindu Rights Action Force (HINDRAF), a coalition of 30 Hindu non-governmental organisations (NGOs) committed to the preservation of Hindu community rights and heritage, has organised a rally turned riot on Sunday, 25 November 2007 to submit the petition at the British High Commission. The group has led agitations against what they see as an unofficial policy of temple demolition and concerns about the steady encroachment of shariah-based law. They also accused of the United Malays National Organisations (UMNO)-led government of maginalised the ethnic Indian and run a policy of ethnic cleansing (Chandra Muzaffar, 2007, p. 53). According to Chandra Muzaffar (2007, p. 53), the statement about ethnic cleansing is dangerous and utterly a reckless and scurrilous allegation. It is a clear example of hate speech which have hurt and angered many

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Malaysians especially the Malays. Chandra argues that if the government pursued a goal as diabolical as ethnic cleansing, would the principal language of the Indian Malaysian community, namely Tamil, be a medium of instruction in the government managed national primary school. The illegal temple, which was built in private area, was not the only place of worship that was brought down; an illegal surau (small Muslim place for worship) was also demolished. In most instances, when temples or other places of worship are forced to yield to development projects, alternative sites are made available. It is obvious that there is no ethnic cleansing in Malaysia like what was happened in Bosnia Herzegovina and Rwanda, however, the provocative racial hatred statement by HINDRAF could be easily used by bigots and troublemakers to justify an attack on the Indian community. Many worry about the response by other ethnics toward people or ethnic of the people who made the statement. This makes hate speech so dangerous to be permitted in a multiethnic country like Malaysia. Both cases of pornography and hate speech are the latest edition of several similar or slightly similar cases in Malaysia that could tarnish and harm the society. Therefore, the purpose of this article is not directly to discuss about those two cases or other cases, but is to analyse pornography and hate speech thoroughly from the perspective of political theory especially from the view of liberalism. This is because there are split between liberals regarding the protection of pornography and hate speech from any restrictions. Some extreme liberals argue that pornography and hate speech are two important components of the doctrine of free speech which is refuted by the more moderate liberals who believe pornography and hate speech are degrading the society. This article will also explore the cultural debate in Malaysia with relation to those two issues. This debate examines the cultural argument of Asian values embraced by Malaysian society in forbidding the practice of pornography and hate speech, and the rejection of Malaysian society toward the concept of unfettered freedom of speech. 2. War Within Liberalism At its most extreme, liberalism means no control on freedom. Supporters of maximal free speech are inclined to claim that a society will be both more stable and freer in the long run if open discussion prevails. Rodney A. Smolla (1992, pp. 12-17) argues that if societies are not to be undermined by festering tensions, there must be safety valves through which the citizens may let off steam. Openness fosters resilience; peaceful protest displaces more violence than it triggers; free debate dissipates more hate than it stirs. Defining rights as individual and absolute, liberals recognise that there will be abuses in the practice of free speech but are willing to pay that price rather than have government set the boundaries. They argue that to establish permissible limits would ultimately lead to a society unable to decide important question for itself and thus easy prey for the demagogue or a manipulative government (Stevens, 1982, p. 14). In recent years, according to Owen Fiss (1996, p. 3), liberals have also been at war with themselves. For some time, freedom of speech has held them together, but now it is a source of division and conflict. Liberals have divided over the effort to establish a free speech doctrine. Two areas of conflict have been pornography and hate speech. 3. Pornography During the late 1950s and 1960s in the US, the Supreme Court fashioned a constitutional definition of obscenity in order to place limits on state regulation of sexually explicit material. Only books, magazines, and films that met this narrow definition could be proscribed. Fiss argues that while conservatives fought for the right of the state to protect traditional sexual mores and decried the

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Supreme Courts stance, liberals uniformly embraced the effort to curb the censorship of pornography and viewed the sexual politics of the late 1960s as an important source of personal freedom and moral autonomy. The term moral autonomy, frequently used by those who defend freedom of speech, is heavily influenced by Kantian accounts of autonomy. This argument suggests that people are capable of arriving at their own moral convictions but not at their own theories of physics or medicine where they must rely on the opinions of experts. It is assumed that the wish to restrict speech comes from a desire to prevent moral harm (Brison, 1998, p. 323). Ronald Dworkin (1985), in his defence of the right to pornography, appeals to a right to autonomy which he terms as a right to moral independence. He writes: People have the right not to suffer disadvantage in the distribution of social goods and opportunities, including disadvantage in the liberties permitted to them by the criminal law, just on the ground that their officials or fellow-citizens think that their opinions about the right way for them to lead their own lives are ignoble or wrong. I shall call thisthe right to moral independenceif someone has a right to moral independence, this means that it iswrong for officials to act in violation of that right, even if they (correctly) believe that the community as a whole would be better off if they did. (Dworkin, 1985, pp. 353-372) Dworkin holds the view that to restrict peoples speech or to restrict their access to others speech out of contempt for their way of life or their view of the good is a violation of their right to moral independence or autonomy. In agreement with Dworkin, David Richards asserts, in an article defending the right to pornography, that freedom of speech supports a mature individuals sovereign autonomy in deciding how to communicate with othersIn so doing, it nurtures and sustains the self-respect of the mature person. Further, freedom of expression protects the interest of the mature individual, with developed capacities of rational choice, in deciding whether to be an audience to a communication and in weighing the communication according to his own rational vision of lifeThe value of free speech, in this view, rests on its deep relation to self-respect arising from autonomous self-determination without which the life of the spirit is meagre and slavish. (Richards, 1974, pp. 45-91) During the late 1970s and early 1980s, however, feminists long a vital component of the liberal coalition launched a new campaign against pornography, and as a result this area of the law became another contested domain of liberalism. The new campaign against pornography differed from those of the past in that the proposed regulation was intended not to preserve traditional mores concerning sexuality but rather to enhance equality for women. A number of the leaders of the feminist movement, for example Andrea Dworkin and Catharine MacKinnon, claimed that pornography eroticises the domination of women and transforms women into sexual objects to be used by men and thus is partially responsible for their subordination in domains both private and public (Fiss, 1996, p. 3). Although autonomy theorists are generally opposed to restrictions on pornography, it is plausible to argue that such speech succeeds in presenting harmful actions, such as rape, in a favourable light in ways that bypass an individuals deliberative or cognitive capacities. Pornography can provoke our deepest and unarticulated prejudices and we can find ourselves aroused by pornographic representations, without having fully contemplated the meaning of such representations. MacKinnon (1987, p. 164) even claims that pornography should be understood as part of a practice of sex discrimination, and therefore deserves no legal protection because it is incompatible with gender equality. Laws to control speech that affect people in these ways would not violate peoples autonomy

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because, the claim is, the influence they have is not rationally mediated. Hence, if autonomy theorists want to defend the protection of pornography, they will have to appeal to something other than peoples autonomy (Dwyer, 2001, pp. 1-18). 4. Hate Speech Besides, a similar concern about the impact that public utterances may have upon the social status of disadvantaged groups has recently led to a revival of interest in regulation of hate speech, though the psychological dynamic by which that speech inflicts its harm differs from that of pornography and the group allegedly victimised is not primarily women but racial and religious minorities. As with pornography, the question posed is whether the regulation of hate speech is consistent with, or even required by, an acceptable liberal principle of freedom of speech. On this issue, liberals once again find themselves drawn into sharp combat. Hate speech can be defined as insults and characterisations that are directed against an individuals or a groups race, religion, ethnic origin, or gender, which may incite violence, hatred or discrimination (Rud and Sexton, 1999, p. 1). In the United States (US), hate speech is a broad term that may include a great variety of expression, but according to Nelson v. Streeter 1994, it generally refers to words or symbols that are offensive, hurtful, and wounding and are directed at racial or ethnic characteristics, gender, religious affiliation, or sexual preference (Trager and Dickerson, 1999, p. 124). The US courts usually consider hate speech part of the rough and tumble of discourse that is part of a democratic and open society. On the contrary, some contend that hate speech is deliberately hurtful, morally no better than physical aggression, and should not be permitted in civilised societies. Hate speech is a form of speech that goes to the core issues in society, for example, racism, homophobia, and womens rights. In many countries including Canada, France, the Netherlands, and Germany, as well as Malaysia, it is not protected. In the past ten years, too, there has been a movement in the US to have hate speech removed from its place at the core of protected speech, arguing that it is dangerous and damages individuals and society. Many support the view that hate speech may be legitimately restricted because it is not essential to democracy and indeed, it often undermines the equal respect that is essential to democracy as well as causing other social harms. For instance, it encourages feelings of inferiority, destroys self-esteem as well as personal security and emotion (Matsuda et al., 1993). Thus, a number of minority and female writers argue that the US approach to hate speech is inadequate and that it should be subject to criminal or civil penalties. Several theorists criticise the proposal to restrict hate speech, primarily for two reasons. First, there is an idea that speech should be allowed and tested by the people without restriction. One leading supporter of this idea is Henry Louis Gates (1993, pp. 37-38), who decries the effort of critical ethnic theorists who support the punishment of those who engage in hate speech. He claims that the theory behind hate speech codes if you banish the speech, you banish the hate is not only simplistic but also unrealistic. Equality, justice, and human dignity, if allowed to remain unchallenged and untested by racists and bigots of every stripe, will not prosper but become Mills dead dogma. Gates says that American hate speech codes, which target vulgar language and epithets, do nothing to halt carefully worded bigotry. Gerald Gunter (1994, p. 76) agrees with Gates and argues that opinion expressed in debates and arguments about a wide rage of political and social issues should not be suppressed simply because of disagreement with the content or form of the expression. He stresses that speech should not and cannot be banned simply because it is offensive to substantial parts of, or a majority of, a community. The proper answer to bad speech is usually more and better speech not new laws, litigation and repression.

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Second, there is also an argument that the restriction of hate speech will harm the democratic system and public discourse. Robert Post (1991, pp. 267-328) argues that the banning of hate speech would sacrifice other important values served by the freedom of speech such as exchange of ideas and open debate. Democracy serves the value of self-determination by establishing a communicative structure within which the varying perspectives of individuals can be reconciled through reason. If the state were to forbid the expression of particular ideas, the government would become, with respect to individuals holding those ideas, suppressive and non-democratic. Although Post argues that all opinions should be tolerated so long as their protagonists urge their acceptance by legal methods, the notion that racist ideas ought to be forbidden within public discourse because of the offensiveness is thus fundamentally irreconcilable with the rationale for freedom of speech. He thinks that the case has not yet been made for circumscribing public discourse to prevent the kind of pre-emptive silencing that occurs when members of victim groups experience fear, rage, (and) shock. If the empirical claim of systematic pre-emptive silencing is accepted, in his view, it is directly the result of the social and structural conditions of racism, rather than of specifically racist speech. This is the logic of the argument from pre-emptive silencing does not impeach the necessity of preserving the free speech of ideas, public discourse could at most be regulated in a largely symbolic manner so as to purge it of outrageous racist epithets and names. Post concludes that it is highly implausible to claim that such symbolic regulation will eliminate the pre-emptive silencing that is said to justify restraints on public discourse, and deliberative self-government is not compatible with such restriction on free speech (Arthur, 1997, pp. 231-232). However, the arguments of Gates, Gunter and Post for allowing the expression of hate speech are rather dangerous. Joel Feinberg (1984) argues that when fighting words are used to provoke people who are legally prevented from using a fighting response, the offence is profound enough to allow for prohibition. However, Feinberg also suggests that a variety of factors need to be taken into account when deciding whether speech can be limited by the offence principle. These include the extent, duration and social value of the speech, the ease with which it can be avoided, the motives of the speaker, the number of people offended, the intensity of the offence, and the general interest of the community at large. In a multicultural and multiracial society where the risk of violence and disorder is real and can undermine the nations political stability, the restriction of hate speech should be allowed. Speech influences action and hate speech can spark aggression and violent behaviour. A society that wants to encourage tolerance between races and ethnic groups must choose a policy that creates political stability and not one that promotes enmity, and hostility even in the name of marketplace of ideas. The idea of associating hate speech with democracy and self-government is also unconvincing, as a democratic political system can still flourish in the absence of hate speech. This is clear from the numerous democracies where hate speech is restricted. Public hate speech can be argued to violate the rights of some members of the community itself. As we have seen, political discourse is often understood on Alexander Meiklejohns (1965) model of the town meeting. Free speech is essential to reach informed decisions on matters of common concern. At the same time, Meiklejohn stresses that speakers can be required to observe certain rules of order. These rules do not violate freedom of speech, but rather make free deliberation possible. In particular, he observes that if a speaker is abusive or in other ways threatens to defeat the purpose of the meeting, he may be and should be declared out of order. It would seem to follow from this view that public hate speech should not be protected under the constitution. Like abusive speech in a town meeting, hate speech violates the integrity of the deliberative process by undermining the possibility of reasoned discourse. As Meiklejohn observes, such discourse cannot take place except on the basis of mutual respect among citizens who regard one another as capable of engaging in rational self-

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government. Of course, public debate in a large modern society differs in many ways from Meiklejohns town meeting, and a great deal of speech that would be improper in that setting is considered acceptable within the polity at large. However, Meiklejohns basic insight is valid. Democratic selfgovernment is impossible in the absence of a minimal degree of civility and mutual respect among citizens. Although that minimum standard will differ depending on the nature, size, customs, and values of each society, its members must observe some standard or they cease to constitute a democratic community. Thus, however minimal our societys version of that standard is taken to be, it will be violated by speech that denies recognition to others on the basis of race, ethnicity, gender, or religion (Heyman, 1999, pp. 1380-1383). 5. Malaysias Cultural Arguments: The Asian Values The theory and practice of human rights has emerged in the context of particular social, economic, cultural and political conditions. The circumstances that prompted the institutionalisation of human rights in the West do not exist in Asia, but it would be a mistake to assume that nothing of theoretical significance has emerged from Asia. The debate on Asian values has prompted critical intellectuals in the region to reflect on how they can locate themselves in a debate on human rights and democracy in which they had not previously played a substantial part. Neither wholly rejecting nor wholly endorsing the values and practices ordinarily realised through a liberal democratic political regime, these intellectuals are drawing on their own cultural traditions and exploring areas of commonality and difference with the West. Though often less provocative than the views of their governments, in the sense that few argue for the wholesale rejection of Western-style liberal democracy, these unofficial Asian viewpoints may offer more considered and less politically motivated contributions to the debate. As an advocate of Asian values, Mahathir Mohamad, former Prime Minister of Malaysia, explains that the Malaysian perspective of Asian values is based on Malay-Islamic culture and should be protected against absorption by Western values. He urges the three most basic elements of Malayness feudalism, Islam, and adat (traditional customs) as he saw it in 1970 in his book, The Malay Dilemma, should all be classed as features to be merely accepted as realities and perhaps adapted to modern needs (Barr, 2002, p. 42). Mahathir (Mahathir and Ishihara, 1995, pp. 71-86) rejects the Western liberal notion of unfettered free speech which, he believes, can corrupt Malaysian culture and religious beliefs. Concerned about the influence of Western individualism, and the future of Asian values and traditions, Mahathir launched the Look East policy in 1982 as a broader campaign against Western values. Mahathir told the 1982 UMNO General Assembly to Look East to emulate the diligence found there and to rid ourselves of the Western values that we have absorbed (Khoo, 1995, p. 69). It has been argued that although the Malays are facing rapid development and modernisation, especially under Mahathirs, and his successor, Abdullah Ahmad Badawis leaderships, they are still embracing and prioritising certain values. The Malay values of patience, respect and togetherness are applied through peoples tactful actions in everyday social interactions, but more importantly, they are also achieved through linguistic indirectness, hedges and other positive politeness strategies. According to Lim Beng Soon, by avoiding disagreements, criticisms, complaints and any other facethreatening acts (FTAs) that might reduce the desirability of the addressee and using hedges or even white lies to avoid conflicts, one shows forbearance, achieves harmony and demonstrates togetherness, thus meeting the essential requirement of Malay etiquette (Yuan, 2003, p. 1). For example, people are warned to guard against speaking in a direct manner as it may lead to serious consequences: berapa tajam pisau parang, tajam lagi lidah manusia knives and machetes are not as sharp as tongues.

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Malay culture has significant implications for negotiation processes and outcomes. In negotiation, the Malays compromising and obliging conflict-handling styles are probably manifestations of their collective nature, which prioritises group over personal interests. In compromising and obliging styles, negotiators are more concerned with maintaining relationship and safeguarding their partners feeling, hence the seemingly perceived weak-styles in goal-oriented negotiation. To the Malays, even though achieving their goals in a negotiation is important, their values in preserving harmony and respect for elders take precedence in the negotiation process (Lailawati, 2005, p. 8). Religion is an integral component of cultural values, although in Southeast Asia its influence is similarly contested. Ismail Ibrahim (2001) admits that as long as Asian values or other values are not contradicted by Islamic teachings and values, those values should be accepted in Malaysian society, e.g. respect to elderly people and good work ethics. He also stresses that all societies have their own measurements of human rights, which are based on local values, religious practices and traditions. Freedom of speech should be used in as appropriate a manner as possible without undermining sensitive issues such as national security, religious beliefs and multiracial harmony. Some Southeast Asian leaders have argued that the aggressive separation of church and state in the West in effect limiting religion to the private sphere and the consequent process of secularisation have contributed to a moral void in public life and accentuated the negative impulses of individualism (Inoguchi and Newman, 1997, p. 1-9). In Malaysia, despite the obvious diversity of religions chiefly Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism and Christianity and a similar process of secularisation, it has been argued that religion still plays an important part in everyday life and contributes to group identity and orientation. In fact, according to Joseph Lo, most East and Southeast Asians would prefer some constraints of free speech, perhaps in the form of libel laws to protect cultures from various forms of defamation and hate speech (Bell, 2000, p. 9). However, many writers criticise the argument of Asian values from the context of culture. Wan A. Manan (1999, p. 359-381) thinks that the discourse on Asian values is basically a cultural construction aimed at maintaining certain practices that came under threat from globalisation and democratisation. Underlying current global transformations are forces that tend to generate fundamental changes within society. These include issues relating to human rights, civil society, gender consciousness and democratic reforms. However, the cultural position that advocates the division between the West and East is misleading because these are not two big permanent static blocks. The dynamic relationships between cultures in the age of global interactions keep them in a constant state of flux. In any case, proponents of Asian values are not alone in their cultural claim because Western scholars such as Huntington consider their version of democracy and human rights as the only valid and objective one (Huntington, 1993, p. 22). The most disturbing use, or rather abuse, of the cultural argument is that it is often a central plank in the narrative of those governments who actively oppose the application of international human rights standards in their countries in order to buttress their own power. The presumed tolerance and pluralism of culture seems to underwrite a conservative political agenda: the tolerance and perhaps even maintenance of highly not egalitarian and repressive political systems, while ironically energies are devoted to the sentimental education of ruthless and cruel dictators (e.g., Suharto of Indonesia and Marcos of the Philippine) and the predominantly illiterate and subjugated masses of this world. Cultural particularism is often one of the most useful ideologies in mounting a defence and bringing about international acquiescence in state repression (Wilson, 1997, p. 9). The concept of human rights, therefore, relates to the dignity of the human individual. Some critics think that this philosophy is misunderstood by some Asian political leaders, who conflate the antisocial behaviour of some individuals in the West with the individualism of the theory of human rights

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(Fareed, 1994, p. 111). A common source of this misunderstanding is the relationship between rights and duties. It is said that Asian morality is based on duties, while Western morality is based on rights (Ghai, 1995, p. 60). Michael Freeman (1996, p. 361) argues that this misstates the logic of rights. He explains that Locke (1689/1993), for example, held that everyone has the duty to respect the life and dignity of others. Rational individuals consent to live under government on condition that it also implements the same duties. Governments that violate the rights of their citizens deserve condemnation as tyrannies. So, similarly, societies that impose imperial rule over other peoples without their consent are guilty of violating the rights of those people. The concept of human rights justifies democracy and condemns tyranny and imperialism. In any case, there are no grounds for believing that norms originating in one place should be inherently unsuitable for solving problems more generally. Such a belief commits the genetic fallacy, in that it assumes that a norm is suitable only to the culture of its origin. However, the origin of an idea in one culture does not entail its unsuitability to another culture. If, for example, there are good reasons for protecting the free speech of Asian people, free speech should be respected, no matter whether the idea of free speech originated in the West or Asia, or how long it has had currency. In fact, Asian countries may have now entered into historical circumstances where the affirmation and protection of free speech is not only possible but also desirable (Xiaorong, 2001, pp. 42-43). Therefore, some of the criticisms of the Asian values position carry the further implication that the stress on Asian culture is found only at the elite, leadership level. The wider population in Malaysia, Singapore and the other countries of Asia, it seems to be suggested, hold values that are not radically different from those usually associated with liberal democracy (Kahn, 1989, pp. 5-29). In response to the criticism, many writers argue that culture, indeed, plays a significant role in everyday life of Asian society. Despite these question marks over the practice of cultural analysis, however, a number of recent studies underline the danger of dismissing entirely the role of different cultural perspectives in analysing processes of change and interaction within the Asian region. In a survey analysis, Joel Kahn (1997, pp. 29-30) has reported on one hundred and twenty interviews with middle class Malays he carried out from 1992-1994. He found that almost all respondents articulated some form of the Asian values argument. They stressed concerns about the threat posed to Malay culture by modernisation and criticised the West for its lack of family values, individualism and selfishness, a lack of cultural values, permissiveness, secularisation and uncaring. Although the phrase Asian values possesses real inadequacies as a descriptive expression, it also argues that we cannot proceed from this point to the further assumption that there is no need to examine the substantial range of cultural perspectives and values which influence behaviour within and between Asian societies. Mahathir and Lee Kuan Yew, of course, are well aware of the political usefulness of Asian values, but the evidence clearly demonstrates that these Southeast Asian leaders do not by any means construct their ideological packages in a cultural vacuum. 6. Freedom of Speech is not Absolute: There is no Such Thing as Pornography and Hate Speech in Malaysia Regarding the issue of free speech, I am persuaded by Li-ann Thio (1999, pp. 1-86) who argues that a distinction should be drawn between contested human rights norms and those norms upon which all agree, such as the right to free speech. The controversy surrounding the latter category is one with respect to the scope of application, not the substance of the value. The right of free speech, which underpins a democratic society, is, for example, formally guaranteed in the Malaysian Federal Constitution and as well as the US Bill of Rights. The controversy concerns the degree of liberty that

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should be permitted and the permissible grounds for derogation. This can have extensive ramifications in the practical realm, as illustrated by the following quote from a scholar, Shad Faruqi: Admittedly, the rugged individualism, un-inhibitedness and licentiousness of what is still the wild, wild West is contrary to Asian tradition. Our attitudes to nation, religion and culture, race, family and community are reverential. We draw a line between liberty and license. We do not deem it a matter of constitutional principle that there should be a right to desecrate our national flag, to blaspheme our religions and to walk freely into shops to buy murderous weapons. We view a free-wheeling sexual lifestyle, drug taking and alcohol addiction with revulsion. With the bulk of us, pornography is not part of free speech, abortion on demand is not part of personal liberty and homosexuality is not part of freedom of choice. We acknowledge that rights and responsibilities must go hand-in-hand and that freedom is not an end in itself. (Shad, 1996, p. 17) Joseph Chan (2000, pp. 59-74) has identified approaches which he calls thin accounts of human rights as a cause of the disjunction between Western liberalism and the social conservatism of the Asian values discourse. He regards such declaratory accounts of human rights as nothing more than shorthand for the results of bundles of sophisticated and contingent arguments. The right to freedom of speech, for instance, is a shorthand that describes several different rights, each with its own rationale; the rights to commercial speech, political speech, artistic expression, and religious expression. Shorthand can be useful for facilitating discussion and for coining a slogan, but the slogan should never be mistaken for the argument. Hence Chan argues that: the general right to freedom of speech as such is a generalisation from these independently justified specific rights. Thus to decide whether cigarette advertising should be regulated, it requires substantive reasoning from square one we need to discuss what sorts of interests and what parties are relevant and how those interests should be balanced. (Chan, 2000, p. 65) The same caveats apply to the application of the freedom of speech mantra to pornography, expressions of racial hatred, and sexist language, not to mention issues to which we barely give second thought, such as a childs freedom of speech vis--vis a parents or teachers authority. It is because we have mistaken imprecise shorthand generalisations for the real thing that so many supposedly fundamental and universal human rights commonly conflict with other fundamental and universal human rights (Barr, 2002, pp. 188-189). For example, consider the right to freedom of speech in the case of pornography. Pornography has been more heavily censored in some Asian countries, e.g. Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia, than in most Western ones. Does the prohibition of pornography unjustifiably violate freedom of speech? Adopting the three-party analysis of interests mentioned above, some may judge that what is required is a balancing of the interests of the publishers (commercial and ideological interests), the audience/consumers interests (in erotic excitement) and third-party, or community, interests. Important disagreements may centre on the third-party interests, some may take the view that the community as a whole has an interest in maintaining its moral standards, and that societys morals should, therefore, enter into our judgements. However, this view offends many liberals who uphold a particular mid-level principle, namely, that it is not the business of the state to enforce a societys particular moral ethos. On this view, the maintenance of morals is never a legitimate interest to enter

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into the balancing calculus. According to Chan (2000, pp. 70-72), those accepting the legitimacy of, for example, the principle of legal moralism would allow societys morals to be put on the scale; those liberals who are against legal moralism would not. In Malaysia, moralism is parallel with the cultural and religious (Islamic) practices and normally, principles of political morality guide Malaysian society to make this kind of fundamental decision, such as banning pornography. The government has an essential role to represent societys moralism and act on cultural value and religious belief. There is strong consensus amongst Malaysians whether they are Malays (or other indigenous tribes), Chinese, or Indians, which rejects materials of a pornographic or sexual nature as immoral and obscene. Pornography is seen as a kind of exploitation as it degrades, endangers, and harms the lives of women. Although many in the business argue that the womens involvement in pornography is voluntary, many Malaysians believe that there is an element of exploitation by the pornographic industry. Mahathir argues in this context: there are limits to freedom, and I believe it is important for every member of a society to know these limits. One good example is pornography. You can have computer animation, which may be ever so creative and thus should be freely available but if this freedom is used to produce pornographic films that are purveyed to the impressionable young, then the fruits of the freedom should not be accepted and allowed by society. In Malaysia, it is not my impression that business ingenuity or creativity have been stifled by our Malaysian value system which sets clear limits to individual freedom and generally emphasises the community over the individual. To the contrary, I believe that our value system has been the foundation for our societys stability and prosperity, at least until the economic crisis struck. (Mahathir, 1999, pp. 73-74) On this matter, the government takes the initiative to protect public morality and the traditional way of life from pornography and sexual exploitation. For instance, in February 2002, the government banned a rerun of the controversial feminist play The Vagina Monologues. The play, presented by local performers, and according to the producer of the show, the play contained adult material but was neither vulgar nor obscene. The play was banned because of alleged complaints by members of the public on the vulgar content and title of the play. Mahathir also attacked Western liberal democracy which often tolerates offensive and hate speech: Malaysian democracy is not a liberal democracy and not bound to accept every new interpretation of democracy in the West where democratic fanatics have pushed devotion to a pedantic notion of democracy to include the protection of neo-fascists or the empowering of a vocal minority of political activists over the silent majority of ordinary citizens. (Leigh and Lip, 2004, p. 320) Mahathirs successor, Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, in his first speech to the Parliament on assuming his appointment as the Prime Minister in November 2003, expressed his conviction that democracy is the best system of governance, but:

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Democracy does not mean absolute freedom. Issues that inflame religious, racial (ethnic), and cultural sentiments should not be sensationalised, while attempts to undermine national security must be dealt with firmly. (SUARAM, 2004, p. 21) Abdullah will pledge to ensure ethnic harmony and stability, and continue restricting hate speech that is deemed to be a threat to national security and public order. Furthermore, K.J. Ratnam (2003, pp. 34-35) rejects the liberal argument that every time a regime embarks on actions that curtail political freedoms it does so without legitimate cause and only for self-interested reasons, or that opponents of governments are themselves always believers in democracy and civil rights. He argues that the importance of social and political stability, especially in multiracial society, is strong enough to justify substantial restrictions on hate speech. With regard to the media, Ratnam (2003, pp. 54-55) urges that editors should disallow the publication of views that inflame ethnic feelings or in other ways undermine the fabric of society, even though the reasons for publishing those views are to honour their commitment to freedom of speech and their opposition to censorship. He concurs with the decision by the editor of a major Malaysian newspaper not to published letters, reports or articles that incite people to racial hatred. However, we also have to beware of the governments leaders, members and supporters who use hate speech in strengthening their grip in power and exploiting ethnic issues for political purposes. Sumit K. Mandal (2004, p. 57), for instance, realises this and criticises the Malaysian governments policy on racial hatred, arguing that racialised, and even racist, instruments of state and politics find their place in the public spaces of Malaysia without much sustained and rigorous criticism. Notable examples of racialised language are the primordialist terms Malay supremacy (ketuanan Melayu) and newcomer or immigrant (pendatang) used by chauvinist elements in the Malay leadership to assert an inherent difference between their own and migrant others. In recent decades, according to Mandal, these chauvinist terms have come to the fore during elite political crises in order to galvanise groups along racial lines. Hence, when oppositional groups, including NGOs, accuse the state of racist politics, their arguments often run aground and do not find widespread support. The racialisation of state initiatives like the New Economic Policy (NEP) soon after the watershed of 13 May 1969, have institutionalised race and made it part of an effective political system, thus furthering its unproblematised existence. As a result, according to Mandal, the state may be credited with making colonial era racialisation, with a policy of divide and rule, a post-colonial success. Anwar Ibrahim also made a same argument and accused the government of appealing to puritanical Muslim sentiment to reinforce support ahead of the vote in the next 12th general election. Commentators in multiracial but Muslim majority Malaysia have sounded alarm over the growing Islamisation of the country and the increasing polarisation of the three main ethnic communities. Anwar, speaking in the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies Regional Outlook Forum, argued that Malaysias problem is not radicalism but the issue of state-sponsored Muslim Puritanism which is more by racist sentiments than religious principles. Anwar said that for some reason it is the belief of the present administration in Kuala Lumpur that playing the puritanical card would be best bet for the UMNO-dominated ruling coalition to secure electoral success in the coming electionBy holding themselves out to be the staunchest defender of Islam, UMNO hope to garner greater support (Agence France-Press, 2008, p. 1). Clearly, hate speech is not only spoken by bigots and racists, but also sometimes by some people in power who try to achieve their objective of retaining the political power. They will use any mechanism to ensure they get what they want including by using hate speech. Germanys Nazi in the Holocaust during World War II and Rwandas Hutu/Tutsi in Genocide in 1990s proofed that hate speech could be used to achieve certain racist policy of the government. In Malaysian

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history, the 13th May 1969 racial incident was the obvious example that hate speech had been utilised to gain seats and win constituencies for political power. Therefore any practices of hate speech should be stopped in order to ensure the real racial harmony and political stability exists in Malaysia. Any disagreements or dissatisfactions should be resolved in civil as manner possible. Proper peaceful dialogues and discussions could be the way in resolving any problems especially with regards to racial issues. In general, Malaysians can accept that the restrictions on pornography and hate speech are for the common good. No such campaign, either by the government, opposition and NGOs, in legalising the pornography and hate speech in Malaysia is a comprehensible proof that Malaysians dislike those kind of speeches or expressions. 7. Conclusion The liberal argument for free speech is not suitable to be implemented in a multicultural or multiracial society if pornography and hate speech are allowed to be practised and state intervention in maintaining social order is discouraged for the purpose of defending unfettered free speech. Speech such as pornography and hate speech, which certain societies may value as important for individual rights and freedom of choice, are not included under special constitutional protection, especially in Malaysia, because they are not contributing anything to the democratic process and, of course, against cultural values of many societies, thus restricting them cannot be seen as a breach of civil liberties or free speech. The constitutional protected political speech has value for the community as a whole, beyond its value to the speaker, and consequently ought to be specially nurtured. Suppression may be especially justifiable because evil speech is not just a private wrong to another individual but a public bad that may lead to harm to the whole community (Mill, 2002; Baker, 1989, p. 35). There are two reasons why the Asian values thesis provides a legitimate basis restricting freedom of speech particularly pornography and hate speech. These are first, to protect cultural identity, and second, to defend national stability. Asian values are the best protection for Malaysian culture from the invasion of negative Western culture. Asian values has been used as shield to prevent Western culture from overwhelming Malaysian culture. Although the Malaysian people do not totally reject all of Western culture and its values, certain practices such as pornography and hate speech are unacceptable to the Malaysian multiracial society. These practices are also unacceptable in the sense that they conflict with the dominant cultural and religious beliefs of Malaysian peoples. Although, many are sceptic about the government intention of promoting Asian values, the use of cultural values in containing pornography and hate speech should be encouraged in order to promote public good in the society. References
Agence France-Presse. (2008) Malaysian government playing Islamic card ahead of vote: Anwar. 1 January. http://news.my.msn.com/regional/article.aspx?cp-documentid=1179732 (accessed 10 January 2008) Arthur, J. (1997) Recent Work in Freedom of Speech. Philosophical Books 38(4): 225-234. Baker, C.E. (1989) Human Liberty and Freedom of Speech. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Barr, M.D. (2002) Cultural Politics and Asian Values: The Tepid War. London: Routledge. Bell, D. (2000) East Meets West: Human Rights and Democracy in East Asia. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Brison, S.J. (1998) The Autonomy Defense of Free Speech. Ethics 108(2): 312-339.

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Chan, J. (2000) Thick and Thin Accounts of Human Rights. In Human Rights and Asian Values: Contesting National Identities and Cultural Representations in Asia, edited by M. Jacobsen and O. Bruun. Surrey: Curzon Press. Chandra Muzaffar. (2008) Ethnic cleansing claims ludicrous. The Star. 13 December. Dworkin, R. (1985) A Matter of Principle. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Dwyer, S. (2001) Free Speech. The Nordic Journal of Philosophy 2: 1-18. Fareed Z. (1994) Culture is destiny: Interview with Lee Kuan Yew. Foreign Affairs 73(2): 109-126. Feinberg, J. (1984) Harm to Others: The Moral Limits of the Criminal Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Fiss, O.M. (1996) Liberal Divided: Freedom of Speech and the Many Uses of State Power. Boulder: Westview. Freeman, M. (1996) Human Rights, Democracy and Asian values. The Pacific Review 9(3): 352-366. Gates, H.L. (1993) Let them talk: Why civil liberties pose no threat to civil rights. The New Republic. 20 September. Ghai, Y. (1995) Asian Perspectives on Human Rights. In Human Rights and International Relations in the Asia-Pacific Region, edited by T.H. Tang. London: Pinter. Gunther, G. (1994) All speech should be unrestricted on College Campuses. In Free Speech, edited by B. Leone. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press. Heyman, S.J. (1999) Righting the balance: an inquiry into the foundations and limits of Freedom of Expression. Boston University Law Review 78: 1277-1390. Huntington, S.P. (1993) The Clash of Civilizations?. Foreign Affairs 72(3): 22-49. Inoguchi, T and Newman, E. (1997) Introduction: Asian Values and Democracy in Asia. In Asian Values and Democracy in Asia. 27 March. Shizouka: Shizuoka Prefectural Government. http: //www.unu.edu/hq/unupress/asian-values.html (accessed 16 August 1999) Ismail Ibrahim. (2001) Interview: Former Chairman of the Malaysian Institute of Islamic Understanding. 13 October. Interview via The Internet (Email). Kahn, J.S. (1989) Culture, Demise or Resurrection?. Critique of Anthropology 9(2): 5-29. Kahn, J.S. (1997) Malaysian Modern or Anti-anti Asian values. Thesis Eleven. 5 August. Khoo B.T. (1995) Paradoxes of Mahathirism: an intellectual biography of Mahathir Mohamad. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. Lailawati M.S. (2005) High/Low Context Communication: The Malaysian Malay Style. In Proceeding of the 2005 Association for Business Communication Annual Convention. Kuala Lumpur: Association for Business Communication. Leigh, M. and Lip, B. (2004) Transitions in Malaysian Society and Politics: Towards Centralizing Power. In The AsiaPacific: A Region in Transition, edited by J. Rolfe. Hawaii: Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies. Locke, J. (1689/1993) The Second Treatise of Government. In Political Writings of John Locke, edited by D. Wootton. New York: Mentor. MacKinnon, C.A. (1987) Feminism Unmodified. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Mahathir Mohamad. (1999) A New Deal For Asia. Selangor: Pelanduk Publications. Mahathir Mohamad and Ishihara S. (1995) The Voice of Asia: Two Leaders Discuss the Coming Century. Tokyo: Kodansha International. Manan, W.A. (1999) A Nation in Distress: Human Rights, Authoritarianism, and Asian Values in Malaysia. SOJOURN: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia 14(2): 359-381. Mandal, S.K. (2004) Transethnic solidarities, racialisation and social equality. In The State of Malaysia: Ethnicity, Equity and Reform, edited by E.T. Gomez. London: RoutledgeCurzon. Matsuda, M.J., Lawrence, C.R., Delgado, R. and Crenshaw, K.W. (1993) Words That Wound: Critical Race Theory, Assaultive Speech and the First Amendment. Oxford: Westview Press. Meiklejohn, A. (1965) Political Freedom: The Constitutional Power of the People. New York: Oxford University Press. Mill, D.V. (2002) Freedom of Speech. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http: //plato.stanford.edu/entries/freedomspeech/ (accessed 8 November 2004) Post, R.C. (1991) Racist Speech, Democracy, and the First Amendment. William and Mary Law Review 32(2): 267-328. Ratnam, K.J. (2003) Rights, Freedoms and the Civil Society. Penang: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia. Richards, D.A.J. (1974) Free Speech and Obscenity Law: Toward a Moral Theory of the First Amendment. University of Pennsylvania Law Review 123: 45-91. Rud, D. and Sexton, N. (1999) Hate Speech Defined. http: //www.unc.edu/courses/law357c (accessed 17 November 2004)

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Shad F. (1996) What are Human Rights? Some Explanations on Different Conceptions and Perspectives. In Human Rights and The Media, edited by R. Haas. Kuala Lumpur: Aidcom. Smolla, R.A. (1992) Free Speech in an Open Society. New York: Vintage Books. Stevens, J.D. (1982) Shaping The First Amendment: The Development of Free Expression. California: SAGE Publications, Inc. Suara Rakyat Malaysia (SUARAM). (2004) Malaysia: Human Rights Report 2003. Petaling Jaya: SUARAM. Trager, R. and Dickerson, D.L. (1999) Freedom of Expression in the 21st Century. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press, Inc. The Star Online. (2008) Dr. Chua Soi Lek admits to being the man in sex DVD. 2 January. http://thestar.com.my/news/ story.asp?file=/2008/1/2/nation/19898249&sec=nation (accessed 10 January 2008) Wilson, R.A. (1997) Human Rights, Culture and Context: Anthropological Perspectives. Chicago: Pluto Press. Xiaorong L. (2001) Asian Values and the Universality of Human Rights. In Dealing with Human Rights: Asian and Western Views on the Value of Human Rights, edited by M. Meijer. Oxford: WorldView Publishing. Yuan Y. (2003) Lim Beng Soon: Malay Saying as Politeness Strategies. In Review: Report on SAAL Talk. Singapore: SAAL (The Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics. http: //www.saal.org.sg/sq63.html (accessed 14 May 2006).

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Monetary Implication of Environmental Disamenities on Housing Investment in Lagos State: The Ojota Scenerio
O.A. Akinjare * V. A. Adelegan ** A. Ajayi ** S.O. Oyewole **
* Department of Estate Management, School of Environmental Sciences College of Science and Technology, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State E-mail: omoladeogah@yahoo.co.uk ** Department of Banking & Finance, School of Business Studies College of Developmental Studies, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State E-mail: bonsque2003@yahoo.com, anijreload@yahoo.com, snazzybeaut@yahoo.com
Abstract Numerous studies have ascertained the diminutionary tendencies of disamenities such as solid waste landfills on real estate investments despite previous mixed conclusions. This study examines one of the four landfills in Lagos State- Olusosun landfill located in Ojota, Lagos and its estimated financial implication on the real estate market in Lagos State, Nigeria. A relational distance of 1 200m radius was established between the landfill and residential properties by which property values were measured based on consistent intervals of 300meters up to 1 200 meters in concentric rings. The study indicated within the Olusosun landfill neighbourhood, an increase in property values were evident as distance away from the landfills increased indicating that residential houses in close proximity to the landfills suffered value loss. Property appreciation relative to distance averaged 6% within the concentric rings of the landfill while the an estimated total loss on the real estate market via the landfill found to be approximately =N=2.1billion. The study recommended that if improved technology could not be utilised in the effective management of the various sanitary landfills within developed areas of the state, the current landfills in operation be closed down and relocated to the outskirts of the city to forestall a consistent appreciation in real estate investment in the state. Keywords: Landfill, Distance, Residential Property, Property Value & Monetary Loss.

1. Introduction Investing in real estate involves the purchase, ownership, management, rental and or sale of real estate for profit. Real estate as an asset is an embodiment of rights with limited liquidity relative to other investments. Its cash flow generative nature makes it the favourite investment of able and wealthy individuals inclusive of organisations and institutions. Capital for real estate investing are most times accessed at a cost, through mortgage leverage, coperative societies and or personal savings overtime. In Nigeria, the goal of every able bodied man is to own at least an enclosure (shelter) he can call his own for himself and his family thus, there is a high drive to build, to own and to generate secured cash flows as a means of income from real estate. Since real estate assets are typically very expensive to acquire/produce in comparison to other widely available investment instruments such as stocks and bonds, its appreciational potential must be harnessed and sustained optimally in a bid to secure a steady income stream for the investor. In line with the trinity of investment- security of capital, security of present returns on capital and security of

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future incomes are crucial requirements for an investment to be termed ideal. Inclusively, every factor attributable to enhanced real estate value must of necessity be favourable to an investors choice of real estate investment. These factors of which location is chief include neighbourhood amenities, accessibility, building finishes, nature of structure etc. The presence of value depressants such as landfills also terned a disamenity within the locality of a real estate have been known to erode its potential to optimally generate income and also its open market value. Facts have continually been established via researches that operational landfill within cities birth negative externalities which include but not limited to environmental stigma and damage through the formation and accumulation methane gas, groundwater contamination, bad odours, vermin and flies, while litters may spread from the landfill if not properly managed. In addition, the covering and compacting of the solid waste with soil suspends airborne dust which have proved hazardous to the health of neighbouring residents and passer-by as well. The economic impact of landfills on proximal values is important for a number of reasons. Foremostly, a disparity in price between similar properties located in non landfill neighbourhoods and those within a landfill neighourhood is created. Futhermore, affected real estate investors want to know what effect, if any, the presence of a landfill has or will have on the value of their assets. Likewise, in the event of a landfill project being subject to cost-benefit analysis, estimates of property price effects can be incorporated into the cost-benefit profile. Earlier researches on the impact of sanitary landfills on residential properties have found negative relationship between residential house prices and proximity to landfills. These studies indicate that values of residential properties situated within a six kilometre radius from any prominent landfill site rise by approximately 5 to 7% per 1.6 km distance away from the said site. Negative value effects have been rarely found for properties located in excess of six kilometres away from landfills. Property values, however, fall more dramatically (i.e. between 21 and 30 percent) the closer (i.e. in a 400m to 800m radius) the properties are situated to a landfill site. A few recent studies, however, have found no statistically significant relationship existing between house prices and proximity to modern landfills. Currently, this attempt employs a quantitative approach in ascertaining the financial loss accrueable to the Ojota resident property market via the Olososun landfill. Section 2 presents previous studies on sanitary landfills and the the subsequent section discusses data collection and research methods utilised in the current study. Section 4 describes the data analysis and discussion employed in the study. Research findings were dealt with in section 5 while Section 6 recommends feasible solutions geared at abating landfill diminutions in the real estate market. Lastly, section 8 concludes the study. 2. Previous Studies on Sanitary Landfills American literature have for long indicated that sanitary landfills negatively impact residential properties as far back as 1971. One of such foremost studies in this field of knowledge (Havlicek, Richardson and Davies 1971) found an increment in house pricing by $0.61 per foot of distance from landfills in Fort Wayne, Indiana. The same results were obtained for landfills in Minnesota (Nelson et al 1992, 1997), Baltimore (Thayer et al 1992), Columbus, (Hite et al 2001), and Toronto (Lim and Missios 2003). Gamble et al (1982) estimated hedonic pricing regressions for house sales near a landfill in Boyertown in Pennsylvania. The purpose was to determine the extent of impact the landfill had on surrounding property values. When the distance was split and separate regressions estimated by year of sales, the estimated coefficients for distance to the landfill were not statistically significant at the 5% level of confidence. One of the estimated implicit prices was even negative implying higher prices closer to the landfill. This result was later cited by Cartee (1989) and Parker (2003) as evidence that modern landfills need not have negative impacts on property values. Though it could be argued that the modern landfill

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in this context must have incorporated certain inherent qualities that helped lessen the environmental effects of the landfill. Also, the span of the distance split in the above study was not specified so as to show the magnitude of the impact. This present research would address the gap by adopting 1.2km radius of the concentric ring to measure the impact of the landfill on value. A linear regression model would be employed at 95% degree of confidence. Havlicek, Richardson and Davies (1985) analysed 182 single family house sales between 1962 and 1970 surrounding four landfills in the Fort Wayne, Indiana region. Their variables of interest were both the linear distance of residential properties from the nearest landfill and the deviation (in absolute degrees) from the prevailing downwind direction from the landfill. Both the distance and the wind variables were of the hypothesised sign and were significant at 5% confidence level. Their results indicated that for each degree away from downwind, the value of the house increased by about $10.30 and for every thirty centimeter of distance away from the site, price increased by about $0.61 in a linear fashion. Residents signified their preparedness to pay for more when asked how much more they would be willing to pay for an identical house located a kilometer increment further away from the hazardious waste site. The above study is significant to the current study because the distance variable was a common factor central on both studies. A small sample size of 182 single family house sales was adopted for analysis whereas a larger sample size of 2 341 has been adopted in the currrent study. Also, the choice of residential properties as a focus of research introduced a degree of similarity. However, while Havlicek, Richardson and Davies (1985) adopted a linear distance of 1 mile or 1.6 kilometers in their study in a developed country, the present study has adopted 1.2kilometers in view of the fact that in Lagos, the overall pattern of development does not exhibit a well laid out plan like developed countries. One major outstanding feature of their study was the rigour of not only splitting the distance into centimeters, but also ascribing values to residential properties near the landfill. The distance gradient relationship adopted in the current study was 300meters to a amaximum of 1 200 meters both in linear form and concentric rings. Cartee (1989) specifically embarked on a study to consider whether sanitary landfills had any adverse effect on community development and residental property values, and if so, measure their magnitudes in selected areas of Pennsylvania. Ten sanitary landfills operating under permits from the Department of Environmental Resources in Pennsylvania were selected for the study. The sanitary landfills were selected based on the presence of residential development in the surrounding communities. The objective was to measure the effects of the landfills on community developments and residential property values. Study areas were defined as delineated as those around one mile of the landfills. Four randomly selected areas, each one-half mile in diameter, located three miles away from each landfill site constituted the control areas. Several types of data were collected for the landfill and control areas. These data included the number of properties by size, class, dates of new residential building and proximity of properties to the landfill wth respect to three distance zones. For properties purchased from 1977 to 1981, several other house, lot and locational characteristics were also studied. The study used multiple regression technique to measure the effect of landfills on residential property values. Regression results showed that in 1977 and 1979, the landfill had no discernable effects on residential property values. In 1978, the distance to the landfill variable was significant at 5-10% level of confidence. This suggests that distance variable was strongly intercorrelated with some other variables. The outcome of the research showed that different sets of property characteristics and different functional forms led to the general conclusion that things other than proximity to the sanitary landfill were more relevant to explaining property values. It can be deduced from the study that the real estate markets are dynamic and local in many respects. Also, landfills are rather heterogeneous varying in size, visibility, accessibility and appearance and that these intervening variables could affect study

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conclusions. Reichert, Small and Mohanty (1991) examined the effects of proximity to five municipal landfills in Cleveland, Ohio in the United States. The semi-rural towns studied were Belchertown, Hudson, Ware, Clinton, Pepperrell and Leicester, all located in Central and Western Massachusetts, which had, landfills with varying sizes, operational staus and history of contamination. Using Ordinary Least Squares, inflation adjusted housing prices were regressed upon the series of variables derived from previous studies. Regression results indicated that only one landfill (Pepperell) had a significant negative impact on property values. Although this particular landfill was closed, it was unlined and uncapped, and the fact that the landfill was on the US EPAs potential health risk list might have contributed to its visibility in the community. Extrapolated results showed that a typical house located half a mile from the landfill experienced a 6% rise in property value, while the same increased in value by one percent when located two miles away. This six percent diferential for a house valued at $120,000 (the average value for the study) was $7,200. However, in respect of Hudson, Ware, Clinton, Pepperell and Leicester, no statistically significant effects were found. The reason coud be that these effects did exist but were not detected in the study or possibly of the small sample sizes drawn on each of the landfills. Overall, the study did not provide grounds for broad generalisation about the effects of rural landfills on property values. It cannot be said that large landfills affect property values more than small ones as Hudson was the largest landfill studied and its effect was statistically insignificant. Open landfills do not affect values more than closed, as Hudson and Ware were still operationing and show no significant effect. Landfills which seem to pose a threat to human health may affect property values more than others: Pepperell was on EPAs list as potentialy posing a threat to human health. If the depreciation of local property values around the landfill was a concern of town officals, it seems that the best course of action would be to keep the landfill as clean and policied as possible. In a more relevant study, Nelson et al (1992) studied the effect of a Ramsey, Minnesota landfill on 708 house sales between 1979 and 1989. Their dependent variable was residential property sales prices, while distance from the landfill, age of house, number of bedrooms and bathrooms were also included as independent variables. The author found that the two landfills had a negative effect on single family house values for homes within 2 mile radius. The study showed that a home located at the boundary of the landfill could suffer a reduction in value of more than 12% while the value of a property located at one mile radius from the landfill could decrease by an estimated property gradient of 6.2% . The result of this study contrasts with Gamble et al (1982) who found no negative impact resulting from proximity of residential houses to landfill. Nelson, et al (1992) adopted 2 miles as the maximum distance. Bouvier et al (2000) estimated hedonic regression for houses located near six landfills in Central and Western Massachussetts, two of which were open and active during the study period. The six landfills differed in size, operating status and history of accumulation. The effect of each landfill was estimated by the use of multiple regressions. In five of the landfills, no statistically significant evidence of an effect was found. In the remaining case, evidence of an effect was found, indicating that houses in close proximity to this landfill suffered an average loss of about 6% in value. Also, for two of the landfills, the estimated Marginal Implicit Price (MIP) of distance was positive for one distance and negative for the other, but statistically insignificant for both cases. It was observed from the study that the estimated negative coeficient had high sampling variability due to small sample size. The small sample size had thereby introduced some degree of unreliability in the result obtained. The study however established an empirical relationship between residential property values and and proximity to a landfill or set of landfills.

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Cambridge Econometrics et al. (2003) conducted economic study of house prices around landfill sites in the United Kingdom that was undertaken as part of a landfill tax review for the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Authority (DEFRA). The study provided additional evidence of an association between proximity to landfill and wealth. The study looked at over half a million sales of houses situated near 11 300 U.K landfill sites and found that those properties sited within half a mile of a landfill site suffered statistically significant disadvantages. The value of houses situated less than a quarter of a mile away from the landfill site were an average of 5 500 lower than the value of a similar house not situated near a landfill site. For those houses over a quarter of a mile from the site but under half a mile, the fall in the property value was an average of 1 600 and less than a quater of a mile saw a fall of 40% . Even within the U.K, there were significant regional disparities with the most marked effects in Scotland, where areas in closest proximity to the landfill site (disadvantaged socio-economic groups) may migrate to areas near hazards to take advantage of lower housing prices. This development as shown in the study by Reichert et al (1991) is characteristic of landfill neighbourhoods because as vacancy ratio increases due to the flight of most residents, people of low class take advantage of this to pay lower rent. The distance-value gradient used in the above study would be employed in the current study using concentric rings with the maximum of 1 200 meters. Similarly, Adewusi and Onifade (2006) focused on the effect of urban solid waste on physical environment and property transactions in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos State. Questionnaires were randomly administered on residents and firms of estate agents to gather data on the subject matter. Data obtained were analysed using frequency tables and percentage ratings. The study found that rents paid on properties adjoining waste dumpsites were lower compared to similar properties further away and also, property transaction rates were very slow and unattractive as one approaches a dumpsite. However, the study did not monetary explicit on the change in values. In the same vein, Bello (2007) used multiple regression analysis to determine the effect of waste dumpsites on property values in Olusosun neighbourhood at Ojota, Lagos State. The study found that property values increase with distance away from dumpsites. Also, Bello and Bello (2008) conducted a research on the willingness to pay for environmental amenities in Akure Nigeria. The study included environmental amenities such as waste water disposal, water and electricity supplies, neighbourhood roads and other locational services. The study used a two-staged hedonic model to examine the willingness to pay for better environmental services by residents of two neighbourhoods in Akure, Nigeria. He combined multiple regressions and predictive model to determine property values as a function of housing attributes and logistic model as willingness to pay. The study identified households income, distance away from the refuse dump site and regularity of electricity supply as the major factors that influenced households willingness to pay for better environmental services. The study recommended economic empowerment of the people, diligent consideration in the location of dumpsites and adoption of Public-Private Initiative in the provision of public infrastructure. The study established that real estate values are readily influenced by residents williongness to pay for both structural as well as neighbourhood characteristics where the real estate is located. However, Bello and Bello (2008) failed to relate property values with distance from the waste dump site as an environmental disamenity. This present study fills this gap. Bello (2009) carried out a study on the effects of waste dump sites on proximate property values in Lagos, Nigeria using three dump sites located at Olusosun, Abule Egba and Solous adopting 1km distance measurement to assess the effects of the dumpsite on the neighbourhoods. The research sampled 334 residents from the three waste dump sites and 107 Estate Surveying and Valuation firms in metropolitan Lagos. The study was in the main to measure the effect of waste dump on property values and to develop an appropriate valuation methodology to carry out valuation of properties affected

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by waste dump sites. A combination of valuation methodologies was adopted such as Paired Sales Analysis, Contingent Valuation Analysis, Option Pricing Model and Hedonic Approach. The study found that there was a weak linear relationship between rental value and satisfaction of occupants in the neighbourhood of the waste dumps. In Akinjare et al. (2011), the impact of four operational sanitary landfills (Gbagada, Olusosun, Abule-Egba and Solous) on proximal residential properties in Lagos metropolis of Nigeria was studied using a sample size of 2 341 residents. Inclusively, 229 Estate Surveyors and 315 Lagos State Waste Management Agency (LAWMA) officials provided data for the study. Evaluation using a hedonically derived regression function in analysing data estimates drawn from administered questionaires showed a slight evidence of statistical significance indicating that all residential property values increased with distances away from landfill sites at an average of 6% for the four landfills. Similarly, in another study Akinjare et al (2011), the price effects of landfills on residential housing in Lagos, Nigeria was determined using all four landfills in the Lagos metropolis. Using concentric rings, there was an indication that the highest property values were recorded for properties betweeen the 601m and 900m range from the landfill. There was no threat posed by the landfill to properties beyond the 900m concentric ring. Also, the study showed that 30.2% of residential properties were situated within the 601m and 900m distance range from the landfills while 41.4% of residential properties were situated between 901m and 1 200m boundary.This study established that there is a negative correlation between landfills and proximal residential property values within the 300 meter demarcated concentric rings extending to 1.2km. The study failed to indicate the estimated aggregate loss in value of investors real estate within the immediate residential scope of 1 200m from the four landfills. This current study fills this gap by estimating the aggregate monetary loss created by the Olusosun landfills in its immediate residential neighbourhood. In line with the aforementioned studies, this current study attempts to determine the relationship between distance from Olusosun landfill and aggregate monetary loss in neighbourhood residential property values. Obtainable results will form a good basis for understanding property market behaviour and consequently draw a comparison between past studies and the current one for the purpose of empirical generalisations. The present study relies on relative distance from Olusosun landfill as a variable to measure its impact on residential property values in within the Ojota property market. The essence is to estimate and appreciate the value loss in real estate within 1 200m of market of Olusosun landfills. 3. Data Collection and Research Methods Questionnaires were distributed to Estate Surveyors and Valuers, residents within 1.2km of the Olusosun landfill neighbourhood as well as officials of the Lagos State Waste Management Agency (LAWMA). The survey involved every third houses within 1.2 km distances from the landfill site. The responses from residents around Olusosun amounted to 674. Also, 229 Estate Surveyors and 315 Lagos State Waste Management Agency officials returned questionnaires administered to them. The survey recorded an average response rate of 78% and the collated primary data were analysed using a descriptive and analytical statistics. Since the impacts of a landfill on nearby residential property values are not expected to be uniform as ascertained by literature, values are expected to increase with distance away from the landfill, the concentric ring model was then used in analysing landfill impacts on residential property values.

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Figure 1. Distance-Value Gradient in Concentric Rings

Source: Authors Construct, (2010)

The relationship between landfill and property value was measured in a distance of 1.2km radius away from Olusosun landfill location. Measurement was based on interval of 300meters up to 1 200 meters in concentric rings aiding the computation of the landfills impact on neighbouring residential property at specific and varing distances in Nairage value. 4. Data Analysis and Discussion Information gathered were analysed as shown in Tables 1 4. From Table 1, it is observed that while the various type of residential properties around the Olusosun landfill location increases as the distance away from the landfill increases, property values of various residential properties increase outwardly. The analysis of Table 1 revealed that 4.5% of the houses were located within 0-300meters, 17.5% were within 301-600 meters, 32.6% located within 601-900m and another 45.4% located within 901-1 200 meters. Total monetary value for each category of property was also computed within each concentric ring as shown by the Table.

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Table 1. Cross-Tabulation of Mean Property Values and Distances of Properties Within 1 200m Radius of Olusosun Landfill (=N=000,000.00)

Tenement House Dist. (m) 0300 301600 601900 9011 200 Total F 0 12 30 62 p. v 2 2.5 4 4 F.pv 0 30 120 248

4nos, 3b/r Flats

Residential Property Type 4b/r Detached 4b/r Duplex + b/q F 8 31 69 63 pv 6 8 10 11 F.pv 48 248 690 693 F 5 25 p.v 6 8 F.pv 30 200 341 649

5b/r Detached + b/q F 9 16 32 50 p.v 7.5 9.5 10.5 11 F.pv 67.5 152 336 550

No of Ppties

% of Total.

F 8 34 58 72

p.v 4.5 6.5 8 9

F.pv 36 221 464 648

30 118 220 306 674

4.5 17.5 32.6 45.4 100.0

31 11 59 11

Source: Statistical Analysis, 2009

Table 2 analyses the estimated total value for each property type within the various concentric ring. Total real estate investment within 1 200m radius was estimated at =N= 5.772 billion. Tenement housing within the 1 200m landfill neighbourhood which was the least accounted for 6.9% of total real estate investment while the four bedroom duplexes constituted the highest form of residential investment (29.1% ). The table also showed that 23.7% of total real estate investment were 4nos 3bdrm flats, 21.1% were 4b/r Detached + b/q while the remaining 19.2% were 5b/r Detached + b/q within the 1 200m landfill neighbourhood.
Table 2. Estimated Investment in the Residential Real Estate Market Within 1 200m of Olusosun Landfil l(=N=000,000.00) Property Values Across the Concentric Rings (F.pv) 0-300m Tenement House 4nos, 3b/r Flats 4b/r Duplex 4b/r Detached + b/q 5b/r Detached + b/q 0 36 48 30 67.5 301-600m 30 221 248 200 152 601-900m 120 464 690 341 336 901-1 200m 248 648 693 649 550 398 1 369 1 679 1 220 1 105.5 5 771.5 Source: Statistical Analysis, 2009

Property Types

Total

% of Total 6.9 23.7 29.1 21.1 19.2 100.0

Table 3 analyses the impact of Olusosun landfill on adjacent and neighbouring properties within the 1 200 meter radial perimeter and a consistent pattern of residential property distribution is observed. The number of residential properties increase as distance away from the landfill increases. Using the present value (PV) of similar residential properties in non landfill areas of Ojota, the loss in value of individual

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units of housing were computed and aggregated across the various concentric rings. Property values losses within the concentric rings were as follows: =N=218.72million value loss within 0-300m radial diameter, =N=419million value loss within the 301-600m ring, =N=454.48million value loss within 601900m range and =N=390million value loss within 901-1 200m. In total, a value loss of =N=2.091billion was ascertained to be eroded off the residential property market of Ojota due to the presence of Olososun landfill.
Table 3: Cross-Tabulation of Mean Property Values and Estimated Aggregate Monetary Loss in Real Estate Investment within 1 200m Radius of Olusosun Landfill.

Olusosun Residential Neighbourhoods (=N=000,000.00)


Property Type PV of Residences in Landfill Areas 0-300 m Tenement House 4nos 3bdrm flats 4bdrm duplex 4bdrm Detached + b/q 5bdrm Detached + b/q Total 301 600 m 2.5 4.5 8 8 601900 m 4 8 11 11 9011200 m 4 9 11 11 PV of Residen ces in Non Landfill Areas 5.93 10.0 12.88 13.50

Difference in PV of Residences between Non landfill & Landfill Areas 0-300m F 0 8 8 5 pv 3.93 5.5 6.88 5.50 301-600m F 12 34 31 25 pv 3.43 5.5 4.88 5.50 600-900m F 30 58 69 31 pv 1.93 2.00 1.88 2.5 901-1 200m F 62 72 63 59 pv 1.93 1.00 1.88 2.50

Agg. Loss in Real Estate Investment

2 4.5 6 8

218.72 419.00 454.48 390.00

7.5

9.5

10.5

11

16.03

8.53

16

6.53

32

5.53

50

5.03

609.71 2,091.91

Source: Statistical Analysis, 2009

Again, the analysis of Table 4 vividly indicates the variance between the mean values of the various cadre of residential properties within the 1 200 meter radial confines of the Olusosun landfill and also, the mean values of similar properties outside the 1 200m radial confines of the landfill. The percentage increase in value is presented with tenement housing having the highest value increment of 89.5% while the cadre of 4 bedroom detached houses ranked the least with a value increase of 42.12% . A 66.46% increase in residential value was attributable to the 5bedroom detached +b/q cadre, 43.11% incremental value to the 4bedroom duplex housing cadre while 53.85% increment in value was accrued by the 4nos 3bdrm flats cadre.

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Table 4. Mean Values for Various Residential property Types Within and Outside 1 200m Radius of Gbagada Landfill Neighbourhood. Location Property Type 4nos 3bdrm flats 4bdrm duplex 5bdrm Duplex+ b/q 5bdrm Detached+ b/q 4bdrm Detached+ b/q 3bdrm Duplex+ b/q Tenement House Source: Field Survey, 2010 Gbagada Non Landfill Residential Neighbourhood in (=N=000,000) Landfill 13.83 14.11 19.73 14.94 17.54 14.2 4.1 Non landfill 16.3 17.4 23.8 25.3 22.5 16.6 8.8 Diff in Value 2.47 3.29 4.07 10.36 4.96 2.4 4.7 % Increase. 17.86 23.32 17.64 30.95 31.37 16.18 51.22

Lastly, Table 5 presents a summary of the studys findings. An estimated =N=5 771.5 billion worth of residential investment was deduced as the present value of Olusosun landfill neighbourhood (within 1 200m radii confines) and a total loss of =N= 2 091.91billion in value was also indicated and attributable to the nearby Olusosun landfill. Without the landfill, the Table estimates the neighbourhood value of Olusosun in the region of =N=7 863.41. This vividly shows the enormous diminution in the real estate market of Ojota caused by its disamenity.
Table 5. Summary of Residential Neighbourhood Values Across Olusosun Landfill Location =N=(000,000.00) Estimated Value of Olusosun Residential Neighbourhood (With Landfill) 5 771.5 Aggregate Loss in Real Estate Investment. 2 091.91 Estimated Value of Olusosun Residential Neighbourhood (Without the landfill) 7 863.41

% Property Value Appreciation Away From Landfill 6

Source: Statistical Analysis, 2009

5. Research Findings Across the Olusosun landfill neighbourhood, the survey revealed that an increase in property value was evident as distance away from the landfill increased. The results of both Tables 2,3 & 4 estimates the worth of the study area without Olusosun landfill at =N=5 773.59 billion. A huge monetary loss of =N=2 091.91billion was ascertained to be in existence within the landfill neighbourhood, therefore, without the landfill, Olusosun property market would have estimated =N=7 863.4billion. There was an indication that the highest property values were recorded for properties within the 601m and 900m range from the landfill. There was no threat posed by the landfill to properties beyond the 900m concentric ring. Also,

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the study showed that 32.6% of residential properties were situated within the 601m and 900m distance range from the landfill while 45.4% of residential properties were situated between 901m and 1 200m boundary. Furthermore, the study suggested that in order to mitigate the adverse impacts of the landfill on residential property values, amenities such as health centers, bore holes, street lighting facilities in a bid to enhance these plagued neighbourhoods. 6. Recommendations The study recommends that instead of Government turning burrowed pits into landfills, the site selection criteria as enuciated by Luthbom and Lagerkvist (2003) with respect to distance between landfills and settlements, occurence of surface water, ground water, ecological and hydro geological conditions on and around the site, existing and pending laws and regulations and transport systems and communications should be considered exhaustively. Despite governments efforts at environmental sustainability presently, it is recommended that if improved technology can not be utilised in the effective management of the various sanitary landfills within developed areas of the state, the current landfills in operation be closed down and relocated to the outskirts of the city to forestall a consistent appreciation in real estate investment in the state. This would preserve the present and future values of borrowed and hard earned scarce capital in form of real estate. There is also an urgent need for the formulation of situable action plans and education of the grass root by LAWMA in order to improve waste management and projection in the nearest future. There is the need to expand recycling programmes through modern methods with a view of turning waste to wealth in metropolitan Lagos. Finally, the support of the private sector and NGOs is also required most especially in the area of organising maintenance workshops and enlightenment programs which should include the grassroots participation and input. 7. Conclusions This current study has established that there is a negative correlation between landfills and proximal residential property values within the 300 meter demarcated concentric rings extending to 1.2km. It is therefore, hoped that if the Lagos State Government is able to look into the recommended solutions, individual and institutional real investment holdings financed by bank loans and its likes would continually appreciate in value vis-a- vis an improved environment. By this, the value of investments in real estate would be sustained on a general scale in Lagos State.

References
Adewusi, A.O & Onifade. F. A (2006). The effects of urban solid waste on physical environment and property transactions in Surulere local government area of Lagos state. Journal of Landuse and Development Studies, 2 (1), 71-90. Akinjare.O.A., Ayedun.C.A, Oluwatobi. A.O & Iroham O.C. (2011). Impact of sanitary landfills on urban residential property value in Lagos State, Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development, CCSE, 4(2). Akinjare.O.A., Oloyede.S.A, Ayedun.C.A & Oloke .O.C. (2011). Price Effects of Landfills on Residential Housing in Lagos, Nigeria. International Journal of Marketing Studies, CCSE, 3(2), pp. (forthcoming)

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Bello, M.O & Bello V.A (2008). Willingness to pay for better environmental services: Evidence from the Nigerian real estate market. Journal of African Real Estate Research, 1(1), 19-27. Bello, V.A. (2009). The effects of waste dump sites on proximate property values in lagos Nigeria, (Unpublished Ph.D Dessert) Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. Bello.V.A. (2007). The effects of Ojota waste dump site on surrounding property values in Lagos metropolis. Journal of Environmental Conservation and Research, 1, (1&2) 136-142. Bouvier, Halstead, Conway & Malano (2000). The effect of landfill on rural residential property values: Some empirical analysis. Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy 370(2); 23-3 Cambridge Econometrics, EFTEC & WRC. (2003). The disamenity costs of landfills. Department of Environment and Rural Affairs, HMSO. Cartee, C. (1989). A review of sanitary landfill impacts on property values. Real Estate Appraiser and Analyst, pp. 4347. Gamble, H. B., R. H. Downing, J. S. Shortle, & D. J. Epp. (1982). Effects of solid waste disposal sites on community development and residential property values. Final Report for The Bureau of Solid Waste Management (Department of Environmental Resources, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania). Havlicek, Joseph Jr., Robert Richardson & Lloyd Davies. (1971). Measuring the impacts of solid waste disposal site location on property values. Urban Journal of Real Estate Research, 7(3): 297314. Havlicek, Richardson & Davies (1985). Impact of solid waste disposal on property values. Environmental Policy Solid Waste, Vol. IV, Ed. G 5, Tolley, Cambridge, MA. Balinger. Hite, D., W. Chern, F. Hitzusen, & A. Randall. (2001). Property value impacts of an environmental disamenity: The case of landfills. Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, 22(2/3), 185-202. Lim, J. S. & P. Missios. (2003). Does size really matter? Landfill scale impacts on property values. Unpublished working paper, Department of Economics, Ryerson University,Toronto Luthbom, K. & Lagerkvist, A. (2003). Tools for landfill siting. Ninth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, S. Margherita di Pula (Cagliari), Sardinia, Italy Nelson, A.C., J. Genereux, & M.M. Genereux. (1997). Price effects of landfills on different house value strata. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 123( 3):59-67. Nelson, Arthur C., John Genereux & Michelle Genereux. (1992). Price effects of landfills on house values. Land Economics. 68(4): 359-365. Parker, B.J. (2003). Solid waste landfills and residential property values. White Paper, National Solid Wastes Management Association, Washington, DC. 6. Reichert, Small & Mohanty (1991). The impact of landfills on residential property values. The Journal of Real Estate Research 7(3), pp 297-314. Thayer, M., H. Albers, & M. Ramatian. (1992). The benefits of reducing exposure to waste disposal sites: A hedonic housing value approach. The Journal of Real Estate Research, 7(3), 265-282.

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Factors Behind High Performance


Luu Trong Tuan
National University of Ho Chi Minh City
Abstract According to Rogers (2005), the Bain analysis shows that only around 15% of companies actually have an organization that helps them to outperform. In creating high-performance environment, leaders recognize three critical factors that determine and guide their leadership responsibility. First, they must learn how to lead themselves before they can lead others successfully. Second, they are not actually delivering the vision themselves, but merely overseeing its delivery by the real performers in the organization. Third, leaders should distinguish leader from leadership. Not everyone can be a leader, but everyone in the organization can assume leadership roles. Keywords: high performance; high-performance culture; vision; positioning

1.

Introduction

Increased local fertilizer production (see table 1) and increased fertilizer prices, especially during 20092010 (The Profercy Report, 2010) have led to decreased fertilizer import in Vietnam (see table 2) and put fertilizer traders in more competitive context.
Table 1. Fertilizer production in Vietnam Year Total fertilizer production (in thousand tons) Annual fertilizer production difference 2006 1209.5 2007 1158.4 -0.04 2008 1294.3 0.12 2009 1714.4 0.32 2010 2305.5 0.34

Source: Statistical Yearbook of Vietnam 2010, p. 400 Table 2. Fertilizer import in Vietnam Year Total fertilizer import (in thousand tons) Annual fertilizer import difference 2006 3971.3 2007 3820.2 -0.04 2008 4135.1 0.08 2009 4064.8 -0.02 2010 2877.1 -0.29

Source: Statistical Yearbook of Vietnam 2010, p. 437

The competition also results from the greater number of fertilizer players than that of ten years ago involving in this market. In this market context, we find it important to build an organization that becomes by itself a source of competitive advantage since organization is becoming increasingly vital in the battle for competitive success. However, according to Rogers (2005), the Bain analysis shows that only around 15% of companies actually have an organization that helps them to outperform.

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2.

Impacts of High Performance

Breene & Nunes (2007: 5) identify high-performance businesses by assessing five core areas of business performance: Growth, as measured by revenue expansion. Profitability, as measured by the spread between the return on capital and the cost of capital. Positioning for the future, as measured by the portion of share price that cannot be explained by current earnings and by the portion of the industry total each companys future value represents. Longevity, as measured by the duration of out-performance in total return to shareholders. Consistency, as measured by the percentage of time out-performance has been achieved, defined for this purpose as exceeding the peer set median, in profitability, growth and positioning for the future. However, the high-performance workforce study 2006 conducted by Accenture found only 59 of respondents said they use margin/profitability and just half said they use revenue/sales pipeline to evaluate the effectiveness of HR whereas customer satisfaction is one of the most common metrics respondents reported using (2006: 18). Customer satisfaction is the indicator for both day-to-day operation and long-term strategy. Even though Breene & Nunes dont look at this indicator, they refer to day-to-day operational excellence as a benefit of pursuing high performance in addition to the development of strong capabilities and the creation of a powerful long-term strategic vision. Breene & Nunes also found that high performers avoid a myopic fixation on measures of current success and high-performance businesses stimulate a culture of innovation that keeps them from falling behind the competition. (2007: 6) 3. Factors of High Performance

The report of the high-performance workforce study 2006 (p. 7) conducted by Accenture starts with a discussion of reasons for performance shortcomings such as: Human resources- and training-related shortcomings including a lack of connection to business

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drivers Failure to measure the business impact of HR and training efforts Ineffective or non-existent knowledge capture and sharing capabilities The talent time bomb (diminished talent pool dynamics) Lack of business-oriented goals Lack of functional leaders involvement in people issues This discussion gives an overall view of factors influencing high performance. Understanding and managing these factors helps raise the level of business performance, which has become increasingly important as the economic environment has become more conducive to generating more robust financials. Figure 1 displays 11 factors explored in terms of importance to respondents ability to achieve high performance in the business (The high-performance workforce study 2006: 11)

Figure 1: Key factors in achieving strong financial performance: importance versus performance

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Figure 1 shows that the customer-related factors play the biggest role in the ability of the organization to capitalize on growth opportunities as building strong customer loyalty and acquiring new customers finished first and second, respectively, in importance. Not far behind the customer-related factors were three HR-related factors: attracting and retaining skilled staff, having a performance-oriented mindset in the workforce, and finding and developing talented leaders. 37 percent of all respondents considering having a flexible organization that responds to change very important reflects that nimbleness has become a key trait of successful enterprises (the high-performance workforce study 2006: 10). The findings, from a new McKinsey Quarterly survey, also suggest that managers across all main regions and industry sectors acknowledge the increasing significance of agility and speed (2006). The environment in which organizations operate today is characterized by continuous change and ambiguity, requiring organizational members to be adept at operating on the edge of chaos (Brown & Eisenhardt 1998). As a result, the need for organizations to remain flexible and willing to change their strategies and approaches, both quickly and flawlessly, has never been greater. Harrison & Tarter (2007) looks upon customer-related factors as external events of business need and calls them customer-driven requirements. Besides business need as one of the critical success factors in establishing a high performance internal O.D. team, Harrison & Tarter refers to customer-related engagement factors: speak the language of the customer and live with those you seek to influence, which will build strong customer loyalty and acquire new customers as illustrated in figure 2.
Figure 2: Critical success factors in establishing a high performance internal O.D. team

The engagement factor work from a mindset of abundance suggested by Harrison & Tarter (2007) in Figure 2 relates to the factor having a performance-oriented mindset in the workforce in the highperformance workforce study 2006 since Harrison & Tarter looks at ways to partner with other groups, drawing upon their expertise, experience, and contacts, and make the pie bigger for everyone instead of competing or infighting with other internal organizations. Schwarz, Barber, & Villis (2006) emphasize people strategy as HR-related factor contributing to high performance since business process changes can be so deep and pervasive that business strategy and people strategy become interwoven to the point that it is hard to tell them apart. People strategy must be embedded in the organization, at the center as well as within the business units and 162

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the HR function. Companies that figure out how to integrate employee development, skill building, and recruitment into business activitiesand people strategy into corporate and business strategywill create winning advantage, so talented leaders are those who live, eat, and breathe people strategy. However, according to Rogers (2006), the hallmark of a high-performance organization is effective decision making, so talented leaders are those who can make the key decisions well and then make them happen. Rogers (2006) also says high-performance organizations build a system, not just a structure.

The high performers are not overly focused on the org chart-who reports to whom-but put their energy into building an integrated system that supports a decision-driven organization. They seek to outperform competitors on five vital dimensions: 1.Set a clear vision that is simple and inspirational to guide people on the front line. 2.Define clear roles and hold the people in them accountable. 3.Hire people with the right skills and attitude, and focus them on the measures that matter. 4.Provide the right tools, working practices, and technology to help people excel at execution. 5.Instill a high-performance culture that motivates people at all levels to get things done and to strive for excellence Mastering any one of these five areas is admirable in its own right, but it is not sufficient. A company must develop and nurture all five of these elements to help front-line employees realize their full potential. 4. Implications of the Findings

The factors contributing to high performance in organizations are more manageable when collapsed into

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a framework that emphasizes a focus on four key factors in our quest to establish high-performance environment: Defining high performance Leading high performance Enabling high performance Delivering high performance In order to establish high-performance environment, members of an organization should understand what performance means. Performance is multi-level, being defined at five levels: 1) vision representing a vision in the conventional sense but articulated in a very concrete, overall-performance sense; 2) achievement represent ongoing performance; 3) innovation reflecting a focus external to the organization in order to ensure competitive advantage; 4) adaptability demanding a more internal focus in terms of ensuring that the organizations processes flow; and 5) wellbeing ensuring that the organization cares for its performers so that they feel valued and care about the organizations fate. Levels 2) to 4) are often trying to be reached with unclear vision, so levels 2 to 4) are usually not firmly built, and performers seem not to care about the organizations fate. In creating high-performance environment, leaders recognize three critical factors that determine and guide their leadership responsibility. First, they must learn how to lead themselves before they can lead others successfully. Leaders of high-performance environments, by the very nature of their success, are people who thrive on pressure, being able to frame and respond to the challenge in a positive way. Second, they are not actually delivering the vision themselves, but merely overseeing its delivery by the real performers in the organization. Leaders in high-performance environments recognize their leadership responsibility and focus on providing an environment in which their performers can also thrive. Third, leaders should distinguish leader from leadership. Not everyone can be a leader, but everyone in the organization can assume leadership roles. The leaders in highperformance environments embrace and foster internal leadership capability at all levels of the organization. High-performance environments focus on enabling people to perform rather than demanding it from them. Performers should be provided with the right tools and equipment that maximize the efficiency as well as the effectiveness of their performance on the basis of the right information in the form of goals and feedback. Moreover, performers should be optimally incentivized to perform with the balance between the usual tangible rewards on offer and the less-tangible incentives that truly motivate people such as a sense of belonging, and feelings of competence and autonomy. Finally, organizations must have real high performers with high-performance capacity including not only the necessary job-related skills and knowledge but also skills that enable them to thrive on the pressure, with high-performance beliefs and attitudes involving high levels of commitment to the organization, and with high-performance behaviors such as ownership, responsibility, team work and voluntarily assuming extra-role contributions that serve to support to support fellow performers. However, in order to activate all above factors contributing to high-performance environment, organizations must capture hidden values of the organization as McKenna, Wilczynski, & Hage (2006) suggest the first step of any business process improvement is to know where in the organization value could be captured and where levers need to be pulled.

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References
Breene, Tim & Nunes, Paul F. (2007). Five reasons every company should strive to achieve high performance. Outlook, January 2007. Accenture. Brown, S. L., & Eisenhardt, K. M. (1998). Competing on the edge: Strategy as structured chaos. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Harrison, Barbara & Tarter, Delmarie (2007). Building and sustaining a high performance internal O.D. practitioner team. Organization Development Journal, Summer 2007, 25, 2. ABI/INFORM Global. McKenna, Wilczynski, & Hage (2006). Capturing Hidden Value. Retrieved from www.boozallen.com McKinsey & Company (2006). Building a nimble organization: A McKinsey Global Survey. McKinsey Quarterly, June 2006. Rogers, Paul (2005). The decision-driven organization (transcript of Paul Rogers's audio presentation 06/08/05). Bain & Company Printer Ready Article Publications. Schwarz, Gunther, Barber, Felix, & Villis, Ulrich (2006). When people strategy drives business strategy. The Boston Consulting Group, Inc. Statistical Yearbook of Vietnam 2005 (2006). Hanoi: Statistical Publishing House. The high-performance workforce study 2006. Research report. Accenture. The Profercy Report, 6 January 2005. UK: Profercy Ltd.

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Do Mature Companies Pay More Dividends? Evidence from Pakistani Stock Market
Talat Afza
Dean, Faculty of Business Administration, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Defence Road, Off Raiwind Road, Lahore, Pakistan e-mail: talatafza@ciitlahore.edu.pk

Hammad Hassan Mirza (Corresponding author)


Lecturer, Department of Business Administration University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan e-mail: hammadhassan@uos.edu.pk contact: +92-48-3210055
Abstract Dividend policy is among the most important unresolved issues in modern corporate finance. Several researches have tried to solve the dividend puzzle yet, the results are inconclusive as to what determines the optimal dividend policy. Present study has analyzed the impact of firms age on its dividend policy. Using the financial data of 120 companies listed at Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE), Pakistan during 2002 to 2007, this study has explored the non-linear relationship of companys age with dividend policy. A cubic form of model has been designed by using age, age-square and age-cube as independent variables while controlling for leverage and profitability. The estimated results are consistent with maturity hypothesis and free cash flow hypothesis. The study also supports the impact of trade cycle on dividend policy of listed companies of Pakistan. The results are robust to the alternative proxy of dividend policy i.e. dividend intensity. Keywords: Dividend Policy, Maturity hypothesis, non-linear regression, cubic model.

1.

Introduction

Despite comprehensive theoretical and empirical explanations, dividend policy and it determinants is yet a puzzle to be fixed in corporate finance. Every company desires to enhance its market value and in doing so, managers have to take fundamental decisions regarding product development and marketing, investment portfolios, financing and more importantly distribution of companys earnings. Thus, knowledge about dividend policy determinants helps financial researchers in explaining the impact of company specific factors on corporate value. Dividend policys decoding contributes not only at the micro level but also to the analysis of several macroeconomic issues, as cash dividends constitute a part of national income and any variation in corporate dividend payouts may affect the corporate propensity to save and reinvest. Therefore, corporate payout policy is of great importance not only for the corporation itself but also for the economy as a whole. Existing literature on perceived importance of dividend policy in maximization of companys value provides inconclusive results. The empirical findings about the determinants of dividend policy are continuously providing mixed and many times inconclusive results therefore, the financial researchers do not seem to have any consensus regarding the impact of company specific factors on payout policy. During the last fifty years of debate on dividend policy researchers have mainly focused either on the 167

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factors related to companys performance or ownership structure and analyzed the impact of these factors on corporate dividend policy. Lintner (1956) published a seminal study which argued that managers conservatively smooth past and current earnings changes in to the level of the companys dividend. Thus changes in dividends only partially adjust to the changes in earnings. Other studies like Fama and Babiak (1968) also reported evidences supporting Lintners partial adjustment model. Miller and Modigiliani (1961) however, challenged the common belief of a positive association of dividend payouts and companys value and argued that corporate dividend policy is irrelevant under the perfect market assumptions. In their seminal work they emphasized that corporate investment and dividend decisions are independent, but in the presence of market imperfection such as taxes, flotation costs and agency costs both dividend and investment decisions might relate closely to each other. This implies that given the market imperfections, companies with high growth and investment opportunities will require the internal sources of finance to support such investments and thus such companies are expected to pay dividends at a lower rate. The important issue to be noted here is the contrast of growth hypothesis with free cash flow hypothesis, which states that companies with low growth opportunities are likely to have an overinvestment problem, therefore, high dividend payments help in reducing funds under management control. The negative relationship of growth and dividends is also consistent with pecking order hypothesis presented by Myers and Majluf (1984) who supported the notion that companies with high growth opportunities pay low dividends. However, growth opportunities available to a company do not remain the same during the life of that company. Putting it differently, as company becomes mature its growth opportunities shrink (Grullon et al., 2002). Intuitively, in early stages companies have to grow and a large amount of their funds are usually committed to undertake the investment and growth projects resulting in higher level of capital expenditures and less availability of free cash flows. However, as companies pass through their establishment phase more free cash flows are available since they have less capital expenditure and hence are able to pay higher dividends. Grullon et. al. (2002) in their Maturity Hypothesis pointed out that a dividend increase is a sign of change in a companys life cycle, especially as to a companys transition from higher growth phase to a lower growth phase. In general, mature companies are less likely to invest in high growth projects, as they have already grown up at the level of an average industrial company of their particular business segment. Such companies are relatively older and do not have sufficient reserve building incentives due to which they face lower growth and fewer capital expenditures. This enables such companies to follow a liberal dividend policy (Al-Malkawi, 2005). On the other hand, new companies need to build reserves in order to meet the challenges brought to them by market competition. Therefore, they have to maintain a reasonably good level of reserves to support rapid growth and financing requirements which restrict them to pay high dividends at an early stage of life cycle. In order to capture company growth phase, different researchers have used different proxies. The widely used proxy for company growth opportunities is Market-to-Book Ratio (MBR) (see, for instance, Barclay et al., 1995, Cleary, 1999, Travlos et al., 2001, Deshmukh, 2003, and Aivazian et al., 2003, Ahmed and Attiya, 2009, Afza and Hammad, 2010b). Several other researchers have also used Price-to-Earning (PE) Ratio to capture companys maturity (See for example, Al-Malkawi, 2007; Alonso, Iturriaga, Sanz, 2000). It is argued that companys PE ratio is a good indicator of companys growth prospects because it incorporates market assessment of companys future cash flows and investors are willing to put premium on companies which are expected to grow fast. But the reliability of both MBR and PE ratio depends upon the consistent market conditions. In a situation where market prices are affected by political and macro-economic variables, these measures could produce biased results. In addition, MBR and PE incorporate earning figures which are again affected by earning management

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practices of corporate management, especially where ownership is concentrated in the hands of family owners. In context of Pakistan, MBR, as a proxy of growth opportunities, has been previously analyzed as determinants of dividend payouts and found to be positively related with dividend payouts. (see for example, Ahmed and Attiya, 2009; Afza and Hammad, 2010). However, due to political instability and uncertain market conditions of Pakistani stock markets, MBR may be considered as a weak proxy of companys growth phase. Therefore, present study has used companys age as a proxy of companys maturity. Other things held constant, as a company gets older in terms of age, its investment opportunities decline, which leads to lower growth rates and consequently reducing the companys funds requirements for capital expenditures (Al-Malkawi, 2007). Several studies have used companys age to measure its life cycle phase (See for example; Farinas and Moreno, 2000; and Huergo and Jaumandreu, 2002). Intuitively, mature companies have stable earnings, high access to external capital market, good will and expertise, based on which they are able to maintain a good level of reserves, which enable them to pay higher dividends. However, the relationship of age with dividend payouts may not necessarily be linear. Clementi (2002) and Cooley and Quadrini (2001) argued that company performance has a non linear relationship with companys age. Huynh and Robert (2009) also reported a non-monotonic Ushaped relationship between company growth and company age, based on which they have established that young companies grow faster but the company age-growth relationship reaches a minimum at approximately at the age of seven. A direct dependence of dividends on age has been analyzed by AlMalkawi (2005) and found a highly significant non-linear relationship among them. To the best of authors knowledge no study has yet considered the nature of relationship between companys age and dividend payouts in Pakistan. Moreover, due to political and economic instability market price related variables i.e. MBR and PE are not able to capture the life cycle stage of companies, therefore, present study uses companys age as a proxy of companys maturity and is an effort to explore whether mature companies pay more dividends or not. Rest of the article is organized as follows. Section 2 provides the relevant review of the literature. Research methodology is presented in Section 3. In Section 4, brief discussion on estimated results is given and conclusions are discussed in the last section. 2. Literature Review

Existing literature on dividend policy and its determinants provides an insight into the dynamics of corporate dividend policies and their implications. However, empirical evidence many a times provides inconclusive results as to what determines the optimal dividend policy. Starting from Lintner (1956) and Miller and Modigliani (1961) irrelevance proposition to date, innumerable theories and empirical findings have been presented but still dividend policy is one of the most important unresolved issues of modern corporate finance. Theoretical models presented by Bhattacharya (1976), John and Williams (1985) and Miller and Rock (1985) concerning informational contents of dividend changes explain how changes in dividend policy convey news about future cash flows. It is a common perception of investors that increase in dividend is a signal of increase in companys cash flows. The empirical evidence strongly supports the positive relationship between dividend changes and price reaction to such a change (see for example Asquith and Mullins, 1983; Brickely, 1983; Healy and Palepu 1988). But on the other hand, increase in dividends also signals the low growth opportunities for that particular company which is the base line of Residual dividend policy theory. Evans (1987) reported a negative relationship between companys

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growth and age which implies that as the company becomes more mature its growth opportunities decline. Many researchers have linked companys age with it profitability. Arrow (1962), Jovanovic (1982) and Ericson and Pakes (1995) argued that companies discover and learn ways to become more efficient by standardizing, coordinating and speeding up their production processes and also start reducing their costs, therefore, mature companies are more profitable. On the contrary, Adizes (2004) and Leonard-Barton (1992) established that old age may make knowledge, skills and expertise obsolete and induce company to decay. It is therefore, unclear whether maturity improves companys profitability or whether it deteriorates company performance. In the seminal work on dividends and companys maturity, Grullon et. al. (2002) analyzed listed companies of New York (NYSE) and American (AMEX) stock exchanges between 1967 and 1993. They argued that company that increases dividends experience a significant decline in their systematic risk and such companies do not increase their capital expenditure and experience a decline in profitability in the years after the change in dividends. They proposed an alternative explanation of Jensenss (1986) free cash flow hypothesis known as Maturity Hypothesis. According to them in growing stage a company has many positive NPV projects and it earns large economic profits with high level of capital expenditure. Such companies are left with low free cash flows and experience rapid growth in their earnings. But as a company continues to grow due to market competition, its share price is cannibalized which reduces its profits. In this transition phase, the companys investment opportunities begins to shrink and pace of its growth becomes slow, hence company starts generating larger amount of free cash flows. Ultimately it enters into maturity phase in which the return on investment is close to the cost of capital and its cash free cash flows are high. These mature companies are now able to pay higher dividends. On relationship of Age, leverage and growth of companies Huynh and Robert (2009) analyzed the data of all manufacturing companies during 1984 to 1998 using Tax Statistical Universal File (T2SUF) data base. They reported a non-monotonic U-shapes relationship between company growth and age. They supported that young companies grow faster than the older companies but the company age-growth relationship reaches to its minimum level approximately after seven years. However, they do not related company age with it dividend policy. Al-Malkawi (2007) examined the determinants of dividend policy using the panel data of publically traded companies on Amman Stock Exchange between 1989 and 2000. Using Tobit specification he reported that the relationship of companys age is significantly positive with dividend payouts. However, he hypothesized a non linear relationship of age with dividend policy, for which he also used age-square. The estimated results show that dividend policy is significantly and non-linearly related with the companys age. It is evident from existing literature that very few researchers have analyzed the relationship of companys age and dividend policy directly. Although, many researchers have used companys age to capture companys growth and investment opportunities, but to the best of authors knowledge, none of the researchers have analyzed the nature of the relationship between companys age and dividend policy in Pakistan. The main objective of present study is to analyze, using a non-linear model specification, whether mature companies pay more dividends or not? 3. Data and Research Methodology

For present study a sample data of 120 companies listed at Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE) has been collected for the period of six years i.e. from 2002-2007. For a company to be included in the sample

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should meet the following criteria: 1. Companies were listed at KSE during years 2002 to 2007. 2. Should not be a State Owned Enterprise. 3. Should not be in loss during the whole study period. 4. Should not have missed dividend payment in more than 3 years from 2002-2007. Existing literature reveals that ordinary least square is the most suitable and widely used estimation technique to analyze the determinants of dividend policy (See for example; Ayub, 2005; Kumar, 2006; Al-Malkawi, 2007; Anil and Sujjata, 2008; Ahmed and Attiya, 2009). Therefore, present study has implied the same estimation technique to analyze the impact of companys age on its dividend policy. 3.1 Variables Explanation Dividend payout is used as a proxy for dividend policy by almost every financial researcher (See for example Gugler, 2003; Reddy and Rath, 2005; Papadopoulos, 2007; Al-Malkawi, 2007; Ahmed & Attiya, 2009). Dividend payout is calculated as total cash dividend paid divided by the company earnings after tax. Following Kumar (2006) we have also used dividend intensity as an alternative proxy of dividend policy in Pakistan. As explained earlier, the present study expects the relationship of companys age to be non-linear with its dividend policy; therefore, a cubic form of models is used to estimate the nonlinearity of relationship. Al-Malkaw (2007) used quadratic models, where he has used age and agesquare to analyze non-linearity between companys age and dividend policy in Jordan. In this study we have also used age-cube to analyze cubic relationship. Along with age related variables, two control variables have also been used i.e. leverage measured by total liabilities to total assets ratio and profitability, equal to net profit after tax to number of shares outstanding. All variables are summarized in table 3.1.
Table 3.1 Variable explanation Variables DPO DIVINT AGE AGE2 AGE3 LVRG PRFT Proxy Total cash dividend to earning after tax Total cash dividend to total assets Number of years after incorporation till year t AGE square AGE cube Total Liabilities to Total Assets Earning per share Positive (+) Negative (-) Positive (+) Negative (-) Positive (+) Expected Relationship

Dependent Variables

Independent Variables

3.2 Models Four models have been designed to estimate the non-linear relationship between companys age and dividends. Model 1 includes only age related main variables and does not include control variables,

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however, in model 2 we have included two variables to control leverage and profitability impact on companys dividend payouts. In model 3, we have used an alternative proxy of dividend policy i.e. dividend intensity as dependent variable and only age, age-square and age-cube are included as independent variables, but again in model 4 we also included control variables of leverage and profitability. The models to be estimated are given as under:
(DPO)it = 0 + 1( AGE)i,t + 2 (AGE)2 i,t + 3 (AGE)3 i,t + i,t ..(1) (DPO)it = 0 + 1( AGE)i,t + 2 (AGE)2 i,t + 3 (AGE)3 i,t + 4 (LVRG) i,t + 5 (PRFT)i,t + i,t .(2) Using alternative proxy of dividend policy i.e. dividend intensity the following two models have been estimated using OLS regression. (DIVINT)it = 0 + 1( AGE)i,t + 2 (AGE) i,t + 3 (AGE) i,t + i,t .(3) 2 3 (DIVINT)it = 0 + 1( AGE)i,t + 2 (AGE) i,t + 3 (AGE) i,t + 4 (LVRG) i,t + 5 (PRFT)i,t + i,t..(4)
2 3

4. Statistical Analysis Given below are the estimated results from OLS regression model based on the sample of 120 listed companies of KSE during 2002 to 2007. Table 4.1 is divided into two panels, where panel A shows the estimated results using dependent variable of dividend payout, whereas, panel B presents the relationship of age with alternative proxy of dividend policy i.e. dividend intensity. The results show that age is positively and significantly related to dividend policy. It reveals the fact that as company grows in age it becomes mature and starts increasing it dividend payments.
Table 4.1. Results of OLS regression (Panel-A) DPO 0.024629 Constant (0.195844) [0.844841] 0.033153** AGE (2.253825) [0.024797] -0.00128** AGE2 (-2.55032) [0.011168] 1.44E-05*** AGE3 (2.821058) [0.005047] LVRG 0.226711 (1.52854) [0.127311] 0.027437* (1.761434) [0.079066] -0.00108** (-2.04867) [0.041264] 1.19E-05** (2.217033) [0.027284] -0.26784*** (-3.60061) (Panel-B) DIVINT -0.03299* (-1.7754) [0.076676] 0.008413*** (3.886588) [0.000121] -0.00033*** (-4.52583) [8.19E-06] 3.87E-06*** (5.168509) [3.92E-07] -0.01318 (-0.65987) [0.509784] 0.008033*** (3.829958) [0.000153] -0.00033*** (-4.63179) [5.17E-06] 3.83E-06*** (5.299687) [2.09E-07] -0.03523*** (-3.51341)

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[0.000365] 0.002127**

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[0.000502] 0.000848*** (6.351771) [6.83E-10]

PRFT

(2.144037) [0.032741]

R2 Adj R2 St.Error D/W F-Statistics Sig-F

0.03158 0.023663 0.293515 1.290775 3.989214 0.001

0.0794 0.0659 0.291072 1.448566 5.854043 0.000

0.12402 0.11672 0.041818 0.789497 16.98947 0.000

0.259279 0.248386 0.039242 0.975496 23.80248 0.000

Parentheses contain (t-statistics); [p-value]; *** significant at the level 1%; ** significant at the level 5%; *significant at the level 10%.

This might be due to the same reason as argued by Grullon et. al. (2002) that mature companies have more reserves and less capital expenditure due to low growth opportunities, based on which it can be established that such companies are able to pay higher dividends. Furthermore, mature companies have several advantages over new companies i.e. they have more experience, expertise, valuable assets and easy access to capital market from where funds can be acquired as and when the need arises. They are also capable to earn higher profit due to their perceived goodwill by their customers, but have low capital expenditure due to which they are able to save a good proportion of their earnings as reserves. Such reserves are then utilized by companies to pay dividends to their shareholders. Based on the estimated results in panel A, the positive relationship between dividend and maturity is evident, and the proxy of maturity (Age) is significant with t-statistics of 1.761434 and 2.253825, with and without control variables, respectively. The relationship of age is also significantly positive with dividend intensity in panel B, which confirms our results in panel A. The above results are consistent with Manos and Green (2001) who also reported a positive relationship between age of company and its payout level for non-group affiliated Indian companies. Moreover, the results provide support to the maturity hypothesis of Grullon et. al. (2002) and free cash flow hypothesis defended by Easterbrook (1984) and Jensen and Michael (1986). However, the relationship of age-square is significantly negative with dividend payout which is inline with the study conducted by Al-Malkawi (2007) who reported a significantly negative relationship of age-square with dividend policy of Jordanian listed companies. The non-linear relationship between the age of the company and dividend payout could be due to changes in companys life cycle. As explained by trade cycle theory that in business cycle there are wave-like fluctuations in aggregate employment, income output and price levels. The negative relationship of age-square with payout is consistent with trade cycle theory. It shows that when companies find new investment opportunities they pay less or may be no dividends, as it would not be an optimal decision any longer. This argument is also consistent with residual dividend policy theory. The negative relationship of age-square with payout is significant at a level of 5% and 1% in panel A and panel B, respectively. Regarding age-cube, a significantly positive coefficient value, shows that the decline in payout reveled by age-square is not persistent. As companies find new investment opportunities they start utilizing their

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reserves but after a point where all present NPV projects have been captured by companies their capital expenditures start decreasing again and such companies start paying dividends. This phenomenon of non-linearity or cubic relationship can be due to the nature of competition faced by listed companies during their life cycle. When new company(s) enters in the business market the level of competition may increase, which forces mature companies to concentrate on expanding their business horizons by introducing new and innovative products and might start spending heavily on advertising campaigns. The increased competition may also enforce company to spend more on research and development due which they have to reduce the distribution of earnings in the forms of dividends and start building up reserves to meet current and future investment needs. But, with the passage of time when companies meet the challenges of growing competition they start performing on their normal capacity which may be higher than the capacity at which company was performing before increase in competition. In figure 4.1 the non-linearity of relationship between age and dividend policy variables has been clearly revealed. Figure (a) depicts the relationship between age and dividend payouts and in figure (b) the relationship of companys age is plotted against dividend intensity. From the plot, it can be judged that, other things remaining the same, Pakistani companies pay high dividends up till 20 years of age approximately, after that the dividend starts declining with a slow pace, which continues to decrease until the company reaches the age of 40 years approximately.
Figure 4.1. Relationship between firms age and dividends

Figure (a)

Figure (b)

After that companies again start increasing dividends. If we consider the co-efficient value given in Table 4.1, then we can say that during first 20 years of companys age, after every year Pakistani companies increase their payout with approximately 3% but when company reaches the age of 20 its starts reducing dividend payout at a rate of 0.10% approximately every year till it reaches the age of 40 years, after which company again start increasing dividends. The present study has also used two control variables of leverage and profitability. Leverage has a significantly negative relationship with dividend policy in both panel A and B. It shows that highly leveraged companies are less likely to pay higher dividends. Intuitively, the companies with high level of

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outsiders equity have to maintain good liquidity to pay regular interest and principal as well. Therefore, such companies are reluctant to distribute cash in the form of dividends. This negative relationship of leverage is consistent with Darling (1957), Rozef, (1982), Baker et. al. (2007), and Ahmed and Attiya (2009) Profitability, on the other side, is also among the prime determinants of dividend policy. The significantly positive relationship of profitability shows that highly profitable companies have more reserves and hence have more capability to pay high dividends. This result is in line with the studies of DeAngelo et. al (1992), Mayers and Frank (2004), Fama and French (2002) and Avazian et. al. (2003). 4. Conclusion

Present study is an attempt to explore the possible explanation of Maturity hypothesis in context of dividend policy in listed companies of Pakistan. For this purpose data of six year (from 2002 to 2007) of 120 companies has been collected and analyzed using OLS regression. A cubic form of models has been estimated with dependent variables of dividend payout and dividend intensity using age, agesquare and age-cube as independent variables. The estimated results clearly show the non-linearity in the relationship between age and dividend payouts of companies. It is evident that during first few years, which according to our estimated results are closer to 20 years, companies on average increase its dividend payments but after that companies start reducing dividends. One of the reasons could be increase in competition which forces company to focus more on research and development and other strategies like heavy advertisement campaigns and product innovations to meet the challenges of competition. Therefore, such companies have to spend more on expansion plans to capture the market or at least maintain their share in the market and hence they have to reduce the distribution of earnings in the form of dividends. But after this stage, company again reaches to a new maturity level where its development expenditures have been reduces and company again start paying dividends. To the best of authors knowledge, this is a very first study addressing non-linearity of relationship between companys age and dividend policy in listed companies of Pakistan, using a cubic form of models and therefore suggests interesting avenues for future results. Specially, the relationship of age with companys performance is yet to be explored in context of Pakistan. Furthermore, it would be interesting to analyze the changes in companys investments, advertising, R&D and other capital expenditures as companies grow in age.

References
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Asquith, P., and Mullins, D. W., Jr. (1983). The impact of initiating dividend payments on shareholders wealth. Journal of Business 56 (January): 7796. Ayub, M. (2005). Corporate Governance and Dividend Policy, Pakistan Economic and Social Review 1 XLIII (2005): pp. 115-128. Baker. K. H. Saadi.S, D. Gandhi.D. (2007). The perception of dividend by Canadian managers: new survey evidence. International Journal of Managerial Finance, vol.3, 2007 Barclay, Michael J., Clifford W. Smith, and Ross L. Watts (1995), The Determinants of Corporate Leverage and Dividend Policies, Journal of Applied Corporate Finance 7, 4-19. Brickley, J. A. (1983). Shareholder wealth, information signaling and the specially designated dividend: An empirical study. Journal of Financial Economics 12 (August): 187209. Cooley, T. F., and V. Quadrini (2001): Financial Markets and Firm Dynamics, American Economic Review, 91(5), 1286 1310. Darling, P.G. (1957). The Influence of Expectations and Liquidity on Dividend Policy, Journal of Political Economy, 65(3), p 209-224. DeAngelo, Harry, L. DeAngelo, and D. J. Skinner (1992). Dividends and Losses. Journal of Finance 47, 1837-1863. Deshmukh, Sanjay (2003), Dividend Initiations and Asymmetric Information: A Hazard Model, Financial Review 38, 351368. Easterbrook and H. Frank(1984). Two Agency- Cost Explanations of Dividends, American Economic Re view, Vol. 74, September 1984, 650- 659. Ericson, Richard, and Ariel Pakes, (1995) Markov-perfect industry dynamics: A framework for empirical work. Review of Economic Studies 62, 53-82. Evans, D. S. (1987): The relationship between firm growth, size, and age - estimates for 100 manufacturing-industries. Journal Of Industrial Economics, 35(4), 567581. Fama, E. and H. Babiak (1968). Dividend policy of individual firms: an empirical analysis. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 63, 1132-1161. Fama, Eugene F., and K. R. French (2002). Testing Trade-Off and Pecking Order Predictions About Dividends and Debt. The Review of Financial Studies 15, 1-33. Farinas, Jose C., and Lourdes Moreno (2000), Firms' Growth, Size and Age: A Nonparametric Approach, Review of Industrial Organization 17, 249-265. Grullon, Gustavo, Roni Michaely and Bhaskaran Swaminathan (2002), Are Dividend Changes a Sign of Firm Maturity?, Journal of Business, Vol. 75, No. 3 Gugler, K. (2003). Corporate Governance, Dividend Payout Policy, and the interrelationship between dividend, R&D and Capital Investment, Journal of Banking and Finance (27), pp.1197-1321. Healy, P. M., and Palepu, K. G. (1988). Earnings information conveyed by dividend initiations and omissions. Journal of Financial Economics 21 (September): 14975. Huergo, Elena and Jordi Jaumandreu (2002), How Does Probability of Innovation Change with Firm Age?, 29th EARIE conference held at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Huynh, Kim P. and Robert J. Petrunia (2009), Age Effects, Leverage and Firm Growth, Working paper Indiana Unviersity, 105 Wylie Hall, 100 South Woodlawn Avenue, Bloomington, USA. Jensen C. Michael (1986). Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers, The American Economic Review, 76, 323-329. John, K., and Williams, J. (1985). Dividends, dilution, and taxes: A signaling equilibrium. Journal of Finance 40 (September): 105370. Jovanovic, Boyan, (1982), Selection and the evolution of industry, Econometrica 50, 649-670. Kumar, J. (2006). Corporate Governance and Dividend Policy in India, Journal of Emerging Market Finance, Vol. 5, No. 5, pp. 15-58. Leonard-Barton, Dorothy, (1992), Core capabilities and core rigidities: A paradox in managing new product development, Strategic Management Journal 13, 111-125. Lintner, J. (1956). "Distribution of Incomes of Corporations Among Dividends, Retained Earnings and Taxes," Economic Review (May 1956), pp. 97-113 Miller, M. H., and Rock, K., (1985). Dividend policy under asymmetric information. Journal of Finance 40 (September): 103151. Miller, M.H. and F. Modigliani (1961), "Dividend Policy, Growth, and the Valuation of Shares," Journal of Business (October), 411-433.

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Food Production and Consumption Pattern in Pakistan During 1979-80 to 2009-10


Khaliq Uz Zaman
Punjab Economic Research Institute 48-Civic Centre, Johar Town, Lahore, Pakistan Cell: 0321-4641096, Email: khzlhr@gmail.com
Abstract The paper is about change in food production and consumption pattern in Pakistan. Food availability per capita per annum in Pakistan increased from 298.1 kg in 1979-80 to 41`4.8 kg in 2007-08 at a rate slower than Population growth (from 85.09 million to 163.8 million over the same period) [12] Food consumption pattern in Pakistan are exception and changing by weight nearly three quarters of the diet is made up of cereals and milk product. In addition over half of the expenditure for major food items is on cereals, and milk products [37] The food production (Cereals, Gram, Pulses, Vegetables, Potatoes, and Fruits, Animal product Poultry Product, Sugar and Veg.Ghee) was increased by 52 percent in 1990-2000 over the 1979-90 and by 34.9 percent in 2000-2010 over the nineties. The annual rate of growth in overall food production rose to 3.9, 4.2 and 2.8 per cent in the eighties, nineties and last recent decade against 3.1, 2.4 and 1.9 per cent growth of population in same time period. Food grain production was increased by 32.8 to 29.5 per cent during last thirty years.

1. Introduction Food consumption and production pattern are the driving forces behind any Economy and play a significant role shaping the sustainability of future economic growth. [7], [10]. This pattern is changing since 1980s because growth rate of the (GDP) has been averaging 5.6 percent per annum during the decade beginning from 1980-81 further during the last 20 years the average growth rates of the economy has also remained 4.7 percent. Since population has increased by at least 2.05 percent per annum, from 85.09 million to 173.5 million between 1980 and 2010 in Pakistan [12]. To feed this rising population, food production ought to increase proportionately and pattern of change in the production of different items should have been changed against the changes occurred in food consumption pattern, generally the pattern of agricultural diversification shows a shift from crop production to livestock product namely, milk, meat, eggs etc. [22] [28]. There are number of studies analyzing the growth performance of Pakistan agriculture covering different periods, however, very few studies that have actually looked into the sources of growth in food cropped production [29]. I have not come across any such study that decomposed sub-period wise the output growth into the area, yield and interactive effect covering the most recent period, especially the eighties, nineties and recent decade of this century when Pakistan agriculture did experience significant changes [31] [28]. Keeping in view this background, this paper attempts to assess changes in food consumption and Production pattern by analyzing factors responsible for enhancing in production of such items between time periods 1979/80 1989-/901990/91-1999/2000 and 2000/2001 to 2009/2010 by using data of Household Income and Expenditure Survey 1979, 1987- 88, Pakistan Integrated Household Survey 1998-99, 2001-2002. Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement (PSLM) Survey 2004-05. Agriculture Statistics and various issues of Pakistan Economic Survey published during 1979-80 to 2009-10

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2. Changes in Mean Area, Production and Yield of Major Crops from 1979-80 to 2009-10 in Pakistan. The performance of agriculture can be judged from the growth rate of area, production and yield of different crops [5], [7], [11] . Data regarding overtime change and annual growth rate in average area, production and yield of different crops including total food grains during 1979 /90 to1990/2000 and 1990/2000 to 2000/2010, has been presented in Table 1, 1-A and 1-B. 3. Area Under Different Crops Data presented in the table-1 shows that while area under wheat, rice, maize increased by 11,11 and 12.9 percent in nineties, as compared to eighties, it decreased by varying degree under the remaining food crops ( Bajra 23 percent, Jowar -0,7 percent Barley -4.1 percent). Overtime change in area during 2000-10 remained positive in case of wheat (3 percent), rice (12.9 percent), maize ( 8.1 percent) and Bajra ( 11.1 percent), wheat is the most vantage and pivotal crop of the county. This edible food crop accounts for about 41.7 percent, 42.4 percent and 42.2 percent of the cropped area of the county during eighties, nineties and recent decade respectively. Considering the 15 important crops being produced in overall Pakistan, it was found an increased in the area of food, grains, and 8.6 percent in nineties over eighties and decreased 4.3 percent in 2000-10 over nineties. The area under total crops has grown at the rate of 1.5, 0.8 and 0.6 percent per annum, while area under food grain crops has also grown at the rate of 0.9, 0.8 and 1.5 per cent per annum during eighties, nineties and 2000-10 respectively. Within food grain, the highest growth in area has been recorded for maize (1.8 percent) followed by wheat (1.1 percent) during eighties while rice (2.1 percent) followed by maize (1.6 percent) during nineties. It was also highest in case of rice (3.0 percent) but followed by bajra (2.7 percent) during 2000-10. Favorable weather in Barani area accounted to high growth for bajra. Growth rate of wheat (1.3 percent) and rice (3.0 percent) in recent study decade was also high as compared to nineties.
Table 1. Change over time in Average Area and Annual Growth Rate of Major Crops in Pakistan during 1979-90, 1990-00 and 2000-10. Area (000 hect.) % Change during 1979-90 to 1990-00 % Change during 1990-00 to 2000-10 3.0 12.9 11.5 -19.4 Annual Growth rate during 1979-90 Annual Growth rate during 1990-00 Annual Growth rate during 2000-10 1.3 3.0 2.7 -4.5 Avg. Area 1990-00 Avg. Area 1979-90 Avg. Area 2000-10 8427 2502 451 316

Crops

Wheat Rice Bajra Jowar

7372 1996 526 395

8183 2216 405 392

11.0 11.0 -23.0 -0.7

1.1 0.4 0.9 0.0

0.6 2.1 -1.1 -1

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Maize Barley Total Food Grains Gram Other Pulses Sugar cane Rap & Mustard Sesamum Cotton Tobacco Vegetable Potato Total Other Crops Grand Total

802 196 11287 968 1376 847 348 33 2526 43 168 49 6358 17645

905 153 12255 962 1501 979 311 79 2880 52 220 83 7066 19321

12.9 -21.9 8.6 -0.7 9.1 15.5 -10.7 135.9 14.0 19.9 30.9 69.9 11.1 9.5

1.8 -4.1 0.9 0.3 1.1 0.2 -3.5 -4.4 3.0 -2.1 5.6 5.7 1.5 1.0

1.6 -1.6 0.8 -4.7 0.6 2.3 1.9 2.9 1.2 1.0 0.6 4.6 0.8 0.8

979 102 12778 960 1452 1021 248 85 3005 50 235 117 7171 19949

8.1 -33.4 4.3 -0.2 -3.3 4.3 -20.3 7.4 4.3 -4.2 6.6 41.4 1.5 3.3

1.0 -3.7 1.5 4.9 -0.4 0.3 -3.2 -3.0 0.2 0.9 1.8 4.1 0.6 1.2

4. Production and Yield per Hectare of Different Crops During 1979-80 to 1990-2000 and 1990-2000 to 2000-10 the food grain production grown at a compound rate of 2, 3.5 and 4 percent while yield per hectare increased 1.9, 1.2, 2.5 per cent respectively (Table1-A & 1-B). Although the growth of area contributed to the expansion of production of food grain crops, the growth rate of yields were better than that for growth rate of area.
Table 1-A. Change over time in Average Production and Annual Growth Rate of Major Crops in Pakistan during 1979-90, 1990-00 and 2000-10. Production (000 tonne) % Change during 1979-90 to 1990-00 % Change during 1990-00 to 2000-10 24.2 35.3 35 -18.9 91.8 Avg. Production 1979-90 Avg. Production1990-00 Avg. Produciton2000-10 Annual Growth rate during 1979-90 Annual Growth rate during 1990-00 Annual Growth rate during 2000-10 3.0 5.4 4.7 -4.3 10.4

Crops

Wheat Rice Bajra Jowar Maize

12338 3259 232 229 1041

16981 3950 179 233 1393

37.6 21.2 -22.8 1.5 33.8

2.7 0.0 -3.4 0.0 2.8

3.2 5.3 0.6 -0.4 4.4

21097 5342 242 189 2672

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Barley Total Food Grains Gram Other Pulses Sugar cane Rap & Mustard Sesamum Cotton Tabbaco Vegetable Potato Total Other Crops Grand Total

140 17239 438 673 32602 235 13 1071 74 2182 564 37853 55092

150 22886 567 782 44837 250 35 1657 94 2994 1085 52301 75187

7.1 32.8 29.3 16.1 37.5 6.3 157.6 54.7 27.3 37.2 92.3 38.2 36.5

-2.4 2.0 6.0 2.4 1.0 -0.9 -4.9 8.6 0.1 6.4 4.6 1.6 1.8

-0.7 3.5 4.8 4.4 3.7 4.4 4.7 -0.3 2.2 -0.1 7.3 3.4 3.5

86 29628 562 848 48711 204 35 2006 99 3016 2083 57562 87190

-42.8 29.5 -0.8 8.5 8.6 -18.4 1 21 5 0.7 92 10.1 16

-8.3 4.0 3.0 3.3 1.9 -2.2 -1.1 2.2 2.6 1.4 5.2 2.0 2.4

The production of wheat the major cereal crop of the county, increased at a compound rate of 2.7, 3.2 and 3.0 per cents during eighties, nineties and 2000-10. During eighties rate of increased in production of rice is zero, while during nineties rate of rise in production of rice (5.3 percent) is higher as compared to wheat (3.2 percent) and maize (4.4 percent).
Table 1-B. Change over time in Average Yield and Annual Growth Rate of Major Crops in Pakistan during 1979-90, 1990-00 and 2000-10. Yield (tone/hect.) Annual Growth rate during 1990-00 Annual Growth rate during 1979-90 Annual Growth rate during 2000-10 1.7 2.4 1.0 0.1 9.4 % Change during 1979-90 to 1990-00 % Change during 1990-00 to 2000-10 20.5 17.8 13.0 1.0 75.5 Avg. Yield 1990-00 Avg. Yield 2000-10 2.5 2.1 0.5 0.6 2.7 Avg. Yield1979-90 1.7 1.6 0.4 0.6 1.3

Crops

Wheat Rice Bajra Jowar Maize

2.1 1.8 0.4 0.6 1.5

24.0 9.2 0.3 2.3 18.4

1.6 -0.4 -4.3 0.1 1.0

2.6 3.2 1.7 0.5 2.8

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Barley Total Food Grains Gram Other Pulses Sugar cane Rap & Mustard Sesamum Cotton Tobacco Vegetable Potato Total Other Crops Grand Total

0.7 1.5 0.5 0.5 38.5 0.7 0.4 0.4 1.7 13.0 11.6 6.0 3.1

1.0 1.9 0.5 0.5 45.8 0.8 0.4 0.6 1.8 13.6 13.1 7.4 3.9

37.2 21.5 10.5 6.4 19.0 19.0 9.2 35.6 6.2 4.9 13.2 24.3 24.1

1.7 1.2 5.6 1.4 0.8 2.6 -0.5 5.6 1.3 0.8 -1.1 0.2 0.7

0.8 2.7 5.0 3.7 1.4 2.5 1.8 1.5 1.3 -0.8 2.7 2.6 2.7

0.8 2.3 0.6 0.6 47.7 0.8 0.4 0.7 2.0 12.9 17.9 8.0 4.4

-18.6 23.2 24.1 15.2 4.1 -3.6 -9.5 21.7 10.5 -5.2 36.1 8.1 13.1

-4.6 2.5 -1.9 3.7 1.1 1.0 1.9 2.0 1.7 -0.3 1.1 1.0 1.2

During 2000-10 rate of growth in the production of maize (10.4 per cent) was highest followed by rice (5.4 per cent) as compared to other food crops and while yield of wheat (1.7 percent) rice (2.4 percent) and maize (9.4 percent) also increased at a significant rate particular due to the introduction of high yielding varieties of rice and maize [22],. Expansion of areas, production and yield of maize was due to its role as a live stock, poultry feed production and edible oil. The production of oil seeds (rap and mustard, sesamum) has declined during last thirty years despite the fact that demand for vegetable ghee has tripled as result of substitution of desi ghee. In fact cotton seed, which has always been the major domestic source of edible oil double its production, consequently, the share of cotton seed oil in domestic production has further increased, while that of rapeseed and mustard and sesamum has declined [27] [29] wheat and Gram and barley suffer decline both in area and yield during (2000-10) these crops are grown mainly in barani areas. The fluctuation in weather was a major factor behind the instability of these crops. Among non-food grains the most promising crops include sugarcane and cotton. In net terms the total food grains production experienced an increased of 32.8 percent in nineties over the eighties and 29.5 percent in 2000-10 over the nineties. Although the cropping sector as a whole and some individual crops in the past did experience remarkable growth rates from the 1980 but the rates of increase in yields have either slowed as in case of wheat (important food grain crop) or become constant (see detail in table 1-A & 1-B). In so far as average yield was concerned, all food grain recorded net increase of 21.5 percent in the nineties over eighties and 23.2 percent in 2000-10 over nineties respectively. Self sufficiency in food can be achieved and sustained only if yield of these crops can be increased beyond past trend. This can be done by bringing more area under certified seed by improved cultural practices, more balanced and timely use of fertilizer and high water use efficiency [22] [23]. [27], [29]. It can be safely inferred that overall performance was nevertheless quite good. The trend of food grains production rose 128.20 per cent between 1979 and 2010. The average annual rate of growth (2.5 per cent) was equal to developing country. Three fourth of the growth (1.6 per cent) was due

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to growth in yield and one fourth (0.9 per cent) to the growth in gross area sown. The contribution of yield growth has risen over time, while the contribution of area expansion has declined (see figure-1 and 2). About 40 percent area was due to increase double cropping, the remainder being accounted for by the expansion of the net cultivated area (see table-2).
Table 2. Area, Production Yield, Cropping Intensity of Food Grain Crops
Cultivated Cropped Area Food Cropped Production (000 tonne) Area (million) Area (000 hec.) (million) 20.23 20.30 20.42 20.31 20.33 20.61 20.17 20.92 20.66 21.02 21.07 20.96 21.06 21.40 21.51 21.55 21.68 21.98 21.96 21.93 21.96 22.13 22.23 22.21 22.12 22.13 22.65 21.88 21.23 21.18 21.21 0.1 19.22 19.33 19.71 20.06 19.99 19.92 20.28 20.60 19.52 21.82 21.89 21.82 21.72 22.44 21.87 22.14 22.59 22.73 23.04 22.86 22.74 22.04 22.12 21.85 22.94 22.78 23.13 23.56 23.85 23.80 23.80 0.8 10803 10709 11141 11255 11264 11258 10392 11678 11183 11738 11922 11934 11668 12191 11919 12297 12473 12113 12618 12599 12734 12359 12000 11989 12657 12654 12896 13066 13020 13980 13679 0.9 15232 16188 16319 17491 15854 16692 18462 17216 17471 19395 19312 19588 20634 21056 20917 22422 22968 22962 25160 24775 28381 25986 24310 25890 26955 29905 30396 32332 29789 35061 34759 2.5

Years 1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Growth Rate

Yield (Kgs) 1410 1512 1465 1554 1407 1483 1777 1474 1562 1652 1620 1641 1768 1727 1755 1823 1841 1896 1994 1966 2229 2103 2026 2159 2130 2363 2357 2475 2288 2508 2541 1.6

Cropping Intensity 95 95 97 99 98 97 101 98 94 104 104 104 103 105 102 103 104 103 105 104 104 100 100 98 104 103 102 108 112 112 112 0.7

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5. Component of Change in Mean Production The change in output of major crops in Pakistan can be broken into three components (1) expansion in cropped area at the old yield level (2) increase in yield on the old cropped area, and (3) a cross-product term of increased area and yield. The results of de composition into area, yield and interactive effects are produced in table 3. The breakdown of change in output measured separately for each decade since the early 1980s. The data given in table indicates that among different sources of increase in mean production of total food grains increase in mean yield contributed 68.5 per cent and 81.8 per cent in first and second period i.e 1979-80 to 1990-2000) and (1990-2000 to 2000-2010) respectively. In first period (1979-80 to 1990-2000) and second period (1990-2000 to 2000-2010) most of the growth in crop output is explained by increase in yield for all crops except pulses and vegetables. The contribution of yield to the change in output of wheat rice, total grain, cotton and vegetables continued to be strong in the (1990-2000 to 2000-2010) but negative so far vegetables. In second period (1990-2000 to 2000-2010) growth in vegetable is strongly explained by expansion of area and modestly as regard sugarcane output. The area expansion effect on output growth of wheat, rice, total grain, and cotton is

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very week in both period (i.e. (1979-80 to 1990-2000 to 2000-2010) vegetables are integral part of the household and for regional economies in Pakistan. Their growth has been important in providing nutrition, employment and, forwarding linkages to processing industries. Since the 1980s the share of crop area used for vegetables has increased significantly because its increasing demand of the domestic and middle East market, but the impact of yield on output was negative. This is because production of certified vegetable seed is inadequate rather negligible as compared to the requirement [3]. However, to meet the yield gap Government in 2005-06, launched fruit and vegetable development project for dissemination of improved production technologies, certification and registration of fruit plants and vegetable seed and improving marketing and post- harvest technology of fruit and vegetable. The analysis given in table 3 indicates that most of the increase in output of wheat, rice, total food grains, sugarcane, cotton and pulses has occurred due to productivity gains. o o yb A b, t = = = = = yb A + Aby + Ay Change in crop output (between t and b) yield level of crop in the base year Change in yield level (between time t and b) base and terminal year (average of each decade in each case)

Table 3. Decomposition of Change in output of Major Crops

Period 1979-80 to 1990-2000 Wheat Rice Total Food Grains Sugarcane Cotton Pulses Vegetables 1990-2000 to 2000-2010 Wheat Rice Total Food Grains Sugarcane Cotton Pulses Vegetables

Area effect ybA 29.6 51.4 25.7 41.5 24.7 58.3 83.0 12.4 37.0 14.7 49.8 21.7 -40.3 735.1

Yield effect Aby 63.4 43.7 68.5 50.6 66.0 38.2 13.0 85.0 55.8 81.8 48.1 75.0 145.1 -594.6

Interactive Effect Ay 7.0 4.8 5.8 7.9 9.3 3.5 4.0 2.5 7.2 3.5 2.1 3.3 - 4.8 -40.5

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6. Food Production Pattern including Non Cropped The estimates for the 1979-80 to 2009-10 position with regard to important food items, such as food grain (wheat, rice, maize, jowar and Barley), Pulses, sugar, edible oils, livestock product (milk, mutton, beef, poultry meat) vegetables, potatoes, fruits, fish and eggs are given in Table 4. Livestock product contributed by cattle, sheep, goat and poultry. Among the crops used as food, partly consumed by the farm household and partly sold in the market, food grain (wheat, rice, maize, jowar and Barley), constitute the most important group (44.4 percent) followed by fruits (7.3 percent) vegetable (5.6 percent) pulses (1.7 percent), Potato (1.1 percent) and Gram (1.1 percent) during eighties and during nineties 38.8 percent, 6.8 percent 5.1 percent,1.3 percent, 1.8 percent and 1.0 percent for same items respectively. Similar pattern was observed during 2000 to 2010 however, during all three study decades the product range share of each food items has stayed within a broad percentage of 44.4 to 0.7. The food production pattern during last thirty years with protein has gone up by a significant margin especially milk, beef, poultry and sugar. The most striking increase has been in milk. These changes usually portray the outcome of an interaction of major physical and technological and institution factors. Favorable changes in public policy and increased private investment since the early 1980s have shifted the emphasis from small scale (fragmented) production to the development of large scale cattle farms [29], [28], [23], [22]. The dairy and meat industries are apparently now responding to the rapid growth of demand for these products. A well organized and efficient poultry industry has already emerged in the urban areas of the country since the late 1970s [22], [28], [37]. The average annual rates of change in the production of different food items in the last three decades are given in table 4. The food production was increased by 52 percent in 1990-2000 over the 1979-90 and by 34.9 percent in 2000-2010 over the nineties. The annual rate of growth in overall food production rose to 3.9, 4.2 and 2.8 per cent in the eighties, nineties and last recent decade against 3.1, 2.4 and 1.9 per cent growth of population in same time period. Food grain production was increased by 32.8 to 29.5 per cent during last thirty years. The population growth rate of Pakistan which was running at 3.1 percent in 1980-90 and declined from 2.4 percent in the 1990-2000 to 1.9 percent in 2000-2010 is projected to reach over 351 million by 2050, which is the challenge that have to face by the agriculture sector to feed an ever increasing population. To feed this population Pakistan may begin the strategies to fulfill the potential yield, gap, of food obtained by cropped and livestock output. Pakistan planning commission in January 2011 obtained from [26] and identified unachieved potential of yields regarding different crops which is 67 to 84 percent and of which the difference between best practice and average yield is 31 to 75 percent and the difference between research potential yields and the best practice yields is 25 to 75 per cent regarding wheat (43.5 percent) Maize (58.5 percent) rice (45.6 percent) sugarcane (72.8 percent) and cotton (30.08 percent). The reasons narrated for such a huge productivity gap include: traditional farming practices, inefficient irrigation methods, high input costs, lack of bio safety regulations and insufficient institutional credit for poor farmers [22]. Although livestock is showing improvement over past few years in dairy sector, yet there is a great room for improvement of productivity. In dairy sector there is 78 per cent yield gap if compared with minimum standard required to compete globally. More over, a striking issue of 30 to 40 per cent livestock is underfed and only 10 percent of livestock is vaccinated. According to the data given in table 4, food production increased at the growth rate of 3.9, 4.2 and 2.8 per cent during eighties, nineties and recent decade at a rate slightly faster than population growth (which averaged 3.1, 2.4 and 1.9 per cent per annum during the same time period). Unfortunately, the country has not been able to achieve self-sufficiency in producing the main staple

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crop (wheat) and has to import, on average 10 to 12 percent of the country total consumption. However, 25 percent of rice is exported [22].
Table 4. Average Food Production (000 tonne), % Share of each food items, Change over time and Annual Growth Rate of Food Items % Chang e during 197990 to 199000 32.8 29.3 16.1 37.2 92.3 42.9 47.9 62.0 82.2 49.3 86.1 96.6 26.1 52.0 70.1 Ann ual Gro wth Rate duri ng 197 9-90 2.0 6 2.4 6.4 4.6 4.8 5.6 6.0 5.3 5.5 8.5 7.2 5.4 3.9 7.4 3.1 Ann ual Gro wth Rate duri ng 199 0-00 3.5 4.8 4.4 -0.1 7.3 2.6 -2.1 2.5 6.2 2.0 7.5 2.4 1.7 4.2 53.0 2.4 % Chang e during 199000 to 200010 29.5 -0.8 8.4 0.7 92.0 21.8 -7.7 46.1 49.6 20.6 70.4 28.6 33.2 34.9 57.4 Ann ual Gro wth Rate duri ng 200 0-10 4.0 3.0 3.3 1.4 5.2 3.8 -2.3 6.4 3.8 5.2 8.9 1.1 0.7 2.8 5.5 1.9

Food Items

Avg. Prod uctio n 1979 -90

Avg. Produ ction 199000

Avg. Produ ction 200010

Total Food Grains Gram All Pulses Vegetable Potato Total Fruits Mutton Beef Milk Fish Poultry meat Sugar Veg.ghee Grand Total Eggs million nos. Population (million)

17239

44.4

22886 567 782 2994 1085 4025 692 894 20706 577 285 2780 722 58994 5933 s

38.8 1.0 1.3 5.1 1.8 6.8 1.2 1.5 35.1 1.0 0.5 4.7 1.2 100.0

29628 562 848 3016 2083 4903 639 1306 30967 696 485 3475 961 79567 9339 -

37.2 0.7 1.1 3.8 2.6 6.2 0.8 1.6 38.9 0.9 0.6 4.4 1.2 100.0

438 1.1 673 1.7 2182 5.6 564 1.5 2817 7.3 468 1.2 552 1.4 11364 29.3 386 1.0 153 0.4 1414 3.6 572 1.5 3882 100.0 2 3487 -

7. Food Consumption Pattern Food consumption pattern in Pakistan are exception and changing. By weight nearly three quarters of the diet is constituted by cereals and milk products. However, this pattern is changing as majority of the population shifts to more animal product and poultry [37]. It is generally thought that there is positive correlation between income and consumption of animal and poultry product. The following table-5 shows estimates of per capita monthly consumption of food item in Pakistan in 1979-80-1987-88, 199899, 2001-02 and 2004-05. The estimates are based on data obtained from PIHS, Household income and expenditure survey and PSLM survey of these years. Data given in the table 5 shows consumption

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of cereals has declined since the 1979s. Per capita consumption of cereal (including wheat, rice) fell from 12.45 kg in 1979-80 to 9.29 kg in 2004-05. The decline in cereal consumption (32.7 percent) could be explained because it has been replaced in Pakistani diet by increased in animal product (35.9 percent) poultry product (1.3 percent) vegetables (14.7 percent) sugar (4.6 percent) in 2004-05 against consumption of 1979-80 that was 44-6 percent, 25.9 percent, 0.5 percent, 11.4 percent and 2.6 percent in case of cereals, milk product, poultry product, vegetables and sugar respectively (see detail in table 4). Several factors may have contributed to the rapid expansion in the consumption of animal product, poultry product, vegetables and sugar in Pakistan first real per capita GNP increased at an annual rate of 4.9 percent per annum between 1979-80 to 2009-10 second Pakistan is the most urbanized nation in south Asia with city dwellers making up 36 percent of its population (2008) while the urbanization rate is 3 percent (2005-10) [12]
Table 5. Per Capita Monthly Consumption of Major Food Items in Pakistan
Food Items Wheat & wheat Floor Rice & Rice Floor Bakkery Product Total Cereals Gram Mash Moong Masoor Other Pulses Total Pulses Milk (Fresh & Boiled) Milk Packed Milk Dry/ Condemsed Butter Desi Ghee Yougurt Mutton Beaf Total Animal Product Vegitable Ghee Cooking Oil Total Fish Chicken Meat Eggs Total Poultry & Fish 2004-05 8.2 1.03 0.06 9.29 0.2 0.06 0.09 0.06 0.03 0.44 6.67 2.18 0.09 0.0446 0.03 0.49 0.07 0.63 10.20 0.67 0.12 0.79 0.06 0.23 0.08 0.37 % 28.9 3.6 0.2 32.7 0.7 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.1 1.5 23.5 7.7 0.3 0.2 0.1 1.7 0.2 2.2 35.9 2.4 0.4 2.8 0.2 0.8 0.3 1.3 2001-02 8.94 1.17 0.05 10.16 0.16 0.04 0.07 0.05 0.03 0.35 5.8 0.06 0.07 0.0459 0.04 0.55 0.1 0.61 7.28 0.64 0.09 0.73 0.05 0.14 0.07 0.26 % 35.0 4.6 0.2 39.8 0.6 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.1 1.4 22.7 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 2.2 0.4 2.4 28.5 2.5 0.4 2.9 0.2 0.5 0.3 1.0 1998-99 9.27 1.05 0.04 10.36 0.18 0.05 0.08 0.06 0.03 0.40 5.93 0.03 0.03 0.0526 0.04 0.48 0.11 0.59 7.26 0.65 0.08 0.73 0.07 0.13 0.06 0.26 % 35.7 4.0 0.2 39.9 0.7 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.1 1.5 22.9 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 1.9 0.4 2.3 28.0 2.5 0.3 2.8 0.3 0.5 0.2 1.0 1987-88 10.045 1.175 0.02 11.25 0.235 0.095 0.1 0.08 0.02 0.53 6.49 0.01 0.02 0.0590 0.075 0.3 0.13 0.44 7.53 0.575 0.045 0.62 0.065 0.065 0.04 0.18 % 37.0 4.3 0.1 41.5 0.9 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.1 2.0 23.9 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 1.1 0.5 1.6 27.7 2.1 0.2 2.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.6 1979 11.2 1.24 0.01 12.45 0.28 0.1 0.15 0.09 0.02 0.64 5.18 0 0.01 0.75 0.12 0.61 0.16 0.41 7.24 0.51 0.03 0.54 0.06 0.06 0.03 0.15 % 40.1 4.4 0.0 44.6 1.0 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.1 2.3 18.6 0.0 0.0 2.7 0.4 2.2 0.6 1.5 25.9 1.8 0.1 1.9 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.5

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Banna Citrus Friuts Apples Dry Fruits Other Fruits Total Fruits Patatoes Tamatoes Onion Other Vegetables Total Vegetables Salt Chllis Sugar (Dasi or Milled) Gur/ Shaker Tea (Black & Green ) Total Condiments Grand Total

0.31 0.19 0.24 0.020 0.41 1.17 1.18 0.36 0.94 1.71 4.19 0.33 0.08479 1.31 0.17 0.0723 1.97 28.42

1.1 0.7 0.8 0.1 1.4 4.1 4.2 1.3 3.3 6.0 14.7 1.2 0.3 4.6 0.6 0.3 6.9 100.0

0.12 0.21 0.11 0.008 0.58 1.03 1.05 0.34 0.98 1.51 3.88 0.3 0.08049 1.26 0.15 0.0563 1.85 25.53

0.5 0.8 0.4 0.0 2.3 4.0 4.1 1.3 3.8 5.9 15.2 1.2 0.3 4.9 0.6 0.2 7.2 100.0

0.18 0.16 0.16 0.016 0.65 1.17 1.05 0.33 0.89 1.53 3.8 0.31 0.08643 1.32 0.19 0.0634 1.97 25.95

0.7 0.6 0.6 0.1 2.5 4.5 4.0 1.3 3.4 5.9 14.6 1.2 0.3 5.1 0.7 0.2 7.6 100.0

0.18 1.925 0.075 0.018 0.135 2.33 0.68 0.29 0.695 1.605 3.27 0.235 0.00007 0.94 0.245 0.0001 1.42 27.12

0.6 7.1 0.3 0.1 0.5 8.6 2.5 1.1 2.6 5.9 12.1 0.9 0.0 3.5 0.9 0.0 5.2 100.0

0.14 1.87 0.02 0.016 0.13 2.18 0.73 0.27 0.62 1.57 3.19 0.24 0.00008 0.72 0.49 0.08 1.53 27.92

0.5 6.7 0.1 0.1 0.5 7.8 2.6 1.0 2.2 5.6 11.4 0.9 0.0 2.6 1.8 0.3 5.5 100.0

7. Input Factors Affecting total Cropped Food Production Multiple regression techniques can be used to estimate the separate effects of various factors affecting food cropped output (Fertilizer, improved seed, No of tubewell, No. of Tractors, Credit disbursed and Area irrigated) whenever, there is sufficient independent variation among the determining factors [35]. However, area irrigated was found to be highly inter-correlated with number of tube wells, and credit disbursed was found with all other inputs. A high degree of inter-correlation impairs the stability of the regression coefficient and, thus their dependability as indicators of the separate influence of each of these factors on output. For the purpose of this analysis, dropped the area irrigated and credit disbursed variable. A regression equation was estimated using Cobb Douglas type production function. It estimates real contribution of each and every factor affecting output. Important factors affecting cropped food output i.e. no of tubewell, no. of tractors, improved seed distributed (000 tones) fertilizer off-take (000 N/T) area cultivated million hectares during 1979-80 to 2009-10. Many factors were left out to keep study within manageable limits. Cobb Douglas type production function was fitted which is described as below LN OUTPUT LN OUTPUT bo = = = bo+b1LNTube+ be LNTrace + b3 LNimpse+LNfert+LNCULAr+U Natural logarithm of cropped output (in 000 tones) from 1979-80 to 2009-10 Constant

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LN Tube LN TRac LNfert LNcultAr U b1 to b5

= = = = = =

Natural Logarithm of No. of tubewell Natural Logarithm of No. of tractors. Fertilizer off-take (000 N/T) Area cultivated million hectars. Random error term independently and identically distributed with Zero mean and constant variance. Co-efficient

8. Results and Discussion The effects of all factors studied were investigated through multiple regression analysis. The Cobb Douglas production function was estimated using the ordinary least square (OLS) method. The R2 0.758 represents the proportion of the variation in Y explained by the regression, since implies that about 75 percent variation in output explained by independent variables included in the study. The influence of independent variables in food cropped output is discussed as under: - Number of Tube wells and Tractors The most popular form of mechanization in Pakistan agriculture have been tubewell, tractor. The value of coefficient found as 0.076 indicate that one per cent increase in installation of tube well increased the output by 0.07 percent and the value of coefficient of tractor (0.005) indicates that one per cent increase in Number of Tractor enhance output by 0.005 percent. There is subsidy system prevailed regarding tubewell and tractor in Pakistan a subsidy which does not discriminate between electricity and diesel, appears to be necessary to continue expansion of tubewell produce irrigation. The credit policy of the donor and government can play role in promoting the use of tractor and enhancing productivity regarding crop production [37]. - Improved Seed Distributed, Fertilizer Use and Area Cultivated The coefficient improved seed 0.064, fertilizer use 0.283 and area irrigated 1.04 was positive. It shows that one per cent increase with use in the improved seed, fertilizer; area irrigated increased the output of 0.064, 0.283 and 1.04 percent respectively. This analysis has shown that these factors of growth are likely to play a much smaller role in future only increased cultivated area expansion is significant. It is concluded that output of food crops can be increased by bringing more culturable waste area under plough and controlling urbanization. As regard the co-efficient of fertilizer it indicates that fertilizer dosage will increase, but the marginal pay-off is now relatively low under current production practice. Crop seed are a strategically important input that can enhance or constraint production. The basic genetic capability transmitted through seed allows the productive use of water, fertilizer and cultural practices [24] [27]. 9. Conclusion

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This paper was carried out with the broad objectives of assessing the trends in food consumption and production in Pakistan since 1979-1980. As per the data area under food grain crops has grown at the rate of 0.9, 0.8 and 1.5 percent per annum during eighties, nineties and 2000-10 respectively while food production increased at the rate of 3.9, 4.2 and 2.8 percent slightly faster than population growth (which averaged 3.1, 2.4 and 1.9 percent per annum during the same time period). There has been a switch in preference towards non-cereal items, such as milk, poultry meat, eggs and beef. In this paper it was ascertained factors effecting cropped output. Most of the factors were found positive contributing toward higher food cropped output. However, effect, of area cultivated was highly significant. It is suggested besides motivating the people to exercise over population the endeavors be made in an integrated fashion that is more area should be brought under plough for food production. Government imposes restrictions to prevent encroachment of productive agriculture land and manage canal water supplies for enhancing food outputs further, concentration on food production factors i.e. improved seed, availability of fertilizer, tractor, tube well and more area under plough be realized.

References
Andreson. R. J and Crosson P (1992), Resources and Global Food Prospects Supply and Demand for cereals to 2030: The World Bank Washington, DC Technical Paper No. 184 Anwar T. (2009), Measuring inequality of Consumption and Opportunities in Pakistan 2001, 2002 and 2004-05. Pakistan Economic and Social Review Vol. 47 No. 2. Department of Economics University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan. Ashiq. M.R, S ardar. S.M, Zaman.K, Haider. J and Imran. M (2007) Benchmark Survey of fruit and vegetable development project, Punjab Economic Research Institute, Publication No. 381. Bale D. M and Duncan C. R (1983), Prospectus for Food Production and Consumption in Developing Countries The World Bank Washington, DC Technical Paper No. 596 Bachman L. K. and Paulino A. L. (1979), Rapid Food Production Growth in Selected Development Countries: A comparative Analysis of Underlying Trends, 1961-76 International Food Policy Research Institute Washington DC, IFPRI. Bansil C. P. (1998), Demand for Food Grains By 2020. Economic and Political Weekly Vol. XXXIII No. 10 Centre for Science and Environment New Dehli India. Chernichovsky.D and Meesook. AO (1984), Pattrens of Food Consumption and Nutrition in Indonesia. The World Bank Washington, DC Technical Paper No. 670 Dams. T, Hunt E. K and Tylor J. G (1976), Food and Population priorities in Decision Making. Report of a Meeting of the International Conference of Agricultural Economics Nairobi, Saxon House. George J. (1998), Livestock Economy and Food Grains Demand. Economic and Political Weekly Vol. XXXIII No. 7 Centre for Science and Environment New Dehli India. Goliai R. and Pradhan C. N (2006), Changing Food Consumption Pattern in Rural India: Implication of Food and Nutrition Security. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics. Indian Society of Agricultural Economics Mumbai Vol. 61 No. 3 Giri K. A. (2006), Cereal Consumption Over time in the Country and across the State. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics. Indian Society of Agricultural Economics Mumbai Vol. 61 No.3 Government of Pakistan (2010), Pakistan Economic Survey 2009-10 Government of Pakistan Finance Division Economic Adviser Wing Islamabad Government of Pakistan (1992), Pakistan Economic Survey 1991-92 Government of Pakistan Finance Division Economic Adviser Wing Islamabad Government of Pakistan (1987), Pakistan Economic Survey 1986-87 Government of Pakistan Finance Division Economic Adviser Wing Islamabad Government of Pakistan (2007),Agriculture Statistics of Pakistan 2006-07 Government of Pakistan Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock Economic Trade and Investment Wing Islamabad.

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Government of Pakistan (2008), Agriculture Statistics of Pakistan 2007-08 Government of Pakistan Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock Economic Trade and Investment Wing Islamabad. Government of Pakistan 1979. Household Income and Expenditure Survey. Federal Bureau of Statistics, Statistics Division Islamabad. Government of Pakistan 1988. Household Income and Expenditure Survey 1987-88. Federal Bureau of Statistics, Statistics Division Islamabad. Government of Pakistan 1999. Household Income and Expenditure Survey 1998-99. Federal Bureau of Statistics, Statistics Division Islamabad. Government of Pakistan 2002. PIHS Pakistan Integrated Household Survey 2001-02. Federal Bureau of Statistics, Statistics Division Islamabad. Government of Pakistan 2006. Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurements (PSLM) Household Integrated Economic Survey 2004-05. Federal Bureau of Statistics, Statistics Division Islamabad. Husain.I (2005) Pakistan the Economy of an Elitist State Oxford University Press, New York. Hasan P. (1997), Learning from the Past: A Fifty Years Perspective of Pakistan s Development. Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad Hassan I. Chattha B. M. Chattha H. T. and Ali A.M (2010), Factors Affecting Wheat Yield: A Case study of Mixed Cropping Zone of Punjab. Journal of Agricultural Research Vol 48 No. 3 Department of Agriculture Government of the Punjab- 17 Ingco. D.M (1990), Changes in Food Consumption Patterns in the Republic of Korea The World Bank Washington, DC Technical Paper No. 506 Iqbal and Ahmed (2003), Science and Technology Based Agricultural Vision of Pakistan and Prospects of Growth Pakistan Development Review. Javeed A. M and Yameen T. M (2003), Water Crises and Cropped Production Gaps in Punjab Identification, Risk Analysis and Mitigation Measures. Science International Whadat Road, Lahore, Pakistan. Khan. R.S. (2000) 50 Years of Pakistans Economy Oxford University Press New York. Khan H. M. (2006), Agriculture in Pakistan (Change and Progress 1947-2005) Vanguard Books (Pvt) Ltd. 45 The Mall, Lahore, Pakistan. Lowry HJ. (1970), World Population and Food Supply by Edward Arnold (Publisher) Ltd.London. Majumdar K and Basu P (2005), Growth Decomposition of Food Grains Output in West Bengal: Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics. Indian Society of Agricultural Economics Mumbai Vol. 60 No. 2 Nasurudeen P and Kuruvila A. and Sendhil R and Chandrasekar V (2006), the Dynamic and Inequality of Nutrients Consumption in India. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics. Indian Society of Agricultural Economics Mumbai Vol. 61 No. 3 Piazza. A (1983), Trends in Foods and Nutrient Availability in China, 1950-81. The World Bank Washington, DC Technical Paper No. 607 Sharama R. H. Singh K. and Kumari S.(2006), Extent and Source of Instability in Food Grains Production in India. Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics. Indian Society of Agricultural Economics Mumbai Vol. 61 No.4 Sanderson F. H and Roy S. (1979), Food Trends and Prospects in India. The Booking Institutions. 1975 Massachusetts Avenue, N. W. Washington D. C. 20036 Shah M. Strong M. (1999), Food in the 21st Century from Science to Sustainable Agriculture Washington D. C. Walters F. Mehmood A. (1990), A Description Pakistans Agricultural Economy, Published by the Directorate of Agricultural Policy and Chemonics International Consulting Division Islamabad, Pakistan.

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Analysis of Poverty Indices in Underdeveloped Countries: Nigeria Scenario


Otu Judith E. * Eja Eja I. * Joy Eko A. * Emeka Josephat O. *
* University of Calabar, Nigeria Email: judithesame@yahoo.co.uk; ejako2007@yahoo.com; joetat@yahoo.com ;emekajosephat@yahoo.com
Abstract The socio-economic condition in Nigeria, present a perplexing paradox. In spite of a robust endowment in natural and human resources, the level of poverty of her people stands in contrast to the countrys enormous wealth. This paper seek to critically analyse the poverty incident with specific reference to poverty incidence, poverty profile , poverty trend, type of poverty, measurement of poverty and the major causes of poverty in Nigeria. However, data were obtained from federal office of statistics and Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and the result shows that despite the abundant natural and human resources in Nigeria, the amazing paradox a country rich with plenty but occupied by people whom majority are perpetually poor and underdeveloped. Therefore, effective programmes most be design if of poverty must be given a lasting solution in the area. Keywords: poverty, undeveloped, amazing paradox and mortality.

1. Introduction In recent times, poverty has become a major socio-economic problem in most cities of the world especially in developing countries. Many national government in Africa have tended to treat poverty as a purely economic problem that could be overcome by means of careful planned and implemented, economic development programs. But such approach has often led merely to increase in average incomes and gross national product (GNP) but has led to visible improvement in the living standards of the masses of the people (Hancock, 1942). The general observation indicated clearly that aggregate economic development efforts among developing countries of Africa such as Nigeria, Mali, Kenya etc, does not necessarily lead to poverty reduction and that a better way to assess the impact of rural economic development programs on the welfare of the people is by example separately the benefits that have accrued to the various groups, particularly the socially vulnerable groups the children, women and the elderly (Inyang, 2009). In Nigeria, perhaps the one single development option that has consistently defined effective and sustained intervention by successive federal and state administrators is sustainable rural development programs. Past attempts at National Development have divided Nigeria into two very distinct socio-economic sectors, namely; the urban and rural sectors. Each of these sectors show great diversity in terms of natural resources endowment, aggregate investments and the resultant physical quality of life of the inhabitant. The rural sector, with abundance of human and natural resources, has undeveloped yet it accounts for about 80% of the total population of Nigeria living and working in the rural areas (Olaseni, 2004). In Nigeria, today poverty and development has become an issue of serious concern until after the oil gust of the 1980s, when international oil price crashed and

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there was an international economic slump. The Nigerian economy began to experience severe recession from the early 1980s, as a result of which she moved from a middle income and a developing industrial nation to become one of the poorest nation in the world (CBN, 1998). The social conditions in Nigeria in general present a perplexing paradox. In spite of a robust endowment in natural and human research, the level of poverty of her people stands in contrast to the countrys enormous wealth. However, many factors account for this situation, such factors include; corruption, mismanagement of resources, unemployment, lack of manpower, low standard in the educational system, low income distribution, low gross domestic or national product (GDP, GNP), rural poverty, brain, marginalization, deprivation and human degradation, poor performance of sustainable policies and programmes and bad leadership. All these have contribute immensely to make the country and the region backward and underdeveloped. Nevertheless, this paper seek to examine poverty and causative with specific reference to poverty incidents in both urban and rural sectors and the causative factors in the area. 2. Methodology This paper was conducted based on the available data. It was within the confirmed Nigeria. However, information concerning the poverty incidence were obtained from the federal office of statistic (FOS) located in all the state in Nigeria. Data on poverty trend were also collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). However, data used were between 1980 to 2000. Although data on poverty in Nigeria, the trend between urban poor and rural poor were assessed between 1989 to 2003 using the Central Bank of Nigeria Economic and Financial Review (various issues). However, the result were critically analyzed using other empirical works in order to give an overview scenario of poverty incidence in Nigeria. 3. Findings 3.1 Poverty Incidence in Nigeria Table 1 shows that the population living in absolute poverty was 18.3 million in 1980. This figure rose to 34.7 million in 1985, 67.1 million in 1996 and 96.9 million in 2000. data also have shown that mortality rates for infants under 5years was 1000 live birth while mortality rate was 614 per 100,000 live births in 1996 (NPC, 2000). These figures are above average for developing countries, even in sub-Saharan Africa where poverty is endemic. The next table tries to classify the Nigerian population into those that could be defined as non-poor, moderately poor and the absolutely poor between the years of 1980 and 2000.
Table 1. Poverty Incidence In Nigeria, 1980-2000 Estimated population (million) 65 75 Population in poverty (million) 18.3 34.7 Poverty incidence (%) 28.1 46.3

Year

1980 1985

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1992 1996 1998 2000 91.5 102.3 118.4 126.1 39.1 67.1 81.2 96.91 42.7 65.6 79.2 84.5

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Source: Federal Office of Statistics (FOS), 2000

Poverty has been shown to be on the increase-in Nigeria (UNDP, 1998. FOS, 1999; World Bank, 1999). In absolute terms, the population of poor Nigerians increased fourfold between 1980 and 2000. While the percentage of moderately poor only rose from 28.9 percent to 36.3 percent, the percentage of the absolutely poor increased tremendously from 13.9 percent in 1992 to 17.4 percent in 1996. report has shown, according to FOS (1999) that within the same period the proportion of total income spent on food by the persistently poor and moderately poor was approximately 75.
Table 2. Poverty profile in Nigeria, 1980-2000 Year 1980 1985 1992 1996 1998 2000 Non-poor (%) 72.8 53.7 57.3 34.4 42.6 38.1 Moderately poor(%) 2.10 34.2 28.7 36.3 31.3 42.5 Absolutely poor (%) 6.2 12.1 13.7 27.3 26.1 19.4

Source: Federal Office of Statistics (FOS), 2000.

3.2. Poverty Trend in Urban & Rural Sector The table above shows that the trend of poverty in the urban sector was 17.2 percent in 1980. In 1985, it increased to 37.8 percent. The rural growth rate in the year 2000 was -9.1 percent. In measuring poverty, we may distinguish between absolute and relative poverty. Poverty is said to be absolute if the consumption of an individual or household is below a minimum acceptable level which has been fixed over time as a global standard for meaningful human existence usually known as poverty line. It is the inability of people to meet the basic sector has received less attention due to what is described as "urban bias which has starved the sector of both human and capital resources. Consequently, the incidence of poverty's more pronounced in the rural area where over 60 percent of the population live, with about 65 percent of them engaged in agricultural production. The CBN (2001) report identifies some of the specific causes of rural poverty to be lack of access to employment opportunities, inadequate commitment to rural development projects, inadequate access to social and infrastructural amenities, ineffective policies on natural resource management, lack of beneficial participation in development

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Programmes and inadequate attention to social security. Also, among the rural majority, about 77 percent of farmers are poor, while about 48 percent are in extreme poverty. Expectedly, the educated farmers, as a group, have a lower proportion of poverty than the others. By age groups, middle-age farmers (4156 years) are poorer than other age groups. The larger the household size, the higher the incidence of poverty among the farmers. Two groups of basic needs arc discernible. The First includes certain minimum requirements of a family for private consumption: adequate food, shelter and clothing as well as certain household equipment and furniture. The second group of basic needs includes essential services provided by and for a community such as good drinking water, sanitation, public transport, health educational and cultural facilities (ILO, 1976). Relative poverty on the other hand emphasizes per capital income. That is a situation where the standard of living of people, fall below the generally and socially acceptable minimum (Killick, 1981). In relative poverty, the poverty line is set at one half of the mean income, data information still give other levels (types) of the poor, namely, the rural poor the urban poor, me core- poor and the aggregate poor (Englama, etc, 1997; Anyanwu, 1997). The aggregate poor represent the average of the sum total of all the poor in the country. The rural poor are those who are in the poor bracket but live in the remote areas of the country, since government usually have a kind of neglect when it comes to implementing tangible Programmes, it is difficult to say education and health expenditure get to the rural areas and have significant impact on the rural poor. The urban poor are those considered poor in all respects, but live in secluded areas of the urban city. These classes of people exist at the outskirt of every city in Nigeria. They really lack basic amenities like electricity, viable employment, housing, potable and clean water etc. Like the rural or urban poor, the core poor belong to a group of the poor in the society. The degree of poverty among the core poor is such that economic policies can hardly create impact at their level of poverty. By implication, the core-poor live purely in an in an informal setting.
Table 3. Poverty Trend by Sector in Nigeria, 1980-2000 Urban Growth Rate (%) -119.8 -0.8 55.2 16.3 6.4 Rural (Million) 28.3 51.4 46.0 69.8 57.3 52.1 Rural Growth Rate (%) 81.6 -11.7 51.7 -17.9 -9.1

Year

Urban (Million)

1980 1985 1992 1996 1998 2000

17.2 37.8 37.5 52. 8 61.4 65.3

Source: Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), 2001

3.3 Types of Poverty in the Area From the statistics presented in table 4, we can see the different types of poverty with the various

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percentages front 1980-2003 the poverty rule simply, gives us an estimate of the percentage of people living below the poverty line. An underdeveloped country is poverty ridden. Poverty is reflected in low GNP per capital. According to the world development report, 1999- 2000, 59,6 percent of the world population in 1998 were living in low income economics and GNP per capital of 25.4 percent in middle income economics, had $791 to $9,360 and 15.0 percent in high income economies had $9,361 or more. The extremely low GNP per capital of' low- income economics reflects the extent of poverty in them. Among these low-income countries, Nigeria is one of them. In assessing such economies, it is note worthy to state that absolute poverty is what is more important. Absolute poverty is measured not only by low income but also by malnutrition, poor health, shelter, lack of education and clothing. Thus absolute poverty is reflected in low living standard of the people. From what has been discussed so far, it can be deduce that poverty is the main cause of underdevelopment in Nigeria. An undeveloped country or community is one that is characterized by mass poverty which is chronic and not the result of some temporary misfortune. Its obsolete methods of production and social organization are obsolete. This means that the poverty is not entirely due to poor natural resources and hence could presumably be lessened by viable methods used by other countries.
Table 4. Nigeria: Types of poverty, 1989-2000 Year 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Aggregate Poor (%) (APOV) 43.9 13.8 43 42.5 48 53.9 59 61 66 68 69 70 71 72 71 Urban Poor (%) (UPOV) 37.2 37.2 37.2 37.2 42 47.4 52.1 58 58.3 60.1 61 62 63 62 62 Rural Poor (%) (RPOV) 48.5 48.47 46.4 46 52 58 63 66 70 70.2 72 73 74 75 76 Core Poor (%) (CPOV) 12.5 13 13.4 14 18 21 25 28 29.4 30 31 32 32 32 33

Source: CBN Economic and Financial Review (Various Issues). Federal Office of Statistics.

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4. Literature Review There have been so many works and researches conducted that expresses different opinions on the modalities and yardstick for measuring poverty. However, the early attempts to measure poverty were made more than a century ago as reported in the works of booth (1989), row tree (1901), Naonji (1901). Income figures are adjusted commonly to reflect the consumption requirements of families based on their composition and size. The head count ratio or the rate of poverty is the simplest and best-known poverty -measuring index. This implies the ratio of the percentage of the poor individuals in a given population. Another measure which may be traditional is the "poverty gap". This is the average deviation of incomes of the poor from poverty line. It is the difference between the poverty line and the mean income of the poor expressed as a ratio of the poverty line (World Bank, 1993). Poverty embraces both material and non material aspects, The material aspect includes monetary indicators (income and expenditure). Non-material includes those things that relate to the quality of life, such as nutrition, health status, political empowerment, and educational attainment. Sometimes it is not easy to measure these independently, but it is important to supplement the income-based measures of poverty with non-income based indicators such as school enrollment and educational level, infant mortality rate and, life expectancy. Poverty can be measured in terms of lack of access to the following: Nutritious food, potable water, comfortable accommodation, functional and qualitative education, good road and means of communication, security of life and properly, protection of human rights, functional and gainful employment, political participation, opportunities for self actualization and development and self determination etc (Okaba 2005) (Emphasis mine). Consequently, it could be said that Nigeria has a high population of poor people. This is very glaring among the rural dwellers especially in the Niger Delta Region where there are so much illiterates, the aged widows and "the unmarried mothers"
MEASUR EMENT O F PO VE RTY Poverty repartition

Incom e or Consumption

Poverty line

Incidence o f poverty Source: UND P (2000)

Population

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From the diagram, the poverty gap can be measured as the average distance below the poverty line, expressed as a percentage of that line. This average is calculated from the whole population, poor and non-poor. It gives a better pictures or estimate of the deterioration in living standards. Also, in terms of the severity of poverty, it can be measured as a weighted average of the squared distance, below the poverty line. The weights are given by each individual gap. The average is calculated from the whole population. Since weights increase with poverty, this measure is sensitive to inequalities among the poor. The poverty line refers to the group of people who are below or above the poverty line. 5. Causes of Poverty in Nigeria The causes of poverty in the Nigeria includes; inadequate access to employment opportunities, destruction of natural resources leading to environmental degradation and reduced productivity, inadequate assistance for those living at the margin and those victimized by transitory poverty and lack of participation, failure to draw the poor into the design of development; low endowment of human capital, governments neglect, unviable developmental polices, inadequate growth rate of the Gross Domestics Product (GDP). These account for the high level of poverty in Nigeria. Other major factors which have contributed adversely to the poverty of the Region include. Underdevelopment: this is the first cause of poverty in Nigeria especially the Niger region of Nigeria. Underdevelopment is a function of poverty. Due to without the most essential needs of daily life. There are no basic amenities provided by the government- When we look at the Niger Delta, we can without any doubt, smell, feel, sec, sense and even touch underdevelopment. In terms of good health system, it is a different story altogether. Hospitals, clinics are dilapidated and equipments, facilities arc antiquated. The educational standard is very low. People in the rural areas of Nigeria are not even interested in education. The percentage of illiteracy in this area is very high. About sixty (60) to seventy (70) percent of adults are stark illiterates. This is because a good educational system is not provided for them. No good housing development has been put in place for the poor. It is only the rich that are better off. Similarly, when we talk of underdevelopment as being the cause of poverty in the Region, it is necessary to look at environmental degradation, pollution and exploitation caused by oil companies in Nigeria. Today, the Niger Delta Region remains the home of crude oil exploration in Nigeria- places like Bayelsa, Delta, Akwa-Ibom, river stales which constitute the core Niger Delta state produce about 90 percent of the entire Nigeria's crude petroleum. This exploration has been on for over forty years and continues to increase in intensity and scope. This has made the Region to be "seriously underdeveloped. Paradoxically, adequate compensation for what is obtained from the area is not made through the development of the Region. In the midst of this hopeless state, frustration and alienation - set in. The bloody crisis currently raging in 'the Niger Delta Region is a result of the underdevelopment caused by these "imperialist oil companies", neglect by the government and the attitude of the citizens of the area. In fact none of the trio can alone bear the blame. Unemployment: - one of the major causes of poverty in the Nigeria is unemployment. The people are crying to be employed, and as long as unemployment persists, continue to be on the increase. About 60 percent of youths in Nigeria are unemployed and some underemployed. Governance problems: in its various dimensions, unhealthy governance is generally believed to have contributed significantly to the poverty incidence in Nigeria. One of the problems that have bedeviled good governance in Nigeria is corruption. Corruption which has plagued governance in Nigeria has also had its toll governance activities, hence affecting the economy of the nation. The problem of poor governance has

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also contributed to the limited effectiveness of past and current poverty alleviation Programmes in the Region. Social conflicts/Crisis: - this has impacted negatively on the well-being of individuals both economically and otherwise. The high rates of restiveness blood shed and communal crisis in Nigeria , no doubt caused serious dislocations in the economy and consequently have increased the level of poverty. A study by the institute for peace and conflict resolution shows that the unfortunate occurrences and reoccurrences of social conflicts and crisis in various localities in Nigeria have contributed undoubtedly to the deterioration of poverty situation, not only in the affected areas but also in areas that receive the influx displaced people. 6. Recommendation and Conclusion However, it is not understatement to say that the country in its underdeveloped nature is face seriously with the problem of poverty. Poverty is a mastered and has eaten very deep into the fabric of Nigerians economy. The rate of poverty in Nigeria is so alarming that it has turn out to be a matter of concern. Therefore, in order to alleviate this situation in Nigeria, the following mechanism should be put in place. Today, poverty in Nigeria is alarming. The country remains a toddler, struggling to find a push out of poverty. Poverty, it is a plague often described as inability of people to satisfy their minimum basic needs of food, clothing and shelter. Poverty goes beyond the income view by encompassing absence of resources and opportunities that are basic to human survival. To this end, the following measures can be adopted it poverty must be tackled in Nigeria. 1) There is need for the urgent provision of basic infrastructure evenly, both at urban and rural areas in the region. No tangible improvement in the quality of life can be achieved in the absence of basic social amenities 2) Policies of government at all levels should be implemented with conscious effort of ensuring development at the grassroots. 3) Government in partnership with the private sector must take human capital formation seriously 4) There is need for the improvement and diversification of the economy. From this, a diversified, developing and growing economy will reduce the heavy focus and dependence on oil and gas. Agricultural and mineral products can be produced in different region in Nigeria. This will go a long way in galvanizing the local economy, creating rooms for more industries. References
Alapiki. Henry (1999): The Crisis And Challenge Of Underdevelopment In Africa. A Critique of Theory and Practice Corporate Impressions, Eket Anikpo. Mark (1996): Hegemonic Legacies:- Issues In The Sociology Of Underdevelopment- University Port Harcourt Press, Port Harcourt . Central Bank of Nigeria, Enugu Zone (1998) A profile of Regional zonal poverty in Nigeria: The case of Enugu Zone in meeting and promontory poverty in Nigeria, proceeding of the seventh Annual Conference of the zonal research units. Cooper. R. Donald and Schindler, S. Pamela (2003). Business Research Methods, New York, McGraw-Hill. ------- (1991): Understanding The Hunger Crisis In Africa. Abic Publishers, Enugu. Ekpo. Akpan (2000): "Poverty Alleviation and Sustenance Of Democracy In Nigeria", In Uya Okon. E Civil Society And The Consolidation Of Democracy, In Nigeria Cats Publishers Calabar. Enukoha, Obinna I. etal (2001) Manual for research reporting, Lagos. Horsegate

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Eminue, Okon (2006). Investment-Led Poverty- Reduction Employment (IPRE) initiative in Obasanjos Nigeria. Conceptual Explication and Prospect, Journal of policy and administrative studies. Vol. 1. No.1, Calabar. - - ------(2001 ). Managing the Nigerian Economy In the Twenty First Century. Cats Publishers, Calabar. Inyang, J.D. (2009) Poverty: A constraints to sustainable development of Niger Delta region of Nigerias socioeconomic resources during the 21st century. Academic leadership, 7 (4) 1-10. Jhingan, M.L (1998): The Economics of Development And Planning (31st Edition), Virinda Publications, India Naamen. Benedict (1984); Theories Of Development. : How Relevant To Africa? Journal of the Department of Sociology (No. 1) University of Port Harcourt. Hancock, W.K. (1942) Survey of the British Common wealth affairs: problem of economy policy (1918-1939), 2,267. Ndiyo. N.A And Udah, E.B (2003), A Dynamic Analysis Of Monetary Policy and Poverty In A Small Open Economy: The Nigerian Experience In Nigerian Journal Of Economics And Development Matters (Vol. 2, No.l) Lagos. Ndebbio, John. E (2006). The Structural Economic dimension of Underdevelopment, Associated Vicissitudes And Imperatives: Agenda for Positive Change. A Paper Presented At The 33 rd Inaugural Lecture Of The University Of Calabar. Offiong, Daniel (1980): Imperialism And Dependency Fourth Dimension Publishing. Enugu. Oluseni, A. M. (2004) Rural Development Planning in Nigeria: Concept Publication Limited. Okaba, Benjamin (2005). Petroleum Industry And The Paradox Of' Rural Poverty In The Niger Delta. Ethiope Publishing Corporation, Benin City. Offiong, Daniel, A. (1980). Imperialism And Dependency. Obstacles To African Development, Enugu, Fourth Dimension. Oji George Or And Ikeji C.C (2002). Philosophy And Methodology Of Policy Science. Enugu, EL' Demak Publishers. Okaba, Benjanim O. (2005), Petroleum Industry And The Paradox Of Rural Poverty In The Niger Delta. Benin City. Ethiope Publishers Osuala, E. C. (2001). Introduction To Research Methodology, Onitsha. Africana-First Publishers. Udontre, Emmanuel (2004). The Basics of Research Methodology; Uyo, Emsel.

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An Investigation of the Efficiency in Nigeria Real Estate Agency Practice


Iroham C. O.* Oluwunmi A. O.* Ayedun C. A.* Oloyede S. A.*
* Department of Estate Management, School of Environmental Studies College of Science and Technology, Covenant University, Ota Ogun State, Nigeria E-mail: emeka_iroham@yahoo.co.uk
Abstract Estate agency which has been researched upon particularly in the UK, US and Asia is still in its infancy in Nigeria. This research aims at discovering the impact of different agency types in the efficiency of Nigeria real estate practice. The study of 159 Estate Surveying firms and 91 Property development companies in the commercial nerve centre of the country (Lagos) representing both agents and principal (vendor/purchasers) respectively, indicates that multiple agency is mostly adopted in Nigeria real estate practice. The Relative Important Index coupled with Chi-Square test at 0.05 level of significance supports the posit of certain inefficiencies synonymous with multiple agency as discovered in an earlier work carried out in the UK. The researchers thereby advocated the modification of sub-agency practice particularly to involve the consent and commitment of principals so as to eradicate all inefficiencies by safeguarding the interest of all parties. A call for focus on the neglected real estate agency research among Nigeria researchers is also advocated. Keywords: Agency, Agent, Principal, Real Estate, Efficiency, Nigeria

1. Introduction Agency is described as a relationship existing between a principal and an agent, where an agent is given rights of authorization from the former to act on his behalf. Such relationship could be established when principals are convinced that the involvement of agents will produce more effective returns usually due to their vantage in training, commitment and conversance in the prescribed endeavour. Hence, it can be arguable that its application is in various spheres of life as most of life endevours could be centred on business. In real estate practice, where the market is fraught with dearth of information, the role of the estate agent cannot be overemphasized particularly in bringing together parties of divergent interest in attaining specific goals. The practice of real estate agency has been certified by various nations around the globe. For instance, in the UK where most laws governing the operational laws in Nigeria are fashioned from, estate agency practice is controlled by the Estate Agents Act 1979 as amended by legislation such as the Consumer, Estate Agents and Redress Act 2007. The practice of Estate Agency in the UK has transcended from the highly fragmented industry to more robust practice. In the 1970s, small, locally based, independent businesses dominated the industry. This industry structure meant that estate agency was seen as a typical entrepreneurial activity. By the first half of the 1990s, however, most estate agencies were in the hands of large institutions in the financial services sector (Boyle, 1998); independent estate agents who have begun to reappear on the high street recently has 205

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characterized the industry by differentiation strategies where small firms wishing to establish a long-term position in a market need to assess both the market environment and the market position of their rivals, the larger firms (Bishop and Megicks, 2002). In Nigeria, Section 25&26 of Decree 24 of 1975 empowers the Estate Surveyor and Valuer in carrying out operations as an estate agent. The organized body recognized for the regulation of practice is the Estate Surveyors and valuers Registration Board of Nigeria (ESVARBON). However, the Corporate Affairs Commission (CAC), body statutorily empowered for registration of every business outfit in the country, regards estate agency as a business concern and classifies it under general business practice (Akomolede, 2006; Oni, 2009). This has partly accounted for why non-professionals engage in estate agency. The agency practice is regarded as an all comers affairs as lawyers, engineers, accountants and even laymen learned in numeric details carry out this operation. An expression has become synonymous with the estate surveying profession calling every other profession dabbling into agency as quarks. However, there are no clear cut-out edicts granting the estate surveyor and valuer the exclusive preserve of operation even when series of protest has been made to that effect. For no clearly defined reason, two principal different types of agency for property disposal have developed. No matter the form agency practice takes, it usually revolves around any of the two major types. Sole agency as a method of operating in the property market means that only one agent is appointed to act for the vendor and Multiple agency or mixed agency has been used to describe the practice, where vendors may instruct more than one agent, and often several, each to act independently of the other(s), with only the successful agent receiving the commission. The Monopolies Commission (1969) published their report which found that estate agency practice in Britain, although not regular, revealed that the north of a line drawn roughly from the Wash to the Bristol Channel, generally practiced sole agency as the accepted method of operation while the South of the line, had multiple agency practice as the general rule. Another prominent type of real estate agency is Joint agency, which refers to the method of operation when two agents agree to market the vendors property together and split the commission. The use of sub-agency is spelt out in Decree 24 of 1975, where agents are to be co-opted by the main agent and have their fees based on the commission given to the main agent. Nevertheless, it can be arguable that sub agency can be submerge into sole agency while joint agency is a variant of multiple agency. A different agency practice system is adopted in the USA where the agency relationship between agent and seller is formalized in the listing contract and there are several types of listing arrangements. Under an open listing (similar to multiple agency in the UK), the seller can list the property with multiple agents and is liable to pay commission only to the agent that procures the sale. The seller does not pay any commission if he finds the buyer himself. Under exclusive agency listing, the contracting agent shall be the only (exclusive) agent that will be entitled to a commission and no other agent will have a direct contractual relationship with the seller. The seller alone may sell the property without incurring liability to pay the contracting broker. These two contracts are now rarely used in residential markets in the USA under multiple listing services (MLSs) system (Miceli, 1988). The most common listing arrangement is exclusive-right-to-sell contract, which entitles the contractual agent to compensation regardless of who sells the property, including owner or other agents. The individual agent who is usually more important than the firm he represents when considered for engagement in agency practice by clients (Johnson et al., 1988) could have preference for the adoption of any of the various agency type. In the UK, Ke, Jayne and Isaac (2009) confirmed that the estate agents with a sole agency practice charge a lower agency fee, help clients to achieve better

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selling price and are more efficient; whereas multiple agency practice facilitates liquidity in the housing market, but experiences higher fall-through rate. However, a look at the various advantages and disadvantages of the two major types of estate agency as specified by Stephens (1981) will assist in the approach to adopt. The advantages of sole agency practice are as follows: It eliminates much abortive work, reduces costs, and encourages agents to charge commission at a lower rate. It creates a better and more professional relationship between vendor and agent, in that it imposes on that agent an obligation to use his best endeavors to carry out his instructions and removes from him any temptation there may be to give anything other than the soundest possible advice. In buoyant market conditions it minimizes the tendency on the part of vendors to gazump. Disadvantages could be considered as follows: The time taken by a sole agent to conclude a sale may be longer. In the multiple agency areas, the agent receiving instructions knows that it is the vendors intention to instruct other agents, thus the agent would ensure that the property details or particulars will be sent to prospective purchasers as quickly as possible. The sole agent would be more able to put such work off. . Although the sole agents will recognize their duty to obtain the maximum possible price for their client, that client only has one agents judgment of value on which to rely. However, multiple agency also has advantages. The vendor instructing more than one agent will obtain greater exposure, because no one agent will be in contact with all prospective purchasers in his area. From a purchasers viewpoint, a visit to any one agent is likely to give him, if not a comprehensive list of the properties available in that area, at least a fuller one than he would probably get if sole agency was the generally accepted practice in that region. Against this, multiple agency practice generates abortive work and cost. The agent may be reluctant to spend money on promoting a sale if he knows that his money might be wasted, should another agent find a buyer first and so get the commission. Research on estate agency particularly ones that relate to the operation of the various types has been sparse. However, authors in this field of research have made immense contributions. The impact of contract types on agent performance and the relation of time on market and selling price together with the complexity between listing price and time on market was a highlight of research conducted in the US (Rutherford et al., 2001, 2004; Asabere et al., 1996; Arnold, 1999; Yavas and Yang, 1995). Agency, which is also described as brokerage service, has been studied in real estate in relation to the impact of broker intermediation on selling price and duration, Jud (1983), Jud and Frew (1986), Jud, Seaks, and Winkler (1996), Zumpano, Elder, and Baryla (1996), Elder, Zumpano, and Baryla (1999, 2000), Rutherford, Springer, and Yavas (2005), Huang and Rutherford (2007), Rutherford, Springer, and Yavas (2007), and Turnbull and Dombrow (2007). The need for training of agents was established in the research carried out by (Munneke and Yavas, 2001; Allen, Faircloth, Forgery, and Rutherford, 2003; Johnson, Zumpano, and Anderson, 2008). The researchers discovered that differences among brokerage firms and or their agents suggest the possibility that some homes sell at premium prices and over a shorter time horizon than is the case with other broker-assisted transactions handled by less skilled or motivated agents. Hence, buyers and sellers may not be indifferent with respect to their choice or use of salespeople which might prompt them to seek out ways to identify the more skilled and more highly motivated agents. Property developers in Singapore have been found to assess the strengths of marketing agents before appointing them, while the latter also flaunt their strengths in order to secure agency jobs (Pheng and Hoe, 1994). One way to enhance the operation of agents is in the area of improved information technology as this has been proven to increase the competitive advantages inducing more collaboration and market innovations as evident in Beijing (Ling and Wang, 2006). There are also evidences of the integrated use of the internet to enhance service delivery in the UK as Portals are use to provide content

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in the form of information, advice and news, links to other businesses including individual estate agency chains, search facilities, and opportunities for registration which support personalization of communication with customers (Rowley, 2005). However, Ke, Isaac and Dalton (2008) attribute the performance of estate agency to market environment volatility such as market uncertainty, housing market liquidity and house price changes. The authors discovered that the firm factors such as firm size and the level of agency fee have no explanatory power in explaining business performance. There is dearth in literature pertaining to real estate agency in Nigeria. This is in contrast to the vast level of publication in cognate areas in the real estate discipline such as valuation, property/portfolio management, land administration, real estate taxation amongst others. This cannot be said to be unconnected with the unprofessional nature in which the task of estate agency is viewed by almost every estate surveyor and valuer in the country. Even though literature has classified the practice of real estate agency into two major types namely sole and multiple; from pre-research investigation four types of agency practice namely sole, sub, joint and multiple agency could be said to exist in the Nigeria property market (Eze, 1999). The researcher intends to explore this area of research in a bid to ascertaining the efficiency the adoption of various types of estate agency have on real estate practice in the country. 2. Research Methods The study focused on Lagos metropolis due to its vibrant property market (being the undisputed commercial capital of the country). The respondents representing agents are Estate Surveyors and Valuers,. The Directory of the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers, (NIESV, 2009) reveals that almost 50% of the head offices of all of Nigerias Valuation firms are located in that metropolis. The research focused on Estate Surveyors and Valuers as the study populations who are major intermediary in real estate agency. Out of the 270 firms in the study area, the use of a demographic formula by Otte (2006) resulted to a total of 159 Estate Surveying firm representing about 59% of the sample frame was calculated as an appropriate sample size for this study. This represented the total number of questionnaires issued for the study. The second study group comprises of property developers. This focus group is relevant in that they fulfill a dual role as vendors and purchasers of real estate. They could be described as principals that engage the agent. Property developers are usually categorized into two main categories, namely: private (individual) investors and organizations or corporate investors (Harvey, 1987; Hargitay and Yu, 1993; Isaac, 1998; Cadman and Rosalyn, 1998 and Hoesli and Macgregor, 2000). The private developers are very numerous as every potential property owner could be regarded as a property developer. For this reason, they are not subject to a sample frame. Moreover, they are difficult to reach since most of them do not subscribe to developers associations. This means that it would be difficult to get a sample frame, of developers. For this reason, private developers are considered an unrealistic study population for this work. On the other hand a sample frame of organizational developers could be secured from the recent publication of the Association of Housing Corporations in Nigeria (2006). Drawing from this list, there are a total of 132 institutional companies /property developers in Lagos Metropolis. The adoption of the statistical model described above (Otte, 2006) gives a total of 91 property development companies, which forms the sample size of this focus group. This represents 69% of the study population, a figure that is not at variance with Nwanas (1981) 40% minimum recommendation. Questions investigated various aspects of market efficiency as evident in literature in a somewhat similar study carried out in the UK (Ke, Jayne and Isaac, 2009). Based on the aim of this

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work, questions that centred on the closeness of final selling price to asking price; the speed of sale of property; purchase fall through, were enquired. The limitation of Ke, et al., (op. cit), of the neglect of principals (Vendors and purchasers), was put into consideration in this work. The views of respondents were measured in a graded manner, using Likert (ordinal) scales. The data were analyzed by means of weighted average frequencies of which hypothesized results were tested with Chi-Square at a 0.05 level of significance. 3. The Results Respondents were found to be mostly between the ages of 31-35 years. The average respondent had practical experience spanning about 5 years. The most typical academic qualification of respondents was a B.Sc degree (about 67% of respondents). Majority of the respondents were eager to respond to the questions presented to them by the researchers as a high response rate was recorded. From the agents, the research recorded a high response of about 72.33% of the 159 respondents in this study amounting to a total of 115 duly completed and retrieved questionnaires. The property development companies had a total of 91 questionnaires distributed to them with a response rate of 71.43% (65 questionnaires). The first question was to discover the major ways by which agents get appointed based on the various types of agency. Table 1 below gives the graphic details from the stance of agents and principals (vendors and purchasers) respectively:
Table 1. Ways by which agents are being appointed Respondents Agent Sole Agency principal Agent Sub-Agency Principal Agent Joint Agency Principal Agent Principal Multiple Agency 7 38 29 10 39 13 21 29 11 16 6 8 11 3 4 2 11 8 17 12 37 24 27 19 23 18 41 21 36 15 24 6 10 5 4 Agency Always 22 Most times 34 Sometimes 21 Rarely 22 Never 16

Source: Authors field survey 2011

The use of the Relative Important Index (RII) indicates that Estate Surveyors and Valuers are majorly appointed through multiple agency procedure. Response from Table 1 above indicates that vendors/buyers prefer to give instructions for the sale and purchase of properties to so many agents. Hence, they are apt in adopting the multiple agency procedure while commissioning agents (evident from RII, 3.85). The agents also attested to the response from principals (evident from RII, 3.87), however they also attested that sub-agents of outstanding records are usually co-opted not minding the

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sharing of fees (evident from RII, 3.87). This research reveals that most times the business of estate agency is not usually carried out alone even though the agents will prefer to have a sole brief. However, the agents most often co-opt or are usually co-opted by other agents they are familiar and comfortable to work with even after they have been given the brief under the procedure of multiple agency from the principal. The next sets of questions were centred on market efficiency: closeness of final selling price to asking price; the speed of sale of property; purchase fall through. Ke, Jayne and Isaac, (2009) buttressed that closeness of final selling price to asking price; and the speed of sale of property is a function of efficient market while existence of purchase fall through is an evidence of inefficient property market. 3.1 Closeness of Final Selling Price to Asking Price Regarding how close the final selling price achieved is to the asking price, it was proven in UK (Ke, Jayne and Isaac, 2009) that sole agency is more likely to achieve a higher selling price than multiple agency. For the case of the Nigerian context, the respondents were asked the question on what agency procedure is likely to achieve the said asking price. Table 2 below gives more details:
Table 2. Closeness of Final Selling Price to Asking Price Strongly Agree 45 22 Sub-Agency 25 8 18 Joint Agency Principal Agent Principal Multiple Agency 14 15 9 17 22 12 21 29 14 6 18 11 5 31 19 Strongly Disagree 4 3 8 11 24

Respondents Agent principal Agent Principal Agent

Agency

Agree 37 19 34 15 26

Neutral 18 14 38 22 35

Disagree 11 7 10 9 12

Sole Agency

Source: Authors field survey 2011

Response as evident in Table 2 above reveals that both respondents attest to the fact that the adoption of sole agency results to attaining a selling price close to the initial asking price (Agent, RII 3.94; Principal, RII 3.77). The researchers hypothesized that there is no significant difference between responses from both group of respondents. Based on a 0.05 level of significance with the use of ChiSquare, the following was derived from the response on sole agency: Chi-Square Formula = (O-E)2 E The degree of freedom = (R-1)(C-1)

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Expected rate of frequency for each cell =


2 = 1.16, Our computed Chi-Square = 1.16

Subtotal of Column Subtotal of row Grand total

df= 14 @ 0.05 level of significance = 9.49 Since our computed value is less than the critical 2 value of 9.49, the null hypothesis is accepted. Hence; there is no significant difference in the response of both respondents. Thus, the adoption of sole agency results to the closeness of selling price to the initial asking price. 3.2 The Speed of Sale of Property It was established in Ke, Jayne and Isaac, (op. cit.) that multiple agency results to speed in the sale of properties. Hence, this work triggered a question to the respondents in that direction. Details are revealed in Table 4 below:
Table 3. Speed of sale of property Strongly Agree 15 7 38 Sub-Agency Principal Agent Joint Agency Principal Agent Principal Multiple Agency 18 47 29 13 39 15 19 18 12 9 8 5 6 3 4 11 26 9 29 14 38 23 13 8 5 Strongly Disagree 28 7 11

Respondents Agent principal Agent

Agency Sole Agency

Agree 23 18 28

Neutral 27 23 21

Disagree 22 10 17

Source. Authors field survey 2011

The response as revealed from the Table 3 above shows that the adoption of multiple agency results to the speed of sale of properties. This is evident from the highest RII of 4.03 and 3.92 for agents and principal respectively. However, sole agency inhibits the quick disposal of properties, evident from RII of 2.78 and 3.15 for agent and principal respectively being the least for the various agency types. The agents also attested that their involvement in sub-agency also assist in the quick disposal of properties. In order to determine if any significant difference does exist in the response of both respondents on the choice of multiple agency, the researchers posit based on a 0.05 level of significance results as follows:

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2 = 3.33, Our computed Chi-Square = 3.33

df= 14 @ 0.05 level of significance = 9.49 Since our computed value is less than the critical 2 value of 9.49, the null hypothesis is accepted. Hence; there is no significant difference in the response of both respondents. Thus, the adoption of multiple agency results to the speed of sale of property. 3.3 Purchase Fall Through In scenarios where the vendor and/or purchaser can withdraw from the transaction process without paying penalty results to what is being described as purchase fall through. Ke, Jayne and Isaac, (op. cit.) discovered that the adoption of multiple agency results to high purchase fall through. This research sought the outcome in the Nigerian context. Details are presented in Table 4 below:
Table 4. Purchase fall through of agency practice Strongly Agree 11 Sole Agency Principal Agent Principal Agent Principal Agent Principal Multiple Agency Joint Agency Sub-Agency 8 29 16 21 12 38 22 12 33 14 28 11 35 13 16 22 16 34 21 27 18 21 16 10 19 14 11 7 8 15 9 13 7 4 5 Strongly Disagree 14

Respondents Agent

Agency

Agree 23

Neutral 29

Disagree 38

Source: Authors field survey 2011

The response as revealed from the Table 4 above shows that the adoption of multiple agency brings about purchase fall through in real estate practice. The RII of 3.8 and 3.46 for agents and principal respectively attest to such finds being the largest amongst other agency procedures. It is also revealed that sole agency having the least RII of 2.82 and 2.86 for agent and principal respectively, does not encourage purchase fall through. Again in order to determine if any significant difference does exist in the response of both respondents on the choice of multiple agency, the researchers posit based on a 0.05 level of significance results as follows: = 3.5337, Our computed Chi-Square = 3.5337
2

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df= 14 @ 0.05 level of significance = 9.49 Since our computed value is less than the critical 2 value of 9.49, the null hypothesis is accepted. Hence; there is no significant difference in the response of both respondents. Thus, the adoption of multiple agency results to purchase fall through. 4. Recommendation and Concluding Remarks As revealed from the study, multiple agency, which is being adopted in the country, though aids in the speed of transactions, is fraught with certain inefficiencies such as farness of selling price from initial asking price; and purchase fall through. Sole agency being the antidote for these inefficiencies is seldom practiced in the country. The researchers hereby opine that since the practice of sub-agency is well abreast amongst agents, both parties (agents and principals) can use that as a tool to enhance market efficiency. Appointment of agents can be as a result of a consortium where a main agent is commissioned by the principal whereas such agent is allowed to collaborate with other agents recognized by the principal for effective disposal of properties. However, whosoever gets the client can receive the greatest commission while every other agent in the link is compensated based on his contribution to the marketing/disposal of such property. This should be done to bridge the gap between sole and multiple agency and as such give every party involve in real estate transaction a stake to be committed to. Although this work has covered the stance from both principal and agent, an improvement on Ke, Jayne and Isaac, (op. cit.), where consideration was placed on only agents, it could be explained with caution as issues on market efficiency would have been best quantified from an observation of the market. However, since the respondents of this work are the major players in real estate agency, their response invariably has represented the outcomes in the property market. There can be investigations for further research into the effect of agency inefficiency on macroeconomic issues such as inflation, interest rate, national income, etc. It is also pertinent to state here that a total neglect of this area of research will not help out. When real estate researchers in the country begin to air their voice in real estate agency, the war of exclusive dealings in handling this conceived semiprofessional area in real estate practice can begin to be won by the estate surveyors and valuers. Hence, this work will go a long way in filling a gap in Nigeria real estate literature. References
A.H.C.N. (2006) Directory of Top Shakers and Movers in Nigeria Housing/Building Industry, Association of Housing Corporations of Nigeria. Akomolede K. (2006) Estate Agency Practice in Nigeria, Bamboo Books, Ed-Asae Press Lagos, pp. 17-22 Allen, M.T., S. Faircloth, F. Forgey, and R.C. Rutherford (2003) Salespersons Compensation and Performance in the Housing Market, Journal of the Academy of Finance, 1, pp. 6271 Arnold, M.A. (1999) Search, bargaining and optimal asking prices, Real Estate Economics, 27, pp. 453-82. Asabere, P.K., Huffman, F.E. and Johnson, R. (1996) Contract expiration and sales price, Journal of Real Estate Finance & Economics, 13(3), pp. 255-62. Boyle, E. (1998) Entrepreneurship and the changing structure of estate agency in the UK, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 5 (2), pp.141-150

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Bishop, P. and Megicks P. (2002) Competitive strategy and firm size in the estate agency industry, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 9(2), pp.150 161 Cadman D. and. Rosalyn T., (1998) Property Development, E & FN Spon, London Elder, H.W., L.V. Zumpano, and E.A. Baryla (1999) Buyer Search Intensity and the Role of the Residential Real Estate Broker, Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, 3, pp. 351368. Elder, H.W., L.V. Zumpano, and E.A. Baryla (2000) Buyer Brokers: Do They Make a Difference? Their Influence on Selling Price and Search Duration, Real Estate Economics, 28, pp. 33762 Eze, M. U. (1999) Principles of Real Estate Agency, Bethel Prints Onitsha, Nigeria, pp.22-23 Hargitay S.E. and Yu S. (1993) property investment decision: a quantitative approach. E. & F N Spon. New York Harvey J. (1987) Urban Land Economics, Macmillan education limited London Hoesli, M. and B.D. Macgregor (2000) Property Investment: Principles and Practice of Portfolio Management. Pearson Education Limited London Huang, J. and R.C. Rutherford (2007) Who You Going to Call? Performance of Realtors and Non-Realtors in a MLS Setting, Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, 35, pp. 7793. Issac D. (1998) Property Investment, The Macmillan Press Limited. London Johnson, J. M., Nourse, H. O., and Day, E. (1988) Factors Related to the Selection of a Real Estate Agency or Agent, Journal of Real Estate Research, 3(2), pp. 109-118 Johnson, K. H., Zumpano, L. V., and Anderson, R. I. (2008) Intra-firm Real Estate Brokerage Compensation Choices and Agent Performance JRER 30(4), pp. 423- 440 Jud, G.D 1983) Real Estate Brokers and the Market for Residential Housing, Journal of the American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, 11, pp. 6982 Jud, G.D. and. Frew, J. (1986) Real Estate Brokers, Housing Prices, and the Demand for Housing. Urban Studies, 23, 2131 Jud, G.D., Seaks T.G., and. Winkler, D.T. (1996) Time on the Market: The Impact of Residential Brokerage, Journal of Real Estate Research, 12 pp. 44758 Ke, Q., Isaac, D. and Dalton, P. (2008) The determinants of business performance of estate agency in England and Wales, Property Management, 26 (4), pp.255 - 272 Ke, Q. Jayne, M. and Isaac D. (2009) Sole agency vs multi-agency: an investigation of agency practice across England and Wales, Property Management, 27(4), pp. 228-241 Ling H. L., and Wang, C.(2006) Real estate agency in China in the information age, Property Management, 24(1), pp.47 61 Miceli, J.T. (1988) Information costs and the organization of the real estate brokerage industry in the U.S. and Great Britain, AREUEA Journal,16(2), pp. 173-188. Monopolies Commission (1969), Beer: A Report on the Supply of Beer 1968-9, HMSO, London Munneke, H.J. and A. Yavas (2001) Incentives and Performance in Real Estate Brokerage, Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, 22, pp. 521. NIESV (2009) Directory of Estate Surveyors and Valuers, The Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers Oni, O. A. (2009) Real Estate Marketing and Code of Conduct in Nigeria, Rehoboth Consulting, Lagos Nigeria, p. 163 Otte J. (2006) Sample size considerations, FAO Corporate Document Repository Pheng, L. S. and Hoe, K. S. (1994) A Survey of the Important Attributes for Marketing: Real Estate Agency Services in Singapore, Property Management, 12(2), pp.22 27 Rowley, J. (2005) The evolution of internet business strategy: The case of UK estate agency, Property Management, 23(3), pp.217 - 226 Rutherford, R., Springer, T. and Yavas, A. (2001) The impacts of contract type on broker performance, Real Estate Economics, 29(3), pp. 389-409. Rutherford, R., Springer, T. and Yavas, A. (2004) The impact of contract type on broker performance: submarket effects, Journal of Real Estate Research, 1(26), pp. 277-298

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Rutherford, R., Springer, T. and Yavas, A. (2005) Conflicts Between Principals and Agents: Evidence from Residential Brokerage, Journal of Financial Economics, 76, pp. 627665. Rutherford, R., Springer, T. and Yavas, A. (2007) Evidence of Information Asymmetries in the Market for Residential Condominiums, Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, 35, pp. 2338. Stephens, N. (1981) The Practice of Estate Agency, The Estates Gazette, London, pp. 1-14. Turnbull, G.K. and J. Dombrow(2007), Individual Agents, Firms, and the Real Estate Brokerage Process, Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, 35, pp. 5776. Yavas, A. and Yang, S.X. (1995) The strategic role of listing price in marketing real estate: theory and evidence, Real Estate Economics, 23 (3), pp. 347-68. Zumpano, L.V., H. Elder, and E.A. Baryla (1996) Buying a House and the Decision to Use a Real Estate Broker. Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, 13, pp. 16981. .

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Millennium Development Goals and the Poverty Question in Nigeria


Akpomuvie Orhioghene Benedict
Delta State University Sociology Department, Abraka Delta State, Nigeria Email: bakpomuvie@yahoo. co.uk
Abstract The paper examined the poverty question in Nigeria within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (NDGs), adopted by the United Nations in 2000. Over the past decades, Nigerias preoccupation with development has had very marginal success. The past failures and depressing prospects have provoked a great amount of concern. The paper revealed that most Nigerians are worse off than they were; health and nutrition problems are widespread and infrastructure eroding rapidly. It further revealed that the achievement of the goal of stopping the traumatic march of poverty has so far eluded Nigeria and may not be able to achieve the ambitious Millennium Development Goal target of reducing poverty by half by 2015. The paper however, called for target policy interventions to protect the poor and a culture of prudent fiscal and monetary policy with incentives for non-oil growth and the development of the private sector. Keywords: Widespread, per capita income, human development, dehumanizing, Vulnerable, households, empowering, access ,etc.

1. Introduction Despite significant improvement since attainment of independence in Nigeria like many nations in the developing world, extreme poverty remains widespread. The Nigerian economy began to experience recession from the early 1980 and as a result, she moved from middle level income and a developing industrial nation, to become one of the poorest nations in the world (Central Bank of Nigeria, 20022003). Data from the National Bureau of Statistics on the Poverty Profile of Nigeria (1999), showed that the incidence of poverty rose from 28.1 percent in 1980 to 46.3 percent in 1985 but dropped slightly to 42.2 percent in 1992 before rising to 65.6 percent in 1996. Based on its low Gross National Product (GNP) per capita, Nigeria has since 1990, been classified as a poor nation. The United Nations Developments Programme (UNDP), using its Human Development Index (HDI), ranked Nigeria 142nd among the 172 countries listed in 1997 and 146th in 1998 and 156th out of 179 in 2001. Comparatively, the incidence of poverty is more pronounced in the rural areas where over 60 percent of the population live with about 65 percent of them engaged in subsistence agriculture production (Central Bank of Nigeria, 2002-2003). The overarching goal of Nigerias economic development since independence in 1960 has been to achieve stability, material prosperity, peace and social progress. The United Nations Development Programme (2008-2009) however, observed that a variety of internal problems have persisted in slowing down the countrys attainment of growth and development objectives. These include in adequate human development, primitive agricultural practices, weak infrastructure, uninspiring growth of the manufacturing sector, poor policy regulatory environment and mismanagement and misuse of resources. To ensure that the economy delivers on its potentials, the country experimented with two development philosophies- a private sector led growth in which the private sector served as the engine

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house of the economy and a public- sector-driven growth in which the government assumed the commanding heights of the economy. The initial low level of private sector development however, led to public sector dominance of the economy, encouraged by rapid growth in the oil sector. Growth performance has improved significantly since the return to civilian rule in 1999 while the last seven years has witnessed an average growth rate of about 6 percent. However, economic growth has not resulted in appreciable decline in unemployment and poverty prevalence in the country. Some of the factors responsible for the low response of poverty and human development generally to economic growth may be found in the structure of production and nature of growth. Nigerias top two primary products, agriculture and oil; continue to dominate both sectorial contributions to GDP and, in the latter case, exports. Agriculture continues to account for more than 50 percent of employment while the oil sector accounts for over 95 percent of foreign exchange earnings and 80 percent of government revenue. According to UNDP Human Development Report on Nigeria (2008-2009), the declining share of agriculture in GDP in the mid and early 1970s has been reversed since 1999: agricultures share of GDP rose from 30 percent in 1981 to about 36 percent in 2000 and 47 percent in 2007. The two sectors therefore, account for more than 60 percent of Gross Domestic Product. In contrast to the relative performance of agriculture, the manufacturing sector, has been relatively stagnant and losing its share of GDP from 6 percent in 1985 to a range of between 4 and 5 percent during 1990 to 2007. More critically, the report noted structural transformation, as measured by increasing value-added production and shifts in employment from private to secondary/ tertiary sectors which has continued to elude the economy. Growth has occurred more rapidly in recent years in the non-oil sector and importantly in agriculture, which is largely primary production. Value addition, has been quite limited and so has been the employment effect. Overlaid by sustained high inequality, Nigerias overall economic growth improvements, has translated too little or insignificant improvements in the welfare of the poorer segments of the population. Perhaps the best way to appreciate the importance of the concern is to place it in the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGS), adopted by the United Nations in 2000 and achieving the target of reducing poverty by half by 2015 in Nigeria. According to the United Nations, the development goals set out in the Millennium Declaration, express the resolve of the worlds political leaders to free their fellow men, women and children from abject and dehumanizing conditions of extreme poverty to make the right to development a reality for everyone to free the entire human race from want (United Nations, 2000).The Millennium Development Goals and targets come from the Millennium Declaration, signed by 189 countries including 147 heads of states in September, 2000 (www.un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.htm) as updated by the 60th UN General Assembly in September, 2005. It is against this background, that this paper examines the Millennium Development Goals and the Poverty Question in Nigeria. 2. Conceptual and Empirical Overview of Poverty in Nigeria No society can surely be flourishing and happy, of which by far the greater part of the numbers are poor and miserable (Smith, 1776) while Samavia (1995) contended that the unfinished business of the 21st century, is the eradication of poverty. A search of the relevant literature shows that there is no general consensus on any meaningful definition of poverty. This is because poverty affects many aspects of the human condition including physical, moral and psychological. As Anyanwu (1997) rightly observed, a concise and universally accepted definition of poverty is elusive because different criteria have been used to conceptualize the phenomenon.

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However, the Central Bank of Nigeria (2002-2003) stressed that poverty concerns individuals inability to cater adequately to the basic needs of food, clothing and shelter. It reflects the inability to meet social and economic obligations: lack of gainful employment, skills, assets and self esteem. The position of the Central Bank of Nigeria is predicated on limited access to social and economic infrastructures such as education, health, portable water and sanitation thus, limiting the chances of advancing welfare to utmost level of capability. World Development Report (1990) has also conceptualized poverty, as the inability to attain a minimum standard to living. The report in addition, constructed two indices based on a minimum level of consumption in order to show the practical aspects of the concept. The United Nations has similarly drawn other indices such as life expectancy, infant mortality rate, primary school enrolment ratios and number of persons per physician. Sen (1987) defined poverty as the lack of certain capabilities such as being able to participation with dignity in society. Expressed differently, Galbraith (1969) stressed that people are poverty stricken, when their incomes, even if adequate for survival, fall radically behind that of the communitythey are degraded, for in the literal sense, they live outside the grades or categories which the community regards as acceptable. Publications and several studies have provided graphical details of the escalating poverty situation in Nigeria between the period of 1980 and 1996. These reports according to the National Bureau of Statistics (2005), revealed marked deterioration in the quality of life of Nigerians over the years since independence, resulting in the steady increase in the number of citizens caught below the poverty line. These reports according to the National Bureau of Statistics further revealed that higher concentration of the poor, live in the rural areas and the urban fringes. The UNDP Human Development Report on Nigeria (2008-2009), also revealed that the number of poor people in Nigeria remains high. According to the report, the total poverty head count rose from 27.2 percent in 1980 to 65.6 percent in the 1996, an annual average increase of 8.83 percent in the 16-year period. However, between 1996 and 2004, total poverty head count declined by an annual average of 2.1 per cent to 54.4 percent. Over the same period, the percentage of the population in the core poor category rose from 6.2 to 29.3 recent before declining to 22.0 percent in 2004. The fact that over 50 percent of the total population is officially poor should be of major concern to policy makers in Nigeria At the global level, Nigeria ranked 54th in per capita income in 1987 and was classified as a middle income nation (World Bank, 1987). By 1989, Nigeria had lost her status as a middle- income nation and by 1991; the country joined the club of the poorest countries of the world. World Development Report (1989), placed Nigeria behind Benin Republic (US$380), Togo (US$390), Guinea (US$430) and Angola (US$610) in per capita income (World Bank, 1989).In the last three decades, Nigeria has been one of the worlds weakest growing economies the World Bank (1989) observed. In the period between 1990 and 1993, which was one of increasing poverty and human misery for Nigeria, the average national income was estimated at N1,014 in 1996 (UNDP, 1997a). The incidence of poverty increased from 27.2 percent in 1980 to 65. 6 percent in 1996 representing 67.0 million people (Said, 2001). The Human Development Index (HDI) and other indicators paint a dire picture of the state of poverty in the country as contained in Nigerian Human Development Report 1996 (UNDP,1997a). By 1999, it was estimated that more than 70 percent of Nigerians lived in poverty. Life expectancy was a mere 54 years, infant mortality (77per 1,000) and maternal mortality (704 per 100,000 live births) are among the highest in the world .Other social indicators the Central Bank of Nigeria noted, are also weak;

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only about 10 per cent of the population had access to essential drugs, there were fewer than 30 physicians per 100,000 people, more than 5 million adults were estimated to be living with HIV/ AIDS, among children under 5, almost 30 per cent were under weight, only 17 per cent of the children were fully immunized down from 30 percent in 1990 and almost 40 percent had never been immunized , only about half the population had access to safe drinking water (40 percent in the rural areas while 80 percent in the urban areas), some 29 percent of the total population lived at risk from annual flood, more than 90 percent of the rural population depended on forests for liveli- hood and domestic energy sources and rural households spent an average of 1.5 hours a day, collecting water and fuel wood (Central Bank of Nigeria, 2005).

3. Survey Results on Unsafe Water Supply, Toilet Facilities, Electricity Supply and School Enrolment in Nigeria Safe or unpolluted drinking water is a basic necessity for good health while unsafe water is a veritable means of transmitting water-borne diseases such as diarrhea, cholera, typhoid, guinea worm and schistosomiasis. Safe water is constituted by pipe-borne treated, pipe-borne untreated, borehole/handpump and well- spring protected. On the other hand, unsafe water is constituted by well spring unprotected and rain water, stream, pond or river. Table 1 shows percent distribution of households in the country using streams, ponds and similar sources of water for households use. National figures showed that in 1995, 30.8 percent of the households were said to be using these sources of water in their households, 1997; 32.2 percent, 2002; 35.8 percent and 2005; 30.40 percent. By all standards, these are unsafe water sources and over 30.0 percent of the households in the country were affected. At the state level, higher percentages of households were recorded in some states such as Abia, 72.6 percent (1995) and 51.7 percent in (2000); Akwa Ibom 68.1 percent (1995), 77.9 percent (2000) and 34.5 percent (2005); Anambra 66.8 percent (1995), 71.0 percent (1999), 63.3 percent (2002) and 37.3 percent (2005), Cross River; 66.0 percent (1995), 76.5 percent (1998), 65.3 percent (2002) and 41.0 percent (2005); Taraba 66.8 percent (1995), 78.8 percent (1998), 63.5 percent (2002), 55.5 percent (2004) and 32.9 percent (2005). Based on the foregoing, the situation on the use of unsafe water in the country had improved a lot as figures dropped in 2005 to almost half of what was obtained in the previous 10years. Some states still had high rates in 2005 compared to what was recorded in the preceding years. For instance, Yobe had 5.9 percent (1995), 2.3 percent (2007), 7.0 percent (2003) and 17.2 percent (2005). A similar pattern occurred for Kaduna at 10.5 percent (1995), 7.1 percent (1999), 14.2 percent (2001) and 16.0 percent (2005). Kano had 14. 4 percent (1995), 6.9 percent (2000), 1.7 percent (2004) and 25.4 percent (2005), while Borno recorded 6.6 percent (1995), 12.5 percent (1999) 13.7 percent (2003) and 23.6 percent (2005). The proportion of households relying on unsafe water was on the increase and shown to be more in some Northern states. Conventional disposal of liquid waste is constituted by the flush to sewage, flush to septic tank, covered pit latrine and ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine. The use of bush/dung hill, toilet on water, pail/bucket and uncovered pit latrine constitute unconventional toilet facilities. The latter pose serious threats to managements of the environment. Table 2 shows percentage distribution of households using unconventional toilet facilities from 1995 to 2005. At the national level, many households were still using

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unconventional toilets in the country during the period. In 1995 about 31.4 percent of the households were affected. The figure increased to 60.6 percent in 1999, dropped in 2004 but rose again to 67.0 percent in 2005. At the state level, there were some observed variations. Those with higher than national rates include, Adamawa: 53.5 percent (2000), 50.1 percent (2002) and 78.6 percent (2005), Bauchi ; 89.8 percent (2000), 87.4 percent (2001), 80.2 percent (2004) and 82.2 percent (2005), Benue:64.6 (1996), 56.4 percent (2003), 63.8percent (2004) and 76.6 percent (2005), Kogi: 57.8 percent (1995), 67.9 percent (1999), 61.4 percent (2003), 71.2 percent (2004) and 59.7 percent (2005), Rivers; 64.6 percent (1995), 68.5 percent (2000), 59.0 percent (2004) and 64.3 percent (2005); and Yobe had 56.6 percent (1995), 59.3 percent (2000), 47.1 percent (2003) and 77.1 percent (2005). From all the indications, the situation on the use of unconventional toilets was not significantly improved from 1995 to 2005. Disaggregation by geographical zones revealed that five out of the six zones reported that more than 25 percent of households used unconventional toilet facilities while the lowest figure of about 16.8 percent of households was recorded in South- East zone in the year 2000. Throughout the period reported on, year 2005 showed the worst situation across the zones as North East reported the highest rate of 72.5 percent while the lowest rate of 52.5 percent was reported in the South West. Energy supply forms the bedrock of economic development. Over the years under review (1995-2005), more than half of the households in the country were without electricity. The highest figure of 60.8 percent was recorded in the year 2000 while the lowest 48.7 percent was recorded in 2005. Generally, Lagos state recorded less than 5 percent of households without electricity except in the year 2000: 26.0 percent, 2002; 13.2 percent and 2001 8.1 percent. About 60.0 percent of households in the South- West States had access to electricity supply. It was further observed that Anambra, Delta, Edo and Imo states had less than 50.0 percent of households without electricity over the period. In NorthCentral Zone, Kwara and FCT (Abuja) had less than half of the households without electricity. Generally in the Northern zones, all the states recorded more than half of the households without access to electricity, see table 3. Education is a veritable tool for human development and a vital pre-requisite for combating poverty, empowering people, protecting children from hazardous exploitation , promoting human rights and demography, protecting the environment and influencing population growth. The federal government appreciates the essence of education which is one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGS) (National Bureau of Statistics, 1995- 2005). Primary school net enrolment is defined for children of primary school ages (6-11years) that are currently in Primary School (Primary 1 to Primary 6) divided by the number of children of primary school ages. Table 4 shows the enrolment of persons aged 6-11 years in primary school for 1995-2005. During the period under review, national enrolment rate ranged between 66.9 percent in 1996 and 61.5 percent in 2005. The average rate for the period was 60 percent except in 1999 that 59.8 percent was recorded. Disaggregation by states shows that in 1995, the highest enrolment rate of 98.4 percent was recorded by Abia while Kebbi had the lowest rate 15.8 percent. In 1996, Anambra had the highest rate of 97.2 percent while the lowest rate of 16.4 percent was recorded by Yobe. From 1997 to 2005, the highest enrolment rate was recorded by Osun: 97.2 percent in 1997, 98.8 percent in 1999 and 90.7 percent in 2000. Ondo recorded 96.0 percent in 1998, Anambra; 91.2 percent in 2001, 91.2 percent in 2002 and 88.1 percent in 2004 and 85.1 percent in 2005 and Ekiti 89.5 percent in 2003. The lowest rates were recorded by Yobe as shown in table 4. On the other hand, secondary school net enrolment is defined as the number of secondary school children (age 12-17 years) currently in secondary school (JSS 1 to SSS 3) divided by the number of children of secondary school ages.

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Table 5 shows the percentage distribution of persons aged 12-17years who enrolled in various secondary schools across the country during the period under review. National enrolment rates showed that in 1995 about 69.0 percent of such children enrolled in secondary schools but in 2005, the rate dropped significantly to 45.6 percent. There was an appreciable increase in the enrollment rates between 1996 and 1999 at 76.1 percent in 1996, 75.1 percent 1997, 73.1 percent 1998 and 70.0 percent in 1999. At the state level, higher rates of above 59.0 percent were shown for Abia, Akwa Ibom, Cross River, Enugu, lmo, Kogi, Lagos, Ondo Osun, Oyo and Rivers. States with low rates and figures below 35.0 percent were Jiagawa, Sokoto and Yobe. Jigawa recorded the lowest figures of 14.40, 15. 48 and 20.17 percent between 1999 and 2001 respectively. Sokoto recorded the least: 22.9 percent and 17.9 percent in 1996 and 2005 respectively while Yobe had the least rates of 20. 41 percent and 14.54 percent in 1995 and 1997 respectively. 4. Evaluation of Past Poverty Alleviation Programmes in Nigeria Poverty reduction measures according to the Central Bank of Nigeria (2002-2003), consist of series of purposive act and measures designed to address poverty problems through the provision of basic needs such as Health services, education, water supply, food, minimum nutrition requirements and housing, among others. The Central Bank of Nigeria however, observed that the response of various administrations to the poverty problem appear to have been largely ad-hoc and un-coordinated. A recent survey of the Central Bank of Nigeria on polices and interventions, chronicled 28 federal projects and programmes with poverty reduction thrusts. Such poverty reduction efforts include: Rural Electrification Schemes, Credits Scheme to Small Holders through various specialized institutions such as the Peoples Bank, Agricultural and Cooperative Development Bank, Community Banks, NERFUND, SME Credit Scheme, the Family Economic Advancement Programme (FEAP), Universal Primary Education Scheme and Low Cost Housing Scheme. Others include: Transport Schemes such as the Urban Mass Transit, Health Schemes such as Primary Health Care Programme, the activities of the Directorate of Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI), National Directorate of Employment (NDE), Better Life for Royal woman programme, as well as the Family Support Programme (FSP). More recent programmes include the National Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) Small and Medium Industries Equity Investment Scheme (SMIEIS) and so on. While none of these programmes was completely without merit, none of them had significant lasting or sustainable positive effects due largely to poor coordination, absence of a comprehensive framework, excessive political interference, ineffective targeting of the poor, leading to leakages of benefits to unintended beneficiaries, unwieldy scope of the programmes, which caused resources to be thinly spread across too many projects, over- lapping functions which led to institutional rivalry and conflicts, absence of sustainability mechanisms in programmes and projects and non inclusion of beneficiaries in the project design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Similarly, Okafor (2006) contended that fundamentally, almost all the programmes were directed towards quick, short-term yields rather than long term sustainability. Other reasons why these efforts failed to make the expected impact on poverty alleviation Okafor (2006) further asserted, include the following: the programmes lacked convergence, linkages and synergy with the result that the benefits were ephemeral; weak institutional arrangements and framework were made worse by policy inconsistencies, the absence of legislative backing and corruption; diversity of poor peoples condition and relationship with the environment were not taken into consideration. The result was lack of the much needed understanding of who the poor are and what their priorities are in each community;

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programmes were planned and executed from the economic point of view without linkages to local communities to penetrate the grassroots and the environment; poor implementation of the objectives of the programmes encouraged environmental degradation with accelerated poverty on the long run and; budgetary, management and governance problems which resulted in under- funding, under staffing and the phenomenon of abandoned projects. Despite these anti poverty programmes and projects, Nigerians are still very poor and social development is limited. If present trends continue, the country is not likely to meet the Millennium Development Goals of breaking the scourge of poverty. 5. Eradicating Poverty in Nigeria Within the Framework of the Millennium Development Goals Sustainable development is about improving the quality of peoples lives and expanding their ability to shape their future. These generally call for higher per-capita incomes, equitable education and job opportunities, better health and nutrition and a more sustainable natural environment. The Millennium Development Goals are the worlds time- bound targets to measure and monitor the progress of countries in improving peoples welfare (World Bank, 2009). The first of the eight Millennium Development Goals is to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. The first and most studied target under this goal, is to halve the proportion of people living in extreme poverty ( living on less than US $1.08 per person per day) by the year 2015, starting from the level of extreme poverty in 1990. As is well known, the proportion of people living in extreme poverty is the head-count ratio, a measure for the spread of poverty; while the income level of US $1.08 per person per day, is the poverty line, a threshold below which people are deemed to be poor. Three indicators have been selected to reflect progress in achieving this target. These include: the head-count ration itself, the poverty-gap ratio and the share of the poorest 20% of the population in national consumption (ie, the share of the poorest quintile). It can easily be shown that reducing the spread of poverty by half by the year 2015, with 1990 as the base year, requires an annual rate of reduction of the head-count ratio by about 2.7345 percent (Ali-Abdel,2005). On the basis of this reduction of the headcount ration, a corresponding rate on growth of per capita GDP can be calculated. The required rate of growth for poverty reduction depends crucially on the structural features of poverty in the various countries, Ali-Abdel (2005) further asserted. An aggregative indicator of these structural features is the growth elasticity of poverty. Ali- Abdel however, observed that as far as sub-Saharan African (SSA) which Nigeria is constituted is concerned, given the structural features of its poverty as well as past growth performance; it has been shown that the attainment of the first Millennuem Development Goals will not be feasible. Over the years since their formulation, the Millennium Development Goals have provided the much needed development framework for the least developed countries. As a result, it is not surprising to find that the recent African initiative of launching a new partnership for Africas Development (NEPAD), is closely related to the Millennium Development Goals. In 2004, the federal government of Nigeria instituted the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS) while the state and Local Governments followed suit, with the various State Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (SEEDS) and Local Economic Empowerment Strategy (LEEDS) for the purpose of implementing the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria. The NEEDS is the latest policy of the federal government and its focus is essentially directed at four key strategies for reorienting values; reducing poverty, creating wealth and generating employment. The following are the main thrust of Needs; 6 percent annual growth of gross domestic product as a result of widespread reforms; develop public private partnership to stimulate rapid infrastructure development

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including the provision of water for domestic and commercial use; draw up a social character or contract between government and electorate to ensure that the voices of the poor are heard and their concerns addressed; reduce the number of unqualified primary school teachers by 80 percent; mobilize community and private- sector involvement in education; completion of Universal Basic Education Programmes; reduce maternal mortality by three-quarter and under- five child mortality by two- thirds and the provision of affordable housing, water and sanitation and so on. Consequently over the years attempts were made at alleviating poverty as reflected in the expression of commitment by successive governments through increase in the number of programmes and projects as well as increasing financial commitment towards empowering Nigerians. However, findings have indicated that poverty was more acute in the rural areas of Nigeria and some geo-political zones were particularly hard hit than others by poverty while unemployment kept souring. Muhammed (2006) contended that Nigerias democratic experience has neither served the purpose of political emancipation nor led to economic betterment of the citizens of Nigeria (see table 6). This is especially in the face of endemic poverty, hunger, unemployment and progressive disempowered of the majority of the population. The prospect of escaping this life threatening situation and achieving sustainable growth and development with the MDGS framework in Nigeria calls for concerted concern. The actualization of the laudable goals of the Millennium Declaration in Nigeria is currently challenged by poor leadership, inconsistency in policy, instability in government, legacy of mismanagement and corruption, the boom and bust mode of economic management; encouraged by the dominance of oil in the economy, overdependence on oil and the traditional sector. It is pertinent to note that some growth indices are often paraded by the Nigeria government but strangely, there is a mismatch or disconnect between it and existing realities as the country still exhibits large symptoms of underdevelopment as reflected in the socio-economic lives of Nigerians and amply demonstrated by this paper. After many years of implementation of poverty alleviation programmes and projects and seven years to the dateline 2015, the level of inequality in the system is high because the underlying structure of the economy has not been allowed to experience structured transformation. Subsistence agriculture is still widely practiced with more than 50 percent of the labour force working in this sector; which means that Nigerias labour force is largely unsophisticated and unskilled for the demands of a 21st century economy. The oil sector, the other leg on which the economy stands, generates more than 90 percent of foreign exchange earnings and funds at least 80 percent of the federal budget, yet it employs just 1 percent of the labour force with very low forward and backward linkage with the economy. It is obvious, therefore, that the discourse on inequality in Nigeria has its roots in the absence of a structural transformation in the economy (UNDP, 2008 and 2009). As recent statistics tend to indicate, Nigeria seems to have a systemic structure of inequity; only such a system would permit just 20 percent of the population to own 65 percent of national assets while as much as 70 percent of the same population, are peasant rural workers and artisans. Inequality in Nigeria means that opportunities for upward mobility are very limited; it means few decent jobs, poor income and low purchasing power for the employed; which also means poor infrastructure and institutional failure in key sectors including education, health and transportation (UNDP, 2008 and 2009). The Human Development Report 2007 and 2008 on Nigeria showed that the Human Development Index for Nigeria was 0.470 which gives the country, a rank of 158th out of 177 countries. Life expectancy is 46 years, ranking Nigeria as 165th and adult literacy rates (% ages 15 and above) was 69.1, ranking Nigeria as 104th out of 177. The report also indicated the Human Poverty Index Value of 37.3 percent for Nigeria, which ranked the country as 80th among 108 developing countries for which the index was calculated (UNDP, 2008). UNDP (2008-2009) also observed that Nigeria ranked 100th in

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health and survival out of 128 countries, indicating that there is still much to be desired in the countrys healthcare system. Life expectancy, which had increased till 1990, fell to 43.7 for men and 44 years for women in 2005. The infant mortality rate stands at 96 deaths per 1000 births while the sex ratio (male to female) at birth is 0.94. Both male and female children have about an equal chance of health and survival as the ratio stands at 0.969. Nigeria also ranks 106th out of 128 countries in political empowerment with female to male ratios of 0.08 for women in parliament and 0.11 for women in ministerial positions (UNDP, 2008 and 2009). If the present trend persists, Nigeria is not likely to meet the Millennium Development target of eradicating poverty by half in 2015. To say the least, eradicating poverty in the country through the Millennium Development Goals framework, poses a Herculean task (UNDP, 2008 and 2009). 6. Conclusion It is often said that the true barometer for measuring the advancement of a society is by judging how its poorest and most vulnerable groups live. Similarly, development is concerned ultimately with enhancing peoples quality of life and to achieve this, is to improve basic human capabilities (longevity, knowledge and income). This translates to expanding access to health, education and job opportunities. Improvement in the basic human capabilities is reflected in improvement in the human development index of a country. The human development index scores for Nigeria have consistently been among the lowest in the world since 1980, revealing a slow underlying rate of improvement and pointing to a clear policy challenge facing the country; how to translate higher growth into improved human development outcomes, corruption and wasteful public investment, low government revenues and low quality of public infrastructure. In most specific terms, corruption has limited growth potentials of the country and more importantly, initiatives against poverty and inequality, government reform policies to improve their efficiency and respond to changing economic and social priorities, growth and income distribution matter for poverty reduction _and public policy as key driver to both etc. On the whole, the performance of the Nigerian economy has not been satisfactory despite its enormous potential for growth and development. The penalty for this has been paid by the country in high levels of poverty and inequality and the untold suffering of many millions of Nigerians. Given the structural characteristics of the economy as well as the quality of growth witnessed in the past, any strategy to improved welfare, must therefore, address four simultaneous courses of action, namely: maintain a strong and focused emphasis on economic growth underpinned by a benign macroeconomic framework which capitalizes on the gains of the past several years by avoiding a circle of booms and bursts, generate better access to social services and adequate infrastructure especially for the poor. target policy interventions to protect the poorest or the most vulnerable groups etc. Indeed to grow the economy and yet reduce poverty requires a culture of prudent fiscal and monetary policy with incentives for non-oil growth and development of the private sector. There are sufficient grounds for hope but the challenges ahead of the country are significant and wideranging.

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References
Akpomuvie, O.B (2009), Socio- Cultural Associations and the Development of Urhobo Land, Delta State, Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. Akpomuvie, O.B (2008), Towards Understanding Rural Poverty and Development in Nigeria. Nigerian Sociological Review, 2 (1):45-53 Akpomuvie, O.B (2008), Environmental Degradation, Poverty and the Problem of Sustainable Development in the Niger Delta. Nigerian Sociological Review, 3(1-2):85-92 Akpomuvie, O.B (2010), Poverty, Access to Health -care Service and Human Capital Development in Nigeria. African Research Review, 4 (3a):41-55. An International Multi-Disciplinary Journal, Ethiopia. Ali-Abdel, G.A (2005), Growth, Poverty and Institutions; Is There a Missing Link?In AERC Senior Policy Seminar Vll on Poverty, Growth and Institutions. Cape Town, South African. Anyanwu, J.C (1997), Poverty in Nigeria: Concepts, Measurement and Determinants. In Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria. Annual Conference of Nigerian Economic Society (NES). Central Bank of Nigeria (2002-2003), CBN Briefs 2002-2003 Edition. Abuja. Central Bank of Nigeria (2003), An Appraisal of Federal Government NAPEP Bullion 27 (1) January/March. Ijaiya, G.T (2002), Participatory Development and Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria. An Analytical Framework. Nigerian Forum, 23 (1-2); 39-51 National Bureau of Statistics (2007), General Household Survey Report 1995-2005. Abuja. National Bureau of Statistics (2005), Poverty Profile of Nigeria. Abuja. National Bureau of Statistics (2006), The Nigerian Statistical Fact Sheets on Economic and Social Development. Abuja. National Planning Commission (2004), National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS). Abuja. National Population Commission (2009), Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, 2008. Abuja. Nigeria Economic Society (1997), Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria. Selected Papers for 1997 Annual Conference, Ibadan. Nwafor, J.C (2006), Environmental Impact Assessment for Sustainable Development: The Nigerian Perspective. Enugu; EL Demak Publishers. Sen, A.K (1987), The Standard of Living. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Todaro, M.P and Smith, S.C (2004), Economic Development. India; Pearson Education Pte. Ltd. UNDP (2008-2009), Human Development Report on Nigeria ,2008-2009: Achieving Growth with Equity. Uniited Nation Development programme (UNDP) (2008), Human Development Report 2007/2008. Country Fact Sheets of Nigeria. United Nation Development Programme (UNDP) (1998), Nigerian Human Development Report Lagos. United Nation Development Programmme (2001), Human Development Report Oxford: Oxford University Press. World Bank (1990) , World Development Report. Washington D.C World Bank (1993), World Development Report. Washington D.C World Bank (1996), Nigeria: Poverty in the Midst of Plenty: The Challenge of Growth with Inclusion. A World Bank Poverty Assessment. Washington D.C. World Bank (2000), World Development Report. Washington, D.C. World Bank (2009), World Development Indicators. Washington, D.C .World Bank.

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Predicting Residential Property Values Around Landfill Neighbourhoods in Lagos, Nigeria


O. A. Akinjare * S. A. Oloyede * C. A. Ayedun * M. A. Ajibola *
* Department of Estate Management, School of Environmental Sciences College of Science and Technology, Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State E-mail: omoladeogah@yahoo.co.uk
Abstract Some studies have proven landfills to negatively impact value of residential properties within kilometers of proximity while few others have generated mixed conclusions. This study establishes a predictive model for residential property values within 1 200m proximity to the four landfills in Lagos State by examining their varying sizes, operating status and history inclusive of diminution tendencies. The relationship between each landfill and property values were measured based on interval of 300meters up to 1 200 meters in concentric rings. The resultant model validates the findings of the study that across the four landfill sites, increases in property values were evident as distance away from the landfills increased indicating that residential houses in close proximity to the landfills suffered value loss. Property appreciation relative to distance averaged 5.75% within the concentric rings for all four landfills. The study suggested the closure of all landfils within residential areas and a relocation of such to uninhabited areas in the citys outskirt in order to promote sustained value appreciation Keywords: Landfill, Distance, Value, Residential Property Value & Model.

1. Introduction The location of landfills within residential neighbourhoods has for long been confirmed to create negative externalities capable of eroding residential property values as identified in literature. The dumping and accumulation of wastes in landfills give rise to bad odours, vermin and flies, while litters may spread from the landfill if not properly kept and policed by the various agents of dispersion. In addition, air pollution caused by suspended loose dust particles due to the covering and compacting activities of landfills could prove hazardous to neighbouring residents and passer-by as well. Being ignorant of the economic impact of landfills on the value of proximal residential properties is to neglect the loss accrued to the property market of a society via landfill stigmatisation. Therefore, for a good number of reasons, it is important to ascertain the disparity in capital value / rents between similar properties different only in distance from a landfill in order to keep affected property owners abreast of the marketability of their assets. Also, in the event where a landfill project is subjected to cost-benefit analysis, estimates of property price effects can be incorporated into the cost-benefit profile. Prior studies on the impact of sanitary landfills on residential properties have established negative relationship between residential house prices and proximity to landfills. Indications via these studies point out that values of residential properties situated within a six kilometre radius from any prominent landfill site rise by approximately 5 to 7% per 1.6 km distance away from the said site. Negative value effects have been rarely found for properties located in excess of six kilometres away

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from landfills. Property values, however, fall more dramatically (between 21 and 30 percent) the closer (within 400m to 800m radius) the properties are situated to a landfill site. A few recent studies, however, have found no statistically significant relationship existing between house prices and proximity to modern landfills. This present attempt employs a quantitative approach in establishing an appropriate model capable of determining the capital values of residential properties within 1 200m concentric circle distance to the sanitary landfills. the study is structured into seven sections with the first being the introductory. Section 2 discusses the study area and the subsequent section presents previous study on sanitary landfills and residential property values. Section 4 describes the data collection and research methods employed for the study with the data being analysed alongside operationalisation of variables discussed in section 5. The section also contained the findings of the study in detail. Section 6 dealt with the research findings with recommendations presented in section 6. Lastly, section 7 concludes the study. 2. The Study Area Lagos State covers an area of about 3,577 square kilometers, representing 0.4% of Nigerias territorial landmass according to Esubiyi (1994). The State shares boundary in the North with Ogun State, West with the Republic of Benin, and stretches for over 180 kilometers North of the Guinea Coast of the Atlantic Ocean. Politically, Lagos State according to Ogunba (1997) had expanded as a result of ruralurban drift and had become a metropolis enclosing settlements such as Mushin, Oshodi, Ikeja, Agege, Shomolu and Bariga.
Figure 1. Map of Metropolitan Lagos.

Source: Lagos State Ministry of Information

Lagos State has 16 Local Government Councils as shown in Fig 1 and 57 Local Government Development Areas. Since the metropolis spans across many councils, municipal services are actually carried out by central bodies e.g. the Lagos State Water Corporation (LSWC), the Lagos State

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Transport Management Agency (LASTMA) and the Lagos State Waste Management Authority (LAWMA) In 1977, the Lagos State Waste Disposal Board (LSWDB) was formed vide Edict No. 9 of April, 1977 with the mandate to collect and dispose solid waste from commercial and residential sources. In 1980, the refuse Disposal Board was renamed Waste Disposal Board with additional responsibilities of commercial/industrial waste collections and drains cleaning. To ensure compliance by Lagosians of the tenets of environmental laws, Lagos State Environmental Protection Agency (LASEPA), Lagos State Waste Management Authority (LAWMA) and Kick against Indiscipline (KAI) were established. The regulatory agencies comprised the Ministry of Environment and Planning and the Health Management Board (HMB). Amongst the agencies, LAWMA was particularly vested with the responsibility of monitoring municipal landfills and waste management. Lagos represents all the ideals of property development whether commercial, industrial, recreational or residential. There are four major landfills in Lagos namely Olusosun in Ojota (Ikeja Local Government Area), Abule-Egba, and Solous (Alimosho Local Government) and Gbagada (Kosofe Local Government) respectively under the control and management of Lagos State Waste Management Authority. For the purpose of this study, all four were selected based on their present functional status. 3. Previous Studies on Residential Property Value and Landfills The various professionals within the real estate industry each have diferent perspectives to the concept of value. To the Architect, value is aesthetic, to the Quantity Surveyor, it is cost implicative, to the Urban and Regional Planner, it is social value, Ratcliff (1978) and to the Estate Surveyor and Valuer, it is market value, Thorncroft (1975). Value by the layman is often expressed in money or other appropriate medium of exchange that is thought to be a fair exchange for something. It indicates the power of a commodity to command other commodities in exchange. The worth of such exchange is its market value. This provides the principal yardstick for measuring the worth of properties and other similar commodities. Though this is a subjective process, the Open Market Value (OMV) of a with-held interest on land has from time been famously established via this method. In a valuation bid, an Estate Surveyor and Valuer estimates the value of a landed interest by assessing the possible monetary worth a potential buyer would place on a property with respect to its uniqueness, characteristics, finishes, immediate location and other environmental factors which could act as price facilitators or depressants. Most importantly, locational features such as sanitary landfills have to an extent, played down on the expected Open Market Value of properties in its close proximity. In American literature sanitary landfills have been found to be diminutive on residential properties as far back as 1971. Gamble et al (1982) estimated hedonic pricing regressions for house sales near a landfill in Boyertown in Pennsylvania. The purpose was to determine the extent of impact the landfill had on surrounding property values. When the distance was split and separate regressions estimated by year of sales, the estimated coefficients for distance to the landfill were not statistically significant at the 5% level of confidence. One of the estimated implicit prices was even negative implying higher prices closer to the landfill. This result was later cited by Cartee (1989) and Parker (2003) as evidence that modern landfills need not have negative impacts on property values. Though it could be argued that the modern landfill in this context must have incorporated certain inherent qualities that helped lessen the environmental effects of the landfill. Also, the span of the distance split in the above study was not specified so as to show the magnitude of the impact. This present research would address the gap by adopting 1.2km radius of the concentric ring to measure the impact of the landfill on value. A linear regression model would be employed at 95% degree of confidence.

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Havlicek et al (1985) analysed 182 single family house sales between 1962 and 1970 surrounding four landfills in the Fort Wayne, Indiana region. Their variables of interest were both the linear distance of residential properties from the nearest landfill and the deviation (in absolute degrees) from the prevailing downwind direction from the landfill. Both the distance and the wind variables were of the hypothesised sign and were significant at 5% confidence level. Their results indicated that for each degree away from downwind, the value of the house increased by about $10.30 and for every thirty centimeter distance away from the site, price increased by about $0.61 in a linear fashion. Residents signified their preparedness to pay more when asked how much more they would be willing to pay for an identical house located a kilometer further away from the hazardious waste site. The above study is significant to the current study because the distance variable was a common factor central on both studies. A small sample size of 182 single family house sales was adopted for analysis whereas a larger sample size of 2 341 has been adopted in the currrent study. Also, the choice of residential properties as a focus of research introduced a degree of similarity. However, while Havlicek, Richardson and Davies (1985) adopted a linear distance of 1 mile or 1.6 kilometers in their study. The present study has adopted 1.2kilometers in view of the fact that in Lagos, the overall pattern of development does not exhibit a well laid out plan like developed countries. One major outstanding feature of their study was the rigour of not only splitting the distance into centimeters, but also ascribing values to residential properties near the landfill. The distance gradient relationship adopted in the current study was 300meters to a maximum of 1 200 meters both in linear form and concentric rings. Cartee (1989) specifically embarked on a study to consider whether sanitary landfills had any adverse effect on community development and residental property values, and if so, measure their magnitudes in selected areas of Pennsylvania. Ten sanitary landfills operating under permits from the Department of Environmental Resources in Pennsylvania were selected for the study. The sanitary landfills were selected based on the presence of residential development in the surrounding communities. The objective was to measure the effects of the landfills on community developments and residential property values. Study areas were defined as delineated as those around one mile of the landfills. Four randomly selected areas, each one-half mile in diameter, located three miles away from each landfill site constituted the control areas. Several types of data were collected for the landfill and control areas. These data included the number of properties by size, class, dates of new residential building and proximity of properties to the landfill with respect to three distance zones. For properties purchased from 1977 to 1981, several other house, lot and locational characteristics were also studied. The study employed multiple regression technique to measure the effect of landfills on residential property values. Regression results showed that in 1977 and 1979, the landfill had no discernable effects on residential property values. In 1978, the distance to the landfill variable was significant at 5-10% level of confidence. This suggests that distance variable was strongly intercorrelated with some other variables. The outcome of the research showed that different sets of property characteristics and different functional forms led to the general conclusion that things other than proximity to the sanitary landfill were more relevant to explaining property values. It can be deduced from the study that the real estate markets are dynamic and local in many respects. Also, landfills are rather heterogeneous varying in size, visibility, accessibility and appearance and that these intervening variables could affect study conclusions. Reichert et al (1991) examined the effects of proximity to five municipal landfills in Cleveland, Ohio in the United States. The semi-rural towns studied were Belchertown, Hudson, Ware, Clinton, Pepperrell and Leicester, all located in Central and Western Massachusetts, which had, landfills with varying sizes, operational staus and history of contamination. Using Ordinary Least Squares, inflation adjusted housing prices were regressed upon the series of variables derived from previous studies.

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Regression results indicated that only one landfill (Pepperell) had a significant negative impact on property values. Although this particular landfill was closed, it was unlined and uncapped, and the fact that the landfill was on the US EPAs potential health risk list might have contributed to its visibility in the community. Extrapolated results showed that a typical house located half a mile from the landfill experienced a 6% rise in property value, while the same increased in value by one percent when located two miles away. This six percent diferential for a house valued at $120,000 (the average value for the study) was $7,200. However, in respect of Hudson, Ware, Clinton, Pepperell and Leicester, no statistically significant effects were found. The reason coud be that these effects did exist but were not detected in the study or possibly of the small sample sizes drawn on each of the landfills. Overall, the study did not provide grounds for broad generalisation about the effects of rural landfills on property values. It cannot be said that large landfills affect property values more than small ones as Hudson was the largest landfill studied and its effect was statistically insignificant. Open landfills do not affect values more than closed, as Hudson and Ware were still operationing and show no significant effect. Landfills which seem to pose a threat to human health may affect property values more than others: Pepperell was on EPAs list as potentialy posing a threat to human health. If the depreciation of local property values around the landfill was a concern of town officals, it seems that the best course of action would be to keep the landfill as clean and policied as possible. In a more relevant study, Nelson et al (1992) studied the effect of a Ramsey, Minnesota landfill on 708 house sales between 1979 and 1989. Their dependent variable was residential property sales prices, while distance from the landfill, age of house, number of bedrooms and bathrooms were also included as independent variables. The author found that the two landfills had a negative effect on single family house values for homes within 2 mile radius. The study showed that a home located at the boundary of the landfill could suffer a reduction in value of more than 12% while the value of a property located at one mile radius from the landfill could decrease by an estimated property gradient of 6.2% . The result of this study contrasts with Gamble et al (1982) who found no negative impact resulting from proximity of residential houses to landfill. Nelson, et al (1992) adopted 2 miles as the maximum distance. Bouvier et al (2000) estimated hedonic regression for houses located near six landfills in Central and Western Massachussetts, two of which were open and active during the study period. The six landfills differed in size, operating status and history of accumulation. The effect of each landfill was estimated by the use of multiple regressions. In five of the landfills, no statistically significant evidence of an effect was found. In the remaining case, evidence of an effect was found, indicating that houses in close proximity to this landfill suffered an average loss of about 6% in value. Also, for two of the landfills, the estimated Marginal Implicit Price (MIP) of distance was positive for one distance and negative for the other, but statistically insignificant for both cases. It was observed from the study that the estimated negative coeficient had high sampling variability due to small sample size. The small sample size had thereby introduced some degree of unreliability in the result obtained. The study however established an empirical relationship between residential property values and and proximity to a landfill or set of landfills. Cambridge Econometrics et al. (2003) conducted economic study of house prices around landfill sites in the United Kingdom that was undertaken as part of a landfill tax review for the Department of Environment, Food and Rural Authority (DEFRA). The study provided additional evidence of an association between proximity to landfill and wealth. The study looked at over half a million sales of houses situated near 11 300 U.K landfill sites and found that those properties sited within half a mile of a landfill site suffered statistically significant disadvantages. The value of houses situated less than a quarter of a mile away from the landfill site were an average of 5 500 lower than

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the value of a similar house not situated near a landfill site. For those houses over a quarter of a mile from the site but under half a mile, the fall in the property value was an average of 1 600 and less than a quater of a mile saw a fall of 40% . Even within the U.K, there were significant regional disparities with the most marked effects in Scotland, where areas in closest proximity to the landfill site (disadvantaged socio-economic groups) may migrate to areas near hazards to take advantage of lower housing prices. This development as shown in the study by Reichert et al (1991) is characteristic of landfill neighbourhoods because as vacancy ratio increases due to the flight of most residents, people of low class take advantage of this to pay lower rent. The distance-value gradient used in the above study would be employed in the current study using concentric rings with the maximum of 1 200 meters. In another study, Adewusi and Onifade (2006) focused on the effect of urban solid waste on physical environment and property transactions in Surulere Local Government Area of Lagos State. The study administered questionnaires randomly on residents and firms of estate agents to gather data on the subject matter. Data obtained were analysed using frequency tables and percentage ratings. The study found that rents paid on properties adjoining waste dumpsites were lower compared to similar properties further away and also, property transaction rates were very slow and unattractive as one approaches a dumpsite. In the same vein, Bello (2007) used multiple regression analysis to determine the effect of waste dumpsites on property values in Olusosun neighbourhood at Ojota, Lagos State. The study found that property values increase with distance away from dumpsites. Also, Bello and Bello (2008) conducted a research on the willingness to pay for environmental amenities in Akure Nigeria. The study included environmental amenities such as waste water disposal, water and electricity supplies, neighbourhood roads and other locational services. The study used a two-staged hedonic model to examine the willingness to pay for better environmental services by residents of two neighbourhoods in Akure, Nigeria. He combined multiple regressions and predictive model to determine property values as a function of housing attributes and logistic model as willingness to pay. The study identified households income, distance away from the refuse dump site and regularity of electricity supply as the major factors that influenced households willingness to pay for better environmental services. The study recommended economic empowerment of the people, diligent consideration in the location of dumpsites and adoption of Public-Private Initiative in the provision of public infrastructure. The study established that real estate values are readily influenced by residents williongness to pay for both structural as well as neighbourhood characteristics where the real estate is located. However, Bello and Bello (2008) failed to relate property values with distance from the waste dump site as a computable model. This present study fills this gap. Bello (2009) carried out a study on the effects of waste dump sites on proximate property values in Lagos, Nigeria using three dump sites located at Olusosun, Abule Egba and Solous adopting 1km distance measurement to assess the effects of the dumpsite on the neighbourhoods. The research sampled 334 residents from the three waste dump sites and 107 Estate Surveying and Valuation firms in metropolitan Lagos. The study was in the main to measure the effect of waste dump on property values and to develop an appropriate valuation methodology to carry out valuation of properties affected by waste dump sites. A combination of valuation methodologies was adopted such as Paired Sales Analysis, Contingent Valuation Analysis, Option Pricing Model and Hedonic Approach. The study found that there was a weak linear relationship between rental value and satisfaction of occupants in the neighbourhood of the waste dumps. In Akinjare et al. (2011), the impact of four operational sanitary landfills (Gbagada, Olusosun, Abule-Egba and Solous) on proximal residential properties in Lagos metropolis of Nigeria was studied using a sample size of 2 341 residents across four landfill sites. Also, 229 Estate Surveyors and 315

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Lagos State Waste Management Agency (LAWMA) officials provided data for the study. Data analysis using a hedonically derived regression function in evaluation of data drawn from administered questionaires showed a slight evidence of statistical significance indicating that all residential property values increased with distances away from landfill sites at an average of 6% from landfills. Several other studies have established empirical relationships between residential property values and proximity to sanitary landfills. Some of these studies have estimated a hedonic price function, where the price of a residential property is regressed on the characteristics and the proximity of the landfill to the house. Many of these studies also have identified that houses located proximal landfills command lower prices than similar houses located farther away. One of such widely-cited study is that of Nelson et al (1992), which found diminutions in residential property values within 2 miles of a particular landfill with an average property value gradient of 6.2% per mile.of these studies was Notably, many of these studies were based on relatively small samples of house sales, so that the sampling variability in the estimated relationship between proximity and house price was high. It is possible that the landfills studied had negative impacts on nearby property values but that the relationship could not be statistically identified due to small sample sizes. There is yet to be a largesample sized study that conclusively demonstrates small or non-existent property value impacts from a landfill. This current study again fills this gap in literature. This study attempts to formulate a model capable of predicting prices of residential properties within the neighbourhood of landfills in Lagos State. Obtainable results will form a good basis for understanding property market behaviour and consequently the price effects of the landfills as properties get distant from it. Of paramount note is the simple fact that attributes of the present study are similar to most of the principal attributes of the aforementioned studies however, the use of a table of intercept, property mean values for different categories of property at different distances away from the landfill sites, tables for Housing Variables, neighbourhood attributes and year of sale were inclusively computed in a bid to derive a suitable and functional model. Results show that the four landfills differ in their impact on nearby property values. While two of the three landfills have statistically significant negative impacts on nearby property values, the smallest, least prominent landfill does not. 4. Data Collection and Research Methods Primary data were collected through questionnaires distributed to Estate Surveyors and Valuers, residents within 1.2km to the four landfills as well as officials of the Lagos State Waste Management Authority (LAWMA). The study sampled every third houses within 1.2 km distances from the four landfill sites. The response is as follows; Gbagada (848), Olusosun (674), Abule-Egba (422) and Solous (397). In addition, 229 Estate Surveyors and 315 Lagos State Waste Management Agency officials returned questionnaires administered to them. The survey recorded an average response rate of 78% and collected data were analysed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Since the impacts of a landfill on nearby residential property values are not expected to be uniform as ascertained from literature, values are expected to increase with distance away from the landfill, the concentric ring model was then used in analysing landfill impacts on residential property values.

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Figure 2. Distance-Value Gradient in Concentric Rings

Source: Authors Construct, (2010)

5. Data Analysis and Operationalisation of Variables. In an attempt to articulate the model developed for predicting residential property values around landfill, a Table of intercept and property mean values for different categories of property at different distances away from the landfill sites was computed. In addition, Tables for Housing Variables, Neighbourhood attributes and year of sale were computed. For each of the property type, there is a need to determine the intercept () of percentage mean values as distances increase away from landfill.
Table 1. Intercepts ( ) of % of Property Mean Value (MV) in Relation to Distance. Property Distance (m) 0 300 600 900 1200 Tenement House 2 3 5 5 2Bedroom Bungalow 2 3 6 6 4 b/r Detached House 3 5 8 8 5 b/r Detached House 3 6 9 9

4No 3b/r Flat 3 5 7 7

4 b/r Duplex 3 6 8 8

Source: Field Survey, 2010

Table 1 shows that the base value = mean value of property earlier discussed in table 2 below hence for 4 bedroom duplex was N13.11million. Table 3 showed the intercept of property mean value along

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the radius line, thus as the distance increases from the landfill location, the intercept ( mean values) of residential properties change. The intercept in this case demonstrated the percentage (% ) change in mean value along the intercept line. With the mean value of 4 bedroom duplex put at at 0 meter (base value), the percentage change in mean value at location 300 meters was 3% , 600 meters 6% and 900meters, 8 % . It could be observed that at adistance 1 200meters away from the landfill, the percentage change remained constant at 8% . This means that the impact of landfill on residential property values had disappeared completely, thus property values had rebounced back and hence assumed full market value. It could be observed that all categories of residential properties in table 2 had assumed full market value at a distance 1200 meters away from landfill sites.
Table 2. Residential Property Value Outside 1.2km Concentric Rings of Abule Egba Landfill Neighbourhoods Location Property Type 4nos 3bdrm flats 4bdrm duplex 5bdrm Duplex+ b/q 5bdrm Detached+ b/q 4bdrm Detached+ b/q 3bdrm Duplex+ b/q Tenement House Source. Field Survey, 2010. Abule Egba Non Landfill Residential Neighbourhood in (=N=000,000) Landfill 8.6 10.4 13.04 12.6 10.2 9.21 4.1 Non landfill 10.5 12.8 15.7 16.5 13.4 10.7 6.2 Diff in Value 1.9 2.4 2.3 3.9 3.2 1.49 2.1 % Increase. 22.09 23.08 17.64 30.95 31.37 16.18 51.22

5.1 Percentage Change of Property Values by House Characteristics. House characteristics are fundamental to the determination of property values. However, since house characteristics were not the only contributory factor of value, the level of percentage contribution can be easured across the four landfill sites. In another, it is also possible that the percentage change in value resulting from house variables would not be the same for the four landfill locations. Table 3 shows the tabulation for the four landfill sites.
Table 3. Percentage Change Due to Housing Variables (X1 ........... X n ). Landfills % Change Source: Field Survey, 2010 Gbagada 0.68 12.4 Abule- Egba 3.66 8.33 Solous 4.13 9.5 Olusosun 1.34 7.1

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Table 3 showed the different levels of percentage change brought about by diferences in house variables which in Gbagada accounted for 0.68 translating to 12.4% . In the same vein, at Abule Egba, housing variables accounted for 3.66 leading to 8.33% change in value. Solous equally recorded 4.13 for house variables resulting in 9.5% . Olusosun had 1.34 for house characteristics and 7.1% change. It was apparent from the pattern of percentage change that Gbagada had the highest which could be attributed to its proximity from the Central Business District (CBD). Solous recorded 9.5% which could be adduced to newness of environment as many of the structures that were new and of modern architecture with adequate amenities provision. The pressue being mounted on inadequate stock of accommodation especially by Lagos State University (LASU) Students and staff was another consideration. This appeared to have compensated for proximity to the CBD at Ikeja. Abule Egba with 8.33% could be attributed to its location along Abeokuta express road axis. The quest to locate very close to a CBD brought about undue pressure leading to demand for accommodation. Unfortunately, the issue of amenities provision could be a serious consideration but at the same time could be traded off for proximity and accessibility. The property market at Olusosun at Ojota recorded the least percentage change in house characteristics of 7.1% . The reason for this development might be due to the fact that the market there had become saturated such that it had become less sensitive to any addition or substraction to house variables. Property value there revolved around a focal point because the market was localised. 5.2 Percentage Change in Property Values by Neighbourhood Attributes The quality of a neighbourhood is a function of its accessibility, drainage, power supply, water provision, security and road network. Notwithstanding that the contributions of these neighbourhoods differ from one location to another and of course, the percentage change brought about on property values also differed.
Table 4. Percentage Change in Property Values Due to Neighbourhood Attributes Landfills N % Change Source: Field Survey, 2010. Gbagada 0.051 10.2 Abule- Egba 0.032 6.4 Solous 0.027 5.4 Olusosun 0.045 9

Table 4 shows that Gbagada had the highest rating of 0.051 translating to 10.2% enhancement on property values around there. Olusosun experienced a 9% property value appreciation while Abule Egba enjoyed a 6.4% and Solous a 5.4% property appreciation respectively. The high property appreciations in Gbagada and Olusosun landfill neighbourhoods canbe attributable to the Lagos State Governments presence in the two neighbourhoods going by the various housing schemes such as Gbagada Phase 1 and 11, Medina Estate, Atunrase Estate in Gbagada and the industrial plants of 7up

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bottling company, Phillips Electronics, Ogudu G.R.A, Alapere Housing Estate and Ikosi Residential Estate in Ojota axis of Olusosun landfill. 5.3 Percentage Change by Property Year of Sale Characteristically, property values appreciate overtime except where there is war, natural disaster and unforseen circumstances. Thus, it is logical to have property values increasing with time passing. Also, the period of sale therefore matters in the determination of property value. The percentage change in value due to year of sale was not expected to be uniform across the four landfill neighbourhoods. The differences in percentage change for each landfill had been computed as shown in table 5.
Table 5. Percentage Change due to Property Year of Sale Landfills % Change Gbagada 12.2 13.04 Abule-Egba 24.7 15.9 Solous 38.3 21.9 Olusosun 14.02 12.3

Source: Field Survey, 2010

Table 5 displays the progression of percentage change in the four landfill sites in relation to the very year of a particular property was disposed of. The calculation has 2003 as its base year. From the rable, it becomes clear that Solous has the highest percentage rating of 21.9% . the reason for this could be due to the relative newness of the neighbourhood coupled with the quest for acquisation of property for residential purposes. The simple fact that property values towards the Lagos Island were climbing sky high had made people to move towards the outskirts thus exerting undue pressure on the existing stock. The same reason could also be adduced to the pattern of change in Abule Egba with 15.9% recorded. It simply means that the further away a location is from the CBD, the higher the tendencies for property acquisition and development. The pattern of percentage change in Gbagada; 13.04 and Olusosun; 12.3% underscores the earlier arguement since these two locations were in close proximity to the CBD. Like earlier stated, these locations have attained full maturity in property development hence; the rate of property sales was not volatile like the developing neighbourhoods of Solous and Abule Egba. In paraphrase, the interpolation of data collected as contained in the analysis of data was carried out to generate the values in Tables 3-5 above. The change or increase in values was based on simple percentages on the intercept values per landfill. The four landfill areas located in different parts of Lagos have some basic similarities in terms of nature of property values but at the same time had magnitude of impacts of other variables. This informed the differences in the pattern of change in the model from one landfill to the other as shown in the model table.
Table 6. Composite Change In Attributes Of Property Values Across the Four Landfills. Landfills Variables Gbagada House Characteristics 12 Olusosun 7 Abule Egba 8 Solous 10

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5 22

Source: Field Survey, 2010

Table 6 presents at a glance the level of percentage contributed to the overall property value in each of the four landfill sites. The result as shown in the table is illustrated in graphical form as shown in Fig 1.
Fig.1 Percentage Change in Variable Attributes Across Landfill Sites

25 20 15 10 5 0 Variables House Nei ghbourhood Year of Sale

landfill column 1 column 2 column 22

5.4 Validation of the Landfill Model From the initial model: PVdi = + + + + , the value of a 4bedroom duplex located within the fringes of 0-300meters radius at Olusosun in Ojota can be derived thus; = =N=12.52 million, = =N=167,768, = =N=5,634, = =N=1,755,304.00, = 0. Therefore: PVd(0-300)m = =N=(12.52 + 0.17 + 0.0056 + 1.76)m = =N=14.46m. Similarly, a 4 bedroom duplex at Gbagada located between 0 and 300meters away from the landfill derived its value thus: = =N=3.11million, = =N=89,148, = =N=66,861, = =N=1,575,822.00, = 0. Therefore: PVd(0-300)m = =N=(13.11 + 0.89 + 0.066 + 1.56)m = =N=14.84m. Adopting the same model in predicting the value of a 4 bedroom duplex at Abule Egba situated within the fringes of of 0-300meters radius can be derived thus; = =N=11.4million, = =N=417,240.00, = =N=36,480.00, = =N=2,815,800.00, = 0. Therefore: PVd(0-300)m = =N=(11.4 + 0.42 + 0.036 + 2.82)m = =N=14.67m. Similarly, the value of a 4 bedroom duplex at Solous located between 0 and 300meters away from the landfill can be derived thus: = =N=9.54million, = =N=394,002.00, = =N=25,785.00, = =N=3,653,820.00, = 0. Therefore: PVd(0-300)m = =N=(9.54 + 0.39 + 0.026 + 3.65)m = =N=13.6m.

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The above mathematical analysis has shown that a 4bedroom duplex house located between 0 meter and 300meters commanded a mean value of =N=12.52million as derived from the questionnaire survey. The advantage of the model was that it can be used to predict residential property value at a given distance and at any specified year. The application of the model to establish the value of a 4bedroom duplex at the neighbourhoods of the four landfills at Gbagada, Olusosun, Abule Egba and Solous with different valuation figures further confirmed that the impacts of landfill on residential property values vary from one landfill to another. The study established a model to predict residential property values based on distance from landfills in metropolitan lagos as PVdi = + + + + . It was established that the changes brought about by differences in house variables in Gbagada accounted for 0.68 translating to (12.4% ). Abule Egba, 3.66 leading to (8.33% ). Solous equally recorded 4.13 for house variables resulting in (9.5% ), while Olusosun had 1.34 for house characteristics resulting to (7.1% ) change in residential property values along the intercept. Also, the level of neighbourhood quality provided in the four landfill locations varied with Gbagada and Olusosun having the higher property value appreciation of 10.2% and 9% respectively while Abule Egba and Solous enjoyed a 6.4% and 5.4% property value appreciation respectively. 6. Recommendations The Lagos State Government should empower the its waste autority (Lagos State Waste Management Authority -LAWMA) in acquiring modern machinery for compacting landfills so as to reduce methane gas leading to air pollution that often constitute health hazards to residents. Solous, Abule Egba and Olusosun were not pleasant to sight therefore there is an urgent need for suitable action plans and education (via the media on proper handling of waste) by LAWMA in order to improve the monitoring, control and projection of solid waste expected in the nearest future. Expansion of the current recycling programmes through modernised methods with a view of turning waste to wealth in metropolitan Lagos is also expedient. Despite the present governments enormous effort at attaining environmental sustainability, it is recommended that landfill within fully developed residential city centers be closed down and relocated to city outskirts/ urban fringe. Latest technology on landfill development and operation must be employed in a bid to abate landfill hazards and nuisance.This move would forestall and sustain value in its aesthetic and cost implicative approach, social perspective (Ratcliff 1978) inclusive of its market value orientation to the Estate Surveyor and Valuer (Thorncroft 1975). Finally, the introduction of the private sector and NGOs is also required most especially in the area of organising waste management workshops and enlightenment programs which would concentrate on grassroots participation and input. The introduction of custom built vehicles for waste collection and disposal is highly commendable as this has drastically reduced the volume of trash thrown along truck routes. The same customised truck vehicles should be made mandatory for the private sector collaborating with Governments effort. Also, Government should improve on the control of truck traffic creating traffic jam along their routes.

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7. Conclusions This current study has established a model for predicting values of residential housing around landfill neighbourhoods. The study has also brought into focus those factors that hitherto might not have received much attention. It is therefore, hoped that if the Lagos State Government is able to look into most of the recommended solutions, appreciation in property values across the state would be sustained. References
Adewusi, A.O & Onifade. F. A (2006). The effects of urban solid waste on physical environment and property transactions in Surulere local government area of Lagos state. Journal of Landuse and Development Studies, 2 (1), 71-90. Akinjare.O.A., Ayedun.C.A, Oluwatobi. A.O & Iroham O.C. (2011). Impact of sanitary landfills on urban residential property value in Lagos State, Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Development, CCSE, 4(2), pp. (forthcoming). Bello, M.O & Bello V.A (2008). Willingness to pay for better environmental services: Evidence from the Nigerian real estate market. Journal of African Real Estate Research, 1(1), 19-27. Bello.V.A. (2007). The effects of Ojota waste dump site on surrounding property values in Lagos metropolis. Journal Of Environmental Conservation And Research, 1, (1&2) 136-142. Bello, V.A. (2009). The effects of waste dump sites on proximate property values in lagos Nigeria, (Unpublished Ph.D Dessert) Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. Bouvier, Halstead, Conway and Malano (2000). The effect of landfill on rural residential property values: Some empirical analysis. Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy 370(2); 23-3 Cambridge Econometrics, EFTEC and WRC. (2003). The disamenity costs of landfills. Department of Environment and Rural Affairs, HMSO. Cartee, C. (1989). A review of sanitary landfill impacts on property values. Real Estate Appraiser and Analyst, pp.43-47. Esubiyi, A.O. (1994). Obsolescence and property values: A case study of Lagos. Unpublished B.Sc Dissertation Submitted to the Department of Estate Management, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. Gamble, H. B., R. H. Downing, J. S. Shortle, and D. J. Epp. (1982). Effects of solid waste disposal sites on community development and residential property values. Final Report for The Bureau of Solid Waste Management (Department of Environmental Resources, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania). Havlicek, Richardson and Davies (1985). Impact of solid waste disposal on property values. Environmental Policy Solid Waste, Vol. IV, Ed. G 5, Tolley, Cambridge, MA. Balinger. Nelson, Arthur C., John Genereux and Michelle Genereux. (1992). Price effects of landfills on house values. Land Economics. 68(4): 359-365. Ogunba, O.A. (1997). A study of valuation and pricing methods in the residential property market in Lagos Metropolis. An Unpublished M.Sc. Dissertation Submitted to the Department of Estate Management, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile Ife. Parker, B.J. (2003). Solid waste landfills and residential property values. White Paper, National Solid Wastes Management Association, Washington, DC. 6 pp. Ratcliff. J. (1978). An introduction to urban land administration, (1st ed.). London: The Estate Gazette Ltd. Reichert, Small and Mohanty (1991). The impact of landfills on residential property values. The Journal of Real Estate Research 7(3), pp 297-314. Thorncroft. M. (1975). Principles of estate management, (1st ed.). London: The Estate Gazette Ltd.

Websites
http: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File: LGA_Lagos.png

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Importance of Accessibility to Reliable Data for Real Estate Practice


Ajibola M. O. (Corresponding author)
Covenant University, Ota Ogun State, Nigeria E-mail: solaajibola2000@yahoo.com +234 (0) 8023029220

Ogungbemi A. O.
Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu Lagos State, Nigeria E-mail: yogungbemi@yahoo.com; +234 (0) 8035775341
Abstract Availability of and accessibility to accurate, reliable and timely data is germane to the operation of the property market, in the field of estate surveying and valuation either for valuation/appraisal, management and agency purposes. In this study, the researcher examines the factors militating against accessibility to such data. The study was conducted using questionnaires, administered on practicing Estate Surveyors and Valuers, within Lagos Metropolis. 190 questionnaire was retrieved out of 300 questionnaire (i.e. 63%) administered on the respondents selected from the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers Directory and this was used for the analysis. The study revealed that inaccessibility to reliable data is a major barrier to valuation consistency. The study further revealed that there is the need for members of the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers, just like their counterpart in RICS, UK, to join hands together and create a strong databank comparable to that of the Investment Property Databank (IPD). The databank created as such should therefore be available and accessible to anyone that requires such information, even at a token. Keywords: Data Availability, Databank, Information, Property Market, Valuation Practice

1. Introduction Accurate, reliable and timely information is vital to effective decision-making in almost every aspect of human endeavour, whether it be by individuals, community, organisations, businesses or governments. It is an essential component of any effort to persuade individuals, businesses or governments to make different decisions from the ones which they might have make in the absence of particular pieces of information. Also, it is an integral part of any attempt to hold those who make decisions accountable for the consequences of the decisions which they make. In other words, the importance of reliable data generally cannot be overemphasised especially for decision making purposes. Absence or inadequate reliable data will result in inappropriate decision or even no decision at all. That is, in the absence of accurate, reliable and timely information, people and organisations will make bad decisions, they will be unable to help persuade others to make better decisions, and no one will be able to ascertain whether the decisions made by particular individuals or organisations were the best ones that could have been made. The dearth and inaccessibility to reliable data, to support property decision making, has become increasingly recognised over recent years. Transactions (sales, letting and valuation) in relation to property investment require the availability of an up-to-date data and the lack of data would greatly

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impair the performance of surveyors in turning out reports that could stand the test of time. Information technology has turn the whole world to a global village (i.e. the world is flat) therefore, the Estate Surveyor and Valuer (ESV) cannot operate in isolation of other colleagues in the field. There must be a cross fertilisation of ideas in relation to the happenings within the profession and allied professions (in the built environment). There is no gain-saying that property data sources are perceived to be fragmented and incomplete, sometimes the by-product of administrative processes and assembled with minimal co-operation from the originators of the data. It is not impossible to see evidence of inadequate data provision within the property market coupled with the reluctance to release transaction evidence by valuers (most transactions are carried out secretly and this hinders accessibility to reliable data). The result therefore is that ESVs frequently have to rely on secondary and, inadequate information. Confidentiality clauses and the inaccessibility of government records represent barriers to data exchange within the property market, which already is naturally complex and diverse (Wyatt. 1995). It also need be mentioned that data on project start, project completion and project size and tenure mix are all important for efficient performance of the ESV. The collection and compilation of data for changes in residential property prices, for example, will provide insights into changes in transaction prices which will be of immense help to the ESV, on similar properties. In the opinion of de Soto (2000) property systems do more than just record and organise land and real estate assets, a detailed and transparent property system where accessible can enhance a nations productivity. Besides that, statistics on the value of the housing stock can also constitute an important piece of information, e.g. for analysing wealth effects. According to Eiglsperger, (2006) reliable data about price level would allow the identification of differences between various markets at a certain point in time. Price data are not the only statistics required for a comprehensive analysis of the housing market. The ratio of rented and owner-occupied houses and flats, the number and value of transactions, statistics on building permits/approvals, housing starts and completions provide important insights into the structure and the dynamics of the market and their driving factors from the supply and the demand sides. A data is as good as its source(s), therefore for a reliable impute into the work of the ESV, sources such as national statistical office, Ministries, mortgage firms (banks), land registry, estate firms, to mention just a few would be of good use. Car (2006), states that it is better that a combination of sources be used in order to collect reliable data. The reliability of data on real estate prices is affected by other factors besides the variety of sources, for example: The non-uniformity of data with regards to its geographic aspects, in other words its coverage, Insufficient and different structuring of data according to apartment type, Differences in the way real estate is sold (for cash, or under a loan), The weight schemes used to ensure that the original data is representative, Different collection periods, and so on. Lizieri and Venmore-Rowland (1991) suggest that Valuers should seek to widen the set of information used to arrive at an appraisal and reduce their reliance and dependence on inadequate and often inconsistent property market data. McNamara (1994) pursuing the same theme argues that much of the forecasting work which is done in the UK is data constrained and utilizes less-than-adequate information. Furthermore the Mallinson Report (RICS, 1994) considers that although the property profession has a history of protecting information in the interest of competition, much could be done to improve data availability without violating confidentiality. The report recommends that the RICS take all possible steps to encourage the wider availability of data necessary for the performance of valuations.

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2. Importance of Data Sharing That Valuers depend greatly on access to comprehensive, reliable and timely evidence of property transactions in order to make informed predictions of value is not in doubt but unfortunately, such data access does not currently exist within the property market in Nigeria as all transactions are concluded secretly. Though there is a wide range of data sources, it should be noted that one single source may not offer the reliable information that Valuers required, therefore there is need for a combination of information from various sources. The need to combine information from various sources emanate from legislative restrictions on data release to the public, confidentiality constraints, lack of trust on professional colleagues and conservative attitudes. Surveyors however expressed concern over poor access to comprehensive property transaction data (Ajibola, 2006). Property transaction data has traditionally been available through a network of professional contacts. The jungle telegraph can work well if the surveyor has established contacts throughout the property sector and in the area in which he practices. However, in many cases it can be difficult to access the required information especially where estate surveying firms tend to be secretive or the market is sluggish. Other sources include in-house data, building society surveys, market reports, auction results and information published by the press. It is worthy to note that the quality and accuracy of these sources could be improved; many are too general, others are out-of-date or are published too infrequently. An enviable solution, to this dilemma, may be a centralized, accurate, up-to-date and accessible source of property data, to be kept by the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers (NIESV). It is worthy to note that all valuation techniques rely on the collection and analysis of data; general data such as social, economic, planning and environmental attributes, and specific data including local market conditions, details of transactions such as location, physical and functional form and legal characteristics constitute the gamut of information required by the Valuer to carry out his assignment. The validity of a final estimate of market value depends to a great extent on how well it can be supported by market data (Appraisal Institute, 2001). Indeed, a Valuers experience includes stored knowledge of past transactions (Anstey, 1970). Due to legislative restrictions on the release of property data into the public domain, market data are often difficult to obtain and therefore Valuers rely on their own knowledge and experience. When data are available they are often incomplete with legal or negotiating positions of the parties unknown. Confidentiality clauses and the inaccessibility of government data are two artificial barriers to data exchange within a property market that is naturally complex and diverse. Lack of data is thus a significant factor affecting the operation of valuation methodology. The property market is unique; and government intervention, a fixed supply of land, the long development period for new property and poor information availability distort its operation. A valuation should reflect the assimilation of all known data. However, the Nigerian property market is characterized by a lack of data on which to base investment decisions in comparison to alternative investment markets. Commenting on this, Lizieri and Venmore-Rowland (1991) state that outside the property industry, there is widespread suspicion of the valuation process and valuers should seek to widen the set of information used to arrive at an appraisal and reduce their reliance and dependence on incomplete and often inconsistent property market data. In the same vein, Brown, et al, (1984) commented that analytical techniques have been adapted from other investment markets to property but argue that adequate information provision is also required if the property market is to display consistency and compatibility with other investment markets. The ability to collect and compile data to analyse is sadly lacking ... partly due to secrecy problems and confidentiality and lack of motivation

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(Feenan and Dixon, 1992) and a report by Currie and Scott (1991) highlighted the dichotomy between the complex property markets and the data available to analyse them. Millington (2000) refers to the relationship between property valuation and property data; he argues that the comparative method is the most widely used valuation technique and that it is essential to have as much information as possible, yet this is often lacking in real world. The solution, therefore, would be to improve access to and the dissemination of property data. In UK, a number of authoritative sources have addressed the problems associated with data quality, utility and availability in the property sector. The Society of Property Researchers (SPR, 1995) study states that the property sectors capacity to use and develop analytical techniques is advancing beyond the ability to generate detailed and reliable information. The Mallinson report (RICS, 1994) reiterates the point by inferring that practice and attitudes have improved in recent years, yet property market information is restricted under confidentiality clauses which militate against the profession and the generality of clients particularly in the area of valuation. Wyatt (1996) also argues that despite a wide array of data sources none can offer the detailed information that valuers require due to restrictions on data release to the public, confidentiality constraints and conservative attitudes. Although each study approaches the problem from differing perspectives there is a consensus that the availability of property data is often incomplete, fragmented and internally inconsistent. With investment management becoming increasingly analytical, access to reliable information on the performance of asset classes is essential. Morrell (1995) argues that fundamental problems relating to property indices have potentially serious implications for property as an asset class. Indeed the lack of standardization which surrounds property performance indices has led to considerable confusion both within and outside the surveying profession. Although substantial progress has been made by the Investment Property Databank (IPB) through subscribing institutions and property companies, Brown, Morell et al (1984) highlight the need for improvements if property indices are to come of age and command the level of respect comparable with indices produced for other asset classes. In practical terms a comprehensive data set is considered to be one which can be disaggregated, if required, to the level of its most fundamental components (SPR, 1995). The more data that can be assimilated the more robust the analysis is likely to be. The scope of information required ranges from broad macroeconomic indicators to the microeconomic aspects of the property market, down to the individual characteristics of the property concerned (Hargitay and Yu, 1993). Furthermore the individualistic nature of property makes it a unique investment category requiring even more data compared to other investment media. In considering the adequacy of commercial property data the SPR report (1995) specifies a fourfold test in which data must be accurate, complete, up-to-date and accessible, but in many cases data fails to meet these criteria. In spite of the clamour for a more formalised approach to forecasting and strategic investment planning, there is still a continuing tendency amongst practitioners to rely upon personal information. Indeed a strategic implication for information technology in the property market is the accessibility of information versus control of competitive advantage. Many institutional investors and managers and even professional colleagues, are reluctant to disclose details of specific investments, with the result that restrictions on information availability can constrain the expansion of markets (Roulac, 1996). Indeed the property market, unlike other investment markets, has no formal market place making data collection difficult. The fragmented nature of information sources, inconsistent geographical definitions and difficulties involved in data assembly further complicates analysis.

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A major difficulty facing property research is the reliance upon sample based data with the result that available sources are frequently generalised and fragmented. As published indices may represent only a subset of the total market, difficulties may arise in reconciling the results of top-down analysis with bottom up approaches. There is a tendency for data sources to concentrate on prime property which can leave secondary areas lacking in market data and may also restrict analysis in geographical or functional terms. In addition the analysis of current economic conditions with property market relationships is frequently frustrated by information which is historic with indices often overtaken by market events by the time they are published. Although historic time series data is useful the validity of some cross-sectional comparisons can deteriorate with time (SPR, 1995). The Nigerian property market experience is not different from what the UK property market had experienced, and with that we can take a cue from what was done in the UK to find solution(s) to lingering problems emanating from using data that are not properly tested, for our property analysis. Data problems in the Nigerian property market can broadly be categorized into three, viz; Complete blanks: where there is no information at all to support the analysis of the market/market issues to be considered; Improvements in proxy measures: where no direct information on market activity exists, but there are direct proxy measures which could be brought into closer relationship with market activity; and Shortfalls in direct measures: where direct information exists for the variables but it could be improved upon. However in spite of the many deficiencies in the information on property markets it is not impossible to have, in principle, a complete solution. Thinking about resolving the issues relating to data availability, the development of a National Land Information Service (NLIS), using information technology to aid the assimilation of comparable evidence for valuation purposes cannot be over emphasized (Wyatt, 1996). In addition, the construction of a National Valuation Evidence Database (NVED) to which all Valuers contribute and all have access would increase the availability of data, improve objectivity and lead to more reliable valuations. The NLIS provides an ideal framework within which to construct a NVED (Rowley, 1995), while the RICS through the Mallinson Report (1994) have recognised the need for a national database to improve the valuation process. Such an effort would not be a waste, in the bid to enhance the performance of Nigerian Valuers and to compete favourably with other investment analysts, to which investors are shifting to due to failure to get their investment satisfaction from the Valuers. The development of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is also considered necessary to facilitate the unified storage, manipulation and analysis of property data, both spatially and aspatially, thus reducing time consuming operations. More specifically a GIS based approach will considerably help in the analysis of spatial references which are often examined implicitly in traditional valuation methodology due to difficulties in spatial data manipulation but would necessitate overcoming barriers to the release of data into the public domain (Rowley, 1995). 3. Criteria for Property Data The primary aim of collecting data is to maximize the amount and accuracy of transfer of information from researcher (Fellows, 2003). The criteria for quality property data can be measured by the use of publicly available raw data, the use of internationally accepted factors and comprehensiveness of raw data. Most publicly available raw data are facts; for example, the data recorded in the Land Registry is the legal right information, available for public access for a fee. Such data generally includes ownership

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and title, land-related information, property size and structure, year of built, and used material. Also, the sales price of properties and transaction data from real estate firms is raw data. The use of such publicly available data to create proprietary indices suggests that the proprietary indices are considered to have statistical validity. Internationally accepted factors for the indices are indicators of both reliability and validity of datasets. Property researchers rely on such data which specifically relates to local standards that have gained international acceptance. The building consents, which provides data by local government on both the number of square meters as well as the projected expenditure for any permitted project, is an example of data collected in relation to internationally accepted building standards. Both government and private organizations can possess data which is internationally recognized. Some private organizations such as banks and consultants construct indices and data for their own usage. These data sets may to be used by worldwide investors, analyst and potential customers. The obvious examples are the IPD Property Index provided by the Investment Property Databank and Russell Property Index which is used in Australia and Canada. Comprehensiveness of raw data is an important component of reliability. Property has a combination of special characteristics which differentiate it from other commodities; to wit; physical, legal, market and costs. Burns (2000) was of the opinion that because of these four interrelated characteristics, there are three necessary requirements for property forecasting data viz; there should be a very large sample size which provides a good representation of the population, there should be a wide range of market variables (however, information on different types of property is never sufficient) and the data should be reliable (which means consistency with accuracy). Though interpretation of data changes over time, transparency is expected in historical datasets to incorporate the changes of recording and reasons for those changes. 4. Accuracy of Property Data Lum (2004) suggested that the accurate measurement of real estate price movements is an issue of great concern to both market participants and policymakers who rely on price signals for decisionmakings. Accuracy is a problem because of the fundamental heterogeneity of all property market data. (Dunse, et al., 1998) posits that the unique location every building occupies, the physical design, neighborhood qualities, and such factors as convenience as measured by the distance to the city centre or public services all create measurement problems which have not been solved to-date. According to Lum (2004) there are serious defects in the way property indices are computed in many Commonwealth countries. The methodological issues identified include the choice of weighting procedures and the index number formula, the large degree of variation in the weightings to create the index and the interpretation of the factors. In addition, when differences in composition, construction and disaggregation are encountered measurement issues arise. The composition of the published measures varies significantly by sample size, type and size of fund, distribution by sector and region. In term of data construction, significant differences exist in the way returns are calculated and methodology. Some annual returns are calculated on a money-weighted basis, some on a time-weighted basis depending on the availability of data. Morrell (1995) was of the opinion that when using disaggregation, most measures provide a breakdown of composition and results by sector which is not particularly helpful

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5. Materials and Methods In carrying out this study questionnaire was used, to elicit required information from the respondents. 300 copies of the questionnaire were administered out of which 190 (63% ) were returned. The questionnaire was administered mainly on Estate Surveyors and Valuers as advisers on property indices for mortgage operations and property investment. The data collected was collated and analyzed using descriptive statistics and deductions were made based on the outcome of the analyses. Response to the questions helped in arriving at the findings contained in the study as shown in Tables 1-5.
Table 1. Firms Area of Specialization Specialization Property Development Feasibility and Viability Studies Valuation General Practice Firm Total Source: Field Survey 2010 Frequency 30 6 14 140 190 Percentage 16 3 7 74 100

Specialization in a particular service or industry can be a very successful strategy for small firms, like we have in the study area. It makes it possible to focus finite resources on one or two practice areas, makes it easier to build a reputation in the field and can enhance the performance of the firm in the chosen aspect of the profession. From Table1 above, it is evident that majority of the firms (74% ) are in general practice. The more technical areas of practice such as feasibility and viability studies, property development and valuation received very small proportion of the respondent firms engagement. The import here is that apart from a few firms (50, i.e. 24% ) that specialize, the practice of Estate Surveying and Valuation is still been conducted in a generalized form which may not really give room for proper data collection and storage.
Table 2. Sources of Information Source Use of in-house data bases Other local Valuers Personal experience Use of in-house Valuers Property Press Total Source: Field Survey 2010 Frequency 149 13 10 3 15 190 Percentage 78 7 5 2 8 100

Information gathering and application is very important for any credible transaction in real estate in general and valuations in particular, hence the respondents were requested to indicate the sources of their information. The results as contained in Table 2 above shows that a chunk of the respondents 78% relied on in-house databases. Apart from the fact that data from such sources may not be subjected to thorough scrutiny, they are usually shielded from public accessibility.

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Table 3. Easy Accessibility to Sufficient Market Evidence Response Yes No Total Source: Field Survey 2010 Frequency 20 170 190 Percentage 11 89 100

The use of investment method of valuation is predicated on getting accurate and reliable market evidence (data). Table 3 above shows that 89% of the respondents were of the view that they could not have access to sufficient market evidence. Where this is the situation, time tested/reliable opinion may be difficult to form and by extension, decision making may be negatively impacted.
Table 4. Support for and Subscription to National Property Data Bank Response Yes No Total Source: Field Survey 2009 Frequency 165 25 190 Percentage 87 13 100

As stated earlier, information is very germane to investment method of valuation. The absence has been recognized as indicated in Table 3. The question then is how to make the information available. Table 4 above reveals the willingness of respondent Estate Surveyors and Valuers (87% ), to subscribe to the idea of National Property Databank by N1ESV. Only 13% of the respondents are averse to such idea. The implication of this is that Surveyors recognized the need for a coordinated source of information for effective practice.
Table 5. Benefits of National Property Databank Opinion Data Bank would improve efficiency of Firms Enhance quality of Service to the client Improve the image of Estate Surveying Profession Improve availability of market data comparables Source: Field Survey 2010 Strongly Agree 100 110 Agree 65 60 Undecided 12 10 Disagree 11 9 Strongly Disagree 2 1 Total 190 190

90 120

80 60

11 8

8 1

1 1

190 190

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Table 5 reveals that the respondents were of the opinion that there are huge benefits that could be derived from having National Property Databank. Across board, majority of the respondents attest to the huge benefits derivable from maintaining national property databank. Considering the benefits derivable from a centrally managed data, the time has come for NIESV to set up such databank as this will equally help in reducing the problem of valuation inaccuracy. 6. Results and Discussions Dealings in real estate market, in whatever form, depend on availability and accessibility of adequate, reliable and current (timely) information to aid the decision making process. Clients (either individuals or corporate organizations) rely much on the advice of Estate Surveyors and Valuers to enable them take various decisions with respect to real estate. The advice given by the Estate Surveyor and Valuer is as good as the source(s) of data used in coming up with his opinion of value. It is evident from Table 1 above that estate surveying and valuation practice is conducted in a generalized approach. Table 2 shows that information used by majority of the respondents is sourced using in-house data bases. Apart from the secrecy surrounding the generation of such data, reliability is in question since they are not subjected to tested treatments. Respondents are unanimous, in their decision that there is no free access to sufficient market evidence and are all ready to support and make contribution to National Property Databank, which they agreed has immense benefits. Their opinions are contained in Tables 3 5 above. Responsible information sharing enhances productivity and generates significant benefits such as: enables decision makers to be informed rapidly and at low cost, affords access to a wide range of data and improves efficiency and significantly reduces the cost of many products and services 7. Conclusion and Recommendation Lack of reliable databank contributes, a great deal, to inaccurate professional advice. The presence of databank similar to the Investment Property Databank (IPD) of UK provides property indices for performance measurement and accuracy tests. Lack of databank constitutes a major drawback to the desired result from an Estate Surveyor and Valuer. A substantial part of the problem associated with professional inefficiency will be solved with the existence of adequate national property databank. Taking a cue from RICS (UK), NIESV and ESVARBON should establish a regularly updated property databank to which Valuers can have unhindered access even at a token. Majority of the respondents indicated their preparedness to subscribe to National Property Databank data on concluded transactions. The possibility of members sending data (in a specified format) on all transactions should be explored and canvassed by NIESV. It may not be out of place for NIWSV and ESVARBON to organize workshop and/or seminar where members can be more informed of the benefits they stand to gain by supporting the project. The benefits of such centrally generated pool of information cannot be over emphasized.

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References
Ajibola, M. O. (2006) The Accuracy of Investment Method of Valuation in Nigeria: A Case Study of Lagos Metropolis. An Unpublished M. Sc. Thesis submitted to the Department of Estate Management, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Lagos, Akoka. Lagos. Anstey, B. (1970) An Introduction to the Theory of Value. Building. Pp 63-66 Appraisal Institute, (2001) The Appraisal of Real Estate, 12 th Edition. Chicago, The Appraisal Institute. Brown, S., Morrell, G., Unsworth, R. and Ward, C. (1984) Property Indices Research Report. Society of Property Researchers, Technical Paper Number 1 Burns, R. B. (2000) Introduction to Research Methods. London: SAGE Publications, p. 336. Car, M (2006) Monitoring Residential Property Prices in Slovakia. BIATEC: Vol. XIV. 1 Currie, D. and Scott, A. (1991) The Place of Commercial Property in the US Economy. London Business School de Soto, H. (2006) The Mystery of Capital. Bantam Press. Great Britain. Dunse, N., Jones, C., Orr, A. and Tarbet, H. (1998) The Extent and Limitations of Local Commercial Property Market Data, Vol. 16, No. 5, pp 455 473. Eiglsperger, M. (2006) Residential Property Statistics for the Euro Area and Selected EU Countries. Being PaperPrepared for the OECD-IMF Workshop Real Estate Price Indices. Paris Feenan, R. and Dixon, T. (1992) Information and Technology Applications in Commercial Property.Macmillan, London. Fellows, R (2003) Research Methods for Construction, London: Blackwell Science. Hargitay, S and Yu, S.M. (1993) Property Investment Decisions, A Quantitative Approach. E & FN Spon, London. Lizieri, C. and Venmore-Rowland, P (1991) Valuation Accuracy: A contribution to the debate. Journal of Property Research, Vol. 8; pp 115 122. Lum, S. K. (2004) Property Price Indices in the Commonwealth Construction Methodologies and Problems, Journal of Property Investment & Finance, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp 25 54.. McNamara, P. (1994) Property Forecasting: Nothing to fear but fear itself, Estates Gazette, 9240, 140-143. Millington, A. (2000) An Introduction to Property valuation. 5th Edition. Estates Gazette, London. Morrell, G. (1995) Property Indices: A coming of age? Journal of Property Valuation and Investment: Vol. 13, No. 3, pp 8 21. R1CS (1994) The Mallinson Report: Report of the President a Working Party on Commercial Property Valuations. The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, London, 5IPP Roulac, S.E. (1996) Strategic implications of information technology for the real estate sector, Journal of Property Finance, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp 28 44. Rowley, S. (1995) The development of Valuation Data Recording Standards For National LandInformation System Proceedings of The Cutting Edge Property Research Conference, University of Aberdeen. The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, London, Vol. 2, 221 232. SPR (1995) The Adequacy and Accuracy of Commercial Property Data. Society of Property Researchers, London, 32pp Wyatt, P. (1995) A Spatial Analysis of Property Values, Proceeding.1, of The Cutting Edge Property Research Conference, University of Aberdeen, Conference Proceedings. The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors, London, Vol. 2, pp 21 33. Wyatt, P. (1996): Using a Geographical Information System for Property Valuation, Journal of Property Valuation and Investment, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp 67 79.

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Land Value Determinants and Rental Values of Office Spaces in Ikeja, Nigeria
Oni A. Olawande (Corresponding Author)
Department of Estate Management Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria Email: wandeoni@yahoo.com; Tel.: 234-8023122014

Ajayi C. Ayodele
Department of Estate Management Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria E-mail: ydlajayi@yahoo.com; Tel.: 234-8037258925
Abstract This study was carried out to examine the contributions of land value determinants to variability in rental values of offices in Ikeja, Nigeria. In doing so, road network which has not received much consideration in studies on property value determinants, were decomposed into its explanatory variables of quality, length, connectivity, and density, in addition to other variables like location, demand, accessibility, and supply of commercial properties in the study area. Multiple regression analysis of the data at 95% confidence level showed that accessibility (P-value=0.0045), demand (Pvalue=0.0022), supply (P-value=0.0115) ANOVA indicated 0.0423 proving that road network have significant effect on rental value of office spaces in the study area. Similarly, step-wise regression analysis returned four variables accessibility (0.0011), demand (0.0004), location (0.0413) and supply (0.0028) as the variables that actually greatly affect the rental values. The study has reinforced the importance of accessibility to development and investors wishing to embark on real estate development should be conversant with the level of accessibility of the arterial roads along which such development will locate. Decision on the location of such development project should be based on a pragmatic approach such that selected locations would bring the highest return that is adequate and sufficient to compensate investors. Keywords: arterial roads, commercial property, property value, road network, valuation, variability

1. Introduction Roads may be classified as international, inter-city or intra-city. International and inter-city roads are usually major or arterial roads, while intra-city roads are routes within a city and may be minor or major. Pattern of road network somewhat influences ease of movements and provides accessibility to various land uses which compete for available spaces along the arterial roads. Commercial properties tend to cluster along such roads to take relative advantages of agglomeration. Competition makes locations along the road to be at their highest and best use also translated in high rental values compared to other locations. Regardless of the advantages, developers, financiers and investors in commercial properties are faced with dearth of data on what level of rental income a development project could reasonably be expected to realize in a transaction involving willing and able parties. The overall impact of risks and uncertainty in the property market calls for tool to predict future trend in commercial property market with some measure of accuracy. This is to ensure that income which a given commercial property generates 257

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in the nearest future will be sufficient to recoup the capital outlay and be sustained subsequently. A number of factors affect commercial property values in Nigeria. These include institutional and economic factors, location, complementary uses, competition amongst and between uses, design, degree of obsolescence, accessibility, road network, relationship between landlord and tenant, and negative externalities (McCluskey, et al, 2000; Oyebanji, 2003; Olusegun, 2003; Kauko, 2003; and Omoogun, 2006). For purpose of this study, road network, location, demand and supply, and accessibility established in literature were isolated and regressed with commercial property values. This study however focused on arterial roads in the intra-urban network of Ikeja city and the isolated factors against the open market rental value. The aim was to determine the relationship (if any) between arterial road network in the presence or absence of other variables and rental values of office spaces in the study area with a view to determining their combined or individual contributions to variability in commercial property values in the study area and derive a model for predicting variability in such property in the study area. 2. Related Studies In explaining pattern of property values, Lean and Goodall (1977) opined that the centre of an urban area is the position of greatest accessibility where transport routes and systems converge. Competition between firms whose revenue is high when in such a position will force up rents and land values above those in the remainder of the urban area. Firms will compete to locate in the centre to take advantage of complementarities, which to large extent, is a function of accessibility. The larger the urban areas the more distinct will the clusters of complementary uses become. Similarly, the higher the degree of accessibility and complementarities the higher the land values in the centre are likely to be. According to Aderamo (2003), road network constitutes important element in urban development as roads provide accessibility required by different land uses; and proper functioning of such urban areas depends on efficient transport network, which is backbone to their very existence. The analysis of the road network involves recognition of the patterns and qualities of the roads, which can be emphasized through process of abstraction and symbolization. Various studies have adopted the graph-theoretic concept amongst which are the works of Garrison and Marble (1960) and Nystuen and Dacey (1961). The former applied graph theory in measuring regional highways in the United States of America, while the latter analyzed functional connection between central places in Washington using communication flows in a network. In addition, Muraco (1972) used the concept in studying intra-urban accessibility in Columbus and Indianapolis, USA, and in estimating traffic flow in Barnsley, U.K. (Ogunsanya, 1986). In Nigeria, Aderamo (2003) studied the growth of intra-urban road network in Ilorin, Nigeria using the graph theoretic analysis. The technique was used to determine degree of accessibility and connectivity of nodal points within a road network using a university community in Nigeria as case study (Oni, 2007a) and in analysing accessibility and connectivity in the road network of a metropolitan area also in Nigeria (Oni, 2007b). Some earlier studies (Fejerang, 1994; Cervero, 1994; Sedway Group, 1999; Nelson, 1999; Diaz, 1999; Cervero and Duncan, 2002; Hack, 2002; Hillier-Parker, 2002; Chesterton, 2002; and, A.P.T.A., 2002) concluded that properties near rail stations, metro line and roads gain slightly higher value compared with properties farther away. Other studies such as Pharoah (2002) found that sites close to stations were more attractive to commercial and mixed-use developments and those farther from stations are more attractive for residential developments with sites close to station sought for commercial developments.

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Stratton (2008) conducted a study of the spatial concentration of office uses and how their combination with other land uses affects values of office properties; this was to determine the relationship between spatial clustering of office uses and office property values. The variables used were cluster size, regional location and relationship to transportation infrastructure, internal land use mix, and transportation network. The study revealed that recent office development has continued to benefit economically from agglomeration. In addition, office property values were positively affected by intensity of office development, a central regional location, and clustering or agglomeration of office parcels. Cloete and Chikafalimani (2001) in a study on property industry in Malawi agreed with Stratton (2008). The study identified eight factors that affect property value, which are architectural design, quality of finishing, maintenance condition of the property, size of property, security, condition of the street, and location. According to Oyebanji (2003), a number of factors affect property values in Nigeria. These include population change, change in fashion and taste, institutional factors (culture, religious belief, and legislation), economic factors, location, complementary uses, transportation and planning control. He stated further that good spread of road network has tendency to increase accessibility with certain areas becoming less accessible as a result of traffic congestion thereby causing value to shift to areas that are accessible. From these studies, a number of factors that determine property values were identified, which include infrastructural funding, impact of high-speed mode of transportation especially at new station in peripheral sites where the impact is highest; nearness to rail stations, metro lines, and roads especially where transport infrastructure is poor. Others include accessibility relative to location-distance of land uses, change in population, change in fashion and taste, institutional factor, economic factor, location, transportation, complementary uses, road transport network, political factor, planning regulation, environmental quality, aesthetics, and growth pattern of land use. In the Nigerian context, earlier studies focused on land use and urban development with considerable works carried out by scholars in various disciplines to explain the determinants, structures and effects of residential land use and land values in the urban areas. Little attention was given to the effects of supply and demand, which interplay to determine values. In this study, accessibility, road network explanatory variables, distance to the most central part of the study area, demand and supply factors were considered to determine variability in commercial property values. In attaining the stated aim of this study one hypothesis was set in the null as: there is no significant impact of road network and explanatory variables of demand and supply factors, accessibility, location attributes on rental value of office spaces in Ikeja, Nigeria 3 The Study Area Ikeja city is a large component of the Lagos metropolis. Lagos itself is the largest city in Nigeria, located at 63460N, 31959E along the West African coast. There are ninety roads in Ikeja metropolis out which thirty-seven are arterial. From the thirty-seven arterial roads twenty traverse the commercial axes while others serve institutional, industrial, and residential neighbourhoods. This study covered all major roads serving the commercial axis and inner areas of Ikeja metropolis to the exclusion of inter-city roads such as Lagos/Abeokuta Expressway, Oworonsoki/Apapa Expressway, Ikorodu Road, and Lagos/ Ibadan Expressway that form rings around the study area. Oni (2009) described the study area in terms of its operational structures by which he divided it into seven sectors. Sector One lies at the north-central part of the metropolis and consists mainly of

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residential neighbourhoods with occasional commercial users of banks and service offices. Sector Two is of predominantly industrial concerns around WEMPCO, ACME and Lateef Jakande Roads; Sector Three is almost centrally located in the study area and consists of Oba Akran Avenue, Adeniyi Jones Avenue, Aromire Avenue, and Awolowo Way that serves as demarcation between the Sectors Three and Five. The sector comprises predominantly residential users interspersed by few industrial concerns and commercial outfits that over the years have displaced residential users along the arterial roads. Sector Four lies at the eastern part of the study area served with Secretariat Road, Ikosi Road, Oregun Road, 7-up Road, bounded by Lagos/Ibadan Expressway and Ikorodu Road. Sector Five is bounded by Sectors Three, Four and Six consists of Allen Avenue, Opebi Road, Ola Ayeni Street, Toyin Street, Olowu Street, Kodesho Street, Simbiat Abiola Road, Otigba Street and Opebi Link-Road. The sector is characterized by concentration of commercial properties and represents the main commercial sector of the study area. Sector Six occupies the southern part of the study area and consists of Government Residential Area (G.R.A), and institutional properties (Army Barracks, Police Barracks, High and Magistrate Courts, Lagos State Administrative Centre, Passport Office and Nigeria Telecommunication Limited). Properties along major roads in the Sector have undergone changes in use from residential to commercial user. Roads within the Sector include Mobolaji Bank-Anthony Way, Adekunle Fajuyi Way, Isaac John Street, Oba Akinjobi Street while Sector Seven, which lies at the western part, consists entirely the Murtala Muhammed Airport as shown in Fig. 1 below
Fig. 1. Satellite Image Showing Operational Sectors and Arterial Roads in Ikeja

Source: Lagos State Planning Information Centre, Ikeja

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4. Materials and Methods Data were collected from primary and secondary sources. The primary data were obtained through questionnaires administered to estate surveyors and occupiers of commercial properties in the study area. The secondary sources of data included Survey Directorate in the Lagos Ministry of Land and Physical Planning, Ministry of Transportation, Directorate of Land Information Systems in the Land Bureau, Ikeja, and West African Book Publishers Limited, Lagos. Details of road network were derived through the analysis of the satellites road maps while data on volume of traffic was obtained from Lagos State Traffic Management Authority. The entire Lagos metropolis has 9,197 roads consisting of carriageways, cul-de-sac, lanes, streets, avenue, ways, and crescents (Lagos Street Map, 2008). Out of 9,197 roads in Lagos metropolis, only 350 are arterial. When the three hundred and fifty (350) arterial roads were divided according to zones in Lagos metropolis, Lagos Island has 102 arterial routes (representing 29% ); Mainland, 119 (34% ); Apapa, 39 (11% ) and Ikeja, 90 (26% ). From the ninety roads that traverse the study area, twenty (20) serve commercial axes while remaining seventy (70) serve inter-city, institutional, industrial, and residential neighbourhoods. This study covered all major roads serving the commercial axis in Ikeja city to the exclusion of inter-city roads that form outlying ring around the study area. Sampling of the arterial roads was not necessary as hundred percent of roads was considered to make complete network. There are three hundred and twenty-five registered firms of Estate Surveyors and Valuers practicing in Lagos metropolis out of which one hundred and ten (about 34% ) operate in Ikeja metropolis. In respect of population of commercial properties in the study area, there are two thousand and eight commercial properties located along the twenty arterial roads giving an estimated five thousand occupiers. The number of commercial properties along arterial roads in the study area was obtained using application of geographical information system while population of occupiers was obtained by direct survey. The population of Estate Surveying firms in the study area was obtained from the register of firms at the Lagos State Branch of the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers. To determine the appropriate sample size for each of the study populations, the Bartlett et al (2001) model was used with alpha level set at 0.05. The model specified minimum sample size for continuous and categorical data based on specific population size and different alpha levels. Using the model, the appropriate sample size of Estate Surveyors obtained from population of one hundred and ten firms was ninety-nine, and six hundred for five thousand occupiers. Questionnaires were administered on the sampled firms of Estate Surveyors and Valuers to obtain average rental values on commercial properties over a five-year study period. Five years was considered after analysis of respondents open market rental values obtained from their records showed marginal differences within the period, whereas wide variations were observed in years preceding the selected period. The average rental values for the study period were derived by summing up the open market rents obtained from all respondent Estate Surveyors for each of the five-year study period and along each arterial road. Total of rental values for each arterial road was divided by five to arrive at the average rental value per annum expressed in Naira per square metre per annum. 5. Analysis and Discussion The attempt was to test the null hypothesis that there is no statistically significant relationship between commercial property values and road network in the presence of other variables. In this respect, the

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relationship between commercial property value and road network, location, supply and demand, accessibility which were respectively the dependent and independent variables were tested at 0.05 confidence level with the aid of Statgraphic software package. In doing so, road network was decomposed into its explanatory variables of traffic density, road density, length density, accessibility, connectivity, quality and width of each road in the network. The independent variables were consequently measured. The accessibility and connectivity indexes were derived using graph theoretic analysis of the arterial roads. The process involved tracing out the arterial routes (in Fig. 1) using transparent paper to derive graph of the roads shown in Fig. 2 below.
Fig. 2. Graph of Arterial Roads in Ikeja Nigeria

Fig. 2 above which is qualitative in nature was transformed into quantitative data using the graph theoretic technique. The levels of accessibility of the arterial road were derived by converting road network into linear graph, each route represented by single line regardless of width, quality and standard analyzed to obtain required quantitative data using the graph theoretic qualitative technique taking the shortest route possible. The accessibility matrix was derived from Fig. 2. This involved numbering of the nodal points in the graph serially. Indexes for accessibility were thereafter determined and indicated in Shimbel matrixes in Tables 1 and 2 (see Appendix). The Shimbel matrix summarizes number of edges required to connect each node or vertex with other nodes in the network through the shortest path. The nodal point with the least index was considered as the most accessible. The connectivity matrix shows the number of other nodal points to which a particular node had direct link and the node with the highest number of points was the most connected. The node with the least Shimbel index was regarded as the most accessible in the network. The twenty arterial roads in the study area encompassed thirty-five nodal points. Consequently, in measuring the accessibility and connectivity indices for thirty-five nodal points in the

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road network, each road was weighted against the nodal points encompassing it resulting in accessibility and connectivity indices. Eqn. 1 as derived by Oni (2009) was adopted to obtain the indices.
a,(c)i = p1i + p2i
(r1 + r2)

r1 r2

Eqn. 1

Where, a(c)d = weighted accessibility or connectivity index; p1i = accessibility or connectivity index of lower nodal point; p2i = accessibility or connectivity index of higher nodal point; r1= rank for lower nodal point; r2= rank for higher nodal point; Adopting Eqn. 1, the weighted connectivity and accessibility indices derived are shown in Table 3.
Table 3. Weighted Accessibility and Connectivity Indices of Arterial Roads in Ikeja S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Arterial Road Obafemi Awolowo Way Toyin Street Bank Anthony Way Lateef Jakande Road Isheri-Agege Road Ogba Road Oregun Road Opebi Linkroad Simbiat Abiola Way Aromire Avenue Ikosi Road Olowu Street WEMPCO Road Adeniyi Jones Avenue Allen Avenue Kodesho Street Oba Akran Avenue Opebi Road Opebi/Bank-Anthony Way ACME Road Accessibility Index 0.10 0.55 0.57 0.58 0.64 0.64 0.65 0.69 0.72 0.73 0.73 0.73 0.73 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.75 Connectivity Index 0.02 0.08 0.10 0.14 0.15 0.18 0.18 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.27 0.29 0.33 0.33 0.34 0.35

In estimating the density of each road, the unit length of each road in the network was calculated over the total land size of the study area and expressed as length per square metre. Eqn. 4.2 derived by Oni (2009) represents the measure of road density in the study area.

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rd = lri i=1 A

Eqn. 2

where, rd = road density lr1n = length of individual road A = entire land area in the study area Traffic density was measured in terms of volume of vehicles over the entire land area. This determines the number of vehicles per square metre land area and it is an indication of level of congestion in the study area. Length density expresses the relationship between lengths of arterial roads over the total length of all arterial roads in the study area. Similarly, in determining the relative location advantage of each arterial road, the most accessible nodal point in the network of arterial roads was used as the reference point to which other locations were related. In doing so, the number of links from the farthest point on each road in the network was determined taking the shortest routes possible, the location indices for the roads are shown in Table 4.
Table 4. Location indices of Arterial Roads in Ikeja

S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Arterial Road Oba Akran Avenue Kodesho Street Obafemi Awolowo Way Adeniyi Jones Avenue Aromire Avenue Allen Avenue Opebi Road Opebi Rd/Bank-Anthony Way Bank-Anthony Way Lateef Jakande Road ACME Road WEMPCO Road Ogba Road Isheri-Agege Road Oregun Road Ikosi Road Olowu Street Simbiat Abiola Way Toyin Street Opebi Link Road

Location index 4 6 5 3 2 2 4 5 6 4 4 4 6 5 3 3 3 4 3 2

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Demand for commercial properties was determined by analyzing the aggregate demand for income properties and it is the sum of all the quantities requested for by willing and able prospective tenants as available in the records of each firm of Estate Surveyors and Valuers in the study area. Aggregate demand was obtained by combining all demand schedules by individual firms in the property market. The aggregate transaction-based requests for commercial properties on yearly basis obtained from the Estate Surveyors and Valuers over a five-year period was determined; average of effective requests over the period indicated for each arterial road was derived.
Table 5. Demand for Commercial Properties along Arterial Roads in Ikeja S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Total Arterial Road 2003 Obafemi Awolowo Way Bank-Anthony Way Oba Akran Avenue Toyin Street Oregun Road Allen Avenue Opebi Road Adeniyi Jones Avenue Lateef Jakande Road WEMPCO Road Isheri Road Kodesho Street Simbiat Abiola Way Aromire Avenue Olowu Street Opebi Link-Road Ikosi Road Ogba Road Bank-Anthony/Opebi Road ACME 18 10 11 9 6 23 12 16 6 3 5 5 6 7 6 3 2 3 6 6 163 Years/Average Number of Requests 2004 23 12 14 29 9 21 16 19 11 4 4 7 8 7 7 3 3 4 5 6 212 2005 31 15 20 20 11 29 18 20 11 5 5 8 8 7 9 4 2 6 7 6 243 2006 54 20 22 34 12 33 25 22 12 6 5 11 9 11 9 6 3 5 7 7 315 2007 49 28 21 41 13 38 33 25 12 9 8 14 11 10 14 6 4 7 9 7 357 175 85 88 133 51 144 104 103 53 27 27 46 42 43 46 23 14 25 34 31 1290 Total

Similarly, the supply of commercial properties was derived from sum of all the number of commercial properties fully let in transactions involving willing and able tenants and owners acting through the firms of Estate Surveyors and Valuers. This represents the number of letting transactions effectively

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completed by firms within the five-year study period to arrive at average number of the transactions and shown in Table 6.
Table 6. Supply of Commercial Properties along Arterial Roads in Ikeja

S/N

Arterial Road

Year/Average Number of Letting Transactions 2003 2004 18 7 8 21 7 11 13 14 8 3 4 3 4 4 6 2 2 4 4 5 148 9 7 8 6 14 6 7 5 3 5 3 4 5 5 3 2 3 5 6 122 2005 14 8 12 19 10 18 11 10 6 4 3 4 6 6 5 2 1 4 3 4 150 2006 11 20 22 34 12 33 25 22 12 6 5 11 9 11 9 6 3 5 7 7 272 2007 16 19 19 33 9 34 23 22 7 8 7 8 7 8 8 5 3 6 6 5 253

Total

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Total

Obafemi Awolowo Way Bank-Anthony Way Oba Akran Avenue Toyin Street Oregun Road Allen Avenue Opebi Road Adeniyi Jones Avenue Lateef Jakande Road WEMPCO Road Isheri Road Kodesho Street Simbiat Abiola Way Aromire Avenue Olowu Street Opebi Link-Road Ikosi Road Ogba Road Bank-Anthony/Opebi Road ACME

16

75 63 68 115 44 110 78 75 38 24 25 29 30 34 33 18 11 22 25 27 946

In determining commercial property values, average rent per square metre along each arterial road was established from the data obtained from the respondents over a five-year period as shown in Table 7.

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Table 7. Average Rental Values of Commercial Properties along the Arterial Roads in Ikeja

S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 18 20

Road 2003 Allen Avenue Adeniyi Jones Avenue Opebi Road Bank-Anthony Way Oba Akran Avenue Bank-Anthony/Opebi Way Toyin Street Aromire Avenue Kodesho Street Ogba Road Obafemi Awolowo Way Simbiat Abiola Road ACME Road Lateef Jakande Road Olowu Street Opebi Link-Road Oregun Road WEMPCO Road Ikosi Road Isheri/Agege Road Mean Rental Value 4,500 4,500 4,500 3,500 3,600 3,500 3,600 4,000 3,000 3,600 3,500 3,000 3,500 3,000 3,500 3,500 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,515

Rent (Naira per square metre) per annum 2004 2005 2006 5,000 5,500 4,500 5,000 5,000 5,000 4,500 4,500 4,200 4,500 3,500 3,500 4,000 4,000 3,500 3,600 3,500 3,500 3,000 3,200 4,150 6,400 6,500 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 5,800 5,600 5,000 5,000 5,000 4,800 5,000 4,500 5,000 4,500 4,500 4,000 4,000 3,500 5,155 8,000 8,500 8,000 7,800 8,000 7,500 8,000 7,800 6,500 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,500 6,000 5,000 6,000 5,000 4,500 4,000 6,555

2007 10,500 9,000 10,000 9,500 9,100 9,000 8,700 8,500 8,000 7,000 8,000 8,000 6,500 7,000 6,500 7,000 6,500 6,000 5,700 5,500 7,800

Average Rent/m2 per annum 6,880 6,800 6,600 6,360 6,340 6,200 6,120 6,080 5,340 5,220 5,200 5,060 5,000 5,000 4,900 4,720 4,700 4,300 4,040 3,840

The results of the analysis of the dependent and independent explanatory variables discussed in this sub-section are summarized in Table 8

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Table 8. Summary Details of the Independent Variables

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Oba Akran Avenue Kodesho Street Obafemi Awolowo Way Adeniyi Jones Avenue Aromire Avenue Allen Avenue Opebi Road
Opebi Rd/BankAnthony Way

16,651 16,240 19,042 12,211 17,414 18,038 16,510 18,392 17,186 17,173 18,433 14,898 15,539 12,816 18,276 14,900 14,626 17,517 13,608 18,796 328,266

2,307.18 559.465 4,292.12 2,233.46 616.81 1,411.30 1,886.00 674.13 4,718.66 2,443.60 2,200.49 1,963.85 1,121.50 5,080.41 3,888.18 1,207.08 623.96 571.44 875.48 1,106.57 39,781.68

7.22 29.03 4.44 5.47 28.23 12.78 8.75 27.28 3.64 7.03 8.38 7.59 13.86 2.52 4.70 12.34 23.44 30.65 15.54 16.99

0.06 0.01 0.11 0.06 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.02 0.12 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.13 0.10 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02

0.18 0.08 0.23 0.27 0.23 0.23 0.24 0.26 0.18 0.25 0.33 0.27 0.35 0.33 0.14 0.27 0.34 0.10 0.15 0.02

4 4 5 4 4 5 4 5 5 4 4 4 4 5 5 3 3 4 5 5

0.74 0.74 0.10 0.74 0.73 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.57 0.58 0.75 0.73 0.64 0.64 0.65 0.73 0.73 0.72 0.55 0.69

14 6 15 15 7 22 16 4 13 8 6 5 4 5 9 2 7 6 23 4

18 9 35 21 9 29 21 7 17 11 6 5 5 5 10 3 9 8 27 5

Bank-Anthony Way Lateef Jakande Road ACME Road WEMPCO Road Ogba Road Isheri-Agege Road Oregun Road Ikosi Road Olowu Street Simbiat Abiola Way Toyin Street Opebi Link Road Total

In determining the relationship between the explanatory variables and commercial property values, attempt was made to test the null hypothesis earlier stated. The variables were represented in the

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Location (number of links to the most accessible locations from farthest point along each road) 4 6 5 3 2 2 4 5 6 4 4 4 6 5 3 3 3 4 3 2

Demand (average number of requests)

Supply (average number of lettings)

Traffic Density

Traffic volume

Road Density

Road Quality

Road Length (in metres)

Accessibility

Connectivity

Road

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models as follows: dependent variable - commercial property value = y, while the independent variables are traffic density = traden, road density = rodens, connectivity = connt, quality of road = qulrd, accessibility = acces, demand = demnd, supply = suply, and location = loctn. The result of a multiple linear regression of the variables is summarized in Table 9.
Table 9. Summary Statistic of the Explanatory Variables

Variable Accessibility Connectivity Demand Location Road density Road quality Supply Traffic density

Parameter Estimate -2044.95 7702.66 633.735 300.486 217.517 7305.53 1.53242 -315.814 8.48526

Standard Error 2487.33 2167.5 2072.23 75.6406 139.035 9049.88 337.26 104.256 32.6862

T-Statistic -0.822148 3.55371 0.305823 3.97255 1.56448 0.807251 0.00454373 -3.02921 0.259598

P-Value 0.4285 0.0045 0.7654 0.0022 0.1460 0.4366 0.9965 0.0115 0.8000

The output shows results of fitting a multiple linear regression model to describe the relationship between commercial property values and the independent variables. The model to express the result of the fitting is shown in Eqn. 3
y = -2044.95 + 7702.66acces + 633.74connt + 300.49demnd + 217.52loctn + 7305.53rodens + 1.53qulrd - 315.81suply + 8.49traden ...Eqn. 3

Furthermore, the Analysis of Variance (Table 8 below) shows that F-ratio is 3.11 with a P-value of 0.0423. In addition, details of the R2, R2 (adjusted for degree of freedom), and Durbin-Watson statistics are shown in the Table.
Table 10. ANOVA of the Relationship between Commercial Property Values and Independent Variables Source Model Residual Total (Corr.) Sum of Squares 1.12374E7 4.96171E6 1.61991E7 Degree of freedom 8 11 19 Mean Square 1.40467E6 451064. F-Ratio 3.11 P-Value 0.0423

R-squared = 69.3705 percent R-squared (adjusted for d. f.) = 47.0945 percent Standard Error of Est. = 671.613 Mean absolute error = 354.052 Durbin-Watson statistic = 1.59854 (P = 0.0705); Lag 1 residual autocorrelation = 0.127051 From Table 10, the R-squared statistic indicates that the model as fitted explains 69.37% of variability in commercial property values. The adjusted R-squared statistic, which is more suitable for comparing

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models with different numbers of independent variables, is 47.0945% . The Durbin-Watson (DW) statistic tests the residuals and determines if there is any significant correlation based on the order in which the data occur. The ANOVA Table shows that the P-value of DW statistic is 0.0705, which is greater than 0.05. This means that there is no indication of serial autocorrelation in the residuals at the 95.0% confidence level. In addition, the analysis of variance of the relationship between explanatory variables and commercial property values shows that the F-ratio is 3.11 and a P-value of 0.0423, which is less than 0.05. This implies that the null hypothesis is rejected, indicating that there is statistically significant relationship between commercial property values and the variables. The analysis shows that the explanatory variables of road network in the presence of other variables jointly explain 47.10% variability in commercial property values in the study area. By implication, other determinants of commercial property values not considered in the study probably account for the remaining 52.90% . Furthermore, considering Table 7, it would be wrong to assume that all predictor variables with P-values above 0.05 could be removed from the predictive models. In fact, the P-values may change dramatically if one of them is removed. A useful method for simplifying this is to perform a stepwise regression. The stepwise regression analysis involves the addition or removal of the variables in turns. The approach is to obtain a model that contains only significant predictors while not excluding any useful variables. Two stepwise options were considered which are the Forward Selection and Backward Selection. Forward selection started with the model containing only the constant and bringing variables in one at a time if they improve the fit significantly, while Backward Selection started with a model containing all of the variables and removed them one at a time until all remaining variables are statistically significant. In both methods, the removed variable is re-entered at a later step when they appeared to be useful predictors, or variables entered early later removed if they were no longer significant. In this study, the Backward Selection stepwise regression model is used. It involves the systematic removal of each variable as shown below. Stepwise regression Method: backward selection F-to-enter: 4.0 F-to-remove: 4.0 Step 0: 8 variables in the model. 11 d.f. for error. R-squared = 69.37% Adjusted R-squared = 47.09% MSE = 451064. Step 1: Removing variable road quality with F-to-remove =0.0000206455 7 variables in the model. 12 d.f. for error. R-squared = 69.37% Adjusted R-squared = 51.50% MSE = 413476. Step 2: Removing variable traffic density with F-to-remove =0.0786251 6 variables in the model. 13 d.f. for error. R-squared = 69.17% Adjusted R-squared = 54.94% MSE = 384171. Step 3: Removing variable connectivity with F-to-remove =0.079177 5 variables in the model. 14 d.f. for error. R-squared = 68.98% Adjusted R-squared = 57.90% MSE = 358903. Step 4:

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Removing variable road density with F-to-remove =1.68386 4 variables in the model. 15 d.f. for error. R-squared = 65.25% Adjusted R-squared = 55.98% MSE = 375266. The stepwise regression analysis revealed four variables that entered into the models, these variables are accessibility, demand, location and supply which on their individual bases did not show statistically significant relationship with commercial property values. Furthermore, the resulting R2, R2 adjusted for degree of freedom, and mean standard error were derived from the analysis of the four explanatory variables that entered into the models. The R2 indicates the contribution of the variables to variability in commercial property values; d.f. is the degree of freedom, while the mean standard error accounted for errors in the percentage of variability which may be negative or positive of the stated R2 as shown in Tables 11 and 12.
Table 11. Summary Statistics of the Stepwise Regression of the Variables Parameter CONSTANT Accessibility Demand Location Supply Estimate -990.488 6802.83 285.359 266.984 -296.575 P-Value Standard Error T-Statistic 1461.43 -0.67775 0.5083 1695.7 4.01181 0.0011 63.4553 119.619 83.1178 4.49701 2.23196 -3.56813 0.0004 0.0413 0.0028

The output (Table 11) shows the results of fitting a multiple linear regression model to describe the relationship between commercial property values and four independent variables.The equation of the fitted model of the variables is therefore:
y = -990.488 + 6802.83acces + 285.36demnd + 266.98loctn - 296.58suply Eqn. 4

The analysis of variance of the variables in Table 12 shows that the F-ratio is 7.04 and a P-value of 0.0021, which is less than 0.05
Table 12. ANOVA of the Relationship between Independent Variables and Commercial Property Values Source Model Residual Total (Corr.) Sum of Squares 1.05701E7 5.62899E6 1.61991E7 Degree of freedom 4 15 19 Mean Square 2.64253E6 375266. F-Ratio 7.04 P-Value 0.0021

R-squared = 65.2512 percent R-squared (adjusted for d.f.) = 55.9849 percent Standard Error of Est. = 612.589 Mean absolute error = 395.632 Durbin-Watson statistic = 1.23421 (P=0.0208) Lag 1 residual autocorrelation = 0.292141

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Since the P-value in the ANOVA table (Table 12) is less than 0.05, there is statistically significant relationship between the variables at 95.0% confidence level. The R-Squared statistic indicates that the model as fitted explains 65.25% of the variability in commercial property values. The adjusted Rsquared statistic is 56% , which is more suitable for comparing models with different numbers of independent variables. In determining whether the model can be simplified, it suffices to note that the highest P-value on the independent variables is 0.0413, belonging to location. Since the P-value is less than 0.05, location is statistically significant at 95.0% confidence level. 6. Research Findings It was found that there are positive relationships between the explanatory variables (except supply, which indicates negative relationship) and commercial property values in Ikeja, Nigeria. As accessibility and connectivity in the road network improves, together with increases in demand for commercial properties; with improvements in location attributes, road density, quality of roads and traffic density, commercial property values would increase. In addition, as supply decreases, commercial property values would increase, all things being equal. As quality of roads improves, accessibility in terms of ease of getting to the locations of commercial activities would increase. The effects would be evident in the number of pedestrian and commercial activities taking advantage of ease of movements in the study area. The consequence would also be noticeable in demand for service products and commercial activities along the arterial roads with concomitant increase in commercial property values. Further analysis using a stepwise regression revealed four variables that entered into the models, these variables are accessibility, demand, location and supply which on their individual bases did not show statistically significant relationship with commercial property values. For instance, when accessibility is improved probably through factors that induce it while all other variables remain constant, commercial property values would be N14,206.34/m2p.a. {That is, y = -2044.95 + 7702.66(2) + 633.74(1) + 300.49(1) + 217.52l (1) + 7305.53(1) + 1.539(1) - 315.81(1) + 8.49(1)}. Assuming, there is impedance to movement as evident in impedance to accessibility, other variables remaining constant, commercial property value would be N 9,957.88 /m2 p.a., all things being equal {i.e. y = -2044.95 + 7702.66(0.5) + 633.74(1) + 300.49(1) + 217.52l (1) + 7305.53(1) + 1.539(1) - 315.81(1) + 8.49(1)}. This implies that when there is impedance to movements to the extent that accessibility is adversely affected, commercial property values would decrease by about 30% in the long run. This finding is valid and the equation will be useful as a predictive model. 7. Recommendation and Concluding Remarks The following recommendations are made based on the researchers findings, to point the way forward on the part of the Estate Surveyors and Valuers, the Nigerian Institution of Estate Surveyors and Valuers (NIESV), investors, and the Government. Analytical mind will be required in an emerging competitive professional terrain in which other professionals are currently challenging Estate Surveyors and Valuers over their relevance. However, the study found that most Estate Surveyors and Valuers have not been actively involved in the use of scientific techniques to measure accessibility in relation to property value. The propensity of error in judgment based on intuitive decisions is very high and the best way to reduce such misjudgment is to adopt scientific techniques. This study has tested and found the technique to be useful tool in analyzing road network.

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Empirical decision-making process has become necessary judging from the importance of accessibility delivered by road network in real estate development appraisals, particularly in advising on choice of best sites for development projects. It is therefore suggested that Estate Surveyors and Valuers should consider the use of scientific techniques to assist in making decisions that are reliable. This could be accomplished through seminar, workshops and conferences, while current curriculum in Polytechnics and Universities offering Estate Management should be broadened to include road network analysis. This is achievable through funding of research in this regard. In U.K., the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) over the years have been funding research towards determining the impacts of rails, roads, and air transportation on property values. Professional bodies in Africa are advised to fund research into the impacts of various modes of transportation on property values. Discussion of the results of such research works should be communicated to Estate Surveyors and Valuers through regular Mandatory Continuous Professional Development (MCPD) Programmes, national and international conferences. When carrying out feasibility and viability appraisal, attention must be given to the issue of road network, which actually delivers greater accessibility, along with demand, location and supply as major variables in valuation of commercial properties in the study area for their opinions of values to be reliable. The study has further reinforced the importance of accessibility for development and investors wishing to embark on real estate development must be conversant with the level of accessibility of the arterial roads along which such development will locate. Decision on the location of such development project should be based on a pragmatic approach such that selected locations would bring the highest return that is adequate and sufficient to compensate investors in such projects. The model derived to explain relationships between commercial property value, road network and individual explanatory variables would be useful for predicting commercial property values along the arterial roads in the study area. It may become tools useful to Estate Surveyors and Valuers in expressing valuation opinions, and predicting commercial property values especially in feasibility and viability appraisal. However, a tool may not be useful until it is put into proper use. It is recommended that practical approach be taken to adopt the models and assist in making reliable judgments that would stand the test of time.

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APPENDIX Table 1
Table 1: Accessibility Indices of Arterial Roads in Ikeja Metropolis
NP 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 AI Rank 1 - 1 2 3 2 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 8 9 8 6 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6 3 4 5 7 159 33 2 1 1 2 1 2 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 2 1 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 4 3 5 3 2 3 3 4 5 6 5 4 5 4 5 6 7 6 7 4 5 5 6 7 8 7 6 8 6 5 4 3 3 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 7 4 5 6 7 158 5 4 5 6 7 6 6 7 7 6 5 4 4 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8 5 6 7 6 167 4 3 4 5 6 5 5 6 6 5 4 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 7 8 7 6 7 8 5 150 4 4 5 6 7 6 5 7 5 4 3 2 3 3 5 4 4 5 6 7 8 5 6 7 6 144 3 4 5 6 7 6 4 6 4 3 2 1 2 3 4 3 3 4 5 6 7 5 5 6 5 128 2 3 4 5 6 5 4 6 4 3 3 2 3 4 5 4 4 5 5 6 7 6 6 7 5 133 3 2 3 4 5 4 4 5 5 4 4 3 4 5 6 5 5 6 6 7 6 7 7 7 4 139 2 1 2 3 4 3 3 4 4 3 4 4 5 6 7 6 5 6 5 6 5 8 7 6 3 136 1 2 3 4 5 4 3 5 3 2 3 3 4 5 6 5 4 5 4 5 6 7 6 7 4 131 1 2 3 4 3 2 4 2 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 4 3 4 5 6 5 6 3 119 1 2 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 4 5 6 6 5 4 5 4 5 4 7 6 5 2 124 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 5 6 6 5 4 4 3 4 3 6 5 4 1 121 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 5 6 7 7 6 5 5 4 4 3 6 5 4 2 145 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 7 8 8 7 6 6 5 5 4 7 6 5 3 178 2 1 3 3 4 5 6 7 6 6 5 5 4 3 2 5 4 3 2 139 2 2 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 4 3 4 3 6 5 4 1 119 2 3 4 5 6 6 5 6 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 140 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1 2 3 4 3 4 1 118 1 2 3 4 4 3 2 3 2 3 4 5 4 5 2 107 1 2 3 3 2 1 2 3 4 5 4 3 4 3 106 1 2 3 2 2 3 4 5 6 4 4 5 4 114 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 3 4 5 5 130 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 2 3 4 6 142 1 2 3 4 5 4 1 2 3 6 144 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 131 1 2 3 4 3 2 3 4 118 1 2 3 2 1 2 3 129 1 2 3 2 3 2 130 1 4 3 2 3 153 3 2 1 2 148 1 2 5 151 1 4 140 3 150 - 125 1 2 1 32 34 28 23 11 17 19 18 15 5 9 8 26 35 22 5 20 4 2 1 3 12 23 24 15 5 12 12 30 27 30 20 28 10 3 2 1 - 1 2 3 3 2 3 4 3 2 1 - 1 2 2 1 2 5 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 3 6 3 2 3 2 1 - 1 2 3 7 4 3 3 2 2 1 - 1 2 8 4 3 2 1 2 2 1 1 9 5 4 3 2 3 3 2 1 10 5 4 4 3 3 2 1 2 1 11 6 5 5 4 4 3 2 3 2 12 6 5 4 3 4 4 3 2 1 13 7 6 5 4 5 5 4 3 2 14 8 7 6 5 6 6 5 4 3 15 9 8 7 6 7 7 6 5 4 16 8 7 6 5 6 6 5 4 3 17 6 6 6 5 5 4 4 4 3 18 7 8 7 6 7 6 6 5 4 19 6 6 7 6 5 4 4 5 4 20 5 5 6 5 4 3 3 4 3 21 4 4 5 4 3 2 3 4 4 22 3 3 4 3 2 1 2 3 4 23 2 4 5 4 3 2 3 4 5 24 1 2 3 4 3 3 4 5 6 25 2 3 4 5 5 4 5 6 7 26 3 4 5 5 4 3 4 5 6 27 4 5 6 5 4 3 4 5 5 28 5 6 7 6 5 4 5 6 6 29 6 7 8 7 6 5 5 6 5 30 7 8 9 7 8 6 6 7 6 31 6 7 8 7 8 7 7 6 5 32 3 4 5 6 5 5 6 7 8 33 4 5 6 7 6 5 6 7 7 34 5 6 7 8 7 6 7 7 6 35 7 7 6 5 6 5 5 4 3

3 2 1

4 3 2 1

3 2 1 1 2

2 2 1 2 3 2 -

4 3 2 2 3 1 2 -

2 3 2 3 4 3 2 2 1 2 2 3 4 3 1 3 1

2 3 3 4 5 4 2 4 2 1

3 4 4 5 6 5 3 5 3 2 1

4 5 5 6 7 6 4 6 4 3 2 1

5 6 6 7 8 7 5 6 5 4 3 2 1 -

5 6 6 7 8 6 5 5 5 4 3 3 2 1 -

4 5 5 6 7 6 4 6 4 3 2 2 1 2 1 3 4 4 5 6 5 3 5 3 2 1 2 2 3 2 1

4 5 4 5 6 5 4 4 2 3 2 3 3 4 3 2 1

3 4 3 4 5 4 3 3 1 2 3 4 4 5 4 3 2 1

4 5 4 4 5 3 4 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 5 4 3 2 1

5 4 3 3 4 2 3 1 3 4 5 6 6 5 4 5 4 3 2 1

6 7 6 6 7 5 6 4 4 5 4 4 3 2 1 2 3 2 3 4 3 -

5 6 5 5 6 4 5 3 3 4 3 4 4 3 2 3 2 1 2 3 2 1 -

6 5 4 4 5 3 4 2 4 5 4 5 5 4 3 4 3 2 3 2 1 2 1 3 2 1 2 3 2 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 5 4 3 2 3 2 5 4 3

NP - nodal point; AI - accessibility indices

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APPENDIX Table 2
Table 2: Connectivity Indices of Arterial Roads in Ikeja Metropolis NP 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 CI 1 - 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 1 - 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 0 0 1 - 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 5 0 1 0 1 - 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 6 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 7 0 0 0 0 0 1 - 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 8 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 - 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 - 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 - 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 - 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 - 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 4 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 - 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 16 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 17 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 - 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 18 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 3 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 - 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 21 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 - 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 22 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 - 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 23 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 - 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 24 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 - 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 26 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 - 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 27 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 - 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 28 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 - 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 3 29 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 3 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 - 1 0 0 0 0 2 31 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 - 0 0 1 0 3 32 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 33 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 - 1 0 3 34 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 - 0 2 35 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3

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References
Aderamo, A. J. (2003). A Graph Theoretic Analysis of Intra-Urban Road Network in Ilorin, Nigeria. Research for Development The Journal of The Nigerian Institute of Social and Economic Research, 17 (1) and (2); 18 (1) and (2) Dec. 2003, 221 240. American Public Transportation Association (APTA) (2002). Rail Transit and Property Values. Information Centre Briefing Number 1, (January, 2002). http//www.apta.com, accessed December 22, 2007. Bartlett, J. E.; J. W. Kotrlik; and C. C. Higgins (2001). Organizational Research: Determining Appropriate Sample Size in Survey Research. Information Technology, Learning and Performance Journal. 19, 1, Spring 2001 Cervero, R. (1994). Rail Transit and Joint Development: Land Market Impacts in Washington, D.C. and Atlanta. Journal of the American Planning Association 60, 1 (Winter), 83-94. Cervero, R. and Duncan, M. (2002). Transits Value-added: Effects of Light and Commuter Rail Services on Commercial Land Values. Transportation Research Board, 81st Annual Meeting presentation, January 2002. Chesterton, G. K. (2002). Property Market Study, Working Paper 32 prepared for Jubilee Line Extension Impact Study Unit. London: University of Westminster. Cloete, E. C., and Chikafalimani, S. H. P. (2001). Overview of the Property Industry in Malawi. Joint 3rd AfRES/TIVEA/RICS Foundation Conference on Real Estate in Africa held in Arusha, Tanzania, October 23 25, 2001. Diaz, R. B. (1999). Impacts of Rail Transit on Property Values. APTA 1999 Rapid Transit Conference Proceedings Paper. Fejarang, R. A. (1994). Impact on Property Values: A Study of the Los Angeles Metro Rail. Transportation Research Board, 73rd Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., January 9 13. Garrison, W. L. and Marble, D. F. (1960). Connectivity of the Inter-state Highway System. Paper of the Regional Science Association. 6, 121 137. Hack, J. (2002). The Role of Transit Investment in Urban Regeneration and Spatial Development: A Review of Research and Current Practice. Paper presented at CIP Annual Conference, Canada. Hillier-Parker, C. B. (2002). Crossrail: Property Value Enhancement. Report Prepared for Canary Wharf Group Plc, London. Kauko, T. (2003). Residential Property Value and Locational Externalities - On the Complementarity and Substitutability of Approaches. Journal of Property Investment & Finance, 21 (3), 250-270. Lagos Street Map 2008, West African Book Publishers Limited, Academy Press: Lagos Lean, W. and Goodall, B. (1977). Aspects of Land Economics. The Estate Gazette Ltd. London, 135 141 McCluskey, W. J., Deddis, W. G., Lamont, I. G., & Borst, R. A. (2000). The application of surface generated interpolation models for the prediction of residential property values. Journal of Property Investment & Finance, 18(2), 162176. Muraco, W. A. (1972). Intra-urban Accessibility: A Quantitative Analysis Use of Graph Theoretic Method. Economic Geography. 48, 388 405. Nelson, A. (1999). Transit Stations and Commercial Property Values: A Case Study with Policy and Land-Use Implications. Journal of Public Transportation, 2 (3) 1999, 77-93. Nystuen, J. C. and Dacey, M. F. (1961). A Graph Theory Interpretation of Nodal Regions. Paper and Proceedings Regional Science 7, 29 - 42 Ogunsanya, A. A. (1986). Graph Theory in Intra-urban Traffic Flow Estimation. Geo-Journal, 12 334 336 Olusegun, K. (2003). Principles and Practice of Property Valuation. Climax Communications Ltd. Lagos Omoogun, C. B. (2006). The Centripetal Effects of Location on Rental Values of Residential Property in Metropolitan Lagos. The Built Environment: Innovation, Policy and Sustainable Development. Proceedings of International Conference organized by Department of Architecture, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria. Covenant University Press. ISBN 978-37963-0-5 Oni, A. O. (2007a). Graph-Theoretic Analysis of Intra-Community Road Network: Case Study of Covenant University, Nigeria. Paper Presented at the College Seminar/Workshop held at College of Science & Technology Conference Room, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria on 1st August 2007

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Oni, A. O. (2007b). Analysis of Accessibility and Connectivity of Ikeja Arterial Roads. Paper Presented at the 1st National Conference organized by Department of Estate Management, Yaba College of Technology, Lagos, Held on 25th to 27th day of September 2007. Oni, A. O. (2009). Arterial Road Network and Commercial Property Values in Ikeja, Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Estate Management, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria. Oyebanji, A. O. (2003). Principles of Land Use Economics. CEPDM Publishers. Lagos. Pharoah, T. (2002) Jubilee Line Extension Impact Study Unit. University of Westminster, London. Sedway Group (1999). Regional Impact Study Study commissioned by Bay Area Rapid Transit District (BART) July 1999. The Sedway Group, San Francisco, CA http://www.sedway.com/ Stratton, A. (2008). Making an Investment Decision with Commercial Property Analysis in http://www.streetdirectory.com/travel_guide/64278/property_tips/making_an_investment_decision_with_comm ercial_property_analysis.html accessed November, 3, 2008.

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Factors Affecting the Performance of Labour in Nigerian Construction Sites


Fagbenle Olabosipo I.* (Corresponding Author) Ogunde Ayodeji O.* Owolabi James D.*
* Department of Building Technology Covenant University Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria. E-mail: olafagbenle@yahoo.com; ayodejiogunde1@yahoo.com; deleowo678@yahoo.com
Abstract The paper identified some factors perceived to be negatively affecting the performance of construction labour and also examined how these factors vary from site to site in the Nigerian construction industry. To achieve this, structured questionnaires were administered on contractors and labour (operatives) on forty construction sites in the study area to sample their opinions. A Likert statistical technique was employed for the analysis in this perspective. The result indicated that unfair wages (RI = 0.89), negative influencing factors (RI = 0.85) and lack of motivation (RI = 0.79) were ranked high by the labour while the contractors ranked lack of training (RI = 0.84), poor communication (RI = 0.79) and inclement weather (RI = 0.71) as being affecting the performance labour in this respect. It was recommended, among other things, that contractors must study the peculiarities of their workers and identify their main motivators. Keywords: Construction Industry; Contractor; Labour; Nigeria; Performance.

1. Introduction The three basic needs of man are undoubtedly food, shelter, and clothing. It is therefore not surprising that the construction industry has been known to be the largest Nigeria industry employing a good proportion of the work force and controlling over 50% of the Nations Gross National Product (Olubodun, 1985). Unfortunately, this giant stride of the construction industry is now gradually being eroded as the present economic problem in the country lasted more than a decade. Within this period, the rulership of the country had changed hands thirteen times, each regime with different strategies of solving the economic problems. The irony of these strategies is that more workers have had their employments terminated and embargoes have been placed on employment in both the private and public sectors at different times. Therefore, the few workers (labour) that remain in the construction industry need to be properly managed if performance is to improve. Labour is defined as a task that requires the exertion of body and mind or both. Labour is also regarded as an important resource in construction because it is the one that combines all the other resources namely materials, plant equipment and finance in order to produce the various construction products (Wahab, 1991). As expressed by Wachira (2000), consultants via specification, control of materials, plant costs, profit and overheads are generally controlled by the competition. This then leaves labour as the major resource opened to improvement. Parker et al. (1986) identified three main factors that are affecting site performance as: shortcomings in labour management (unfair wages, lack of motivation, etc.); extraneous reasons (harsh weather, breakdown of law and order, etc.); and labours shortcoming (lateness, idleness, poor workmanship, etc.)

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According to Olateju (1992), the primary responsibility of management in a construction firm, as in any other firm, is to ensure that all resources namely, manpower, machinery, materials and money are employed optimally to produce maximum profit for the investors in the enterprise. The objective of the study therefore is to identify some factors that are perceived to be negatively affecting the performance of labour in the construction industry and discuss the strategies for managing such problems. 1.1 Structure of Labour Force The labour force can be broadly categorized into two. They are:1. Skilled labour or craftsmen 2. Unskilled labour The staffs under the skilled labour are of varying abilities ranging from apprentices to trades foremen or supervisors. The apprentice can be described as a beginner who is willing and interested in learning a certain trade in the construction industry. The three possible; avenues of training this category of people are the school, the workshop and the field (Husseini, 1991). Some of the craftsmen in this category are carpenters, joiners, masons/bricklayers, electricians, plumbers, mechanics, painters, plant operators, scaffolders, crane drivers, steel fixers, tile setters. The unskilled labour on the other hand is a category of workers that requires no special skill and it is defined as any way of making a living with little or no degree of security of income and employment. They require little or no training to make them perform (Wahab, 1991). They are able-bodied men and women that perform manual duties. Their major asset therefore lies in their strength with a healthy body. 1.2 Previous Works Studies into the performance of the construction products and personnel have engaged the attention of many researchers including Sidwell (1983), Sink (1985), Parker et al. (1986), Husseini (1991), Wahab (1991), Campbell (1995), Hatush and Skitmore (1997), Fagbenle (1997) Chimwaso (2000), Dada (2003) and Ojo (2009). According to Seeley (1996), the traditional project performance measures of cost, time and quality are frequently used to measure contractors performance by clients. Sidwell (1983) identified factors influencing project time performance and concluded that clients experience, form of building, labour force, form of building procurement and project organizational structure are elements of a complex casual factor of project time performance. He also identified managerial control, which he classed as project procedure, as a key element of achieving project success. Hatush and Skitmore (1997) grouped the factors affecting the environment of construction projects under cultural, economic, political, social, physical, aesthetic, financial, legal, institutional, technological and policy. Other influencing factors identified include traditional measures such as health, safety, material, 2000), size and scope of project (Wachira 2000). Sink (1985) identified seven dimensions of organizational performance namely: effectiveness; efficiency; quality; productivity; quality of work; innovation and profitability. Chauchan and Chiang (1989) undertook a survey of 100 building and civil engineering projects in Hong Kong, India, Korea, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand. Their survey led them to believe that the performance of a construction management team is influenced by internal and external factors: which they classified as project, environment and management released, Chimwaso (2000) evaluated the cost performance of public projects in Botswana by identifying the factors that influence construction cost overruns. He concluded that seven out of ten projects investigated had reported cost overruns and that the five

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influencing factors are incomplete design at time of tender, technical omissions at design stage, additional work at the clients request, adjustments of prime cost and provisional sums as well as contractual claims. Wachira (2000) also studied the management of labour in Kenya by identifying some factors perceived to be negatively influencing labour performance in the Kenyan construction industry. The importance of manpower training and management to the construction industry was studied by Husseini (1991) and concluded that manpower enables the effective use of construction resources. Wahab (1991) researched into the training needs of staff in the construction industry and he asserted that training programmes are designed to achieve increase in performance, improvements in quality, achievement of lower unit cost, betterment of individual worker and cultivation of workers motivation. Fagbenle (1997) also researched into the use of unskilled labour force for non-traditional residential projects in Nigeria and noted that inadequate utilization of labour force has led to the increase in crime rate in the country. Also, Dada (2003) studied the perceptions on measures of contracting/contractors performance by taking a case study of Lagos State indigenous contractors. His result indicated that there are no significant differences in the assessments and ratings of the identified measures of contractors performance. All the research efforts provided good information on the several factors affecting construction projects on sites. However, they did not touch the aspects of construction labour performances and their influencing factors. Through, the work of Wachira (2000) treated labours performance, his works are limited to labour management in Kenya. Qualitative analysis showing the effects of the identified factors on labour performance are therefore necessary. 2. Research Methodology The population for the study are the construction contractors that are listed in the register of the Federation of Construction Industry (FOCI). A research conducted by Adeyemi (2004) revealed that FOCI maintained a total of 105 companies in their register and they are made up of medium and large construction contractors registering within categories B, C and D of the Federal Registration Board of Nigeria. One state each from the six geopolitical regions of the country were selected for visitation in this regard. The states are Lagos, Port Harcourt, Abuja, Kaduna, Sokoto and Imo. Research assistants were employed to assist in the distribution and collection of questionnaires in this perspective. The statistically required sample size is calculated from the formula given by Sediary (1994) as follows. n = n1 /[1+ (n1/N)] Where, n = sample size n1 = s2 /v2 N = total estimated population V = standard error of the sampling distribution = 0.05 S = maximum standard deviation in population. Total error = 0.1 at a confidence level of 95% 2 = (P) and S (1-P) = (0.5) (0.5) = 0.25. Where P is the proportion of population elements that belong to a defined class. From this, the sample size for the contractors is forty (40) while one hundred (100) questionnaires were administered to labour on construction sites in the study area, 28 and 52 questionnaires were respectively returned by the contactors and labour in this regard. Respondent contractors were asked to rank the factors which they considered as being negatively affecting the performance of their labour on sites. The illiterate/semi-illiterate respondents among the labour were however guided by reading out the questions to them and their responses carefully filled-in. It was

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therefore necessary to compute the relative index of importance being attached to each of these factors, with a minimum value of 0 and a maximum value of 4. This was with a view to enable a comparison of these factors. The relative index (RI) was calculated using the following formula (Fagbenle, 2000). Relative Index = Point total 4 sample size

Tables 1 and 2 showed the responses of the contractors and the labour respectively while table 3 gave the relative index for the two categories. 3. Results and Discussions Results (Table 3) indicated that contractors were of the strong conviction that lack of training and retraining (RI = 0.84), Poor communication (RI = 0.79) and inclement weather (RI = 0.71) were the three strongest factors that can negatively affect the performance of labour on their sites. Unfair wages (RI = 0.644), lack of motivation (RI = 048), poor specification (RI = 044), late information (RI = 041), out of sequence work (RI = 036) and recruitment of unskilled labour (RI = 0.26) were also rated 4th, 5th, 6 th, 7 th, 8th, 10th, and 11th respectively among the twelve factors in this regard. For the labour, utmost importance is attached to the issues of unfair wages (RI = 0.89), negative influencing factors (RI = 0.85), and lack of motivation (RI = 0.79) as some of the factors that can negatively influence their performance. These were respectively followed by recruitment of unskilled labour (RI = 0.61), late information (RI = 0.55), inclement weather (RI = 0.50), design changes (RI = 0.37), poor communication (RI = 0.32), out of sequence work (RI = 0.29), lack of training and retraining (RI = 0.17) and poor specification (RI = 0.15). Interestingly, both the contractors and the labour did not want to agree that lack of investment in research and development can have any retrogressive impact on the performance of labour as this factor was rated very low by these two categories of respondents.
Table 1. Factors negatively affecting construction labours performance (contractors responses)

S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Factors Lack of training and retraining Poor communication Inclement weather Unfair wages Lack of motivation Negative influencing factors Design changes Poor specification Late information Out of sequence work Recruitment of unskilled labour Lack of investment in research and development

Response Per Frequency 4 3 2 20 3 2 15 6 3 10 9 5 8 7 8 7 3 13 7 1 12 5 2 10 5 0 8 3 2 9 2 4 3 2 1 2 1 1 1

1 1 4 3 3 1 4 8 13 10 14 15 14

0 2 0 1 2 4 4 3 2 4 5 8 1

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Table 2. Factors negatively affecting construction labours performance (labours responses) S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Factors Lack of training and retraining Poor communication Inclement weather Unfair wages Lack of motivation Negative influencing factors Design changes Poor specification Late information Out of sequence work Recruitment of unskilled labour Lack of investment in research and development Response Per Frequency 4 3 2 1 41 4 3 3 34 8 7 2 25 15 9 1 24 1 5 17 14 5 15 14 10 6 16 13 10 0 1 35 7 2 0 33 5 1 1 35 5 0 0 17 2 3 0 14 0 5 0 10

0 1 1 2 5 4 7 6 10 10 30 33 37

Table 3. Rrelatives index (ri) of factors negativeley affecting construction labours performance (contractors and labours responses) Contractor S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Factors Lack of training and retraining Poor communication Inclement weather Unfair wages Lack of motivation Negative influencing factors Design changes Poor specification Late information Out of sequence work Recruitment of unskilled labour Lack of investment in research and development RI 0.84 0.79 0.71 0.64 0.57 0.53 0.48 0.44 0.41 0.36 0.26 0.24 Rank 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th RI 0.18 0.32 0.50 0.89 0.79 0.85 0.37 0.15 0.55 0.29 0.61 0.12 Rank 10th 8th 6th 1st 3rd 2nd 7th 11th 5th 9th 4th 12th Labour

In view of the importance attached to these, some of the factors are therefore further discussed. Unfair wages In Nigeria, there is no hard and fast rule relating to the minimum wage for the construction workers as different wages are being paid in different sites across the country. This normally prompts the construction workers to migrate to where they will be better remunerated, since there is no job security. The one-off nature of the construction industry has been adduced as one of the reasons for the non participation of construction workers in any trade unionism. This also informs the reason why their wages cannot be jointly negotiated, as it is the case in government establishment. The workers in turn do not work with full loyalty in this respect.

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Negative influencing factors Included in this instance are delays in the delivery of materials and equipment as well as poor welfare facilities. These negative factors reduce the performance and effectiveness of the personnel in this regard. Also, mechanical plants that are delivered to the sites (s) hours behind schedule or equipment brought to the site and find out to be faulty at the point of use, will definitely affect workers output in a negative manner. Lack of Motivation Human potential is boundless but it requires motivation in order to excel (Schrader, 1972; cited in Fagbenle, 1997 and Wachira, 2000). Motivation may come in various forms such as money, recognition, bonus, job security, participation in decision-making, finish and go, etc. It is therefore the responsibility of the contractor to quickly identify the most demanding motivators for his operatives and make use of it. Surprisingly, most of the respondent contractors did not attach much premium to this factor. It must be stressed that lack of motivation has always led to high staff turnover in the construction industry thereby leading to lack of continuity in the organization. Lack of Training And Retraining: All workers need continuous training and retraining in order to update their skills in all ramifications, learn new methods and technology, etc. Contractors\employers must thus continuously invest in training of their workers for an increased job performance. For ex