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Additional Mathematics

Project Work 2

2011

Name : Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno I/C : 940811-12-5795

HC001A168 School: S.M.K Gunsanad,Keningau

Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2

2011

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Num . 1 Introduction (Part I) Part II ~ Question 1 ~ Question 2 (a) 2 ~ Question 2 (b) ~ Question 2 © ~ Question 3 (a) ~ Question 3 (b) ~ Question 3 © 3 4 5 6 Part III Further Exploration Conclusion Reflection 9-11 12-13 14 15 Topic Page 1 2-8

Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 PART I History of cake baking and decorating Although clear examples of the difference between cake and bread are easy to find. For example. cakes can be moulded and sculpted to resemble three-dimensional persons. Cake decorating is one of the sugar arts requiring mathematics that uses icing or frosting and other edible decorative elements to make otherwise plain cakes more visually interesting. possibly in Spain. basic bread dough was sometimes enriched with butter. especially in the following actions: • • • • • Measurement of Ingredients Calculation of Price and Estimated Cost Estimation of Dimensions Calculation of Baking Times Modification of Recipe according to scale . flat shape of the cakes. which produced a sweet and cake-like baked good. Latin poet Ovid refers to the birthday of him and his brother with party and cake in his first book of exile. graduation. or anniversary. decorated cakes are often a focal point of a special celebration such as a birthday. the precise classification has always been elusive. and honey. originated during the Renaissance. bridal shower. leavened with beaten eggs. Sponge cakes. In ancient Rome. and the cooking method. Mathematics are often used to bake and decorate cakes. Early cakes in England were also essentially bread: the most obvious differences between a "cake" and "bread" were the round. wedding. places and things. eggs. while bread was left upright throughout the baking process.The Greeks invented beer as a leavener. In many areas of the world. and cheesecakes using goat's milk. banana bread may be properly considered either a quick bread or a cake. frying fritters in olive oil. which turned cakes over once while cooking. Tristia. Alternatively.

Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 .

392 cm .142 x r2 x 7 r2 = 19000 3.0 cm . d = 2r d = 58.783 cm 2) Maximum dimensions of cake: d = 60.0 cm h = 45.872 r = 29.142 x 7 2 r = 863.Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 PART II 1) 1 kg = 3800 cm3 h = 7 cm 5 kg = 3800 x 5 = 19000 cm3 V = Πr2h 19000 = 3.

Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 h/c m 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 a) d/cm 155.4464 6466 23.9982 2167 23.553 4543 63.395 07881 h/c m 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 b) i) h < 7 cm .501 20743 29.5908 5959 24.6725 3215 26.2891 1983 23.566 13923 40.783 39783 54.881 56297 37.105 25037 30.2296 896 24. This is because a cake with these dimensions is more symmetrical and easier to decorate.793 12339 77.892 92932 44.986 83368 51.156 70556 h/c m 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 d/cm 38.7175 3106 23.938 61056 33. .52 62519 109.657 88912 35.842 08396 49.429 46528 31.931 04113 29.0736 4537 26.158 30831 32.720 65671 36.5683 5831 25.9041 3158 24.391 69891 28.1844 8477 b) ii) I would suggest the dimensions of the cake to be 29 cm in height and approximately 29 cm in diameter.880 49994 28.493 32645 58.680 16921 34.763 12594 69.97 36674 89.181 71919 46.746 66323 31.2887 347 25.896 56169 43.776 72715 33.4934 1684 27.9210 4198 25.9333 3944 27.135 22122 41. h > 45 cm This is because any heights lower than 7 cm will result in the diameter of the cake being too big to fit into the baking oven while any heights higher than 45 cm will cause the cake being too tall to fit into the baking oven d/cm 27.

53 = -1/2 log10 h + 1 1.6232 According to the graph.142 x (d2/4) .5 cm. log10 d = 1.85 cm .142 x h d = 155. log10 d = 1.6918 14 2 1. log10 h = 1. .6918 14 4 0.0212 Therefore.53 x h-1/2 log10 h log10 d log10 log10 d 155. d = 50.2 when log10 d = 1.7 when log10 h = 1. log10 h = 1.1918 14 3 0.142 x (d/2)2 x h = 19000 3.6232 Therefore.1918 14 c) ii) a) When h = 10.Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 c) i) V = Πr2h V= 19000 cm3 r= d/2 19000 d2 4 d2 = 3. = 76000 3.0212 According to the graph.12 cm b) When d = 42 cm. h = 15.

Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 .

142 x 15. Vcream = 3.44 cm 29 cm Diagram 1: Cake without Cream 1 cm 15.Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 3) a) h r = 29 cm = 14.442 x 30 – 19000 = 22471 – 19000 = 3471 cm3 . the cream is symbolised as the larger cylinder and the cake is symbolised as the smaller cylinder.44 cm 14.44 cm 30 cm 1 cm Diagram 2: Cake with Cream To calculate volume of cream used.

8 cm3 b) ii) Triangle shaped cake Estimated volume of cream used = ½ x 39.7 x 30 – 19000 = 23641.Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 3) b) i) Square shaped cake Estimated volume of cream used = 30 x 27.4 – 19000 = 4641.19000 = 23265 – 19000 = 4265 cm3 * All estimations in the values are based on the assumption that the layer of cream is uniformly thick at 1 cm .4 cm3 b) iii) Trapezium shaped cake Estimated volume of cream used = ½ x (28+42.19000 = 22852.6 x 27.5) x 22 x 30 .7 x 39.8 – 19000 = 3852.6 .

73 3307.31 4064.13 3742.01 3888.79 3859.20 3771.30 3917.3 cm .03 3458. r = 18.54 3657.71 3496.53 volume of cream used/cm3 3303.65 3947.86 3332.89 3447.46 4005.94 3363.70 3317.04 7474.67 3800.96 3363.37 5130.61 10546.74 3403.14 3424.98 3548.12 3346.81 3601.13 4217.67 3714.04 3976.62 3319.02 3402.Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 c) Based on the values I have obtained.38 3533. When h = 18cm.72 h/cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 h/cm 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 h/cm 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 According to the table above.88 4035.41 3634. the round shaped cake requires the least amount of fresh cream (3471 cm3) PART III Method 1: By comparing values of height against volume of cream used volume of cream used/cm3 19983.42 5987.67 3829.28 3335.66 cm3 when h = 18cm.98 3310.81 3771.00 3958.97 volume of cream used/cm3 3629.46 3685.80 3471.92 3382.47 3521.66 3304.07 4585. the minimum volume of cream used is 3303.12 3574.

* Formula for surface area = Πr2 + 2Πrh h = 19000 / 3. dy dx dy dx =0 = 2Πr – (38000/r2) = 2Πr – (38000/r2) = 6.142r2 Surface area in contact with cream = Πr2 + 2Πr(19000 / 3.104 18.22 cm.22 cm 0 0 38000 6047. . I would bake a cake of such dimensions because the cake would not be too large for the cutting or eating of said cake.94 When r = 20. and it would not be too big to bake in a conventional oven.284r3 = r3 =r 18.2 cm2 ~ the amount of fresh cream needed to decorate the cake is 4381. * The above conjecture is proven by the following When r = 10.Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 Method 2: Using differentiation Assuming that the surface area of the cake is proportionate to the amount of fresh cream needed to decorate the cake.22 When r = The dimensions of the cake that requires the minimum amount of fresh cream to decorate is approximately 18.142r2) = Πr2 + (38000/r) The values.284r3 – 38000 = 6. when plotted into a graph will from a minimum value that can be obtained through differentiation. h = 18.2 cm3 ~ the ratio of total surface area of cake to amount of fresh cream needed is 0.2 cm in height and 18. ~ the total surface area of the cake is 4114.2 cm in radius.

5 cm3 ~ the ratio of total surface area of cake to amount of fresh cream needed is 0. the above conjecture is proven to be true.Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 ~ the total surface area of the cake is 3156. .94 Therefore.8 cm2 ~ the amount of fresh cream needed to decorate the cake is 3308.

The pattern formed is a geometrical progression.142 x (22.11)2 x 6 = 11886.81 14676.142 x (0.9 x 31)2 x 6 = 3.599)2 x 6 = 9627.Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 F URTHER EXPLORATION a) Volume of cake 1 = Πr2h = 3.9 x = 3.8 15 kg = 57000 cm3 57000 > 18116.142 x 31 x 31 x 6 = 18116.414. r = 0. 11886.414 cm3 Volume of cake 2 = Πr2h = 3. This is proven by the fact that there is a common ratio between subsequent numbers.9 x 31)2 x 6 0.9 x 0.81 18116. 14676.772. 14676.772(1-0.142 x (27.142 x (0.995 = 0.8n) 1-0.414 .9 x 31)2 x 6 = 3.81. 11886.585 cm3 Volume of cake 4 = Πr2h = 3.414 = 0.585 = 0.772 9627. 9627.995 cm3 The values 118116.142 x (25.8n) .9 x 0.81 11886.995 form a number pattern.9)2 x 6 = 14676.585 b) Sn = a(1-rn) 1-r = 18116.585.142 x (0.772 cm3 Volume of cake 3 = Πr2h = 3.772 ( 1-0.

2 11400 0.995 cm3 = 54307.8n < 0.8n) > 1-0.34 kg Total mass of cakes must not exceed 15 kg.8n > .8 log 0.8n log 0.0.371 < n log 0.8 4.585 cm3 + 11886.414 cm3 + 9627.629 -0.772(1-0.676 cm3 = 62106.371 < n log 0.Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 0.444 < n n=4 Verification of answer If n = 4 Total volume of 4 cakes = 18116.585 cm3 + 11886.414 cm3 + 9627.29 kg If n = 5 Total volume of 5 cakes = 18116.772 cm3 + 14676.995 cm3 + 7798. Therefore.772 cm3 + 14676.766 cm3 Total mass of cakes = 14.371 0.371 > 18116.442 cm3 Total mass of cakes = 16. maximum number of cakes needed to be made = 4 .

Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 .

Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 Reflection In the process of conducting this project. I have learned many moral values that I practice. I have learnt that perseverance pays off. For me. This project work had taught me to be more confident when doing something especially the homework given by the teacher. Besides that. I have also learnt that mathematics is used everywhere in daily life. . to designing and building monuments. succeeding in completing this project work has been reward enough. from the most simple things like baking and decorating a cake. I also learned to be a more disciplined student who is punctual and independent. especially when you obtain a just reward for all your hard work.

Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 INTRODUCTION .

Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 PART 1 .

Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 PART 2 .

Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 .

Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 PART 3 .

Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 REFLECTION .

Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 CONCLUSION .

we cant done a multi-storey cake.calculus and progressions are part of our necessities.Thats why .Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 After doing research.calculus and progressions are important in our daily life.Geometry.drawing graph.Thus we should thankful to the people who contribute in the idea of geometry.answering questions.I saw that the uses of geometry.calculus and progressions because without them.and it will be hard for us to find out the volume of ingredients needed for the cake.

.Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 mathematics are important in our daily life.

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