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makes it the first major art movement that happened in the US. The other art movements were taking place all throughout Europe. •Gustave Courbet is the father Realism, Eduard Manet the father of Impressionism, and Pablo Picasso the father of Modernism. •The Pantheon of artists that have been declared parents of movements of art are primarily white males. •Initially art was taught by copying and through teaching strict guidelines on how things should be done. When those traits have been learned, then an artist could develop their own style. •There are skills that artists need to be artists, but that seems to be lost when it comes to modern art. •What skills are needed to become a modern artists? •The idea of the Avant-garde has become synonymous with modern art. This idea of the Avant-garde is constant forward thinking. •19th century dilemma that has been passed on is the question of idealism vs. realism. •These two schools became rival schools. Artists like Thomas Couture was still painting Roman scenes in 1847. •Gustave Courbet just wanted to paint what was exactly in front of him. •Manet’s Olympia was a scandalous painting that raised awareness of the dirty realness that people did not want to be reminded of. As in this painting the main figure is not a demure beauty, instead she is a prostitute completely unapologetic over her nudity. The flowers are from a suitor and the cat represents infidelity. •Modern art changes the idea that all artists are painters. Modern sculpture is pushed aside, but new modes of art were beginning to pop up. 9/7/10 •One of the myths is that New York is the epicenter of important artwork. It wasn’t until the 1970’s that a tension developed between the east and west coast. •New York is known as the place where the more relevant issues happen. Ellis Island is here, so there is a constant flow of people. A myth was created around that to become significant you had to go to NY. Prior to this myth it was believed you had to go to Paris. •Stereotypes in the early 1900’s it was believed that American didn’t have a culture, that Europe was cultured and sophisticated. •Kadinsky in 1912 moved to Germany to try to pull people into an animalistic level, by paintings objects that were not recognizable. He was considered strange, as he was among the first to create abstract people. His belief was that to look at an abstract
along with local American Art. •The bicycle like the Eiffel Tower was a sign of modernity. •Marcel Duchamp •In 1913 turned up in New York and began working with young American artists. machinery. •Cubism was an avant-garde that put itself in front of everything anyone else had been/was working on. began to paint under the impact of what was occurring in NY. Stella adopted the American culture and incorporated the concept into his art. •He painted the sensation and intensity that came with the city. •Duchamp. but should rather emote the world. This gallery stands for everything that is modern in American up until WWII. Stieglitz started a gallery called “291. change. •A tsunami of new ideas stormed into this gallery that combined and transcended cultures. a Parisian artist. big changes were occurring in the studio of Pablo Picasso. The piece broke all norms of seeing. Duchamp explored objects that had to do with everyday life. This is a question that contemporary art poses. •At the center of the art world in Paris. and technology. This is when he came up with a notion of the things that are produced in this country. •American artists were borrowing a voice. •Questioned being a modern artist and living around extraordinary ordinary objects. •Alfred Stieglitz brought anyone who wanted to be cosmopolitan into a community of kindled spirits. •Albert Gleizes. This sprouted the question as to what “American art” is? •Joseph Stella a Romanian artists is considered an American artist. •A modernist idea that arose from this time is that the artist does not have to imitate the world. •Armory show created a giant scandal with the painting Nude Descending a Staircase 1912 by Marcel Duchamp.” which became a location where you could see advanced European art. Where is space and where is the object. •The Brooklyn Bridge became a quintessential structure associated with modernity. as he found paintings to be boring and far less significant. had this piece in the New York show. •He wrote the first theoretical cubist piece explaining what cubism was.object you become more spiritual since you will try to make sense of it and make it into something real and concrete. and making it their own. . and was severely mocked. This helped get America out of its rut. The piece received a great load of criticism. •Cubism questions how we paint objects in space. it was challenging for the viewer. associated with modern life and speed. a European immigrant. •Picasso was experimenting with tearing apart whole objects and painting/drawing them as though ripped apart. This is part of the culture of the new world.
•America became a sea of signage. •New York was the post for the Dada movement. that the rest of America is rural and not as modern. •This era raising the question of provincialism and authenticity. and this is why some artists chose to go against making abstract art. •Advertisements. but it does have pop culture. and how scandalous it was likely to become. and explosion of advertisement. He also painted Egg Beater in 1924. •Wood was saying that New York is not all of America. it is restating the culture wars between realistic and abstract art. •Thomas Hart Benton and Grant Wood were associated with Americanism. Diego Riviera. •Grant Wood •Painted American Gothic in 1930 (the painting of the man with the pitch fork and his daughter standing in front of their home.•American culture has been viewed by a society obsessed with hygiene and stocked with an overload of “things” that the rest of the world had never considered necessary. whether the ideals of progressive art were over. where among the more famous muralist artists. •America gearing up for WWII contributed to understated messages in American art. imagery. and Jose Clemente Orozco. •Stuart Davis •Responsible for painting Lucky Strike 1921. This brings attention to the stir art was causing. dealing with reality. •These murals functioned as social moralization. •Depicts a rural domestic lifestyle. There were images or . •In the early 1930’s the sense of the bankruptcy. The muralists wanted to reach across people despite culture and language. advertising. The piece caused a stir and was covered over with more “appropriate” art. •Jazz as the quintessential music culture. •Man at the Crossroads a mural by Diego Rivera commissioned to be painted at the Rockefeller Plaza in 1934 cause a great deal of controversy. The rest of the country was dealing with economic issues.. etc. neon. •David Siquieros •A Mexican muralist who painted the piece America Tropica in 1931. •The Mexican muralists David Siquieros. •He took domestic mass produced objects to paint. •At this time one of the arguments was that America doesn’t have the culture Europe has. and this was their argument for naturalistic art. this influenced Pop Art in the 60’s.. •Art in the political landscape of the 1930’s was playing a political part. marketing. Other cultures didn’t understand painting the banality of everyday art. which was called billboard cubism.
Class Notes September 14 . •1938-1939 is when artists began reading works by Carl Jung. but this is greatly overlooked. This is an exploration of the unconscious mind. •Scale became an object lesson for other artists.100 public murals were commissioned between 1935 and 1943. This is considered the second immigration. •1. This piece is mural size. •Hans Hofmann taught at the Art Students League in NY. Part of the concept of his pieces is free-association (Freud). •Thomas Hart Benton was one of the leaders of the American Regionalist art movement. •Museum of Modern art was set up in 1939. •Early Pollock works show that he was clearly a student of Thomas Hart Benton. •Surrealism: biomorphism and automatism. symbolized to many the end of the old world. This was one of the avant-garde cultures that emerged in the 1930’s. and later moving onto a muralist violent style common within the work of other muralists. This was a movement that emerged from Paris. he introduced abstract painting to NY. Mark Rothko and Jackson Pollock both made this kind of art in their earlier career. because of the Nazi’s in 1940. •Jackson Pollock •The golden-boy of the 1940’s art scene. Pollock was also influenced by Picasso in his earlier works. •The fall of Paris. This fall of Paris meant that a large number of the population had to get out and came to America. If you choose color properly. and thus ignored modern European movements like cubism. along with images of communism because it is about ordinary people. •Many artists at this time were painting and advocating the same cause. •Automatism (visual free association). which had a new explanation on how the human unconscious works. Surrealism provided a venue for expressing the things that were absolutely taboo. he believed in the collective unconscious. This free association at this point is related to Jung’s theory. •Pablo Picasso •Painted Guernica in 1937. •Stayed away from anything too photographic in order to express his emotions and feelings about objects and subjects.present and past social related images. you can compose images by causing the eye to push and pull objects. not Freud’s. •This brought into question the artist’s ability to say what they wanted to say with their art. •Joseph Cornell put together boxes that told stories that didn’t really tell stories at all. which was commenting on the bombings on the small town in Spain during WWI.
that walk this earth despite there being no purpose. then we can become healthy full beings.•Mark Rothko and Barnett Newman created simplistic pieces that mainly consisted of geometric forms and strong colors. Is responsible for the famous of the cover for the catalogue for Cubism and Abstract Art in 1936. •When America entered WWII. •To recreate his journey or process you need to have the visual of what was occurring when he was creating his pieces. Adolph Gottlieb is among the artists producing these works. Pollock’s painting has been seen as the artist pissing on his canvas. •This type of work contributes to the elitist mentality associated with American art. Propagandized European art. before that he trained under Thomas Hart Benton. •Norman Rockwell •During the war he painted a series of the four freedoms upon which America is based. •Jackson Pollock •Played around with the same types of images that Gottlieb did. •These pieces were leaving their art to be open for exploration. •This was influenced by Jung’s theory. Notes September 16 •Mark Tansey •Painted Triumph of New York School 1984. •Alberto Giacometti •Was a sculptor who created pieces that are routinely interpreted as human beings. •Pictographic paintings explored primitive imagery. art changed to how countries felt they related to one another. •He is a post-war survivor. •This piece of his comments on American triumphing over European art. •Ad Reinhardt •Came up with the cartoon How to Look at Modern Art in America in 1946. •Alfred Barr •Founding director of MOMA in NY. •His painting has been referred to as action painting as well as drip painting. •Thomas Hart Benton •Painted propagandistic images of the of Japanese as the enemy in one of his mural series. •Jackson Pollock . while the more realistic pieces are like written literature. •Octagonal shaped building containing triptychs by Rothko. which says that if we tap into our unconscious self. Painting shouldn’t try to do what literature does. He is reacting to a world where everything that used to make sense no longer makes sense. and also created murals. •Rothko Chapel in Houston •Built in 1970.
•Mark Rothko •Frequently associated as a member of the New York school. •The notion of putting presence in a void can be related to as an object standing. it wasn’t a terribly new concept. •Each one of them developed a new style. •One of his most famous series is “Allergies of a Spanish Republic. •Has an art history background.” which has also been called zip painting. and tends to use monotone colors. •All his pieces were painted in a “mature style. •Greenberg seen as the man who got to dictate how modern art would be talked about. •He stands for a certain approach and risk of making art. •Rosenberg had a more philosophical idea on what art was. •Explores primitive imagery. •They are among the generation of the first “American” artists. •Clement Greenberg and Harold Rosenberg •Two very famous art critics. Jackson Pollock. Theodora Stamos. therefore the actual product isn’t important. His idea of discussing art became the formal way. The act of daring to make a picture. •Robert Motherwell •Has a consisting style. Emphasizes the formal aspects of a painting. exhibit. carefully calculated colors. as well as art viewing. His work is about the effect of pools of color. •The idea of making a mark being the only thing that a painter can really do is leave behind this marking. •This brought to attention that painting could be brought to a whole new scale. but rather the fact that they acted. yet. •Adolph Gottlieb •Worked openly with cryptic primitive images. •These were artists that did not want a label put on them. were among the 18 in this photograph. •Rothko takes out anything that you can derive and make sense of. Hedda Stern. Willem de Kooning. To him this was taking a giant risk. of unrelenting black and white spaces in his paintings.E. Fields of intense color intersected by this vertical. •The photograph includes Barnett Newman. •Has a piece were the canvas is painted in all black. • Barnett Newman •His art was saying that modern people have more in common with primitive people. •The Irascible Eighteen was on the cover of Life magazine in 1950 •This photograph shows 18 of the artists that were not chosen for the M. .•Looking at a photograph of Pollock painting almost substitutes for the experience of actually looking at one of his pieces. with two very different ideas on what a critic does.T. Mark Rothko. •Eclipse looks like people singing to the sun/moon gods. That it was more about the act rather than what was actual on the canvas. They wanted nothing to do with copying European art. Leads into performance art.” •For him these were painting a sense of loss.