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Project Work 2

2011

Name : Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno I/C : 940811-12-5795

2011

Num . 1 Introduction (Part I) Part II ~ Question 1 ~ Question 2 (a) 2 ~ Question 2 (b) ~ Question 2 © ~ Question 3 (a) ~ Question 3 (b) ~ Question 3 © 3 4 5 6 Part III Further Exploration Conclusion Reflection 9-11 12-13 14 15 Topic Page 1 2-8

flat shape of the cakes. frying fritters in olive oil. originated during the Renaissance. banana bread may be properly considered either a quick bread or a cake. places and things. basic bread dough was sometimes enriched with butter. In many areas of the world. Cake decorating is one of the sugar arts requiring mathematics that uses icing or frosting and other edible decorative elements to make otherwise plain cakes more visually interesting. wedding. eggs. or anniversary. possibly in Spain. and the cooking method. leavened with beaten eggs. Mathematics are often used to bake and decorate cakes. Tristia. graduation. decorated cakes are often a focal point of a special celebration such as a birthday. which produced a sweet and cake-like baked good. which turned cakes over once while cooking. cakes can be moulded and sculpted to resemble three-dimensional persons. Sponge cakes. while bread was left upright throughout the baking process.The Greeks invented beer as a leavener. Alternatively. and honey. Early cakes in England were also essentially bread: the most obvious differences between a "cake" and "bread" were the round. In ancient Rome. Latin poet Ovid refers to the birthday of him and his brother with party and cake in his first book of exile. and cheesecakes using goat's milk. bridal shower. the precise classification has always been elusive. especially in the following actions: • • • • • Measurement of Ingredients Calculation of Price and Estimated Cost Estimation of Dimensions Calculation of Baking Times Modification of Recipe according to scale . For example.Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 PART I History of cake baking and decorating Although clear examples of the difference between cake and bread are easy to find.

Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 PART II 1) 1 kg = 3800 cm3 h = 7 cm 5 kg = 3800 x 5 = 19000 cm3 V = Πr2h 19000 = 3.872 r = 29.392 cm .783 cm 2) Maximum dimensions of cake: d = 60.0 cm .0 cm h = 45. d = 2r d = 58.142 x 7 2 r = 863.142 x r2 x 7 r2 = 19000 3.

880 49994 28.429 46528 31.2887 347 25.7175 3106 23.2296 896 24.97 36674 89.842 08396 49.680 16921 34.763 12594 69.986 83368 51.9210 4198 25.181 71919 46.931 04113 29.4464 6466 23. This is because a cake with these dimensions is more symmetrical and easier to decorate.553 4543 63. h > 45 cm This is because any heights lower than 7 cm will result in the diameter of the cake being too big to fit into the baking oven while any heights higher than 45 cm will cause the cake being too tall to fit into the baking oven d/cm 27.881 56297 37.720 65671 36.9041 3158 24.657 88912 35.938 61056 33.5908 5959 24.395 07881 h/c m 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 b) i) h < 7 cm .9982 2167 23.Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 h/c m 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 a) d/cm 155.52 62519 109.1844 8477 b) ii) I would suggest the dimensions of the cake to be 29 cm in height and approximately 29 cm in diameter.566 13923 40.0736 4537 26.391 69891 28.776 72715 33.5683 5831 25.746 66323 31.493 32645 58.783 39783 54.105 25037 30.793 12339 77.4934 1684 27.135 22122 41.501 20743 29.2891 1983 23.9333 3944 27.158 30831 32.896 56169 43. .6725 3215 26.156 70556 h/c m 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 d/cm 38.892 92932 44.

142 x (d2/4) .142 x (d/2)2 x h = 19000 3.142 x h d = 155.1918 14 c) ii) a) When h = 10.Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 c) i) V = Πr2h V= 19000 cm3 r= d/2 19000 d2 4 d2 = 3. d = 50.53 = -1/2 log10 h + 1 1.12 cm b) When d = 42 cm. log10 d = 1.0212 According to the graph.85 cm .2 when log10 d = 1.0212 Therefore. log10 d = 1. . log10 h = 1.1918 14 3 0.6232 Therefore.53 x h-1/2 log10 h log10 d log10 log10 d 155. log10 h = 1.6918 14 2 1. h = 15.6918 14 4 0.6232 According to the graph. = 76000 3.7 when log10 h = 1.5 cm.

442 x 30 – 19000 = 22471 – 19000 = 3471 cm3 . Vcream = 3.44 cm 29 cm Diagram 1: Cake without Cream 1 cm 15. the cream is symbolised as the larger cylinder and the cake is symbolised as the smaller cylinder.142 x 15.44 cm 14.44 cm 30 cm 1 cm Diagram 2: Cake with Cream To calculate volume of cream used.Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 3) a) h r = 29 cm = 14.

6 .5) x 22 x 30 .19000 = 23265 – 19000 = 4265 cm3 * All estimations in the values are based on the assumption that the layer of cream is uniformly thick at 1 cm .8 – 19000 = 3852.7 x 39.8 cm3 b) ii) Triangle shaped cake Estimated volume of cream used = ½ x 39.4 cm3 b) iii) Trapezium shaped cake Estimated volume of cream used = ½ x (28+42.7 x 30 – 19000 = 23641.Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 3) b) i) Square shaped cake Estimated volume of cream used = 30 x 27.4 – 19000 = 4641.19000 = 22852.6 x 27.

Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 c) Based on the values I have obtained.07 4585.67 3714.46 4005.46 3685.38 3533.98 3310.12 3574.28 3335.3 cm . When h = 18cm.65 3947.53 volume of cream used/cm3 3303.62 3319.74 3403.03 3458.61 10546.37 5130.47 3521.42 5987.88 4035.13 3742.04 7474. the round shaped cake requires the least amount of fresh cream (3471 cm3) PART III Method 1: By comparing values of height against volume of cream used volume of cream used/cm3 19983.97 volume of cream used/cm3 3629.54 3657.41 3634.13 4217.70 3317.73 3307.92 3382.00 3958.66 cm3 when h = 18cm.04 3976.01 3888. r = 18. the minimum volume of cream used is 3303.02 3402.81 3601.98 3548.66 3304.79 3859.67 3829.96 3363.20 3771.67 3800.30 3917.12 3346.89 3447.94 3363.31 4064.81 3771.72 h/cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 h/cm 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 h/cm 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 According to the table above.71 3496.80 3471.86 3332.14 3424.

2 cm in height and 18.2 cm2 ~ the amount of fresh cream needed to decorate the cake is 4381.* Formula for surface area = Πr2 + 2Πrh h = 19000 / 3.94 When r = 20.22 cm 0 0 38000 6047. . when plotted into a graph will from a minimum value that can be obtained through differentiation. ~ the total surface area of the cake is 4114. h = 18. dy dx dy dx =0 = 2Πr – (38000/r2) = 2Πr – (38000/r2) = 6.284r3 – 38000 = 6.142r2) = Πr2 + (38000/r) The values.284r3 = r3 =r 18.2 cm3 ~ the ratio of total surface area of cake to amount of fresh cream needed is 0.104 18.2 cm in radius.Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 Method 2: Using differentiation Assuming that the surface area of the cake is proportionate to the amount of fresh cream needed to decorate the cake. I would bake a cake of such dimensions because the cake would not be too large for the cutting or eating of said cake.142r2 Surface area in contact with cream = Πr2 + 2Πr(19000 / 3.22 cm.22 When r = The dimensions of the cake that requires the minimum amount of fresh cream to decorate is approximately 18. and it would not be too big to bake in a conventional oven. * The above conjecture is proven by the following When r = 10.

94 Therefore. the above conjecture is proven to be true. .Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 ~ the total surface area of the cake is 3156.5 cm3 ~ the ratio of total surface area of cake to amount of fresh cream needed is 0.8 cm2 ~ the amount of fresh cream needed to decorate the cake is 3308.

585 b) Sn = a(1-rn) 1-r = 18116. r = 0.Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 F URTHER EXPLORATION a) Volume of cake 1 = Πr2h = 3.8 15 kg = 57000 cm3 57000 > 18116.585.11)2 x 6 = 11886.9 x 0.9)2 x 6 = 14676. 14676.772 ( 1-0.995 cm3 The values 118116. The pattern formed is a geometrical progression.772.414 cm3 Volume of cake 2 = Πr2h = 3.142 x (0.81 18116.414 = 0.9 x 31)2 x 6 = 3.81.9 x 31)2 x 6 = 3.142 x (27.585 cm3 Volume of cake 4 = Πr2h = 3. 11886. This is proven by the fact that there is a common ratio between subsequent numbers.772(1-0.142 x (0.995 = 0. 9627. 11886.772 9627.9 x = 3.81 11886.9 x 31)2 x 6 0.995 form a number pattern. 14676.414 .414.142 x (22.142 x (25.81 14676.585 = 0.142 x 31 x 31 x 6 = 18116.8n) 1-0.9 x 0.772 cm3 Volume of cake 3 = Πr2h = 3.599)2 x 6 = 9627.142 x (0.8n) .

371 > 18116.414 cm3 + 9627.444 < n n=4 Verification of answer If n = 4 Total volume of 4 cakes = 18116.772 cm3 + 14676.371 < n log 0.8 4. Therefore.371 < n log 0.8n) > 1-0.2 11400 0.772(1-0.Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 0.995 cm3 + 7798.676 cm3 = 62106.442 cm3 Total mass of cakes = 16.995 cm3 = 54307.8n < 0.772 cm3 + 14676.414 cm3 + 9627.629 -0.8n > . maximum number of cakes needed to be made = 4 .8n log 0.766 cm3 Total mass of cakes = 14.34 kg Total mass of cakes must not exceed 15 kg.371 0.585 cm3 + 11886.29 kg If n = 5 Total volume of 5 cakes = 18116.8 log 0.585 cm3 + 11886.0.

from the most simple things like baking and decorating a cake. For me. This project work had taught me to be more confident when doing something especially the homework given by the teacher. I have learnt that perseverance pays off.Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 Reflection In the process of conducting this project. . I have also learnt that mathematics is used everywhere in daily life. I have learned many moral values that I practice. Besides that. to designing and building monuments. especially when you obtain a just reward for all your hard work. I also learned to be a more disciplined student who is punctual and independent. succeeding in completing this project work has been reward enough.

Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 INTRODUCTION .

Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 PART 1 .

Ahmad Safwan Bin Warno Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 2011 PART 2 .