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# AASHTO Flexible Design Procedure

## Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 1. Development

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY http://www.aashto.org/
AND

TRANSPORTATION OFFICIALS

1.1 AASHO Road Test Late 50s road test in Illinois Objective was to determine the relationship between the number of load repetitions with the performance of various pavements Provided data for the design criteria 1.2 Performance Measurements Establishment of performance criteria is critical
Functional

AASHTO Vs AI

Structural

Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 1.2 Performance Measurements (cont) AASHO Road Test performance based on user assessment:
Difficult to quantify (subjective) Highly variable Present Serviceability Rating (PSR) 0-1 V. Poor 1-2 Poor A panel of experts drove around in standard 2-3 Fair vehicles and gave a rating for the pavement 3-4 Good 4-5 V. Good Visible distress (cracking & rutting) Surface friction Roughness (slope variance)

## Measurable characteristics (performance indicators):

Measure of how much slope varies from horizontal along the direction of traffic

Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 1.3 AASHTO Performance Relations Establish correlation between user assessment (ride experience) and performance indicators (measurable characteristics)
USER ASSESSMENT 0-1 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 V. Poor Poor Fair Good V. Good PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

## Measure of Roughness Measure of Rutting Measure of Cracking

Present Serviceability Index (PSI) PSI = A0 + A1F1 + A2F2 + A3F3 A0 A3 = Regression Coefficients F1 = Measure of roughness F2 = Measure of rutting F3 = Measure of cracking

How does the true (user) performance correlate to the measured performance? calculated the regression coefficients for the PSI equation

Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 1.3 AASHTO Design Equations 1.3.1 Performance Requirements & Design Life
PSI scale: 1 (V. Poor) PSI0 5 (V. Good)

PSI
PSIt

PSI = (PSI0 - PSIt) Terminal PSI (known) no longer functional Time (age) Design Life Pvt is

## AASHTO performance requirement = PSI

PSI is such that PSIt is NOT reached before end of design life

## Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 1.3.2 Performance Relation

PERFORMANCE (PSI) ESAL Structural Efficiency of PVT MReff

## PSI = fnc (MReff, SN, ESAL)

known known known

MReff: Accounts for the environment SN: Index relating effectiveness of PVT structure

Solve for SN

## Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 1.3.3 Definition of Structural Number

AC BASE SUB-BASE

D1 D2 D3

a1 a2 a3

SN1 = D1 a1 SN2 = D 2 a2

SN

Structural Coefficient (a): a = fnc (E, position in PVT) SN = SN1 + SN2 + SN3

SN3 = D3 a3

Basic Procedure: Determine the traffic (ESAL) Calculate the effective subgrade modulus (MReff) Select the performance level (PSI) Solve for the required SN needed to protect the subgrade

## Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 1.3.4 Design Notes

i. Different combination of materials & thicknesses may result in the same SN ii. Your job as a designer is to select the most economical combination, using available materials and considering the following:
Geometry requirements (Cut/Fill) Drainage requirements Frost requirements

## iii.AASHTO assumes that pavement structural layers will not be overstressed:

Must check that individual layers meet structural requirements

Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2. Design Inputs 2.1 General Design Variables

Design Life Material Properties Traffic Reliability Degree of certainty that the pavement will last the design period Uncertainty in:
Traffic prediction Performance prediction Materials & construction

Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.2 AASHTO Reliability Factor (FR) Adjust traffic for reliability: FR = fnc (R, S0)

W18 = w18 FR
Where: W18 = Design ESAL w18 = Predicted ESAL

Steps: 1. Define functional class (Interstate/Local) 2. Select reliability level (R) Table 11.14 3. Select a standard deviation (S0)
Flexible: No traffic variation: With traffic variation: Rigid: No traffic variation: With traffic variation: S0=0.35 S0=0.45 S0=0.25 S0=0.35

Reliability level Overall Standard Deviation: chosen Traffic Variation Performance prediction variation Materials (subgrade)

Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.3 Performance Criteria Design for serviceability change: PSI = PSI0 PSIt PSI0 = Initial serviceability index PSIt = Terminal serviceability index
Major highways: >2.5 Lower volume: 2.0 Flexible: 4.2 Rigid: 4.5

2.4 Material Properties 2.4.1 Effective Subgrade Resilient Modulus Obtain MR values over entire year Separate year into time intervals Compute the relative damage value (uf) for each modulus

uf = 1.18 10 8 MR

2.32

Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.4.1 Effective Subgrade Resilient Modulus (cont) Compute average uf for entire year Determine effective MR using average uf

uf = 1.18 10 8 MR

2.32

Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.4.2 Pavement Structural Layers Layer coefficient ai; relative quality as a structural unit:

Initially layer coefficients were derived from AASHO road test results; have subsequently been related to resilient modulus Hot-Mix Asphalt
AASHTO does not require test to determine HMA modulus; usually assume aHMA=0.44

2 of material with a=0.2 provides the same protection as 1 material with a=0.4

Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.4.2 Pavement Structural Layers (cont) Untreated and Stabilized Bases Can estimate the base layer coefficient from Figure 7.15 for:
Untreated base Bituminous-treated base Cement-treated base

For untreated base can also use the following (instead of interpolating from the figure):

## a 2 = 0.249 (log E 2 ) 0.977

Granular Sub-bases Can estimate the sub-base layer coefficient from Figure 7.16 Can also use the following (instead of interpolating from the figure):

## a3 = 0.227 (log E 3 ) 0.839

Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.5 Drainage AASHTO guide provides means to adjust layer coefficients depending on the effectiveness of the drainage Define quality of drainage of each layer based upon: Determine drainage modifying factor (m) from Table 11.20
SNi = ai Di mi Time required for drainage Percent time moisture levels approach saturation

Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.6 Computation of Required Pavement Thickness 2.6.1 Basic Approach Determine the required SN for design traffic Identify trial designs that meet required SN 2.6.2 Nomograph to Solve for SN

Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.6 Computation of Required Pavement Thickness (cont) 2.6.3 Solving the Equation
log W 18 log 0.4 +

## ) (Z R S 0) + 9.36 log( SN + 1) 0.2 +

4.2 1.5
PSI 1094 ( SN + 1)
5.19

## + 2.32 log M R 8.07

Declare the known variables W18, ZR, S0, PSI & MR Give an initial estimate for the SN Allow the equation solver (Matlab, Maple, Mathcad, Excel, etc.) to iterate for the solution

Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.6.4 Pavement Structural Layers SN = a1D1 + a2D2m2 + No Unique Solution! Many design configurations will meet the required SN Optimize the design; consider the following:

Design constraints drainage, minimum thickness, available materials Construction constraints minimum layer thickness Economics

2.6.5 Layered Design Analysis Nomograph determines the SN required to protect the subgrade However, each structural layer must be protected against overstressing Procedure developed using the AASHTO design nomograph
Determine the SN required to protect each layer by entering the nomograph using the MR of the layer in question

Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design First we need to protect the subgrade; use the nomograph to get SN needed to provide adequate protection BUT, have to protect each layer from overstressing; need to get required SN (level of protection) for each layer Only top (AC) layer does not need protection
For example: Base needs SN1 protection. BUT, SN1= a1D1 So, E 1, a 1 E2, a2, m2 E3, a3, m3 MReff D1

SNtotal SN2

SN1

D1 =

SN1 a1

## Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.6.6 General Procedure

1. Using E2 as the MR value, determine from Figure 11.25 the structural number SN1 required to protect the base and compute the thickness of layer 1 by SN D = a1 1 1 2. Using E3 as the MR value, determine from Figure 11.25 the structural number SN2 required to protect the subbase and compute the thickness of layer 2 by SN a D* 2 D a m1 1 2 2 2 3. Based on the roadbed soil resilient modulus MReff, determine from Figure 11.25 the total structural number SN3 required and compute the thickness of layer 3 by SN a D* a D*m D 3 1a 1 2 2 2 m 3 3 3

Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.7 Other Thickness Considerations 2.7.1 AASHTO Suggested Minimums
ESAL < 50,000 50,000 150,000 150,000 500,000 500,000 2,000,000 2,000,000 7,000,000 > 7,000,000 Asphalt Concrete 1 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Aggregate Base 4 4 4 6 6 6

2.7.1 Construction / Stability Layer must be thick enough to act as a unit: Thickness > 2* (Maximum Aggregate Size)

Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.8 Cost Considerations Consider: Different combination of materials Cost of materials Cost of excavation (cut areas) Express cost as a unit contribution to SN
Material
Crushed Stone Pit-Run Gravel Asphalt Concrete

## 0.4 = 3.12 0.16 0.80

mi 0.80 0.95 1.00 \$/unit SN 3.12 3.37 4.05

## ai 0.16 0.10 0.37

Maximize crushed stone thickness minimize AC thickness Can also stabilize base to use less HMA Use gravel only for fill or frost

## Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.9 AASHTO Design Example 1

Given: Reliability = 90% Overall Std. Dev. = 0.35 W18 = 10 million Design Serviceability Loss = 2.0
Material AC Crushed Stone Granular Subbase Roadbed Soil MR 400,000 30,000 14,000 5,000 ai 0.42 0.14 0.10 mi 0.80 0.70 -

## Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.10 AASHTO Design Example 2

Given: Reliability = 90% Performance period = 20 years Overall Std. Dev. = 0.45 W18 = 5.26 million Design Serviceability Loss = 2.0
Material
Asphalt Concrete Cement-Stabilized Base Bituminous-Treated Base Crushed Stone Pit-Run Gravel Excavation

Modulus (psi)
300,000 500,000 350,000 25,000 12,000 -

Cost (\$/sq.yd.-in)
1.70 0.80 1.20 0.40 0.32 0.25

Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.10 AASHTO Design Example 2 (cont) Construct a material information table:
Material
Asphalt Concrete Asphalt Concrete Cement-Stabilized Base Bituminous-Treated Base Crushed Stone Crushed Stone Pit-Run Gravel

Layer
Surface Base Base Base Base Subbase Subbase

\$/sq.yd-in
1.70 1.70 0.80 1.20 0.40 0.40 0.32

ai

mi

\$/Unit SN

## Next step is to fill in the information

Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.10 AASHTO Design Example 2 (cont) Asphalt Concrete structural coefficient (a) Figure 7.13:

0.37

Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.10 AASHTO Design Example 2 (cont) Bituminous-treated base structural coefficient (a) Figure 7.15:

Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.10 AASHTO Design Example 2 (cont) Cement-stabilized base structural coefficient (a) Figure 7.15:

0.118

Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.10 AASHTO Design Example 2 (cont) Crushed stone base structural coefficient (a) Figure 7.15:

Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.10 AASHTO Design Example 2 (cont) Crushed stone subbase structural coefficient (a) Figure 7.16:

0.16

Topic 7 AASHTO Flexible Pavement Design 2.10 AASHTO Design Example 2 (cont)
Material
Asphalt Concrete Asphalt Concrete Cement-Stabilized Base Bituminous-Treated Base Crushed Stone Crushed Stone Pit-Run Gravel

Layer
Surface Base Base Base Base Subbase Subbase

\$/sq.yd-in
1.70 1.70 0.80 1.20 0.40 0.40 0.32

ai
0.370 0.275 0.118 0.300 0.120 0.160 0.090

mi
1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.2 0.8

\$/Unit SN
4.59 6.18 6.78 4.00 2.78 2.08 4.44