Global Vision International, PHOENIX Report Series No.

002

GVI Phoenix Nicaragua
Literacy, Numeracy and Stove-building Projects

Mid-Year Report January 2011 - July 2011
13

GVI Phoenix Nicaragua Annual Report Submitted in whole to Global Vision International Produced by Dominic Williams ± Phoenix Latin American Director Aaron Stites - Phoenix Nicaragua Project Manager GVI Phoenix Nicaragua Staff/Volunteers and Home Country Karla Morán Yessenia Falcón Velásquez Cándida Tinoco Zeledón Aaron Stites Adam Newton Anniela Holm Marian Miller Edward Danks Antonia Wheatley Alice Martin Sara Andrea Hunziker-Guyer Lynette Watson Jack Earl Luke Ryba Bethany Steer Olivia Aguilera Malinovsky Thomas Perry Jacob Orson Community Leader, Nicaragua Teacher, Nicaragua Community Leader, Nicaragua Project Manager, USA Project Coordinator, England Project Coordinator, Sweden Project Coordinator, USA Volunteer, England Volunteer, England Volunteer, USA Volunteer, Switzerland Volunteer, Australia Volunteer, England Volunteer, USA Volunteer, England Volunteer, Denmark Volunteer, Canada Volunteer, USA Ashley Kosier Leandri Crouse Sarah Nguyen Finola McGrath Chelsea April Rosie Riley Elroy Lewis Karen Davies Kristin Wood Marcella Wirtz Alec Watson Landon Gamble Marco Olea Jessica Steiner Emma Parker Amina Zaatri Tara Reddy Volunteer, USA Volunteer, South Africa Volunteer, Australia Volunteer, England Volunteer, Canada Volunteer, England Volunteer, England Volunteer, England Volunteer, USA Volunteer, USA Volunteer, Australia Volunteer, USA Volunteer, Australia Volunteer, USA Volunteer, England Volunteer, Algeria Volunteer, USA

1

GVI Phoenix Nicaragua Address: De Gallo mas Gallo, una cuadra al oeste y media cuadra al norte La casa de dos pisos, anaranjada Email: phoenixnicaragua@gviworld.com Web page: http://www.gvi.co.uk and http://www.gviusa.com http://www.justgiving.com/phoenixnicaragua http://www.globalgiving.org/projects/sustainable-education-nicaragua/ Blog: http://gviphoenix.blogspot.com/

Executive Summary During the six month period from January 2011 until July 2011, the GVI Phoenix project in Nicaragua celebrated its two year anniversary in the community of La Thompson (February 2011) and one year anniversary in the community of Chiriza (July 2011). The number of children who attended the school on a regular basis in La Thompson increased by 43% to a total of approximately 100 students as measured over the last six months** see Explanation of Attendance 8.0. The attendance rate of these 100 students is 55% despite many days being taken off to work, attend public school classes and functions and look after younger siblings while the adults of the household are working (see appendix A). Further, there are many students who have attended at a rate below 25% indicating a potential for more consistent attendance among a greater number of students. The following are the overall attendance rates for each grade: preschool 58%; first grade 45%; second grade 55%; third grade 63%; fourth, fifth and sixth grades 55% (see Appendix A). While the overall average of 55% may appear to be low it must be taken into consideration that GVI Phoenix Nicaragua gives reinforcement classes for students in grade one through six meaning they are attending public school classes as well. Additionally, the influx of new students who are attending on a regular basis (30 students) has brought the overall rate of attendance down as these students transition into classes and do not have as consistent attendance as students who have been attending the school for a greater period of time.

2

Fig. 1 ± Children Attending School

In the school project in Chiriza, 139 children have attended consistently at a rate of 59% since January 2011. As in La Thompson but to a larger extent, many children have attended less than 25% of the time signifying a potential for more students attending and at a higher rate of attendance. The overall attendance rates per class were: preschool 65%; first grade 57%; second grade 58%; third grade 57% and fourth, fifth and sixth grades 54% (see Appendix B). Children in grades one through six also attend reinforcement classes in the GVI Phoenix schools in Nicaragua added to their public schools classes.

Fig. 2 ± Children Attending School

In both La Thompson and Chiriza our daily food program has continued over the last six months. On a daily basis, children attending the school in the morning are provided with a 3

meal of rice and beans and are given a piece of fruit; children attending in the afternoon receive a piece of fruit as well. Additionally, each Friday the children¶s meals are supplemented with chicken to provide them with much needed protein through the weekend when classes are not held (see 5.01 and 5.02).

Fig. 3 ± Food Program in Action

Additionally, five energy efficient stoves have been constructed in the last six months for families in the communities of La Thompson and Chiriza. The stove building project commenced in June 2011 in Chiriza with the construction of two stoves. The stove user is able to cook multiple items simultaneously while avoiding smoke inhalation and burns as a result of cooking over an open flame. Further, chimneys are installed as part of the stove construction as they provide ventilation for the smoke produced by the stoves. A fitted piece at the top of the chimney is included to prevent rain water entering the chimney and/or the home during the rainy season.

4

Fig. 4 ± Stove

Fig. 5 ± Top Piece for Stove

Highlights
y GVI Phoenix Nicaragua celebrated its two year anniversary in the community of La Thompson in February 2011 y GVI Phoenix Nicaragua celebrated its one year anniversary in the community of Chiriza in July 2011 y From January 2011 to July 2011 over 1200 hours of classes have been given to preschool and grades 1-6 in primary school in La Thompson and Chiriza y Approximately 400 pounds of beans and 600 pounds of rice have been used in the food program for the children attending the schools in the last six months y Chicken introduced into the children¶s meals in Chiriza and La Thompson on Fridays to provide extra protein for the children through the weekend y y y y Over 22,000 pieces of fruit have been given to the children Five energy-efficient stoves have been constructed Began stove building project in Chiriza, June 2011 Refurbishment projects completed in La Thompson (building, school grounds, enclosed gardens, fencing around the school) y y y Construction of school in Chiriza completed, July 2011 Compost pits maintained at both schools Preschools in La Thompson and Chiriza continue to be recognized as community preschools by the Ministry of Education (MINED)

5

y

Ministry of Education continues to permit and approve of reinforcement classes given to the children in La Thompson and Chiriza, grades 1-6

y

English classes for children and adults offered in La Thompson (April 2011) and Chiriza (June 2011) and are ongoing.

y

Hired Luz Sevilla, a mother of a Chiriza student, to prepare daily meals for the children

y y

Sustained partnerships with local families, businesses and local transport providers A total of 28 volunteers worked in the GVI Phoenix Nicaragua projects during the last six months; this is the greatest number of volunteers the project has seen during any six-month period

y y

Inaugural GVI Phoenix Nicaragua Volcano Charity Challenge completed, May 2011 Through fundraising, GVI Phoenix Nicaragua has raised over $20,500 in the last 6 to 9 months, all of which goes directly to the projects in La Thompson and Chiriza

Table of Contents Executive Summary .........................................................................................................2 List of Figures ..................................................................................................................7 1.0 Introduction ................................................................................................................8 1.1 Why financial support is important in education .........................................................9 1.1.1 Family Profiles ........................................................................................................9 1.1.2 The Canasta Básica..............................................................................................11 1.1.3 Put into numbers:..................................................................................................11 1.1.4 Additional Costs ....................................................................................................12 1.1.5 Conclusion ............................................................................................................13 2.0 La Thompson and Chiriza Community Teaching Projects ........................................13 2.0.1 La Thompson Community Teaching Project .........................................................13 2.0.2 Chiriza Community Teaching Project ....................................................................13 2.0.3 Objectives .............................................................................................................14 2.0.4 Literacy and Numeracy .........................................................................................14 2.0.5 Food and Fruit ......................................................................................................15 2.1 Classroom-based Teaching .....................................................................................16 2.1.1 Training and Methods ...........................................................................................16 2.1.2 Celebrations .........................................................................................................17 2.1.3 Incentive Schemes ...............................................................................................18 2.1.4 Dental Hygiene .....................................................................................................19 2.1.5 Arts and Crafts ......................................................................................................19 2.2 Building Projects and Refurbishments .....................................................................20 2.3 Local GVI Employees and Local Partnerships .........................................................21 2.4 Activities and Achievements in La Thompson ..........................................................23 2.5 Activities and Achievement in Chiriza ......................................................................24 2.6 Review.....................................................................................................................24 3.0 Stove Projects .........................................................................................................25 3.0.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................................25 6

3.0.2 Facts about air pollution ........................................................................................26 3.0.3 Comparison of Indoor Air Pollution to Malaria .......................................................28 3.0.4 Facts on the Stoves ..............................................................................................28 3.0.5 Short-term economic benefits of installing a stove ................................................28 3.0.6 Long-term economic benefits of installing a stove .................................................29 3.0.7 Long-term responsibilities .....................................................................................29 3.0.8 Conclusion ............................................................................................................29 4.0 Looking Forward ......................................................................................................29 4.0.1 Expanding Educational Opportunities ...................................................................30 4.0.2 Supplementing Food, Environmental Programs ....................................................30 4.0.3 Increasing Volume of Volunteers/Self Sufficiency in Funding ................................30 5.0 Financial Support .....................................................................................................30 5.0.1 Charity Challenge 2011 ........................................................................................30 Fig. 22 ± At the Summit of Volcano Momotombo, May 2011..........................................31 5.0.2 GVI Charitable Trust .............................................................................................31 8.0 Explanation of Attendance Reporting .......................................................................39

List of Figures
Fig. 1 ± Children Attending School Fig. 2 ± Children Attending School Fig. 3 ± Food Program in Action Fig. 4 ± Stove Fig. 5 ± Top Piece for Stove Fig. 6 ± Classes Given Fig. 7 ± Classes Given Fig. 8 ± Classes Given Fig. 9 ± Daily Fruit Fig. 10 ± Class Preparation Fig. 11 ± Celebration Fig. 12 ± Incentive Scheme in Action Fig. 13 ± New Toothbrush Fig. 14 ± Art Project Fig. 15 ± Completed School Structure, Chiriza Fig. 16 ± Karla, Community Leader, La Thompson

7

Fig. 17 ± Cándida (Tita), Community Leader, Chiriza Fig. 18 ± Yessenia, GVI Phoenix Teacher Fig. 19 ± Children and Volunteer in the Community Fig. 20 ± Children in the Community Fig. 21 ± Stove Being Built Fig. 22 ± Summit of Volcano Momotombo

Appendix A. Children¶s attendance Escuela Guardabarranco-La Thompson Appendix B. Children¶s attendance Escuela Phoenix-Chiriza 1.0 Introduction The Global Vision International (GVI) Phoenix Project was initiated in Guatemala in 2002 in San Andrés Itzapa, a Kakchiquel-speaking indigenous community. Soon after, in 2004, another project was opened in Santa María de Jesús, as well, Kakchiquel-speaking. In the same year, Phoenix started operations in Honduras, firstly on fresh water tubing projects then later on, working in Estanzuela and then San Rafael at the beginning of 2006. Work commenced in Barbasco in 2010. Many of the older population speak Chortí. The Phoenix Secondary school was founded in 2008 in San Rafael. In 2005, operations started in Ecuador, in the Kichwa-speaking communities of Urcusiqui, Muenala and Huayrapungo, with a new community, Larcacunga, starting in 2007. In 2006 work began in Perú, primarily in Socabaya though then moving to two Quechua-speaking (the ³people¶s speech´) communities in Sachaca outside the base town of Arequipa; Maldonado and Triunfo. Work commenced in a third community, Chiguata, in 2010. Work in Mata Escura, Salvador, Brazil, started in June 2010. Our work in the rural communities of La Thompson and Chiriza, Nicaragua began in February 2009 and July 2010 respectively. Nicaragua is the second poorest country in the Western Hemisphere after Haiti (IFAD) and poverty is highly concentrated in the country¶s rural areas. Nearly half of Nicaragua¶s population live in rural areas (UNICEF) and nearly 70% of these people live on less than US$1.50 per day (IFAD). In Estelí, where our projects are located, over 52% of the population lives in rural areas (MINED, Nicaragua). The poorest of Nicaragua¶s population consist of homes headed by landless farmers, single mothers, someone 15 years of age or younger and members of indigenous groups. Given the dire economic conditions in rural Nicaragua, many Nicaraguans and their families migrate seasonally, especially to the 8

Pacific coast where work can be found. Further, many heads of the household seek employment opportunities in urban areas or abroad (IFAD). Major causes of the economic situation in Nicaragua include the civil war between 1980 and 1990, natural disasters and political corruption. While economic indicators are improving, Nicaragua¶s rural poor continue to lack basic access to water, electricity, healthcare, legal services and education. Access to market opportunities is an additional barrier faced by rural families and the rate of unequal income distribution is high; the poorest 40% of Nicaraguans hold 12% of the income while the wealthiest 20% hold nearly 60% of overall income (UNICEF). It is GVI Phoenix¶s belief that one of the most effective ways of improving standards of living is through education, though this is not always forthcoming, especially in the communities in which we work. In Estelí, over 30% of children aged 3-18 years are not in the school system (MINED, Nicaragua). Further, the reported reasons given for not being in the school system are a lack of interest or educational apathy (38%) and economic constraints (23%). These two reasons are the main barriers to accessing education by an overwhelming rate (MINED, Nicaragua). For preschool age children (3-5 years), the main barrier to accessing education is the rural location of their home; the children simply live too far from the public school to participate in preschool classes (MINED, Nicaragua). Furthermore, child malnutrition is often blamed for poor educational results. Nearly 20% of Nicaraguan children age five years and under suffer from growth stunting due in part to malnutrition (WHO). This figure is assuredly higher in the rural areas of Nicaragua. 1.1 Why financial support is important in education The following reveals the short-comings of family income and how this affects childhood education, limits access to basic services and contributes to mal-nourishment (GVI Phoenix). 1.1.1 Family Profiles Based on the Family A - Francisca Del Carmen Guirdian Peralta (La Thompson) Francisca, age 38, is a single, pregnant mother with four children: Danis (boy), age four; Dagner (boy), age six; Johana (girl), age 12 and Yenecht (girl), age 17. The family lives in the community of La Thompson. Francisa reported to GVI Phoenix Nicaragua staff that she works in the tobacco fields and factories between late December and late May. When

9

jobs in the tobacco industry are not in season, Francisca seeks jobs washing or ironing clothes. She reported that finding work outside of the tobacco industry is very difficult. Francisca¶s reported earnings per week when working in the tobacco industry is $26 per week of which $2.30 is taken out for work insurance. When Francisca does not have steady work, approximately seven months out of the year, she reported having around $10 per week to use for food and basic necessities for her family. This amount spread out over one week translates to the family living on less than $1.50 per day. Francisca reports her major expenses to be electricity, water, food and rent and states that the family typically eats three small meals a day consisting of rice and beans. Further, three of Francisca¶s four children attend the GVI Phoenix School in La Thompson and one daughter, Johana, attends public school. Francisca¶s oldest daughter, Yenecht, completed schooling up to the second grade and is embarrassed to return back to primary school given her age (17). Yenecht does not work as she does not have a national identification card and Francisca reported they have been unable to obtain documents from where Yenecht was born (department of Jinotepe) because of the associated costs. Francisca noted that this year has been exceptionally hard for her and her family because of the lack of work and the fact that she is paying rent for her house. Francisca stated her dream in life is to own her own small plot of land with a home and said the dream she envisions for her children is that they complete their education and have a home of their own one day. Based on Family B - Francisca Rosa Emelia Hernandez -Chiriza Francisca, age 40, lives in a small home in the neighborhood Alexis Areguello in Chiriza. Francisca lives with her two children, a daughter, Belinda, age six and a son, Jans Carlos, age 15. Further, Francisca¶s mother, Otilia, age 70, lives in the home along with three relatives all under the age of twenty; Darwin, age 14; Eddi, age 18 and Lleris, age 20. Francisca reported to GVI Phoenix staff that she works in a cigar factory in Estelí during the week and stated she leaves home before 5:30 a.m. and returns home well after dark. Francisca reported her weekly earnings to be $23 and said she is the only income earner in the household. Francisca is a single mother and relies on her mother, Otilia, to do much of the cooking and caring for the family during the week. Otilia reported that the family does not generate enough income to save for the future much less to send Belinda to national school or cover for unforeseen expenses. The main expenses as reported by the family are: food, clothing, household items and medicine. Belinda, who is a first grader in the GVI Phoenix school in Chiriza, had the best attendance in the school as measured 10

over the last six months (99% attendance rate) and Francisca said she appreciates the help that the education project has provided for her daughter given she is not in the public school system. 1.1.2 The Canasta Básica In Nicaragua the Canasta Básica (basic basket) is a group of 52 products that cover the basic needs of an average household as defined by the government. It includes three main factors: foodstuffs/cost of housing (62%), clothing (10%) and toiletries (28%) (Gobierno de Nicaragua, April 2011).The average canasta básica is $ 430 per month or $107.50 per week (Gobierno de Nicaragua, April 2011). Families in the communities of La Thompson and Chiriza do not have the financial means to purchase all the items in the canasta básica each month and in fact, they often do not have enough money to purchase even minimal items. In speaking with families in both communities the very basic products they purchase and consume/use are comprised of the following: rice, beans, sugar, cooking oil, milk, eggs, dry cheese, tortillas, tomatoes, onions, peppers, plantains, cabbage, soap to wash clothes, soap to bathe, toothpaste, toothbrushes, matches and toilet paper. According to the government¶s canasta basica guidelines, the monthly cost of these items amounts to $162 or $40.50 per week or 38% of the entire canasta básica. Further, important items are missing from this list to include all types of meat, additional forms of carbohydrates such as pasta or potatoes, deodorant, sanitary napkins, water, electricity, rent or cost of housing, transportation and all clothing needs including school uniforms for school aged children. NB: the cost of the Canasta Básica varies depending on the size of a family and the price of commodities. 1.1.3 Put into numbers: Family A ± La Thompson Francisca¶s Income: $23.70/week when working in tobacco industry, $10/week when not employed in tobacco industry Canasta Básica: (Complete) What is left: Canasta Basica (Basic) $107.50/week Includes all items defined as necessities by the government $ -83.80 (when employed in tobacco) $-97.50 (when not employed in tobacco) $40.50/week Includes the most basic items (38%) of the Canasta Basica 11

What is left:

$-16.80 (when employed in tobacco) $-30.50 (when not employed in tobacco)

Family B ± Chiriza Francisca¶s Income: $23/week, working in tobacco industry Canasta Basica: (Complete) What is left: Canasta Basica (Basic) What is left: $107.50/week Includes all items defined as necessities by the government -$84.50 (with full-time employment) $40.50/week Includes the most basic items (38%) of the Canasta Basica -$17.50 (with full-time employment)

Using the example of Family A and Family B it can see seen that their earnings in one week are not nearly sufficient to cover their basic needs. 1.1.4 Additional Costs The Canasta Básica does not take into account additional costs such as the following: 1 Alcohol abuse can use from a third to a half of the family income and is a common problem with many low-income families; the World Health Organization ranked Nicaragua high in their Patterns of Drinking Index (WHO). 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Additional costs for education: uniforms, shoes, textbooks, transportation Illness, medicine Unforeseen events, accidents at work, days off (unpaid) Childcare for single parent families Transport to work Elderly relatives unable to work Family events: birthdays, weddings, deaths Loan repayments etc).

10 Rising prices of food and clothing items due to inclement weather (hurricanes, flooding,

12

1.1.5 Conclusion Francisca¶s earnings (Family A) are a mere 22% and 59% respectively of the standard canasta básica and the basic needs canasta basica. This takes into account her work in the tobacco industry which amounts to only five months of work each year. When she is not working in the tobacco industry these percentages are alarmingly lower. Further, Francisca¶s earnings (Family B) account for 21% and 57% respectively of the standard canasta básica and the basic needs canasta básica. These families, as is common to many families in these communities, are left to find other means to cover the remaining expenses of the canasta básica. Hence, it is very unlikely that the families will be able to receive adequate nutrition or basic services. Further, the families will more than likely incur a debt which they will not be able to pay back, and their children may be forced to work at an early age and will not attend school. Without a basic education the chances of the children finding more lucrative paying work later on in life are extremely low. 2.0 La Thompson and Chiriza Community Teaching Projects We currently work in two communities, La Thompson and Chiriza. These communities are located outside of Estelí, Nicaragua in rural areas. Both communities are very transient as members from the communities move to locales where the best opportunities for work can be found. Illiteracy among adults is higher than in other parts of Nicaragua, and the existence of alcohol abuse, drug abuse and crime more prevalent. Further, both communities originated as ³squatter´ communities in which individual families moved to the communities and occupied a plot of land without legal title to the land. As of May 2011, both La Thompson and Chiriza were recognized as legal communities in the department of Estelí and there is hope within the communities that better roads, improved access to potable water and electricity will follow. These basic services as well as expanded education and health services will bring a higher standard of living to these impoverished communities. 2.0.1 La Thompson Community Teaching Project The project in La Thompson began in February 2009 with the help of community member Karla Morán and former GVI Phoenix Project Manager Steve Elliott. The project started with classes given to a few children in open, outdoor classrooms. As of July 2011, the school in La Thompson consists of a closed two classroom school with additional outdoor classrooms complete with flooring. The school also has latrines for the children with flushable toilets and an enclosed kitchen with an energy-efficient stove. Classes are being 13

given to students from preschool age to the sixth year of primary school with an age range of 3 years to 14 years. On average, 100 children are attending the school on a regular basis. The preschool has officially been recognized by the Nicaraguan Ministry of Education, meaning children can receive their promoción or certificate to advance to primary school. MINED has also approved of reinforcement classes being taught for the primary school grades. Two preschool groups have graduated from our preschool in La Thompson and we will see the third group graduate in December 2011.

Fig. 6 ± Classes Given

2.0.2 Chiriza Community Teaching Project The community teaching project in Chiriza began in July 2010 with the help of community leaders/GVI staff Karla Morán and Cándida Tinoco Zeledón. The provisional school structure was completed in July 2010 and consisted of metal roofing and wood beams. Further, an enclosed kitchen which includes an energy efficient stove built by GVI Phoenix volunteers and staff was completed in September 2010. In July 2011, the last phase of the construction process was completed as two latrines were constructed on school grounds. Over the last six months, the school has been enclosed with walling, additional outdoor classrooms have been added, concrete flooring completed in both the indoor and outdoor classrooms, interior walls built and six windows were installed along with two doors. The logistics of the project are in line with the project in La Thompson as GVI Phoenix is offering classes to preschool aged children as well as reinforcement classes to primary school children up to the sixth grade. The Ministry of Education officially recognizes the preschool in Chiriza as a community preschool as in La Thompson. Further, the Ministry of Education approves of GVI Phoenix offering reinforcement classes to primary school students. 13

Fig. 7 ± Classes Given

2.0.3 Objectives GVI Phoenix¶s main objective is to provide sustainable preschool and primary education for the children in the communities of La Thompson and Chiriza. Many of the children do not have access to, or do not attend, public schools in the community or in the neighboring town of Estelí due to economic constraints, an apathetic attitude towards education or due to their physical distance from a formal school. The existence of the GVI Phoenix Schools within these communities to include food programs provides an opportunity and an incentive for the children to attend classes. The work can be divided into the following parts: 2.0.4 Literacy and Numeracy GVI Phoenix¶s aim is to provide first-time teaching in basic literacy and numeracy. Each week from Monday through Wednesday, the focus of reinforcement classes is in the areas of literacy and numeracy and lesson planning by volunteers and staff is based around these subject areas. On Thursdays natural or social sciences are taught and on Fridays the children take part in art classes and/or crafts.

14

Fig. 8 ± Classes Given

2.0.5 Food and Fruit In La Thompson and Chiriza a daily meal of rice and beans is provided for the children in the morning. Further, the children receive fruit while attending classes at the schools. On Fridays, the children receive a meal with chicken to give them additional protein through the long weekend when classes are not held. In La Thompson, the food is cooked by Martha Espinoza, a local mother of two students in our school. She cooks on a stove built by GVI Phoenix volunteers located in the enclosed kitchen on the school grounds. She receives a monthly salary from GVI Phoenix for her efforts. In Chiriza, Luz Sevilla, a local mother of a preschool student in our school, prepares the food on a stove built by GVI Phoenix volunteers and staff. Luz also received a monthly salary from GVI Phoenix. The children are better able to concentrate and participate when they have received an adequate amount of food to begin the day. In La Thompson and Chiriza, 35% of the children attending the schools on a regular basis are in preschool with an age range of 3 to 5 years. According to UNICEF statistics from 2000-2007, nearly 20% of children less than 5 years old in Nicaragua suffer growth stunting due to poor nutrition. In impoverished rural communities, such as La Thompson and Chiriza, this statistic would most certainly be higher. Malnutrition is evident among the children attending the GVI Phoenix Schools and the food and fruit supplied by GVI Phoenix during the school day is providing much needed nourishment for the children five out of the seven days of the week.

15

Fig. 9 ± Daily Fruit

2.1 Classroom-based Teaching The volunteers teach their own classes, in Spanish, with help if possible from more experienced volunteers and/or GVI Phoenix staff. They must lesson plan using the curriculum and textbooks provided, along with other materials we have. Any costs incurred to undertake their classes are reimbursed. The majority of volunteers choose to take one-on-one Spanish classes at the beginning of their program. GVI Phoenix arranges for these classes in cooperation with CENAC Spanish School in Estelí, Nicaragua. 2.1.1 Training and Methods Workshops are given monthly for the preschool curriculum from the Nicaraguan Ministry of Education to GVI Phoenix staff members. This curriculum is supplemented by preschool resources available at the GVI House. Further, in primary grades 1-6, volunteers use resources and curriculums from the GVI House and textbooks from the Nicaraguan Ministry of Education to plan their lessons. Yessenia, our local teacher, also provides volunteers with feedback and ideas in teaching the older children in our schools. GVI Phoenix staff completes a teaching presentation with all volunteers and aims to pair new volunteers with current volunteers or coordinators to aid new volunteers in teaching as well as lesson planning. Last, GVI Phoenix encourages volunteers to supplement lesson planning and instruction with their creativity and varied past experiences.

16

Fig. 10 ± Class Preparation

2.1.2 Celebrations It is important to celebrate occasions that are meaningful to the children and their communities. Each month in our school in La Thompson we celebrate children¶s birthdays with a party and small gifts for each child who has completed a birthday within that month. The party includes a piñata, games, dancing and each child at the party receives a gift bag of candy. In Chiriza over the past six months, we have done a monthly party to celebrate the end of the month and to reward the children for their hard work. The children also play games, have a piñata and dance. Each child receives a bag of candy as well. We aim to expand the celebrations in Chiriza to include individual gifts and recognition for children who have a birthday during in the month of the celebration. Further, we celebrate Christmas, Mother¶s Day, Father¶s Day, Day of the Child and other culturally relevant holidays such as Day of the Race in both communities.

Fig. 11 ± Celebration

17

2.1.3 Incentive Schemes Within both our projects there is huge potential to increase the number of students attending our schools, as well as improving the rate of attendance among these students. In December 2010, we began an incentive program in La Thompson and Chiriza to reward our students. These students, who were selected based on their attendance records and behavior within their respective classes, received new backpacks to use not only for classes within our schools but for public school as well. During the last six months, students who have attended on a regular basis and who had good behavior received school materials to use in GVI Phoenix Schools as well as the public school. These materials include pencils, pencil cases, erasers, notebooks, pencil sharpeners and folders. With increased funding, we will continue to expand these incentive schemes and make them more consistent with the hope these schemes will help encourage more students to consistently attend classes at our schools and to reward students who have consistent attendance.

Fig. 12 - Incentive Scheme in Action

18

2.1.4 Dental Hygiene Every 12 weeks we do an inventory of the children who need toothbrushes and toothpaste as these items are often not available to the children within their homes. Children who need new toothbrushes or toothpaste and who are attending on a regular basis receive these items as needed. Further, GVI Phoenix staff and volunteers do presentations for the children about how to brush one¶s teeth, as well as the importance of having good oral hygiene. We have seen marked improvement in the condition of the children¶s teeth (especially in La Thompson) and daily oral hygiene seems to have become a routine for many of the children.

Fig. 13 ± New Toothbrush

2.1.5 Arts and Crafts In 2010, a goal was made by GVI Phoenix staff to have arts and crafts be a part of each school week. Each Friday the students participate in an art or craft project relating to a subject of study, holiday or creative topic of their choice. The children are rarely exposed to arts and crafts in the public school setting and through their participation they are able to use their creativity and imagination.

19

Fig. 14 ± Art Project

2.2 Building Projects and Refurbishments During the last six months we have completed significant refurbishment projects in La Thompson. The fence project around the school was completed preventing animals and livestock from entering the school and destorying gardens and/or compost pits. Further, the North wall of the outdoor classrooms was converted from plastic covering to wood paneling as well as the door to the school kitchen. Last, fencing was constructed to create several garden plots within school grounds and new fruit and shade trees have been planted for future use. In Chiriza, the final stages of major construction were completed in July 2011. This construction process has continued over the last six months and includes exterior walls to enclose the school, two interior walls separating three indoor classrooms, covered outdoor classrooms, concrete flooring both in the indoor and outdoor classrooms and two enclosed and covered latrines. These projects would not be possible without the financial support from the GVI Phoenix Nicaragua Volcano Charity Challenge (see section 5.0.1 Charity Challenge 2011) and the GVI Charitable Trust (see section 5.0.2 GVI Charitable Trust).

20

Fig. 15 ± Completed School Structure, Chiriza

2.3 Local GVI Employees and Local Partnerships As of July 2011, GVI Phoenix Nicaragua directly employs three individuals from Nicaragua: community leaders of La Thompson and Chiriza, Karla Morán and Cándida Tinoco Zeledón and teacher, Yessenia Falcón Velasquez. Further, GVI Phoenix has maintained and established several local partnerships. Volunteers take Spanish language classes at CENAC Spanish School in Estelí and GVI Phoenix has maintained this partnership for over two years. Additionally, volunteers stay with one of four local host families in the city of Estelí. GVI Phoenix continues to use local builder, Don Pedro, to complete construction projects and assist with stove building. GVI Phoenix also partners with Estelí taxi drivers, Juan Carlos and Eden, to provide transportation for volunteers and staff. In Managua, GVI Phoenix partners with local taxi driver, Ronaldo Antonio Cardoza, to provide airport pickups and transport to bus terminals for volunteers and GVI Phoenix Staff. Further, GVI Phoenix pays a monthly salary to Marta Espinoza and Luz Sevilla, local mothers in La Thompson and Chiriza, to cook food on a daily basis for our students. Partnerships have also been established with Nicaraguan tour guides/companies. For tours of nature reserve Miraflor, GVI Phoenix uses local tour company, Miraflor Cafe Luz and the family of Nelson Rugama. For tours of the Somoto Canyon, GVI Phoenix has partnered with Somoto tour guide, Fausto Ramon.

21

Fig. 16 ± Karla, Community Leader-La Thompson

Fig. 17 ± Cándida (Tita), Community leader-Chiriza,

Fig. 18 ± Yessenia, GVI Phoenix Teacher-La Thompson and Chiriza

22

2.4 Activities and Achievements in La Thompson We have been working in the community of La Thompson for 29 months as of July 2011. A total of 22 children have graduated from our preschool since 2009 with more expected to graduate in December 2011. Not counting the recent graduating group, we have children from preschool who previously had never attended any formal education who are able to write and recognize vowels, numbers 1-10, as well as primary colors. However and perhaps most importantly, the interaction with other children in a safe and educational surrounding has allowed the children to open up, adapt socially, and interact with other children and teachers. In the primary grades (1-6) we have seen much progress from the children in the areas of math, reading, language and critical thinking skills. Children have started to bring their grade report cards from the public schools and the results have shown students with passing and exceptional grades. Many parents of primary school students who attend public schools as well as the GVI Phoenix School have thanked GVI Phoenix volunteers and staff members saying they have noticed an improvement in their children¶s performance at school and behavior within the home. As mentioned in the Executive Summary we have an overall attendance rate of 55%. This rate appears quite low but can be viewed as positive given we offer reinforcement classes to supplement the public school education primary school students receive. Additionally, La Thompson is a very transient community as families move often to secure the best options for work and housing. There are many instances in which students will be gone from the community for several weeks eventually returning to the GVI Phoenix school to resume classes. Further, the current third grade group, the initial primary school class when our school opened in 2009, has an attendance rate of 63%. This indicates consistent attendance amongst a core group that will hopefully continue in our school until secondary education is reached. Further, we have seen a 43% increase in the rate of children attending on a regular basis over the last six months (see appendix A). This represents a 30% increase in students that attend on a regular basis compared with 2010. There is a huge potential to continue to increase the consistency of attendance among regular students and given the transient nature of the community, we can expect the arrival of new students who will need education assistance and attention. Last, the refurbishment projects completed in the first half of 2011 have contributed to the schools ascetics and will help us to grow gardens and trees on school grounds.

23

2.5 Activities and Achievement in Chiriza We have worked for twelve months in the community of Chiriza. A provisional school structure was completed in July 2010 and a kitchen equipped with an energy efficient stove was completed in September 2010. Since this time, the school construction has been completed in its entirety (July 2011) and classes are held each week to include a daily food program. 139 children have attended classes at a rate of 59% and many of these children had never before been in an educational setting. Further, the major barrier existent to preschool students in rural areas in accessing education, the physical location of the preschool, does not exist in Chiriza as our school is located within the community. There are a high number of children who do not attend on a regular basis and these children represent a potential to increase the number of regular attendees and the amount of children we serve each day. The children are learning to follow rules, cooperate with others and interact with others in socially acceptable ways. These lessons are invaluable in a community like Chiriza given the high rates of alcohol and drug use, varying types of abuse, crime and extreme poverty. Another huge accomplishment came with the completion of the construction of the school in July 2011. The construction process spanned one year and it is beneficial to have a permanent structure GVI staff, volunteers and the children can take pride in. Community backing has been high in Chiriza and words of encouragement and gratitude have been voiced by community members. Further, we have started the stove building project in Chiriza which denotes stability within the community and within our project. Last, reaching the one year mark in Chiriza puts our project another step closer to long term sustainability in this community. 2.6 Review The work of GVI Phoenix over the past six months in Nicaragua has been successful due to the coordination between GVI Phoenix staff members, local Nicaraguan GVI Phoenix staff members, the community members in La Thompson and Chiriza and the GVI Phoenix volunteers. Due to a continued influx in volunteers in 2011, GVI Phoenix has been able to maintain funding for the food programs, school materials, transportation costs, local staff salaries, host family accommodations and other direct field expenses. Further, funding from the GVI Phoenix Nicaragua Volcano Charity Challenge (see 5.0.1) and GVI Charitable Trust (see 5.0.2), has allowed for the completion of the school construction in Chiriza, refurbishment of the school and school grounds in La Thompson, expansion of the food programs, continuation of English classes and commencement of support for secondary education. 24

Fig. 19 ± Children and Volunteer in the Community

Fig. 20 ± Children in the Community

3.0 Stove Projects Building an energy-efficient stove takes one and a half to two days to build and is a longterm, sustainable method of reducing both health problems and deforestation. 3.0.1 Introduction GVI Phoenix has been building energy efficient stoves since January 2009 when we started working with the community of La Thompson. In the last six months five stoves have been constructed, three in the community of La Thompson and two in the community of Chiriza. Selection of families to receive stoves is based primarily on the child or children¶s attendance rate(s) in the GVI Phoenix Schools. Following these factors, consideration is made based on need and the number of children in the home or an adjoining family home. The stoves provide a more economically viable and environmentally friendly option to the traditionally used open fire. If the stoves are used 25

correctly, less wood is consumed, multiple food items can be cooked at the same time, smoke is funneled outside of the house, and the stove maintains its heat much longer and provides a much safer option than an open fire. In 2010, GVI Phoenix began a process of adding a top rain guard piece to the stoves in La Thompson to prevent rain coming into the stoves via the chimney during the rainy season. This process has continued and is now a permanent part of the stove building process in both communities.

Fig. 21 ± Stove Being Built

3.0.2 Facts about air pollution - More than one-third of humanity, 2.4 billion people worldwide use solid fuels, including wood, dung and coal for their energy needs. - Solid fuels have been used for cooking since the beginning of time and when used properly, they can be an effective way of heating a home or cooking a meal. Unfortunately, due to economic, political and cultural factors, most families today use what is referred to as a three stone fire, which is three round stones surrounding a wood fire, over which a metal plate is placed for cooking. Coupled with poor ventilation in most homes, this leads to high levels of indoor air pollution. - Smoke in homes from these cook stoves is the fourth greatest risk factor for death and disease in the world¶s poorest countries

26

- Worldwide, 1.6 million annual deaths, predominantly women and children, are caused by indoor air pollution, including one million children¶s lives each year (more than malaria or AIDS) - Children under the age of 5 account for 56% of deaths from indoor air pollution. The main killer caused by indoor air pollution is acute lower respiratory infections.

Pneumonia, serious burns and eye infections are other health risks. Many women go blind in their forties due to smoke from the cooking fires. - Women typically spend between three and seven hours per day by the fire, longer when fires are also used for heating the home. Children under the age of five are also particularly at risk because they spend most of their time with their mothers; often very young ones are strapped to their mother¶s body. The impact this length of exposure has on small children is exacerbated by a number of factors. Children¶s airways are smaller, therefore more susceptible to inflammation. Their lungs are not fully developed until they are teenagers, so they breathe faster. Also, their immune systems are not fully developed, a process that may be further delayed by malnutrition. These facts mean that children absorb pollutants more readily than adults and also retain them in their system for longer. - Another major problem is depleting resources and the time necessary to collect the firewood - Up to 85% of the energy generated by a three-stone open fire is wasted, which is a real problem considering that poor families spend up to 20% of their income on solid fuels and/or spend one quarter of their time gathering wood - In most societies it is also the women¶s responsibility to provide the biomass fuel. The time cost alone in rural areas can be extreme. Estimates range from two to twenty hours per week spent collecting fuel, and the distances covered over difficult terrain can be considerable. In Nepal, for example, women can walk over 20 km per journey in search of wood. This level of work not only reduces the amount of time women can spend on other activities, such as earning money or resting, but it contributes to a range of additional threats to health and wellbeing. Often, if the mother cannot collect the wood, it is the responsibility of one of the

daughters in the family, thus taking away from time that could be spent in the school 27

3.0.3 Comparison of Indoor Air Pollution to Malaria - Twenty percent of the world¶s population is at risk from malaria; almost 50% are at risk from indoor air pollution. - Malaria kills about one million people per year; indoor air pollution kills over 1.6 million. - Recently the UN General Assembly restated their aim to control malaria. While indoor air pollution is starting to gain recognition, there is not yet a worldwide campaign for healthy indoor air. 3.0.4 Facts on the Stoves - They are simple wood burning stoves made from cement, block and bricks that encase the fire and provide a chimney to vent smoke out of the home. - They cut down the amount of smoke and carbon dioxide in the home by 70%. - They use 75% less firewood than three-stone fires thus saving resources and time used collecting firewood. - They add 10-15 years of life to every person in the household. - They protect small children from major burns and women from losing their eyesight prematurely - In September 2000 the member states of the United Nations unanimously adopted the Millennium Declaration that set in place the Millennium Development Goals of reducing poverty by 2015 to include reducing child mortality - The stoves greatly contribute to the goal of reducing child mortality by two-thirds by 2015 3.0.5 Short-term economic benefits of installing a stove y Stoves themselves are NOT an ³income enhancer´ ± a family does not earn more income by having a stove y Does not affect the main income earner, the father, who still works outside of the home y Less time spent by mother and children collecting firewood, allowing more time for education and potential economic opportunities for the mothers y Money can be saved (spent on food, clothes, medicine) by not having to spend on medical bills for lung disease caused by smoke inhalation, though this is small as this money often isn¶t spent anyway, so cannot be put into the argument y Any money saved should be put towards educating and feeding the child

28

3.0.6 Long-term economic benefits of installing a stove y y y The most obvious one is the children and education A child spending less time searching for firewood has more time for study A child¶s potential earning capacity is greatly enhanced, thus more education, especially secondary and college. y Here is where the payback can happen: an educated child in better employment knows the long-term benefits of education for their own children, so MUST commit to sending their children to school as well. 3.0.7 Long-term responsibilities The family with a stove must do all they can to make sure their child is educated, fed and looked after. A healthy child is more likely to pass exams than a sickly one. The child must also be given time for homework, study etc. The educated and better-employed child must do all they can to make sure their own children have a better education 3.0.8 Conclusion Stoves do not create wealth immediately, the money earner in the family still works in the fields, whether he/she has a stove or not. Stoves do allow increased time resources for the children for study and for mothers to work more. There are many families in La Thompson utilizing stoves and benefitting from the protective factors inherent in the use of the stoves. Further, the stove building project has expanded into the community of Chiriza and GVI Phoenix Staff has initiated an education and monitoring program (July 2011) for families who have received stoves to ensure the stoves are being used correctly and that resources are being used effectively. 4.0 Looking Forward We have been working in La Thompson for 29 months and Chiriza for 12 months and there are many areas in which we can improve upon within our projects as well as huge potential to expand our work within the communities. These areas involve expanding and improving educational opportunities, increased community schemes, supplementing our food/environmental programs, increasing the number of volunteers within our projects and maintaining our self sufficiency in terms of funding.

29

4.0.1 Expanding Educational Opportunities y y Adult Literacy Classes Improve consistency of incentive programs to reward students with good behavior and consistent attendance y y Initiate and continue a program to help secondary students Continue to offer English classes to adults and children and improve consistency and curriculum of these classes y Sports Program for the children in La Thompson and Chiriza

4.0.2 Supplementing Food, Environmental Programs y y y y Maintaining compost pits at both schools to improve soil for future gardens Gardens in both schools to supplement food programs: fruit, vegetables, etc Initiate Plan Semillas; linked to attendance/behavior of children in the school Reforestation Programs

4.0.3 Increasing Volume of Volunteers/Self Sufficiency in Funding y y y Complete second Nicaragua Volcano Charity Challenge in November 2011 (Leon) Expanding and improving our projects to attract future volunteers to include new community schemes and creative ways to generate funding Exposure of GVI Phoenix Nicaragua through existent and new mediums

5.0 Financial Support The substantial fixed costs and variable costs to run GVI Phoenix in Nicaragua is covered mainly (up to 80%) by volunteer fees and the rest by the GVI Charitable Trust. This is, of course, dependent on volunteer numbers. 5.0.1 Charity Challenge 2011 Between May 5 and May 8, 2011 fourteen participants completed the inaugural GVI Phoenix Nicaragua Volcano Charity Challenge with guides from Green Pathway Tours. The following eight volcanoes were climbed in four days to raise funding for our projects: Telica, Santa Clara, San Francisco, Roto, Cerro Negro, Las Pilas, El Hoyo and Momotombo. In all, over $10,000 was raised which went directly towards increased food and fruit programs, refurbishments, completing construction of the school in Chiriza and increased community schemes. The second GVI Phoenix Nicaragua Volcano Charity Challenge will take place November 3 through November 6, 2011.

30

5.0.2 GVI Charitable Trust We rely on the GVI Charitable Trust to make up the difference between the money we receive from GVI volunteers for fixed costs, and what we need overall. These two sources of income are our only sources. Volunteers raise money before and after they join us through running marathons, holding fundraisers at work or school, through standing orders or by working and saving money. The GVI Charitable Trust is registered in the UK, Charity Registration number: 1111494. 100% of all money raised through the Trust comes to us in the field, as GVI covers all administration costs. It is forecast that we will need $15,000-$18,000 through the GVICT in 2011 to cover the extra costs associated with running our projects in Nicaragua. 6.0 References UNICEF ± http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/nicaragua_statistics.html#0 Gobierno de Nicaragua: Ministerio del Trabajo (MITRAB) - Canasta Básica ± http://www.mitrab.gob.ni/documentos/canasta-basica UNESCO Database: ECLAC, Millennium Development Goals, A Latin American and Caribbean Perspective 2005 IFAD, http://www.ruralpovertyportal.org/web/guest/country/home/tags/nicaragua Gobierno de Nicaragua: Ministerio de Educación (MINED) - http://www.mined.gob.ni/ World Health Organization (WHO) - http://www.who.int/countries/nic/en/ GVI Phoenix ± Karla Moran, La Thompson; Cándida Tinoco Zeledón, Chiriza; Yessenia Falcón Velásquez 31

 

Fig. 22

At the Summit of Volcano Momotombo, May 2011

7.0 Appendices Appendix A. Children¶s attendance Escuela Guardabarranco (La Thompson) Preschool, Levels I through III
Students Total Days of School Brisa Gabriela Castros Scarlet Anay Ashly Jimenes Engel Obed Martinez Rios Osmar Enoc Olivas Calderon Duglas Cruz Maria Isaura Morales Rivera Anilsia Lionela Molina Aaron Retirado Yaheymi Alexandra Blandon Danis Jose Ruiz Peralta Yalmar Misael Gonzalez Roque Chelsi Francela Aquirre Osmar Eduardo Armas Alegria Amner Elieser Olivias C Cristian Antonio Ruiz Karla Vanessa Chavarria Jenyfer Junior Olmara Yuniet Cruz Hernandez Alexandra Rugama Vilma Yaneli Daniel Carlos Engel Issac Jeefri Ariel Gonzalez Quezada Bryan Jackson Lopez Scarleth Juan Carlos Ashly Belen Juliesky Ingrid Karen Valesca Gutierrez Bryan Anderson Valenzuela Feb 18 15 12 14 13 7 10 10 11 13 15 12 6 8 6 3 8 3 2 8 Mar 24 21 23 23 21 18 17 23 21 6 22 18 15 10 12 8 8 16 8 21 13 16 9 Apr 10 7 10 8 6 4 7 6 6 8 4 4 2 6 4 8 8 3 3 4 3 4 2 4 May 21 15 15 14 16 11 15 11 5 14 14 11 4 12 4 9 14 14 14 10 6 7 11 2 12 5 10 6 Jun 22 19 19 20 18 17 16 16 15 15 16 16 15 5 21 6 21 16 21 16 16 12 12 14 10 10 14 14 9 5 5 12 3 4 Total 95 19 19 78 78 76 38 65 15 15 63 60 59 59 58 58 57 55 25 25 52 52 42 35 10 10 42 21 32 39 17 37 33 31 Nivel III II I III III III II III III III I III III I II I III II I I III III I III III I I I II I I III I % 86 86 82 82 80 72 68 68 68 66 63 62 62 61 61 60 58 58 58 55 55 55 45 45 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 35 33

32

First Grade
Students Total Days of School Daniel Josue Rucha Arauz Anderson Dagner Maynor Jesus Louis Magdiel Daniella Ingrid Cristian Martita Luz Marina Mariella Edixon Dairol Odalys Marlon David Rocha Arauz Esther Eylin Chirley Aaron Levy Kevin Jafer Betzayda Carol Sarai Rugama Antonio "Toño" Feb 18 5 7 14 9 14 7 11 3 11 11 7 1 Mar 24 20 17 16 19 17 18 8 13 18 12 15 12 12 10 2 8 6 1 6 16 Apr 10 10 6 8 0 6 0 6 6 1 4 6 1 4 4 2 4 1 1 4 0 0 0 2 May 21 13 11 8 6 11 14 15 14 7 14 7 10 4 1 7 5 4 6 8 5 6 7 1 0 1 Jun 22 20 18 16 14 9 12 5 12 9 11 18 14 12 17 17 2 12 11 11 12 8 3 8 19 14 0 Total 95 63 57 55 53 52 12 51 41 49 48 48 21 46 45 22 36 29 19 18 30 13 21 21 21 20 20 % 82 60 58 56 55 55 54 53 52 51 51 49 48 47 42 38 38 36 34 32 30 27 27 27 26 21

Second Grade
Students Total Days of School Josseling Rayo Geral "Payito" Miguel Vannesa Yaneris Centeno Matute Johana Rony Albin Alexander Aguila Feb 18 17 14 15 9 6 11 4 Mar 24 21 17 16 18 15 18 17 Apr 10 7 8 8 7 9 9 7 May 21 20 17 15 16 16 16 8 15 Jun 22 22 17 17 20 21 12 14 7 Total 95 87 73 71 70 67 28 60 50 % 92 77 75 74 71 65 63 53

33

Witman Antonio Rodriguez Kenen Marcos Luis Espinoza Fralia Julissa Hernandez Cruz Eliouk Ruiz Espnioza Osman Maximun Milnar Jarol Luis Fernando

51 9 5 6 5 8 13 6 4 6 2 12 0 2 4 2 2 0 0 0 7 7 5 11 4 5 3 4 0 15 12 20 13 17 14 4 9 9 22 43 40 36 34 21 19 13 17 42 42 38 36 27 25 23 18

Third Grade
Students Total Days of School Cristel Mosarelis Leyva G Emily Tatiana Alaniz C Martha Abigail Espino Espinoza Jovany Rodolfo Vanega P Alejandra Cornejo Luis Omar Riviera M Benita de la Concepcion Alegria Alaniz Elibeth del Rosario Gonzalez Juliana Yahoska Davilo Maria Magdalena Ezekeil Jander Maudiel Rodriguez R Tania Lisseth Ingrid Paola Amy Nicole Llolfren Jesus Juniel Feb 18 13 13 14 17 8 6 16 12 11 8 Mar 24 24 21 22 24 18 22 6 18 6 1 17 2 13 Apr 10 9 9 10 10 10 10 5 9 7 4 8 0 6 May 21 21 21 13 15 17 17 21 16 19 20 11 15 10 6 14 Jun 22 21 20 21 10 20 16 21 13 16 21 8 20 7 14 10 8 0 Total 95 88 84 80 76 73 71 69 68 59 46 52 37 36 20 10 8 14 % 93 88 84 80 77 75 73 72 62 60 55 48 47 47 45 36 33

Fourth, Fifth, Sixth Grades
Student Total Days of School Josue Jovany Diaz Ruiz Edwin Josue Morales Sarvia Xilonia Velasquez G Katering Yessenia Luz Feb 18 13 8 11 Mar 24 22 18 20 Apr 10 9 6 5 May 21 21 19 12 Jun 22 20 18 18 15 Total 95 85 69 66 15 % 89 73 69 68

34

Cristian David Blandon Mayelis Gonzalez Rodriguez Jose Antonio Gomez Engels Alejandro Olivas Carlos Daniel Lanza Garcia Katherin Valesca Potosme Elder Mareno Membreno Flor

15 11 16 15 13 10 13 1

22 10 18 13 15 13 8 0

10 5 1 7 7 6 0 0

7 13 6 0 2 0 4 12

3 12 7 9 0 0 0 9

57 51 48 44 37 29 25 22

60 54 51 46 39 31 26 23

Appendix B. Children¶s attendance Escuela Phoenix (Chiriza)
% 94 93 88 85 84 83 83 82 80 80 79 79 78 78 76 76 75 75 74 74 74 74 71 71 68 68

Students Total Days of School Katerin Isabel Velasquez Gutierrez Karen Elizabeth Velasquez Gutierez Rosa Aura Gutierrez Mendoza Hellen Josaida Castillo Cardenas Luis Enrique Centeno Paguada Scarleth Guadalupe Blandon Rugama Andres Antonio Picado Rivera Omar Antonio Vasquez Onellaua Jose Wilfredo Zeledon Pravia Alison Pamela Arauz Jasquim Heyner Danilo Chavarria Cruz Odais Tercero Marian Isbeth Reyes Gonzalez Jenifer Tatiana Gamez Rivera Leymar Joany Yowin Eliazas Castillo Cardenas Karla Vanessa Rodriguez Davila Joselin del Carmen Blaudon Aguilas Milagros Sarai Perez Davila Keren Celina Aguero Roxana Concepcion Espinoza Obaudo Lesther Manuel Cruz Talavera Rosmery Dalia Espinoza Obaudo Ana Celia Picado Rivera Maykel Antonio Moreno Diaz Jans Carlos Guerrero

Feb 19 17 17 16 17 16 15 16 15 16 15 19 16 14 14 13 15 -

Mar 17 15 14 14 14 14 13 13 12 8 9 14 12 11 7 3 2 2 -

Apr 13 12 12 10 10 11 9 8 9 9 7 10 10 7 8 9 12 11 11 10 8

May 22 21 21 20 18 19 18 18 17 18 16 16 19 18 16 17 15 14 19 19 21 18 20 21

Jun 24 24 24 24 22 20 20 20 18 21 20 20 19 22 21 22 21 16 20 16 20 18 15 18 23 18 11

Total 95 89 88 84 81 80 38 20 18 76 37 75 19 74 46 72 76 71 44 70 70 70 34 67 67 65 40

Nivel I I I II III III I III III III III I I I III III III III II III I III I III I III

35

Xochilt Walkisia Sato Sobalvarro Yobana Gricelda Blaudon Luis Fernando Talavesa Frania Vanessa Ramirez Gutierrez Melvin Francisco Centeno Contreras Geyson Gutierrez Velasquez Jenifer Nahomi Lagos Lauzas Melvin Rodolfo Alanis Vasquez Jackson Sevilla Briones Luis Mario Hernandez Perez Marilin Graciela Baudon Quevedo Karla Stephanie Rodriguez Osegueda Juan Ramon Lopez Picado Rosa Maria Ibarra Chavarria Ana Sofia Katia Fraucela Rivera Marilin Johana Obaudo Gutierrez Yohenia Pahola Vilches Talavesa Joseling Maria Buones Mendez Oliver Matias Mendez Laudero Cristina Alberto Josue Mendez Caudeso Kelin Elieth Picado

13 16 16 18 12 15 19 11 12 17 12 13 16

13 5 10 1 4 10 10 8 12 11 5 10 10 12 5 13 7 0

10 11 8 0 10 10 10 0 0 0 8 0 10 11 0 8 0 10 9 9 0

12 15 15 15 19 16 19 0 0 14 19 12 0 13 0 0 0 11 0 0 0 0 0

12 14 13 13 0 19 0 21 18 13 0 15 23 16 19 14 14 10 15 10 14 13 11

60 29 28 44 53 52 51 41 50 50 50 49 48 39 29 35 43 34 40 40 23 22 27

III III II III II I III I III II III I I III I II III III III III I I II

63 63 61 58 56 55 54 54 53 53 53 52 51 51 49 46 45 45 42 42 39 37 28

First Grade
Students Total Days of School Belinda Vanessa Melkin Yanetsy Carolina Yaricelda Yaritza Hannis Maria Elsa Jaime Asa Fredman Ruben Estiben Feb 18 18 16 18 17 14 14 15 8 3 16 15 Mar 17 17 16 12 13 12 12 11 13 13 11 13 Apr 10 9 10 10 10 10 8 4 9 8 4 7 May 22 22 22 19 20 19 20 19 18 18 13 13 10 0 Jun 21 21 19 18 15 15 15 19 18 21 19 18 20 15 % 88 87 83 77 75 70 69 68 66 63 63 31 30 50 99 94 88 85 80 78 77 75 72 72 72 70 57

36

Nelson Ninoska Engel Habier Maykeli Sindy Yollveh Yasmina Saleth Leni Fabricio Roberto Edith Maria Celeste Angele Karla Yosseling Yureymi Galileo Elwin Antonio Sugeydi Gabriela Darian Rolando Ami Alec Antonio Oneyda

11 5 12 12 14 18 15 18 5 5 11 1 1 12 2 5 1 11 2

11 5 13 5 8 11 14 7 2 9 11 13 2 2 6 11 0 5 0

2 0 4 1 2 4 10 2 0 2 3 8 0 0 2 2 0 0 5

14 6 4 6 4 4 4 6 20 16 4 13 13 8 8 3 11 11 11

9 20 12 21 15 6 0 9 15 6 9 9 9 9 9 0 18 12 15 9 18 0 3

47 46 45 45 43 43 43 42 42 38 9 9 9 9 36 35 34 34 33 30 30 27 21

53 52 51 51 49 49 49 48 48 43 43 43 43 43 41 40 39 39 38 34 34 31 24

Second Grade
Students Total Days of School Jany Isabel Rodriguez Jerez Mayeli Alison Anyel Sissel Rodriguez Osegueda Ashlin Maynor Misael Chabariya Yaosca Jeyson Josue Perez Mauro Lopez Gomez Wilmer Gabriel Sentena Dayana Angie Scarleth Julissa Feb 18 16 16 14 10 10 12 14 1 4 5 Mar 17 17 15 11 14 6 5 15 4 4 9 8 Apr 10 9 9 6 6 2 1 7 2 8 0 6 0 May 22 20 19 16 6 14 6 5 11 11 3 2 1 Jun 21 20 18 18 16 17 16 19 0 8 10 19 3 1 Total 88 82 77 18 63 53 48 43 41 21 34 30 20 15 60 55 49 47 40 39 34 29 17 % 93 88 86 72

37

Eveling Massiel Lainer Arhuleo Gomes

2 -

2 1

0 0

0 6

8 0

12 7

14 10

Third Grade
Students Total Days of School Maria Mercedes Riviera Ramirez Dilan Rosa Aura Junior Antonio Contrera Lopez Lisa Marie Nayeli Tatiana Altamirano Maria Jose Lerera Salvar Eveling Julissa Griseno Salvar Jennifer Lopez Elliel Palma Cardenas Yeyson Josue Janguin Maycol Obregon Imara Julissa Blandon Agular Carlos Jose Abel Hernandez Vichy Joni Feb 18 18 16 9 16 15 14 14 13 11 8 13 8 Mar 17 16 16 15 4 7 15 14 14 11 9 14 12 12 2 Apr 10 7 2 10 8 8 4 6 6 7 4 0 4 2 4 0 2 May 22 20 20 19 21 14 17 9 5 11 6 5 9 1 5 2 1 Jun 21 20 20 16 18 19 11 4 5 3 7 13 11 10 0 0 5 Total 88 81 74 69 67 48 32 49 44 35 42 40 24 38 29 27 18 % 92 84 78 76 69 60 56 50 50 48 45 45 43 33 31 20

Fourth, Fifth, Sixth Grades
Students Total Days of School Yerling Karelia Cruz Jose Arlington Lopez Anielka Yaoska Keyla Jesael Centeno C Luis Armando Lopez Esmeralda Vanessa Emma Rivera Riviera Anyuli Lucia Quintero Jassuri Arlen Ober Casco S Lisbeth Margarita Yader Ivan Martinez Perez Darling Lisbeth Perez Feb 18 17 16 9 13 6 15 7 12 Mar 17 16 15 14 11 15 16 16 14 11 Apr 10 10 8 3 8 9 3 9 5 3 8 5 May 22 22 19 21 22 17 20 19 9 21 11 9 Jun 21 21 15 19 15 16 15 17 3 14 9 7 8 7 Total 88 86 73 43 68 66 15 61 47 14 54 31 48 44 % 98 83 81 77 75 71 69 67 67 61 58 55 50

38

Imara Lineth Estela del Carmen Picado Rivera Jeysell Perez Gonazalez Maykeling Rivera Caldero Christhofer Palcios B Wendy Paola Harvin Josue Morales M Wendy Fabiola Davila Rios Esnayder Jose Costilla Karol Benavidez Yaritza Elizabeth Zelaya Gutierrez Edwin Manuel Mejia Salez Teresa del Socorro Picado Joseph Palacios B Franklin Gonzalez C Laura Rosa Hoyes Gutierrez

9 4 3 9 15 6 13 5 7 3 11 10 4

3 9 11 11 14 5 9 1 5 0 5 3 3 5

5 0 3 8 3 3 5 3 5 5 5 5 0 3 3 3

12 12 8 16 9 0 4 21 4 17 14 14 12 4 0 0

9 18 18 4 8 21 1 3 1 2 2 4 7 4 7 0

26 42 42 42 40 24 39 38 32 25 31 30 27 25 23 12

49 48 48 48 45 45 44 43 36 36 35 34 31 28 26 14

8.0 Explanation of Attendance Reporting
**Students who have attended school more than 25% of the time are counted as having ³regular´ attendance. Both schools have seen an influx of new students over the last six months. Counting the non-regular attendees (those attending classes less than 25% of the time) in the overall attendance rates does not present a true representation of students who have attended consistently for the last six months. A hyphen (-) in certain months in the attendance appendices represent months in which newer students had not yet started attending classes.

39

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.