"A classic perfume is determined by the quality of the raw materials you put in it and by its elegance, distinction and

originality", Guerlain says ."Above all it has to be memorable". Every perfumer is influenced by the work of other perfumers before him and will add something new to it. In perfumery, there are no real standard rules but there are some principles that can help guide us. It is important to learn from the work of the great masters. It's a way to discover how aromas work together. The best way to learn the principles of how aromas work, together, is by re-creating their work. By re-creating the work of the master perfumers, you can get an idea of what the "master" thought, why he used certain notes and why he combined them in a certain way. Through experience, you learn how aromas react to one another. By studying the classic, famous, perfumes you already have one-step up in experience because you know now why the perfumer had used certain notes. By knowing the perfume families and studying the classics, you gain a great advantage in perfumery, something you can use for finding your own style and method when making a perfume. In this lesson, we will study the classic perfumes: L'air du Temps, Chanel no 5, Shalimar and Femme We will find out what kinds of notes are used in these perfumes as well as some more background information about them. In order to re-create these fragrances, we will need the information about what types of notes they may contain; we will then need to compare our creations to the original fragrance. Analyzing scents: We try to find the notes in the Classic perfumes by the information we will be reading, later on in this lesson. Another way of detecting the notes in these perfumes, is by smelling them on our skin and on scent-strips as well . It takes a lot of concentration to discover the notes of a perfume. You can ask yourself questions like: "do I smell clove or is it another spicy note I smell", "does this fragrance contain lemon or is the citrus note coming from Bergamot or neroli", "do I smell phenylethyl alcohol or is it geraniol" etc.

so you might detect a note that no longer exists on the first strip. you can use two smelling strips. you can find some tips on how to smell and compare the classic perfume to your own re-creation. that it doesn t belong in there. but have doubts that it exists in the original. then by smelling the two strips. Let s expand further on the classic perfumes. you are probably right. we will start with L'air du Temps L'air du Temps was launched in 1948 by Nina Ricci. *Another way to discover the components of a classic perfume is by using two scent strips. without knowing which one you are smelling. it can then detect the notes in your re-creation. salicylate fragrance. to detect the other notes of the fragrance. bergamot) and then comparing the scent of that strip with the strip that contains the original perfume. Nigel Groom describes the notes as: . now you can smell the other notes around it. used clove in your re-creation of the original. L'air du Temps is a floral. It is also important to smell the base notes from the original. that do not belong in there.After you've discovered a certain note you need to put that note aside and then smell around that already discovered note. *The same method can be used when you want to compare your re-creation with the original. yet can still be detected on the newer one. is by putting an individual note on a smelling strip (e. Try not to concentrate too much on one aspect. The magnificent bottle was designed by Marc Lalique. This way you can distinguish the top. On the next page. one strip is made later than the other strip. for example. Some smelling tips: *After you have discovered a note and smelled it intensely you can make your nose tired (fatigued)of that note thereby eliminating that note from the perfume. heart and base notes. you can do this by using a smelling strip and leaving it for a couple of hours or even days. When you can smell clove in one of them but not the other. When you. one with the original and one with your re-creation. When your nose gets tired of the notes from the original. Another way to find out if a particular note exists in the original perfume. and was created by perfumer Francis Fabron.g.

The Carnation complex also contains Ylang Ylang and iso-Eugenol. To the basic structure of the fragrance as it stands now. the base notes along with the Carnation complex. there are added in small amounts the following materials: Aldehyde C11 undecylenic. but it must used carefully. . Jasmine. Vanilla.. is the main accord of this fragrance. The base has an accord made of Methyl Ionone(10%) Vetiveryl Acetate. Rose... replacing some of the known materials with other (newer) materials. Sandalwood But. Ylang Ylang Base: Musk. Phenylethyl Alcohol for Rose. Musk Ketone and Musk Ambrette. The richness and complexity of this fragrance is coming from Jasmine and Rose absolutes. We can then alter this formula. Styrallyl Acetate for Gardenia. for example. Sandalwood. The heart contains a bouquet of floral notes reduced to their simple components: Terpineol for Lilac. We can do this by.. Hydroxycitronellol for Muguet and Benzyl Acetate and Amyl Cinnamic Aldehyde for Jasmine. or better yet. why he used certain notes in combination. with the formula containing 15% Benzyl Salicylate. Rose Heart: Gardenia.. In the book: "Practice and principles of perfumery" it says that L'air du Temps contains a Carnation complex made of Benzyl Salicylate and Eugenol at a ratio of 4. Carnation. So how can we use this information? We can begin by making a copy of L'air du Temps and then by analyzing. it also works as a bridge between the top notes and the rest. Iris. what is really inside L'air du Temps? Lets have a closer look at the ingredients. Many perfumers were inspired by L'air du Temps and created fragrances that had similar notes. Heliotropin and Iris complement the Carnation complex. but used other notes to replace some of them.Top: Bergamot. Orris root. The top notes (14% of the formula) are a classic mix of Bergamot and Rosewood together with their components Linalool and Linalyl Acetate.5 to1 respectively. gives impact and blends beautifully with Styrallyl Acetate. Vanilla adds some impact. smelling what the perfumer Francis Fabron may have thought when he created it. like in the perfume: Fidji by Guy Laroche(1966) The Benzyl Salicylate is replaced by cis 3 Hexenyl Salicylate and the Hydroxycitronellol is replaced by Lyral.

The heart notes contain a high percentage (4 to 5%) of Rose and Jasmine absolutes. 5 % Coumarin. C10 and C12 and just a small amount of the uneven Aldehydes. Sandalwood. Neroli. . Nigel Groom describes the notes as: Top: Ylang Ylang. in amounts larger than usual and larger than those found in nature. Lilly of the Valley Base: Sandalwood. Rose alcohols(Geraniol. but above seven they have a pleasant smell and can be used as perfume ingredients. Civet. Ylang Ylang.In the perfume Paris by Yves Saint Laurent(1983) The Carnation complex is replaced by a Violet and Rose complex. Rose. The Aldehydes with an even number of carbon atoms have a citrus-like scent but the Aldehydes with an odd number of carbon atoms smell waxy and candle-like. The base notes contain Ciste oil. used possibly for the first time. 5 contain Bergamot. In L'air du Temps the Methyl Ionone works as a woody-iris character in combination with Vetiveryl Acetate. 10% Hydroxycitronellal. 5 When we read the book. Chanel no. while in Paris it works as the basis for a Violet accord in combination with iso E Super as the woody note. 5 was that Ernest Beaux used a large amount of the even-numbered Aldehydes like Aldehydes. we can read that Aldehydes with less than seven carbon atoms have an unpleasant smell. Linalool. Natural oils like citrus oils do contain Aldehydes but never in such a high content. 1. Musk. Iris. natural Musk. Aldehydes Heart: Jasmine. Cinnamic Alcohol. Vetiveryl Acetate. 5 was launched in 1921 and was created by the perfumer Ernest Beaux. We do not actually know which Aldehydes or Musks were used in Chanel no. iso Eugenol. The Emperor of Scent by Chandler Burr. There is a story that the assistant to Ernest Beaux. Citronellol etc) and a little Phenyl acetaldehyde. who prepared the formula. Civet. Vanilla. Chanel 5 utilizes Lemon and Bergamot along with synthetic aldehydes. Vetiver. The secret to Chanel no. It also contains 8% Methyl Ionone. Oak moss The top notes of Chanel no. created by Ernest Beaux. like Aldehyde C11.5% Vanilla and 10% Nitro Musks. Styrax. C8. Linalyl Acetate. It's a floral aldehydic fragrance. Neroli and Aldehydes (1%). made a mistake and used 10 times more of the Aldehydes than was supposed to be used. 5 Chanel no. The result was so refreshingly new that Ernest kept the formula as it was. Amber grey.

Patchouli and Labdanum. like iso Butyl Quinoline. Hedione and Hexylcinnamic Aldehyde. Miss Dior(1947) . The heart notes contain a lily note from Hydroxycitronellal. Petit Grain (Citronnier). it contains a high amount of Musk Ketone followed by Galaxolide. for instance. as well as Balsams and spicy notes like Cumin and Cardamom. Nigel Groom describes the notes as: Top: Peach. Rose. a Gardenia note is introduced by using Styrallyl Acetate together with Aldehyde C11 undecylenic. It contains 15% of the following combination of materials: Cyclamen Aldehyde. Oak moss. Ylang Ylang Base: Oak moss. The fragrance also contains a lilac note and Opopanax (sweet Myrrh). Femme is a fragrance that belongs to the Chypre family. Patchouli. a bit of Tonalide and Musk Xylene among others. it also contains Coumarin and Musk ketone. It was created by the perfumer Edmond Roudnitska. Plum. Immortelle. there are more green top notes used by Galbanum and Basil. Vanilla Femme contains a high percentage of fresh top notes like: Bergamot. Femme Femme. Apricot. Methyl Ionone. Musk. Heliotropin and Ylang Ylang. He also used a Carnation base. Lemon. was launched in 1945 by Rochas. Amber. Muguet. Cedarwood 2% and Kephalis. The base contains most of the same notes as in Femme but there are also some leather notes used.On the Internet you can find what kinds of musks Chanel no. Edmond Roudnitska used small amounts of woody materials. It has a fruity Jasmin note. Cabochard by Gress(1958) has similar notes as Femme but instead of the fruity notes of peach and apricot. fruity notes of bases like Prunol or de Laire. much the same as was used in L air du Temps. Bergamot. Instead of a lilac note. Cinnamon Heart: Jasmine. 5 contains. iso Eugenol. where the rose complex dominates the fragrance with an accent on Geranium and Aldehydes. which contains Eugenol. Sandalwood. Rive Gauche by Yves SaintLaurent(1971) is an aldehydic perfume as well.

like Cuir de Russie and a small amount of Cinnamon bark oil to complement the leather notes. It is based on the Ambrein accord which contains: Bergamot. The formula contains 3% Ethyl Vanillin and 9% Coumarin. Mandarin. Then. Citronellol and Geraniol. Rose. were employed. Neroli. Lemon Heart notes: Patchouli. instead they used Galbanum (as used in Cabochard) and Styrallyl acetate combined with Aldehydes such as. Must de Cartier (1981) is also based on the Ambrein accord with additions of Coumarin. which together with Hedione and Galaxolide takes up 40% of the formula. We learned in this lesson the basic structures of some classical perfumes and how these classical perfumes inspired other perfumers to use the same structures and change them a little bit to create a whole new perfume. He also added a peach note by using Aldehyde C14. Amber grey and Musk. other citrus notes. It was created by the Perfumer Jacques Guerlain. Jasmine. Benzoin. animal and balsamic notes. It is an oriental perfume.does contain some similar notes found in Femme. For the leather note. Galbanum and a little bit of Thyme oil. Tonka. It also contains Sandalwood. The top contains 30% Bergamot. For the green-fruity notes. Shalimar Shalimar was launched in 1925 by Guerlain. For the rose notes. Vanilla. Vanilla (vanillin) and Civet. I hope it inspired you as well. Besides the Ambrein accord it contains 4% Patchouli. Coumarin and Civet. A bit of Cedryl Acetate was then added to the sandalwood. Leather Shalimar has a high percentage of natural. Sandalwood and Vetiver. he used Rose absolute. Benzoin. only doesn t have the fruity notes. and rosewood. they used Triplal and Aldehyde C14. Shalimar is named after The Gardens of Shalimar. It was inspired by an Indian Emperor s love for his magnificent wife. Cedar. Civet. and Aldehyde C10. tinctures of Vanilla. though newer versions contain the substitute Lyral (Hydroxycitronellal being a skin sensitizer). Jacques used Castoreum and a leather base. Orris Base notes: Vanilla. where their love grew and flourished. in Miss Dior they used Pepper and Coriander. Aldehyde C11 Undecylenic. Peru Balsam. . Where the spicy notes in Femme were Cumin and Cardamom. Miss Dior contains Hydroxycitronellal as does Cabochard. Top notes: Bergamot. Castoreum.

.Jenny A big thanks to Frank for helping me with the grammaire.

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