BIOMECHANICAL ENERGY HARVESTER USING E-WASTE ABSTRACT This project is about a biomechanical energy harvester that is used to collect

power while walking and use it for powering Night Lamps. The main reason of going for biomechanical energy harvesting i.e., energy production from physical movements is as an alternative to conventional energy sources. Arm swing, shoe power, back pack power are most widely used bio mechanical harvesters other than knee brace.

Night lamp using Led 1 watt

The main principle of operation of leg brace generative braking", analogous to the braking systems found in hybrid-electric cars. Hybrid electric cars take advantage of stop-and-go driving using so-called "regenerative braking" where the energy normally dissipated as heat is used to drive a generator. Within each stride muscles are continuously accelerating and decelerating the body. Leg brace works on the same principle as these cars. Using a series of gears, the knee brace assists the hamstring in slowing the body just before the foot hits the ground, whilst simultaneously generating electricity. Sensors on the device switch the generator off for the remainder of each step. In this way, the device puts less strain on the wearer than if it was constantly producing energy.

Leg Brace Jig of the 2kg device produced an average of 1 to3 watts of electricity from a slow walk. Wearing a device on each leg, an individual can generate up to 3 watts of electricity with little additional physical effort. Walking quickly, however, generates as much as 5 watts. Producing substantial electricity with little extra effort makes this method well-suited for many applications which include lighting of night lamps, mobile charging and powering radio sets. The cost of harvesting the additional metabolic power required to produce 1 watt of electricity is less than one-eighth of that generation The so called zero watt bulbs which are used as night lamps require about 12 watts of energy. This energy if produced at home can save around 30 units every month which if not much can save some amount of the conventional energy consumption. Hence this project aims  Building a device called knee brace  Saving of dissipated energy using the knee brace  Using the energy stored for powering of night lamps for conventional human power

INTRODUCTION ENERGY CRISIS An energy crisis is any great bottleneck (or price rise) in the supply of energy resources to an economy. In popular literature though, it often refers to one of the energy sources used at a certain time and place. What Constitutes an Energy Crisis? Energy crisis is a situation in which the nation suffers from a disruption of energy supplies (in our case, oil) accompanied by rapidly increasing energy prices that threaten

economic and national security. The threat to economic security is represented by the possibility of declining economic growth, increasing inflation, rising unemployment, and losing billions of dollars in investment. The threat to national security is represented by the inability of the US government to exercise various foreign policy options, especially in regard to countries with substantial oil reserves. For example, the recent disruption of Venezuelan oil supplies may limit the US policy options toward Iraq. Causes Market failure is possible when monopoly manipulation of markets occurs. A crisis can develop due to industrial actions like union organized strikes and government embargoes. The cause may be over-consumption, aging infrastructure, choke point disruption or bottlenecks at oil refineries and port facilities that restrict fuel supply. An emergency may emerge during unusually cold winters due to increased consumption of energy. Pipeline failures and other accidents may cause minor interruptions to energy supplies. A crisis could possibly emerge after infrastructure damage from severe weather. Attacks by terrorists or militia on important infrastructure are a possible problem for energy consumers, with a successful strike on a Middle East facility potentially causing global shortages. Political events, for example, when governments change due to regime change, monarchy collapse, military occupation, and coup may disrupt oil and gas production and create shortages. Historical crises

1970s Energy Crisis - Cause: peaking of oil production in major industrial nations (Germany, U.S., Canada, etc.) and embargoes from other producers 1973 oil crisis - Cause: an OPEC oil export embargo by many of the major Arab oilproducing states, in response to western support of Israel during the Yom Kippur War 1979 oil crisis - Cause: the Iranian revolution 1990 spike in the price of oil - Cause: the Gulf War The 2000±2001 California electricity crisis - Cause: failed deregulation, and business corruption. The UK fuel protest of 2000 - Cause: Raise in the price of crude oil combined with already relatively high taxation on road fuel in the UK. North American natural gas crisis Argentine energy crisis of 2004 North Korea has had energy shortages for many years. Zimbabwe has experienced a shortage of energy supplies for many years due to financial mismanagement. Social and economic effects The macroeconomic implications of a supply shock-induced energy crisis are large, because energy is the resource used to exploit all other resources. When energy markets fail, an energy shortage develops. Electricity consumers may experience intentionally engineered rolling blackouts which are released during periods of insufficient supply or unexpected power outages, regardless of the cause. Industrialized nations are dependent on oil, and efforts to restrict the supply of oil would have an adverse effect on the economies of oil producers. For the consumer, the price of natural gas, gasoline (petrol) and diesel for cars and other vehicles rises. An early response from stakeholders is the

call for reports, investigations and commissions into the price of fuels. There are also movements towards the development of more sustainable urban infrastructure.

Crisis management An electricity shortage is felt most by those who depend on electricity for their heating, cooking and water supply. In these circumstances a sustained energy crisis may become a crisis. If an energy shortage is prolonged a crisis management phase is enforced by authorities. Energy audits may be conducted to monitor usage. Various curfews with the intention of increasing energy conservation may be initiated to reduce consumption. To conserve power during the Central Asia energy crisis, authorities in Tajikistan ordered bars and cafes to operate by candlelight.[10] Warnings issued that peak demand power supply might not be sustained. In the worst kind of energy crisis energy rationing and fuel rationing may be incurred. Panic buying may beset outlets as awareness of shortages spread. Facilities close down to save on heating oil; and factories cut production and lay off workers. The risk of stagflation increases. Mitigation of an energy crisis

Nuclear power in Germany The Hirsch report made clear that an energy crisis is best averted by preparation. In 2008, solutions such as the Pickens Plan and the satirical in origin Paris Hilton energy plan suggest the growing public consciousness of the importance of mitigation. Energy may be reformed leading to greater energy intensity, for example in Iran with the 2007 Gas Rationing Plan in Iran, Canada and the National Energy Program and in the USA with the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. In Europe the oil phase-out in Sweden is an initiative a government has taken to provide energy security. Another mitigation measure is the setup of a cache of secure fuel reserves like the United States Strategic Petroleum Reserve, in case of national emergency. Chinese energy policy includes specific targets within their 5 year plans.

World energy usage Future and alternative energy sources In response to the petroleum crisis, the principles of green energy and sustainable living movements gain popularity. This has led to increasing interest in alternate power/fuel research such as fuel cell technology, liquid nitrogen economy, hydrogen fuel, methanol,

biodiesel, Karrick process, solar energy, geothermal energy, tidal energy, wave power, and wind energy, and fusion power. To date, only hydroelectricity and nuclear power have been significant alternatives to fossil fuel. Hydrogen gas is currently produced at a net energy loss from natural gas, which is also experiencing declining production in North America and elsewhere. When not produced from natural gas, hydrogen still needs another source of energy to create it, also at a loss during the process. This has led to hydrogen being regarded as a 'carrier' of energy, like electricity, rather than a 'source'. The unproven dehydrogenating process has also been suggested for the use water as an energy source. Efficiency mechanisms such as Megawatt power can encourage significantly more effective use of current generating capacity. It is a term used to describe the trading of increased efficiency, using consumption efficiency to increase available market supply rather than by increasing plant generation capacity. As such, it is a demand-side as opposed to a supply-side measure. Coal as an alternative to wood Historian Norman F. Cantor describes how in the late medieval period, coal was the new alternative fuel to save the society from overuse of the dominant fuel, wood:"Europeans had lived in the midst of vast forests throughout the earlier medieval centuries. After 1250 they became so skilled at deforestation that by 1500 AD they were running short of wood for heating and cooking... By 1500 Europe was on the edge of a fuel and nutritional disaster, [from] which it was saved in the sixteenth century only by the burning of soft coal and the cultivation of potatoes and maize." Whale oil was the dominant form of lubrication and fuel for lamps in the early 19th century, but by mid century and the depletion of the whale stocks, whale oil prices were skyrocketing and could not compete with the newly discovered source of cheap petroleum from Pennsylvania in 1859. Alcohol as an alternative to fossil fuels In 1917, Alexander Graham Bell advocated ethanol from corn and other foodstuffs as an alternative to coal and oil, stating that the world was in measurable distance of depleting these fuels. For Bell, the problem requiring an alternative was lack of renewability of

orthodox energy sources. Since the 1970s, Brazil has had an ethanol fuel program which has allowed the country to become the world's second largest producer of ethanol (after the United States) and the world's largest exporter. Brazil¶s ethanol fuel program uses modern equipment and cheap sugar cane as feedstock, and the residual cane-waste (biogases) is used to process heat and power. There are no longer light vehicles in Brazil running on pure gasoline. By the end of 2008 there were 35,000 filling stations throughout Brazil with at least one ethanol pump. Cellulosic ethanol can be produced from a diverse array of feedstocks, and involves the use of the whole crop. This new approach should increase yields and reduce the carbon footprint because the amount of energy-intensive fertilizers and fungicides will remain the same, for a higher output of usable material. As of 2008, there are nine commercial cellulosic ethanol plants which are either operating, or under construction, in the United States. Coal gasification as an alternative to petroleum In the 1970s, President Jimmy Carter's administration advocated coal gasification as an alternative to expensive imported oil. The program, including the Synthetic Fuels Corporation was scrapped when petroleum prices plummeted in the 1980s. Renewable energy vs. non-renewable energy Renewable energy is energy generated from natural resources²such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat²which are renewable (naturally replenished). When comparing the processes for producing energy, there remain several fundamental differences between renewable energy and fossil fuels. The process of producing oil, coal, or natural gas fuel is a difficult and demanding process that requires a great deal of complex equipment, physical and chemical processes. On the other hand, alternative energy can be widely produced with basic equipment and naturally basic processes. Wood, the most renewable and available alternative energy, burns the same amount of carbon it would emit if it degraded naturally. Ecologically friendly alternatives

Renewable energy sources such as biomass are sometimes regarded as an alternative to ecologically harmful fossil fuels. Renewable are not inherently alternative energies for this purpose. For example, the Netherlands, once leader in use of palm oil as a biofuel, has suspended all subsidies for palm oil due to the scientific evidence that their use "may sometimes create more environmental harm than fossil fuels´. The Netherlands government and environmental groups are trying to trace the origins of imported palm oil, to certify which operations produce the oil in a responsible manner. Regarding biofuels from foodstuffs, the realization that converting the entire grain harvest of the US would only produce 16% of its auto fuel needs, and the decimation of Brazil's CO2 absorbing tropical rain forests to make way for biofuel production has made it clear that placing energy markets in competition with food markets results in higher food prices and insignificant or negative impact on energy issues such as global warming or dependence on foreign energy. Recently, alternatives to such undesirable sustainable fuels are being sought, such as commercially viable sources of cellulosic ethanol. Relatively new concepts for alternative energy Algae fuel Algae fuel is a biofuel which is derived from algae. During photosynthesis, algae and other photosynthetic organisms capture carbon dioxide and sunlight and convert it into oxygen and biomass. Biomass briquettes Biomass briquettes are being developed in the developing world as an alternative to charcoal. The technique involves the conversion of almost any plant matter into compressed briquettes that typically have about 70% the calorific value of charcoal. There are relatively few examples of large scale briquette production. One exception is in North Kivu, in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, where forest clearance for charcoal production is considered to be the biggest threat to Mountain Gorilla habitat. The staff of Virunga National Park have successfully trained and equipped over 3500 people to produce biomass briquettes, thereby replacing charcoal produced illegally

inside the national park, and creating significant employment for people living in extreme poverty in conflict affected areas. Biogas digestion Biogas digestion deals with harnessing the methane gas that is released when waste breaks down. This gas can be retrieved from garbage or sewage systems. Biogas digesters are used to process methane gas by having bacteria break down biomass in an anaerobic environment. The methane gas that is collected and refined can be used as an energy source for various products. Biological Hydrogen Production Hydrogen gas is a completely clean burning fuel; its only by-product is water. It also contains relatively high amount of energy compared with other fuels due to its chemical structure. 2H2 + O2 ² 2H2O + High Energy 2H2 + O2

High Energy + 2H2O ²

This requires a high-energy input, making commercial hydrogen very inefficient. Use of a biological vector as a means to split water, and therefore produce hydrogen gas, would allow for the only energy input to be solar radiation. Biological vectors can include bacteria or more commonly algae. This process is known as biological hydrogen production. It requires the use of single celled organisms to create hydrogen gas through fermentation. Without the presence of oxygen, also known as an anaerobic environment, regular cellular respiration cannot take place and a process known as fermentation takes over. A major by-product of this process is hydrogen gas. If we could implement this on a large scale, then we could take sunlight, nutrients and water and create hydrogen gas to be used as a dense source of energy. Large-scale production has proven difficult. It was not until 1999 that we were able to even induce these anaerobic conditions by sulfur deprivation. Since the fermentation process is an evolutionary back up, turned on during

stress, the cells would die after a few days. In 2000, a two-stage process was developed to take the cells in and out of anaerobic conditions and therefore keep them alive. For the last ten years, finding a way to do this on a large-scale has been the main goal of research. Careful work is being done to ensure an efficient process before large-scale production, however once a mechanism is developed, this type of production could solve our energy needs. Floating wind farms Floating wind farms are similar to a regular wind farm, but the difference is that they float in the middle of the ocean. Offshore wind farms can be placed in water up to 40 meters (131 feet) deep, whereas floating wind turbines can float in water up to 700 meters (2,297 feet) deep. The advantage of having a floating wind farm is to be able to harness the winds from the open ocean. Without any obstructions such as hills, trees and buildings, winds from the open ocean can reach up to speeds twice as fast as coastal areas. A Norwegian energy company, Statoil Hydro, will launch the first test period for the floating wind farms in autumn 2009. Investing in alternative energy Over the last three years publicly traded alternative energy have been very volatile, with some 2007 returns in excess of 100%, some 2008 returns down 90% or more, and peakto-trough returns in 2009 again over 100%.[citation
needed]

In general there are three sub

segments of ³alternative´ energy investment: solar energy, wind energy and hybrid electric vehicles. Alternative energy sources which are renewable, free and have lower carbon emissions than what we have now are wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, and bio fuels. Each of these four segments involves very different technologies and investment concerns. For example, photovoltaic solar energy is based on semiconductor processing and accordingly, benefits from steep cost reductions similar to those realized in the microprocessor industry (i.e., driven by larger scale, higher module efficiency, and improving processing technologies). PV solar energy is perhaps the only energy technology whose electricity generation cost could be reduced by half or more

over the next 5 years. Better and more efficient manufacturing process and new technology such as advanced thin film solar cell is a good example of that helps to reduce industry cost. The economics of solar PV electricity are highly dependent on silicon pricing and even companies whose technologies are based on other materials (e.g., First Solar) are impacted by the balance of supply and demand in the silicon market.[citation
needed]

In addition, because some companies sell completed solar cells on the open market

(e.g., Q-Cells), this creates a low barrier to entry for companies that want to manufacture solar modules, which in turn can create an irrational pricing environment. In contrast, because wind power has been harnessed for over 100 years, its underlying technology is relatively stable. Its economics are largely determined by sitting (e.g., how hard the wind blows and the grid investment requirements) and the prices of steel (the largest component of a wind turbine) and select composites (used for the blades). Because current wind turbines are often in excess of 100 meters high, logistics and a global manufacturing platform are major sources of competitive advantage. These issues and others were explored in a research report by Sanford Bernstein. Some of its key conclusions are shown here Alternative energy in transportation Due to steadily rising gas prices in 2008 with the US national average price per gallon of regular unleaded gas rising above $4.00 at one point, there has been a steady movement towards developing higher fuel efficiency and more alternative fuel vehicles for consumers. In response, many smaller companies have rapidly increased research and development into radically different ways of powering consumer vehicles. Hybrid and battery electric vehicles are commercially available and are gaining wider industry and consumer acceptance worldwide. Making Alternative Energy Mainstream Before alternative energy becomes main-stream there are a few crucial obstacles that it must overcome: First there must be increased understanding of how alternative energies work and why they are beneficial; secondly the availability components for these systems

must increase and lastly the pay-off time must be decreased. For example, emergency of Electric vehicle (EV) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) are on the raise. These vehicles depend heavily on an effective charging infrastructure such as a smart grid infrastructure to be able to implement electricity as mainstream alternative energy for future transportations. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ENERGY SOURCES NATURAL GAS Advantages
y y y y y y y

Burns clean compared to cola, oil (less polluting) 70% less carbon dioxide compared to other fossil fuels helps improve quality of air and water (not a pollutant) does not produce ashes after energy release has high heating value of 24,000 Btu per pound inexpensive compared to coal no odor until added

Drawbacks
y y y

not a renewable source finite resource trapped in the earth (some experts disagree) Inability to recover all in-place gas from a producible deposit because of unfavorable economics and lack of technology (It costs more to recover the remaining natural gas because of flow, access, etc.)

Other information
y

5,149.6 trillion cubic feet of natural gas reserve left (more than oil but less than coal)

y

23.2% of total consumption of natural gas is in the United States

WATER POWER Pros
y y y y y y y

Provides water for 30-30% of the world¶s irrigated land Provides 19% of electricity Expands irrigation Provides drinking water Supplies hydroelectric energy (falling water used to run turbines) Easier for third world countries to generate power (if water source is available) It is cheaper

Cons
y y

Destabilizes marine ecosystems Water wars (up river and down river; e.g., the water war between Georgia, Alabama, and Florida is ongoing)

y y y y y y

Dam building is very costly People have to relocate Some dams have to be torn down (Some older ones are not stable.) Restricted to areas with flowing water Pollution affects water power Flooding of available land that could be used for agriculture

CRUDE OIL Advantages
y y y y

Oil is one of the most abundant energy resources Liquid form of oil makes it easy to transport and use Oil has high heating value Relatively inexpensive

y

No new technology needed to use

Disadvantages
y y y

Oil burning leads to carbon emissions Finite resources (some disagree) Oil recovery processes not efficient enough²technology needs to be developed to provide better yields

y y

Oil drilling endangers the environment and ecosystems Oil transportation (by ship) can lead to spills, causing environmental and ecological damage (major oil spill near Spain in late Fall 2002)

Issues
y

The world consumes more than 65 billion barrels of petroleum each day. By 2015 the consumption will increase to 99 billion barrels per day.

y y

Fossil fuels such as oil take billions of years to form. In 1996, the Energy Information Administration estimates of crude oil reserves were 22 billion barrels. In 1972, the estimate was 36.3 billion barrels.

y

Cost of oil has dropped since 1977. It was $15 per barrel then. It was $5 at the time the authors wrote the book.

NUCLEAR POWER Pros
y y y y y

Clear power with no atmospheric emissions Useful source of energy Fuel can be recycled Low cost power for today¶s consumption Viable form of energy in countries that do not have access to other forms of fuel

Cons
y y y y y y y

Potential of high risk disaster (Chernobyl) Waste produced with nowhere to put it Waste produced from nuclear weapons not in use Earthquakes can cause damage and leaks at plants Contamination of the environment (long term) Useful lifetime of a nuclear power plant Plant construction is highly politicized

WIND POWER Advantages
y y y y y y y y

Continuous sources of energy Clean source of energy No emissions into the atmosphere Does not add to thermal burden of the earth Produces no health-damaging air pollution or acid rain Land can be sued to produce energy and grow crops simultaneously Economical Benefits local communities (jobs, revenue)

Disadvantages
y y y y y

For most locations, wind power density is low Wind velocity must be greater than 7 mph to be usable in most areas Problem exists in variation of power density and duration (not reliable) Need better ways to store energy Land consumption

COAL

Pros
y y y y y y y y y

One of the most abundant energy sources Versatile; can be burned directly, transformed into liquid, gas, or feedstock Inexpensive compared to other energy sources Good for recreational use (charcoal for barbequing, drawing) Can be used to produce ultra-clean fuel Can lower overall amount of greenhouse gases (liquification or gasification) Leading source of electricity today Reduces dependence on foreign oil By-product of burning (ash) can be used for concrete and roadways

Cons
y y y y y y y y y y

Source of pollution: emits waste, SO2 , Nitrogen Oxide, ash Coal mining mars the landscape Liquification, gasification require large amounts of water Physical transport is difficult Technology to process to liquid or gas is not fully developed Solid is more difficult to burn than liquid or gases Not renewable in this millennium High water content reduces heating value Dirty industry²leads to health problems Dirty coal creates more pollution and emissions

OBJECTIVE Electronic waste

Defective and obsolete electronic equipment. Electronic waste, e-waste, e-scrap, or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) describes loosely discarded, surplus, obsolete, or broken electrical or electronic devices. Environmental groups claim that the informal processing of electronic waste in developing countries causes serious health and pollution problems. Some electronic scrap components, such as CRTs, contain contaminants such as lead, cadmium, beryllium, mercury, and brominate flame retardants. Activists claim that even in developed countries recycling and disposal of e-waste may involve significant risk to workers and communities and great care must be taken to avoid unsafe exposure in recycling operations and leaching of material such as heavy metals from landfills and incinerator ashes. Scrap industry and USA EPA officials agree that materials should be managed with caution, but that environmental dangers of unused electronics have been exaggerated by groups which benefit from increased regulation. Problems Rapid change in technology, low initial cost, and planned obsolescence have resulted in a fast-growing surplus of electronic waste around the globe. Dave Kruch, CEO of Cash for Laptops, regards electronic waste as a "rapidly expanding" issue. Technical solutions are available, but in most cases a legal framework, a collection system, logistics, and other

services need to be implemented before a technical solution can be applied. An estimated 50 million tons of E-waste is produced each year. The USA discards 30 million computers each year and 100 million phones are disposed of in Europe each year. The Environmental Protection Agency estimates that only 15-20% of e-waste is recycled, the rest of these electronics go directly into landfills and incinerators.[citation
needed]

In the

United States, an estimated 70% of heavy metals in landfills comes from discarded electronics, while electronic waste represents only 2% of America's trash in landfills. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) states that unwanted electronics totaled 2 million tons in 2005, and 3 million tons in 2006. They also estimate that e-waste is growing at two to three times the rate of any other waste source. Discarded electronics represented 5 to 6 times as much weight as recycled electronics. The Consumer Electronics Association says that U.S. households spend an average of $1,400 annually on an average of 24 electronic items, leading to speculations of millions of tons of valuable metals sitting in desk drawers. The U.S. National Safety Council estimates that 75% of all personal computers ever sold are now gathering dust as surplus electronics. While some recycle, 7% of cell phone owners still throw away their old cell phones. Surplus electronics have extremely high cost differentials. A single repairable laptop can be worth hundreds of dollars, while an imploded cathode ray tube (CRT) is extremely difficult and expensive to recycle. This has created a difficult free-market economy. Large quantities of used electronics are typically sold to countries with very high repair capability and high raw material demand, which can result in high accumulations of residue in poor areas without strong environmental laws. Trade in electronic waste is controlled by the Basel Convention. The Basel Convention Parties have considered the question of whether exports of hazardous used electronic equipment for repair or refurbishment are not considered as Basel Convention hazardous wastes unless they are discarded. The burden of proof that the items will be repaired and not discarded rest on the exporter, and any ultimate disposal of non-working components is subject to controls under that Convention. In the Guidance document produced on that subject, that question was left up to the Parties. Like virgin material mining and extraction, recycling of materials from electronic scrap has raised concerns over toxicity and carcinogenicity of some of its substances and processes. Toxic substances in electronic waste may include

lead, mercury, and cadmium. Carcinogenic substances in electronic waste may include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Capacitors, transformers, and wires insulated with or components coated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC), manufactured before 1977, often contain dangerous amounts of PCBs. Up to 38 separate chemical elements are incorporated into electronic waste items. Many of the plastics used in electronic equipment contain flame retardants. These are generally halogens added to the plastic resin, making the plastics difficult to recycle. Due to the flame retardants being additives, they easily leach off the material in hot weather, which is a problem because when disposed of, electronic waste is generally left outside. The flame retardants leach into the soil and recorded levels were 93 times higher than soil with no contact with electronic waste. The unsustainability of discarding electronics and computer technology is another reason commending the need to recycle or to reuse electronic waste. When materials cannot or will not be reused, conventional recycling or disposal via landfill often following. Standards for both approaches vary widely by jurisdiction, whether in developed or developing countries. The complexity of the various items to be disposed of, the cost of environmentally approved recycling systems, and the need for concerned and concerted action to collect and systematically process equipment are challenges. One study indicates that two thirds of executives are unaware of fines related to environmental regulations. Processing techniques In developed countries, electronic waste processing usually first involves dismantling the equipment into various parts (metal frames, power supplies, circuit boards, plastics), often by hand. The advantages of this process are the human's ability to recognize and save working and repairable parts, including chips, transistors, RAM, etc. The disadvantage is that the labor is often cheapest in countries with the lowest health and safety standards. In an alternative bulk system, a hopper conveys material for shredding into a sophisticated mechanical separator, with screening and granulating machines to separate constituent metal and plastic fractions, which are sold to smelters or plastics recyclers. Such recycling machinery is enclosed and employs a dust collection system. Most of the emissions are caught by scrubbers and screens. Magnets, eddy currents, and

trammel screens are employed to separate glass, plastic, and ferrous and nonferrous metals, which can then be further separated at a smelter. Leaded glass from CRTs is reused in car batteries, ammunition, and lead wheel weights, or sold to foundries as a fluxing agent in processing raw lead ore. Copper, gold, palladium, silver, and tin are valuable metals sold to smelters for recycling. Hazardous smoke and gases are captured, contained, and treated to mitigate environmental threat. These methods allow for safe reclamation of all valuable computer construction materials. Hewlett-Packard product recycling solutions manager Renee St. Denis describes its process as: "We move them through giant shredders about 30 feet tall and it shreds everything into pieces about the size of a quarter. Once your disk drive is shredded into pieces about this big, it's hard to get the data off." An ideal electronic waste recycling plant combines dismantling for component recovery with increased cost-effective processing of bulk electronic waste. Reuse is an option to recycling because it extends the lifespan of a device. Devices still need eventual recycling, but by allowing others to purchase used electronics, recycling can be postponed and value gained from device use. Electronic waste substances Some computer components can be reused in assembling new computer products, while others are reduced to metals that can be reused in applications as varied as construction, flatware, and jewelry. Substances found in large quantities include epoxy resins, fiberglass, PCBs, PVC (polyvinyl chlorides), thermosetting plastics, lead, tin, copper, silicon, beryllium, carbon, iron and aluminium.Elements found in small amounts include cadmium, mercury, and thallium. Elements found in trace amounts include americium, antimony, arsenic, barium, bismuth, boron, cobalt, europium, gallium, germanium, gold, indium, lithium, manganese, nickel, niobium, palladium, platinum, rhodium, ruthenium, selenium, silver, tantalum, terbium, thorium, titanium, vanadium, and yttrium. Almost all electronics contain lead and tin (as solder) and copper (as wire and printed circuit board tracks), though the use of lead-free solder is now spreading rapidly.

TECHNOLOGIES USED Light-emitting diode A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices, and are increasingly used for lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962, early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness. The LED is based on the semiconductor diode. When a diode is forward biased (switched on), electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. An LED is usually small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical components are used to shape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection.LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, faster switching, and greater durability and reliability. However, they are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than traditional light sources. Current LED products for general lighting are more expensive to buy than fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output. They also enjoy use in applications as diverse as replacements for traditional light sources in aviation lighting, automotive lighting (particularly indicators) and in traffic signals. The compact size of LEDs has allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be developed, while their high switching rates are useful in advanced communications technology. Infrared LEDs are also used in the remote control units of many commercial products including televisions, DVD players, and other domestic appliances. Technology

Parts of an LED

The inner workings of an LED

I-V diagram for a diode an LED will begin to emit light when the on-voltage is exceeded. Typical on voltages are 2-3 Volt Efficiency and operational parameters Typical indicator LEDs are designed to operate with no more than 30±60 milliwatts [mW] of electrical power. Around 1999, Philips Lumileds introduced power LEDs capable of continuous use at one watt .These LEDs used much larger semiconductor die sizes to handle the large power inputs. Also, the semiconductor dies were mounted onto metal slugs to allow for heat removal from the LED die. One of the key advantages of LED-based lighting is its high efficiency, as measured by its light output per unit power input. White LEDs quickly matched and overtook the efficiency of standard incandescent lighting systems. In 2002, Lumileds made five-watt LEDs available with a luminous efficacy of 18±22 lumens per watt [lm/W]. For comparison, a conventional 60±100 W incandescent light bulb produces around 15 lm/W, and standard fluorescent lights produce up to 100 lm/W. A recurring problem is that efficiency will fall dramatically for increased current. This effect is known as droop and effectively limits the light output of a given LED; increasing heating more than light output for increased current. In September 2003, a new type of blue LED was demonstrated by the company Cree, Inc. to provide 24 mW at 20 milliamperes [mA]. This produced a commercially packaged white light giving 65 lm/W at 20 mA, becoming the brightest white LED commercially available at the time, and more than four times as efficient as standard incandescent. In 2006 they demonstrated a prototype with a record white LED luminous efficacy of 131 lm/W at 20 mA. Also, Seoul Semiconductor has plans for 135 lm/W by 2007 and 145 lm/W by 2008, which would be approaching an order of magnitude improvement over standard incandescent and better even than standard fluorescents. Nichia Corporation has developed a white LED with luminous efficacy of 150 lm/W at a forward current of 20 mA. High-power (• 1 W) LEDs are necessary for practical general lighting applications. Typical operating currents for these devices begin at 350 mA.Note that these efficiencies are for the LED chip only, held at low temperature in a lab. In a lighting application, operating at higher temperature and with drive circuit losses, efficiencies are much lower. United States Department of Energy (DOE) testing of commercial LED lamps designed

to replace incandescent lamps or CFLs showed that average efficacy was still about 46 lm/W in 2009 (tested performance ranged from 17 lm/W to 79 lm/W). Cree issued a press release on February 3, 2010 about a laboratory prototype LED achieving 208 lumens per watt at room temperature. The correlated color temperature was reported to be 4579 K. Lifetime and failure Solid state devices such as LEDs are subject to very limited wear and tear if operated at low currents and at low temperatures. Many of the LEDs produced in the 1970s and 1980s are still in service today. Typical lifetimes quoted are 25,000 to 100,000 hours but heat and current settings can extend or shorten this time significantly. The most common symptom of LED (and diode laser) failure is the gradual lowering of light output and loss of efficiency. Sudden failures, although rare, can occur as well. Early red LEDs were notable for their short lifetime. With the development of high-power LEDs the devices are subjected to higher junction temperatures and higher current densities than traditional devices. This causes stress on the material and may cause early light output degradation. To quantitatively classify lifetime in a standardized manner it has been suggested to use the terms L75 and L50 which is the time it will take a given LED to reach 75% and 50% light output respectively. Like other lighting devices, LED performance is temperature dependent. Most manufacturers¶ published ratings of LEDs are for an operating temperature of 25°C. LEDs used outdoors, such as traffic signals or in-pavement signal lights, and that are utilized in climates where the temperature within the luminaire gets very hot, could result in low signal intensities or even failure. LEDs maintain consistent light output even in cold temperatures, unlike traditional lighting methods. Consequently, LED technology may be a good replacement in areas such as supermarket freezer lighting and will last longer than other technologies. Because LEDs do not generate as much heat as incandescent bulbs, they are an energy-efficient technology to use in such applications such as freezers. On the other hand, because they do not generate much heat, ice and snow may build up on the LED luminaire in colder climates. This has been a problem plaguing airport runway lighting, although some research has been done to try to develop heat sink technologies in order to transfer heat to alternative areas of the luminaire.

Types

LEDs are produced in a variety of shapes and sizes. The 5 mm cylindrical package (red, fifth from the left) is the most common, estimated at 80% of world production.[citation
needed]

The color of the plastic lens is often the same as the actual color of light emitted,

but not always. For instance, purple plastic is often used for infrared LEDs, and most blue devices have clear housings. There are also LEDs in SMT packages, such as those found on blinkies and on cell phone keypads .The main types of LEDs are miniature, high power devices and custom designs such as alphanumeric or multi-color. Miniature LEDs

Different sized LEDs. 8 mm, 5 mm and 3 mm, with a wooden match-stick for scale. These are mostly single-die LEDs used as indicators, and they come in various-sizes from 2 mm to 8 mm, through-hole and surface mount packages. They are usually simple in design, not requiring any separate cooling body. Typical current ratings range from around 1 mA to above 20 mA. The small scale sets a natural upper boundary on power consumption due to heat caused by the high current density and need for heat sinking.

STEPPER MOTORS Stepper motors are most commonly controlled by microprocessors or custom controller ICs and the current is often switched by stepper motor driver ICs or power transistors. Precise motion is possible but the complexity usually lands the hobbyist's stepper motors in the "maybe someday" parts bin. But steppers may be used for a variety of applications without complex circuitry or programming. At first glance the stepper motor looks a bit intimidating since there are at least four wires and often there are six. Most steppers have two independent windings and some are center-tapped, hence the four or six wires. A quick ohmmeter check will determine which wires belong together and the center-tap may be identified by measuring the resistance between the wires; the center-tap will measure 1/2 the total winding resistance to either end of the coil. Tie the wires that belong together in a knot and tie another knot in the center-tap wire for easy identification later. Stepper motors have become quite abundant and are available in all shapes and sizes from many surplus dealers. Experimenters can also salvage excellent steppers from old office and computer equipment. Steppers move in small increments usually indicated on the label in degrees. To make a stepper motor spin in one direction current is passed through one winding, then the other, then through the first winding with the opposite polarity, then the second with flipped polarity, too. This sequence is repeated for continuous rotation. The direction of rotation depends upon which winding is the "leader" and which is the "follower". The rotation will reverse if either winding is reversed. The center-tapped versions simplify the reversal of current since the center-tap may be tied to Vcc and each end of the coil may be alternately pulled to ground. Nontapped motors require a bipolar drive voltage or a bit more switching circuitry. If current is applied to both windings, the stepper will settle between two steps (this is often called a "half-step"). Taking the half-step idea to the extreme, one could apply two quadrature sine waves to the windings and get very smooth rotation. This technique would not be particularly efficient since the controller would be dissipating at least as much power as the motor but, if smooth motion is required, it might be worth a try! Or, for those who don't mind complexity, the sine waves could be efficiently approximated by using variable duty-cycle pulses. But the purpose here is to get those motors out of the junk

box, not to think of more reasons to leave them alone! So here are some simple things to try. Steppers make excellent low power generators and surprisingly efficient low power motors for low RPM applications. As a starting point, try connecting the windings of two steppers together. Pick steppers that turn freely so that internal friction doesn't spoil the experiment. When you spin one motor shaft, the other will follow. Admittedly, there is little torque. But it does illustrate that steppers may be used to generate electricity. Here are a couple of sketches showing how to connect stepper motors as generators. A typical stepper motor wind turbine generator will operate at around 200 RPM, so you need to ensure that the motor you choose will put out a high enough voltage for your needs when rotated at that speed.

The stepper motor pictured above is rated at 5 volts with 4 phases rated at 1 Amp each and has 200 steps. This could be a good motor for lighting LEDs or charging AA type 1.5Vbatteries. There are four main types of stepper motors: Permanent Magnet Stepper (can be subdivided in to 'tin-can' and 'hybrid', tin-can being a cheaper product, and hybrid with higher quality bearings, smaller step angle, higher power density) 1. Hybrid Synchronous Stepper 2. Variable Reluctance Stepper 3. Lavet type stepping motor Permanent magnet motors use a permanent magnet (PM) in the rotor and operate on the attraction or repulsion between the rotor PM and the stator electromagnets. Variable reluctance (VR) motors have a plain iron rotor and operate based on the principle that

minimum reluctance occurs with minimum gap, hence the rotor points are attracted toward the stator magnet poles. Hybrid stepper motors are named because they use a combination of PM and VR techniques to achieve maximum power in a small package size.

There are two basic winding arrangements for the electromagnetic coils in a two phase stepper motor: bipolar and unipolar. Unipolar motors A unipolar stepper motor has two windings per phase, one for each direction of magnetic field. Since in this arrangement a magnetic pole can be reversed without switching the direction of current, the commutation circuit can be made very simple (e.g. a single transistor) for each winding. Typically, given a phase, one end of each winding is made common: giving three leads per phase and six leads for a typical two phase motor. Often, these two phase commons are internally joined, so the motor has only five leads. A microcontroller or stepper motor controller can be used to activate the drive transistors in the right order, and this ease of operation makes unipolar motors popular with hobbyists; they are probably the cheapest way to get precise angular movements.

Unipolar stepper motor coils (For the experimenter, one way to distinguish common wire from a coil-end wire is by measuring the resistance. Resistance between common wire and coil-end wire is always half of what it is between coil-end and coil-end wires. This is because there is twice the length of coil between the ends and only half from center (common wire) to the end.) A quick way to determine if the stepper motor is working is to short circuit every two pairs and try turning the shaft, whenever a higher than normal resistance is felt, it indicates that the circuit to the particular winding is closed and that the phase is working. Bipolar motor Bipolar motors have a single winding per phase. The current in a winding needs to be reversed in order to reverse a magnetic pole, so the driving circuit must be more

complicated; typically with an H-bridge arrangement (however there are several off the shelf driver chips available to make this a simple affair). There are two leads per phase, none are common. Static friction effects using an H-bridge have been observed with certain drive topologies... Because windings are better utilized, they are more powerful than a unipolar motor of the same weight. This is due to the physical space occupied by the windings. A unipolar motor has twice the amount of wire in the same space, but only half used at any point in time, hence is 50% efficient (or approximately 70% of the torque output available). Though bipolar is more complicated to drive, the abundance of driver chips means this is much less difficult to achieve. An 8-lead stepper is wound like a unipolar stepper, but the leads are not joined to common internally to the motor. This kind of motor can be wired in several configurations: 


Unipolar. Bipolar with series windings. This gives higher inductance but lower current per winding. Bipolar with parallel windings. This requires higher current but can perform better as the winding inductance is reduced. Bipolar with a single winding per phase. This method will run the motor on only half the available windings, which will reduce the available low speed torque but require less current.  

LEG BRACE

Knee braces are supports that you wear at knee to support all components that are used. On knee brace steeper motor gears used for movement LED, circuit for Braces are made from combinations of metal, foam, plastic, elastic material and straps. They come in many sizes, colors and designs.

BLOCK DIAGRAM

DESCRIPTION

OPERATION

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

OBSERVATIONS

CONCLUSION

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